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OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
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Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
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was was often sur prisingly antiurban. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. that of the nomadic Third. herds Nimrod. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. antitechnical. Traditional exegesis of these stories. in Genesis 10. although intent. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. the Babel-builders. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. 1 . as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. Vol. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. divine or conventional. 26. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. in light the Babel project. I is wish not to argue that. and the which Babel-builders. Jewish and Christian. associated with and antipolitical. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. the Lord God. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. No. man. or even defy. Second. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. Finally. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. The thing I wish to argue excuses. as argue.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. and in Genesis 1 1. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. Nimrod. with superfluous and which arts. interpretation. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. second or at least reasonable those characters. the city is connected with land ownership. those who are supposed to be First. Fall 1998.
and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. Out of antiurban. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. A. the an which founding of the city. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. Augustine's these City of God. often little basis in the text. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce.2 kills the son truly in God's image. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. Cain. Cain.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. antipolitical atmosphere. legion.3 or. of the Next. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. When he sacri Lord (Gen. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. In fus ing (they own. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. according to some of the rabbis. have all been impugned. Cain's very birth is suspect. 1. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. that is. . I have used tateuch. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. the refuse. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. if the quality is acceptable.3-5). Fi by nally. fices to the most Thus. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. his religious performance is faulty. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. First. and I have consulted Specifically. 4. the first city.
Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. Augustine. and David. God intended with us. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. Augustine. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. absent from the Biblical text. 21).2). ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. Those interpreters. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. says bluntly "Cain. and them. Noah. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. another a drunkard. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. 256). Cain's tion: p. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. Calvin on the other. Jacob. 8. XV. 8. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. life into a sophisticated. Moses. 192). technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. 2. "wicked" "house" building of a city. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. 29). 1. are supplied by the . and Uzziah lusted after the ground. Isaac. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. career. p. to will return later. however.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. but with his hy pocrisy. p. and Cain Lamech Metusael. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. Augustine says nothing negative. 5. p. his city and people. 1. 153). XV. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. Mehujael.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. vol. 255). Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler.5. The names of Irad. such as Augustine and Calvin. p. 21). and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. 1. another choice. (City of God. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. says Abravanel. and Lamech are all said vol. One became a murderer. vol. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. 17. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. some rabbis say that he.
In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. went about stark naked. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. far as we can tell from Genesis 4.). these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp. and 159). acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. did not yet exist). his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. the latter who lived more virtuously.22. with human law making. of p. 237-40). superfluous sin. God" at least more carnal in their interests. Calvin. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. and all its connections (with the arts. His birth is suspect. view. and gifts from God (Calvin. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. 217-22). In sum. like beasts. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). XV. sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. 238). Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. and because of this.) (which. Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. 160).6 Interpretation (ibid. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. the he founded. 160-62). duced Seth's line into waywardness. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. Naamah. pp. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. In general. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. however. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. 2. violence and In a more analytical vein. with political life) fall under a dark shadow. flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p.22).). the op for him the arts are goods. Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. They eyes.). Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . the former being. Like the rabbis.
Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because.4). who. 420-21. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. was obviously a furious Nimrod. it is p. 2. like all hunters. "beginning" is is verb. p. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. From the sense "pro fane.26 are said. too. 38). 260). Nimrod. but mention rather. In this attempt. mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. Since Nimrod is a slave. of course. oppressor." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. ants same Obviously. tyranny (Calvin. he Genesis Rabbah." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. de Rabbi Eliezer. 3). however. is bad for two reasons.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. that is. the ancestor of Israel. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. Finally. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. he a 10. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. he Abraham. deriving all wicked things. Thus. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. so negatively. which is what persuaded people to let him them. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. as the-verb "to (halal). to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. they supply other examples of wicked people things. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. Esau.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. XVI. And. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. man. 60-61). . was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. in Genesis Rabbah. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. 2. Second. p. 174)." earth. 317). XVI. here found in the hiphil form. p. be evil. and. being a mighty hunter. tried to kill Abraham he was young. Nimrod the city-builder evil. vol.). Esau. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. pp." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. p. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. Genesis 10. pp. There is other evidence that Nimrod. his claim to might. 175). instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. is a deceiver. to degenerating calling "rebelling. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. "began" 2. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. who 4.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. First.
" "and this they begin to which. as one might expect. 2. the Lord. 11.4. 1. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. the Babel-builders are reminiscent .2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. like Nimrod. a city. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. could hardly him have Urban life. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. means. p. the lower part of the world.8 Interpretation Nimrod. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. which p. being settling and building in "settled. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. do. as I will point later. 2. The Babel-builders. for they p. do" translated into rabbinic. In any case. and. 3. bad scent. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. 260). therefore. (Genesis Rabbah. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. was the area of his king dom. In p.4). according to Genesis 10. too (Genesis Rabbah. the two intertwined in traditional commentary." are "rebels. pp. in an summary. Isaac. again. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. heavens. 49-50). vol. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. like Abraham. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. "Settling" is moti vol. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. probably vol. the the Ham line. Calvin Calvin. 324). is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind." but are on the 50). First. right motives. Second. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. p. for two reasons. to displace him. with the upper part. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. and vol. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. needless to say. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. 51). XVI. at signifies also that they made an on 261. and Jacob. which. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. They they being given the earth. His city. God's people do not rest con move. 2. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. want 2. for idol They filled the sin of pride. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. . vol. as in the case of Cain.
the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. then of Seth. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. but to conspire against and a God. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. The the city. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. Abravanel argues. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. then. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. only God can do these things. They are from the wrong lines. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. They story. The city. and the rule of with human beings by others. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11.3-4 ("let brick. Abravanel thus. if the materials they supplied were . being Esau's way. More generally. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. God's do not need the political life of the city. B. are proud. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. or rebels against God. sinners. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. The city cannot provide for security against death. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text. 4. is inferior to the way of the Politics. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. in order to establish the stated. Nimrod. without God's help by They purely human means." us make "let build city"). and tyranny over others. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. is grounded in folly. Ruling comes from Nimrod. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. in criticizing the Babel-builders.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. heir of a slave. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. says Abravanel. they God's murderers. who defined man as a political animal. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. hunting. the arts. which. is ated. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. rejection of God. political which go with cooperation.
since Lamech fathers sons who are . Some of the claims are errors. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. Sec that there is ond. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. Nimrod. more relevant interest. and enough reading. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. to the fact that by Nimrod. for two First. but some of fetched. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. even without the extraneous material. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. all interpretive control is lost.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. Augustine's most claim that translators." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. There are Nonetheless. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. they in the Biblical text. For example. again might not be bad in itself. point. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. Shinar. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. believe. and so on." they ask us to accept too much on faith. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil. however. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. and would maintain this even reasons. when they assert without philological "idol. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. far beyond this. however. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. and Babel. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. they are merely the justifications.
In fact. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. that Cain had a says justify God. If Israel is not wicked . out of the desire for a name. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. Abravanel. The hunter is the loner. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. Ham's son. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. since not Ham but facts that do not fit.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. hardly closer the model of the political man. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. and that the city to protect him. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. the hunter is less violent. execution. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse." Again. is cursed to in Genesis 9. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. Further. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. which makes "children men." The interpretation same such is. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. is feeble. the entire race. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. these are nity. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. And settled farmers (like Cain. or that he ordered the people him. Augustine all lifestyle. the city falling to his arrows. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. text with uncharitable motives. too their sheep. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. They they are by the farmer. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. Nimrod. How. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. rather. in a parallel manner. further. undertook the Babel project on his own. if God will then. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. tilling it. Babel but not in the case Cain. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. Further. he infers it in infers." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
must not conclude. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that.1-7). people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature.19). either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. the new creation as it were. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. if we are watching a new creation. Thus. Recall that in Genesis 9. however. In this new creation. something is added: God gives the first laws. the between Cain nation. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. 9. 13).1-7) to be enforced. which are life. which had no such structure discernible. (9. built by Asshur. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen." earth becomes peoples of common nations. the city arises. without Thus. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. There is another interpretation. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. for the laws of God (Gen. the "nations. Abel. Since. The new begin ning. Ham. cities a son of Shem. suggests in which one will rule over many. the goodness. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. which relied too much on we are innate human told. the migrating offspring of Shem. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. will have a legal dimension absent from the old. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. families (mishpahoth) Shem. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. Ham. whenever the tribal or them. among Japheth separate violence. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. and since they too are related. is. The next a region called in Shinar. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. One wicked one. therefore." Asshur. This time. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. in this overspreading. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. they occupy it as they were meant to. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. Abimelech in Genesis 20). which echoed Genesis 1 generally. The first cities are or comes to rule. in the east. amicably dividing the world themselves.
good. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. one must conclude that cannot as such. Kings may (I Samuel 8). at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. the order of creation. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. condemn be evil. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. Nimrod does not boast about himself. strained passion. I would suggest. For these reasons. we must ing was Lamech's. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. In important respects. city building. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. kings are one possible source of law. and as did Lamech (4. unlike Lamech's. as did Cain (4. did the mighty men of old (6. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. of a any more. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. at overspread the earth at least potentially. first hunter. Nimrod.4) or the Babel (1 1. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city.4). Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. vulnerability to random killing). not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. from the above discussion. by God's . Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate.8) and before the Lord (10. but human for up as prey beings. In this context. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. men ruling men). God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. Finally. basis to nor of an adjective alone. least some of the nations which legitimately source. may not be pretty.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. and so did his empire. in fact.23-24). the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. I represents a political would argue. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. then. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. how to be a "hunter.9).17). Nimrod became famous.
built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. that is. scattered. I think. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. in the Babel there features grant. united brotherly love. The with sin of the Babel-builders. and Augustine. is. it to be a certain un populating. They heavenward (11. Babel-builders is. God at the end of purpose. The their cautiousness. p. Regarding this story. the descendants of Flood. close even antiurban exegesis. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. God wants them to move outward." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. the language of mutual entreaty. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. They "scattered. The 11. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life.4). are there is a a justification for the traditional however. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. if it and was a sin. Further. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam. 428). to obey God. then. case of Babel is not exactly typical city. Finally.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. The "sons men" Noah. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. speaking one language. It "scattered. process. His proj may be ambiguous. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. in one place.5). who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. and he. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. No one people (which is why I would con- . and enjoying the earth. I certain turn to the Babel story. be was afraid of safe. too. wants them to the earth (1. They one spot. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth. as of (11. Rather. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. like Cain's. in a its top in the heavens. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10." is only fitting. They want live. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. is by Calvin. of super-city with together. something.4).28). aim spreading master to many spots." of perhaps educated obey God. too. He. among these Combs and Post point out.
Cain may have been proud of his city. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. the situation be irreparable. then. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. "name" necessarily an improper desire. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves.7 overthrow "name. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. separate peoples. noble it may be. but he was not God in naming it after his son. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). built. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. The or reputation earn. and powerful cities. would God." of that is. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. no possibility of the living. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. they dream. It is true that they wish eternity. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. however. as it were. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. unified world-state. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. wanting as is fact. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. become corrupt. The forms of govern men" ment. and themselves. are not malicious. only language that exists should If the only state. they do not even mention him. In Genesis not allow of 11. however thinking. were tribal and monarchical." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. They do not wish to God. unified world-state. then. the "sons of will founding "nations. In fact. speaking. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. hold them together in Shinar forever. will and to give it. In Genesis nized 10. God. the nation sired by Abraham. and the only people. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. a permanent essence which. good which so I think is the one correct one. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. be for .
: Penguin. pp. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. as city of Enoch. was the Babelers were not being scattered. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. God.. Cain's son. Augustine. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. because Cain is not so commentators make out. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9.6). 4. 2 vols. Isaac Abravanel. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. 242. Deut. but these motives were not wicked. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. And in one case. Cain pp. and not always the best. 3. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. law.) Lemer 1978). 44-48. Robert Sacks. John Calvin. King (Edinburgh. Ont. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. 4. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). arts. or for building great towers into the a heavens. or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. vol. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. but for purity. to teach. argue that the evils of 1979). 12. trans. trans.3. Genesis Rabbah. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. Rev. pp. 1. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. If these people strayed. trans. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah.7. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. 150 51. in Genesis 10. Jacob Neusner. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. 196-98. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. if one wished to put the city in a better light. Eng. 1972). then. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. 2. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. p. 1970). he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. (Title henceforth: City of 5. XV. 158. eds. In societies other than Israel." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. p.: McMaster University. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. 1985). John trans. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. . whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. trans. 1847). NOTES 1. it due to knowing God wanted. 256.
MA: JSOT Press. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. Craigie (Sheffield. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. . Due to space limitations. Eugene Combs. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. Robert Sacks. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. C. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. 1987). it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs.20 Interpretation 6. which who essay was seminal for them. hence. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. I add that. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. S. 1988). In a general way. and to Leo Strauss. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. 6. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. 1-5. 1990).. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. NY: Edwin Mellen Press." Memory of Peter C. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss.
No. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. Her toils caused foot can crush them. Num 3.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. or that a wild beast might trample them down. 1 . 16 She treats her were all children roughly. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. Fall 1998. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. as if they were not even in all vain. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. Sacks St.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. meet armed combat. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny.14 wings as if on high. Vol. 26. 15 She has forgotten that hers. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. John's College. You see. interpretation. and who dwells city. 3 when to give birth to their young.
David heard of it. 2. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell."18 Comments 1. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. he is there. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. forever Ner." . Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab." a very will complex word. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. Indeed. "I and father's house.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. and See notes to 26. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. although almost as side. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. Oh." Hos. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. it originally meant "to whirl. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical. 3:28 are of Afterward. 2Sam. consume the of their gates. making it his stronghold. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. The and single Hebrew word hul. javelin.17 pinnacle. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command. 25 but facing battle from afar. Whenever death defiles. His swill it from afar. he said.
" or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. then they went and returned inheritance." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. neither did you give them to them. Deut. from the dancers to their and took their wives. The Book rule. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. it Psa. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. the sister of Aaron. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. Judg. else you would now be guilty. 15:20 Then Miriam. Exod. for the Lord's purposes . only to the book Judges. Grant them graciously to us. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. the prophetess. and often when first reading the word. and dwelt in them. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. 23:5 Jer. too. And to us. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. and go to the land of Benjamin. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. And the to their number. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. king. and watch.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. and rebuilt the towns. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. that book which begins see them dashed. Benjaminites did so. trembles and writhes The land in pain. Exod. hands anger burned hot. according whom they carried off. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. in her hand. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. saying. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. Then.
are on high. tempest. brings forth rain. Isa. birth": as in our case. your vindication as Ps. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. There is Jer. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). and sin did my mother Prov. and you forgot birth. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. their faces be aflame. in visiting the day of birth." and hence "to give Deu. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. was revisiting the day of his own birth. They look another. they aghast at looks. But. 31:3. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. Job. out of his sight. I conceive me." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. inhabitant." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. brought forth in iniquity. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. 51:5 Behold. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. Ps. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. and ISam. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. it can also mean "to be in labor. in and your right as the noonday. pressed upon Saul.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand." English-speaking in this also recognize . 37:6 will bring was forth the light. as for his foes. angry them. For this reason. thy judgments puffs at them.
pain-ridden. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. It is the whirling. But quite even Job. fostering in each life to own its signet. The question is. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . then. of course. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. has never known either burden or rein. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. She. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. and are what they are. perhaps with beyond world. 6.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. are 3. This. an order for the first time. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. speaks to Job. 5. In using such a harsh word. 8. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. 7. the joys of our world could never come to be. How different things Isa. before her she was delivered of a son. and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. Yet we can all world. since. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. dancing. Here. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. rhetorical. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. To word understand used this passage.
he shall serve you six you. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. all are there." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. brought 9. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. years. Small and great. and like a hireling he waits for wages. Hebrew man. along many others. And there are other passages. so that no one should enslave a Jew. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. and But if the slave plainly says. ears to me. Jer. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. that show his concern. and in the seventh he shall go out free. "servant. that was true. to oppressed go free. great riches. too. to and the man who and will give Israel. and destroys it. gave no answer. female." daughter. It is true that. sake. my wife. to undo the thongs of the yoke. is sold to you. I will not male or eye's female. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. or a Hebrew woman. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. but they were treated kindness: justly and . "I love my master. eye of my his slave. children. When a man strikes the .26 Interpretation Exod. for nothing. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. he shall serve six years. and the slave is free his lord. but he him for favor. be your slaves. has served you six years. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. 15:12 If your brother. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. . male and . his brother. go out free.
in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. 11. the vulture. they are an abomination: the eagle. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition." time. it may seem. I do God rose up? 10. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. Job but.." answer can do none of these things. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass." This is the only verse. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. ance The farm. that its us. the . has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me.. five hundred of them. The trees of the Ps. the cedars of . giving it a The signets. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. the osprey. each thing can be be what it is. both for moved for others. 104:16 LORD abundantly. and them yet he did have ox. There were always some men suffering it caused. the stork. not certain what bird is meant. are watered bat. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. the heron according to its kind. The an furrow. the hoopoe. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. it requires something like the concept of a signet. It is generations. as we shall see.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. "trust. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. what of those who dwell in house of clay. is 12. Even from was within the human sphere. it will be a long journey. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. of course have been out of the question. they and be eaten. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. roaming the hills as his pasture. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly.
character that each 17. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. 16. and in the heavens knows her times. had been domesticated. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. at least it is the can most write about. he will dwell on the heights. who despises the gain of stops oppression. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. ears his looking upon his hands. lest they hold a bribe. their nests. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. people crane keep the time of their coming. and the turtledove. insofar as been domesticated. when if only in part. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. silly beast. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. In them the birds build trees. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. The hawk. and behold. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. must 14. his place of defense who shakes . then. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. but my know Zech. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. 15. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. 8:7 Even the swallow. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. and eyes and saw. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. too. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches." 13. two women wind was in their wings.
the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. bring clefts will down from there. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. Look upon every man of him. 10 "Go ahead. for your own right have saved . LORD. me dwelling set say in heart. sixth as beast. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. the hawk. 48:28 Jer. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. is in the not Job. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. you though your nest says the among the stars. The cold and more grotesque. who hold the height I will of hill. 13 Bury them all in the dust. 18.4 even would praise you.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. however. but I have no answer. you inspire has deceived you. in returning to flow off into death. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. his of water be sure."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. The ostrich. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. 1:3 heart has deceived you. has been defeated. you who your Obad. 14 Then you. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. How my hand upon my mouth. twice. and you must let me know. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. is high. did for its children all that the charm to do. 5 I have spoken once. Bind their faces in would obscurity. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. 49:16 Leave the cities. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. thence I bring down. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. his bread will be given him. and Jer. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. high and the pride of your heart. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. pride of your whose says the LORD. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see.
He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish. beyond man is no place for a man. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". or with you to be your eternal his nose. hiding in the reeds and the fen. confident that the Jordan will mouth. convinced him that Elihu was right. but he did not. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. Again it says. I believe. He eats fodder just like the cattle. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. but Job had always recognized God's greater power.9 brook in him. had been what God had wanted. Indeed. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. his warning was just. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. and his teaching is not a but an 3. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. and you will remember war no Comments no answer." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. God's argument is. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways.6 of brass. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins." 2. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . under and all the beasts of the field play. here is whom I made along with you." again "asking. If Job's this not point. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. 18 His bones iron. who would plead my case? . 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce.8 21 He lies down the lotuses. "Have you an arm like God's. and if by court of law. or his head with fishing his head. He is the mighty one. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. But the Tempest will go. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows.
" in the made masculine singular. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. "Behemoth cattle. however. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. 8:12 . We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. of It is. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. get beginning insight. . it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. than the beasts of the earth. "laugh" or . behemoth 5. clearly are of mythic proportion. however. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. Compare Ps. however 6. Man is 7. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. and I find knowledge of and discretion. with you . Prov. I." "His bones are ducts brass. fools despise and whatever you instruction. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. being lous nor mythical. Appropriately enough. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . His praise endures for Prov. dwell in prudence. are all who teaches us more The verbs. of The LORD acts of old. . The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. created me at the beginning his work. his wisdom. . God is joking. iron. of wisdom Prov. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. 4:7 The get. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. the first 8. is this: Get wisdom. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. These do cosmos.
17:18 is ninety years old. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. "After I have my husband is old. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. 10. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. that she had laughed. There is. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev." looking at each usage. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. He finds Thus." Joy and happiness are another matter. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. But from the Gen. saying. "No. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. is usually translated "oppress. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. tyrannizing river. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. a and said to himself." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. and you shall call his name Isaac." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. child. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. The half-mythic. I fear. now that and say. Gen. making it his drinking foun tain. for the pounding. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play. however.32 9. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. "Why did Sarah laugh. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen.
The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. he with me. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. for she was afraid. "No. 21:6 city. and I cried out with a loud voice. and the people sat down to eat and drink. And Sarah said. his marry his daughters. up to play. and rose your And the LORD said to people. have corrupted themselves. son whom she had borne Abraham.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. 26:8 also was actually doing. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. "I did laugh. playing her Isaac. in to me to insult me." the But he seemed to be jesting. whom you brought up out of the Moses. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. came have brought among us. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us." a But Sarah denied. came "See. in the saying. He said. "The Hebrew servant. you laugh". Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings." and Sarah shall have son." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. place. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. every one hears will laugh me. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. Next . 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. but certainly the betrayed him. for land of Egypt. Gen. "Up. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. "Go down. Then came the golden calf: Exod. saying.
twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. "Call Samson. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. "Saul thousands. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. by them I shall be held in honor. They made him stand between the us. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. at Gibeon. for the oxen stumbled. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. 2Sam. and he died there beside the God. who chose father.34 Interpretation Judg. the abased and above all people of the his house. Israel. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. so down together. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark." said to Joab." has slain his thousands. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam." pillars. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. David." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. and mocked them. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh. but they laughed them to scorn. And in his each caught arise. before the LORD. . but by the maids of whom you have spoken. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. they said. "It was before the LORD. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. and he made sport before them. 2:14 And Abner us.
and a time dance. also will laugh at your calamity. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. there is no quiet. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. wisdom. dwell in prudence. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. Eccles. 7:3 Eccles. Prov. and I find knowledge and discretion. Ps. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. 10:23 beside him. arrows. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. 2:4 Ps. for he sees that his day is Ps. the LORD has them in derision. Prov. 2:2 I said of laughter. 1:26 Prov. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. "It is mad. like a master workman. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. Sorrow is better than laughter. the fool only rages and laughs. Jeremiah is not quite the same. and fear. 8:12 . he will snatch and tear you tent. . He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . Strength and dignity her clothing. and death. "I am only joking!" Prov. closer to what we finds another strain. Prov. 31:10 . dost laugh nations in derision. I will mock when panic strikes I. a time to mourn. is vanity. and I was daily his delight. it?" Eccles." and of pleasure. and money answers everything. rejoicing before him always. at the but the LORD laughs coming. saying. laughs at the time to come. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. at them. 3:4 to a time to weep. Selah. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. however. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. and wine gladdens life. and a time to laugh. firebrands. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. wicked. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. 8:31 Prov. for Eccles. . 14:13 Prov. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. "What use is Eccles. O LORD. so is the laughter of fools. I you. 59:8 But thou. Prov. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. and shall laugh your from of the at living. all the him.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps.
30:17 the For I will restore health to you. I did alone. I and the palace shall stand used to be. however. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. him and he too shall be held in derision. and they be be few. then they among nations. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. the we were like those and our dream. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets.36 Interpretation Jer. and I was deceived. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. nor did I rejoice. Then our mouth was with laughter. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. Jer. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. and your wounds Jer. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. I will heal. Jer. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. But he also has another notion of laughter. and have compassion on his dwellings. Was thieves. and the voices of those who make merry. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. I sat because thy hand was upon me. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. shall not small. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. and thou hast prevailed. I have become a laughingstock the day. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. 48:26 "Make him drunk. multiply them. I will make them honored. Zech. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. "The LORD has done things for them. every one mocks me. thou hast deceived me. When her . 20:7 stronger all O LORD. thou art than I. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. says LORD.
The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. Luke 6:21. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. the burden of their day says long. every fortress. and of rulers At kings they scoff. mocking at her downfall. 9:24. 3:14 Ezek. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. whose it. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. Lam. laughter in the Book of 8:53. for they like the wind and go they make sport. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. and every green thing is his to search out. James 4:9). because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. if to judge by different from the others. 1:10 contains much. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. . for it Hab. and there was her. but hills as his pasture. guilty men. made him all his trouble. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. Job the outcast. the a side which had always been a part Job and. The much subject was and bound to come up. But there of was another side of we are laughter. a simple. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. and does not even hear the drivers shout. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. 25. none to help her. Mat. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. Mark 5:40.
3:8 and 13." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. and over all the earth. 1 :26 and Then God said. Eliphaz once had he has seen. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. and over the cattle. and even their sex. Hamlet. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. wings on high. With Job.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. . but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. On this question. Job has come to learn from nature. At one first. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. but not to it. the brother. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. their iden tity. Some English translations 12. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. and over every of the . Yet it is Lear shadow". at fear and is not dismayed. . continually changing their clothing. of nature. "Let us make man in our image. To that extent. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. as we put have from the ostrich. "It is I. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. Job has come. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. and over the birds air. and one of the things he learned. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. this relation is seems to Dane. after our likeness." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. mountains yield him produce.
" and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. earth. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. to slaves of inherit as a them. "subdue" "dominate. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. Jer. and and shall be raised above the hills. and subdued them as slaves. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. ways 15. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. not as a thing for us. with harshness. In many Isa. many of the peoples shall come. but the he must perform now. is not a world and 14. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. We cannot divide it up and as we will. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. and God said to them. sword against nation. Josh. . neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. and they shall into plowshares. "subdue" In addition. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. let of us go LORD. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. to the house God Jacob.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. But it is not the same. He judge between the beat nations." It should be noted that both words. and over the And God blessed them. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. male and female he fruitful and multiply. but the beyond is not ours. in the image of God he created them. the land lay before them. and say: of "Come. the and all the nations shall flow to it. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. and their spears into pruning hooks. you may make brethren the another. people of sons after you. it is only a in which he learn about play. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play." 39 So God created man in his created him.
"to or so I believe. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. It too. up by a breath between them. or exploits or the grace of his frame. He is king over all the sons of pride. for he was made to dread. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him.2 Do up. the gods are in dread. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . stand. nor They spear.'"9 Comments 1.18 26 He sees every towering thing. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. 11 fire escape. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. word mean but along it a sense of dread. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. and not a his shields7. could. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards. quaver. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin.13 cast as a nether millstone. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. 9 Each closed8 seal. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. fused all together. 14 His strength resides his neck. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. 12 From his cauldron. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. 17 "When he sion. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. 15 Festoons of flesh. wait. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. rises up.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. and terror dances before him." times. nor lance.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. and bronze as rotton wood.
He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. till they had finished speaking. for something to say. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. the Ps. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. That is to say. We have heard those Isa. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. The first has replaced the second. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. which deals with our relation to the world of man. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. YaChaL. loose my his hand and cut me off! . that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. on a with. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. till they stood longer 2. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. falling silent to hear counsel. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. but there came only a murk.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. apart from their being for us. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. I have no higher expectations. I rain. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light.
and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. So. The comes the root of this word. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. knew it.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. But that knowledge rouse may admire. Job has nonhuman. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. but he and His body surrounds him pain. in already begun. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal." From it Hebrew So for "peace. They with were in disgrace." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. One of them reads: give the Lam. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. like the in the wilderness. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. The word." 4. You have resigned. then. The "brutal" word seems. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. means "to be whole or word complete. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. Then the within fifty-two days. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. and in which he for itself. and with the might of fact. mangled never overpowered man. word 'akf'zar. shlm. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. occurs which I have translated "brutal. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . away. and he has and sent him off." Neh.
and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. it means that the spoke Leviathan. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. and its owner has not kept it in. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door. case. It leaves always room restitution." by all to his the scales. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. cannot by No one can touch him. however. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt. "Go." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. mean normally In either of means "to shield. If. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. 8." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. It might help." importance winnowing kind. then. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. know him from the Here it is taken outside only.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. In that sense. meganim." debt. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. in the however. from the root mgn. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. If He should pass by and separate or close up. is to "make whole. sell the live on the lift. on me and casts me into the hands guilty ." 7. God sets the wicked to close in men. of." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. The again. he pay ox for ox. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. defend. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. dead beast shall be his. unlike Job." oil rest. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm.
in the world beyond man." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. But. flesh. for the Leviathan. the list is . Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. the Leviathan does Job's skin. 9. become that which seals it hotam for Job. 12. dabhaq. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. off. my heart gone after my eyes." all others." his completion and perfection. "tight. complete. from the way. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. as stone. For us it is ugly. tight itself. or constrictive: "stick. For the world beyond man. has. At best. fused (dbq) all together. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. shameful. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. ness. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up.44 Interpretation One cannot up. of murk and confusion. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. closed entranceway. Job has seen the Leviathan. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. "signet." away from all other beings. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not." sar. and the face of the deep Again. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
The root nhm means understood in the text. and repentance. we have returned to Chapter One. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. one feels remorse. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane." wenihamti." 'al. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. He is value." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. normally as 'el. however." sorrow or Like the English word. I who am but dust ashes. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. there seems "to feel deep compassion. if one feels sorrow guilt. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . "upon. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. 58:8. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. by the way. in itself." but. can establish in the world of the small. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. 18:27 the Abraham answered. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes." where it "to It is found in Ps. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell." and is. that the book was conceived of as a whole. Also see Gen." or is. for instance. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination. have expected but it would not be so . feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not." to be behind their understanding of the verse. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is." These passages. of course. But to others for something that one has done. as .epher we'phar. . "Behold. require as Greenberg does. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other. Linguistically speaking. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6." meaning to them. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality." one assumes ashes." and 5. means "to despise" "reject. one more reason for believing tion. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt.
of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. 8. Remember Aaron. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . 11. 9. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. . Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. Rahab: my father them. that wonderful woman of the night. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. and save alive and mother. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. but . Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. will consume His be away. Gone is the vocabulary. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. and Joshua 2:13 . . tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. that the moths eaten. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. living in a nutshell. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. 10. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. sisters each one on a different with day. my brothers and sisters. destruction. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them.50 Interpretation 1. yet his soul. them over. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. death's first born his members. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent.
it became Joseph. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. were another one came in and said. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. fodder just like the cattle. Bildad show Shuhite. eating joyous unity. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. His might is in the muscles of his belly. not snuffed out the life of its owners. 13. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. What was not possible before has now become actual. 12. It fell down . He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. inheritance of the descendants 14. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. but look at the loins. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. Gen. and Zophar the Naamatite. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. strength in his Now. ten thousand of cattle. Shechem's father. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. at the end of the book. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. three thousand camels.
qesi'a." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. The Book rection. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. O desolate one. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. and marble. "cassia. and wood and stones wood. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. They are dead. Job opened mouth and spurned 17.52 Interpretation the young people. and she painted her head. and looked out of the window." are. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. antimony. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking. keren happuli1: the first two ful. so far for the things as I was able. "day." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. came to Jezreel. all sorts of precious stones. of silver. We remember to his friends: his his day. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. As such it became. in the prophets. Jezebel heard of it. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. Then. It is from the words It is a new Job. too. 18. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . And you. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. in English. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. the iron for the things iron. or all the things that a self. including the being his 16. the silver of of my God. this name? second word. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. Job himself becomes word yom. stones. Job 3:1 Then. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. also called pukf1.
and went to Ramah. to the ends of the earth. will give strength his king. hence. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. and he veiled his power. It "horn. salvation. and they were afraid to come near him. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. Moses' his face shone. because I ISam. all of them. My mouth rejoice in thy . my derides my enemies. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. qeren. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. behold. until in to speak with him. to begin at the beginning. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. have Samuel. against he thunder in heaven. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. tent. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses." 53 us look at the first word. for I sons." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. flashed from his hand. His bull has majesty. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. rays Hab. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. And Samuel priest took the rose up. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. that the skin of skin of face shone. Then they blew the trumpet. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. "My exalted in the LORD. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. said. 33:17 ox. he anointed. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam.
it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. "Do not lift For thou exalted. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. too. praise all his saints. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. I have for prepared a Ps. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. for Israel who are near to him. and the IChron. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. cymbals. trumpets. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. and made loud music on harps and lyres. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. to the sound the hom. And. my rock. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. Often the Psalmist Ps. thou . art the of their strength." not and to the wicked." boastful. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. "Do glory boast. I have driven my horns into dust. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. of course. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. my me from violence. 89:17 I say your to the horn. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. Linguistically. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. 22:3 of My God. my savior. in whom I take refuge. stronghold and my refuge. 75:4 up Ps. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar.54 Interpretation Ps. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. 27:2 be Exod.
From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. they praised her to Pharaoh. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. But God sister. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. saw Gen. 19. will they will say. and said to him. in have to be Song its of Songs." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. so as to not mislead ourselves. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. we shall have to consider the full list. 'This is his wife'. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. because of the woman whom you have taken. cluded however. for your younger and he said. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. "Behold. though perhaps somewhat naive man. wife. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. Rachel. and when . And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. so he said. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. there is also good. then they kill but they let you live. Leah's soft. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. And Leah conceived and bore a son. Abram's And ultimately. he opened her womb. he said to Sarai his behold. "I the will see you. Gen." "Lord. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. man's wife. Jacob loved Rachel. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. barren. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. We have not. you are a a dead man. to Sarai. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. and his house because of Sarai. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. and she .
"God has judged me. but did not find the household gods. but with a demand for Gen. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. Rachel travailed. voice and given me a has also heard my son". and entered Rachel's. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. And midwife said to as her. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. and into the tent of the not find them.' and she had hard labor. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. in her hard labor.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. And she her father. for the way of women is upon So he searched. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph." them. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. And he went out of Leah's tent. Then Rachel said. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. she reacts not with gratitude. but he did into Leah's tent. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. 30:1 Gen. for she said. "Because the LORD has looked me. "Give children. So Rachel died. 30:6 When Rachel sister. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. 31:32 it. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. but his father buried Benjamin. Laban felt . and have prevailed". "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. he has given me this son also"." She my affliction. but did not find them. and take know that Rachel had stolen them." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. Bethlehem). said to me. but at a very heavy price: Gen. the have son. and two maidservants. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). and she called Simon. so she called his name Naphtali. saying. and said. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. therefore she called his name Dan. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. "Fear called not. and sat upon all about the tent. she called his name Benoni. she envied or her and she said to Jacob.
David. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. Gen. the . and saw and him. Abigail: ISam. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. but the ill-behaved. David was beautiful: brought him in. Nonetheless. anoint and was ruddy. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. him. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. Joseph. and the name of his wife Abigail. beautiful eyes. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. a youth. was Joseph himself beautiful. he disdained appearance. except can for him the land. Now he he. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. . the [beautification] in it. but all that again it led to grave problems. . and had and was handsome. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. 16:12 And he sent.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. they first seven fat cows. for when this is ISam. And the LORD said. "Lie with master's me. and said. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal." ISam. "Arise. for blood be made pollutes the land. Deut. he was a Calebite." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. . 41:2 and fat. behold. for it. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11.
he weighed weight. whose name So Tamar. Amnon said to the king. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. . my than she. but king knew her . I saw Absalom hand. her. loved her. Absalom he riding his mule. On the other Joab." with And he took three darts in his of hand. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. when was heavy meet on him. David's son. with listen to her. Absalom and struck him. and told hanging in an oak. he it). though I do not its importance: 2Sam. "Behold. his head and fast in the oak. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. and brought her to the maiden was king. Amnon lay down. "I king). 13:1 Absalom. the and she became the king's not. born to Absalom three sons. and she was a beautiful woman. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. and found Abishag the Shunammite. Joab's armor-bearers. and being stronger to me. and after a time Amnon. But he would not he forced her. lie with her. oak. nurse and ministered to him. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. and left hanging between heaven earth. from the sole of .58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. 14:27 There were name was Tamar. had a beautiful sister. The very beautiful. if I had dealt the will aloof." of her. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. 2Sam. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. his foot to the . and pretended to be ill. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak." hand. while the mule that was under him went on. and killed him. and when the king came to see him. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. David's son. "Come." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. hair his head. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. he took hold sister. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom.
the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. and and do not capture you with Prov. her eyelashes. grace you poured upon your lips. as and when her father and her mother died. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. 10:3 lovers despise you. instead of beauty. Eccles. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. scarlet. for fair to behold. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. they will behold a land rope. for the customs of the peoples are false. Men beautify so that gold. and instead of a rich robe. Ps. 33:17 Jer. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. 5:18 Behold. the maiden was beautiful lovely. that is Esther. when she has done vile . but a woman who fears the praised. and instead Isa. of perfume Isa. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. is the joy of all the earth. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. 6:25 far north. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. and He had brought up Hadassah. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. also he has put eternity into man's mind. a there will be rottenness. Mount Zion. Esther 2:7 uncle. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. the city of the great King. they seek your life. A tree from the forest is cut down. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. Esther's beauty saved her people. therefore God has blessed for ever. baldness. And you.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. O desolate one. Eccles. shame. LORD is to be beauty is vain. 3:24 Instead girdle. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. for of a this is his lot. for themselves: is Ps. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. in let her Prov. 4:30 hair. Jer. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. a girding of sackcloth. Jer.
60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. 27:4 any passer-by. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. you then exult? The LORD once called you. and say to him. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. in the length of its branches. says the Lord GOD. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . and your cloth. and its heart was its height. they perfect your beauty. And silk." I Ezek. . that were in the garden of God. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. towered proud of Ezek. You to regal estate. and its branches will be consumed. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. "Is beauty. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. renown. . you. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. high Eden envied it. you ate raiment was of fine linen. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. Son of man. 33:32 And. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. 9:15 that thirst. for down to abundant waters. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. your builders beauty. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. and were in your towers. for they hear young and men shall say. 31:7 exposed you before kings. but they will not do it. iniquity was found in you. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. cast you to the ground. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. offering made harlotry. 2:15 with goodly fruit". 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. made they hung Ezek. and played the harlot because of your ." Ezek. lo. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. I have cast it out. . the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. "But trusted in beauty. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. they shall devour and .
whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. and Tirzah. Had there been a son. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. Machir. but died for his sin. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. Num. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. and before Eleazar the priest. Noah. 20.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. And are the LORD said to Moses. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. 27:4a Why family. the daughters have received an inheritance. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. and he had no sons. Thus. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. son of Manasseh. the next phrase Num. son of Hoglah. Noah. "The daughters Zelophelad right. you shall give them . but only a dowry. Zelophehad Mahlah. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. Milcah. corners of be full like bowl. saying. The text continues: Num. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. Hoglah. Milcah. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. and new wine the maidens. The names of his daughters Mahlah. for like the jewels of a Yea. and before the leaders and all the congregation. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. of Gilead. at the door of the tent of meeting. Our father died in the wilderness. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. And they stood before Moses.
"The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. 'If dies. The only. inheritance turns be little more than a grand .' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. tribe. Milcah. tribe to another. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. son of Joseph. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. it inheritance. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. daughters of Zelophehad. In the case of Zelophehad. they said. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. saying. and has no son." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. Hoglah. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. for Mahlah. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. then his inheritance to his brothers. however. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. came near son of Manasseh. and Noah. Tirzah. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. And if he has daughter. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes.
led. The inheritance is outright and absolute. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. by the fathers and some by the mothers. as we have seen. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. beauty. however. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. and a need of clarity. men are empty and life is without taste. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. They be taught. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. . The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. be and of the ways. the two refused to mesh. in turn. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. Without whole. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see. and it is the children who must learn them. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. Of what do they speak? Of the com. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. there would be no bread. "just" by the For Job. there would no way to live as "one of com." clashing for human One said while friendship. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. the way to go out on the hunt." Without these would must be no life. of his daughters. the way to bake bread. nothing is said dowries. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. the and all way to These some bury the dead. there and us.The Book of Job Job's daughters. ways must be taught they must be learned. This insight.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
with some effort to answer that I did. After tality seek marriage and family. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. from sex been Since self-control.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. 507a-c. 221d). 306b). an elenctic investigation begun. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). these virtues were often considered a rare combination. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. 97). 714). not mutu Pit. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. Still. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. important texts on the theme of eros. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. at Symp." p. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. "oddness. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. particularly restraint indulgence. if ally exclusive (North 1966.5 Furthermore. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. Charmides. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache.
but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). certainly will he would never anything ugly. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. to quotation of return Cydias. 210a-212a). he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. just as a fawn . lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). pregnant If this is the case. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). face. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. try to teach the other. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. inward say. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. and gifted soul.Drama. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. and good. least if self-control might presence. despite body. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. Like children. rather than ugly ones. Indeed. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. someone who is both kotos and. is. Narrative. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. at least potentially. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. distinguished." he says. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. eternal rates beauty (Symp. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. For the second. the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. like his describes.
of which three come immediately to mind. Sim sus ilarly. I caught a fawn in my claws.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry.6 Third. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. Halperin 1985. there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. 241e). here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. First. 81-91. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. right out from under hind. him to finally renewed reflection. p. 1978. has not always been recognized as such. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . but did not drink its blood. inversion the expected im age. with trust in my strength. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. just so do lovers love 165). in singing. For of example. hunting (Dover. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. Socrates. In both cases. or as a hunter tracking game. of citation of the line from Cydias. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. the aporia has a beneficial element. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. the perception of their own lack knowledge. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers. 58. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. Socrates' (241d). an pp. fond of lambs.
8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged.Drama. If Charmides' either. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. who. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. only if a with the power to momentarily. in which Charmides. which as a manifestation of anteros. Critias. or . and devour (McAvoy 1996. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. a lover might approach his beloved. "So Charmides. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. perceiving his craving for Charmides. 92. he devoured appetite. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. Socrates to replies in kind then. also interprets the quotation in this sense). also reads the text in this way). a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. when. we can see that dialogue. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles. Another reading. When Socrates says. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. If we do." realization of his desire to be Socrates. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. to speak. pursue." no one will be able to resist him. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. he must mean us to go along with the game. 90. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides." you resist me Socrates answers. catch. "don't (176a-d). Narrative. pursuer. lion. I thought how fair youth. p. p." he most likely means Charmides became. respectively.
His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image.72 Interpretation merged. The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover.). This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. Socrates' Halperin 1986. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). but he does not condemn the desires of either party. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. If is . and actually help nurture the Symp. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. someone suitable body. which cf. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. 155e). 210a. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). or the entire body charm and the soul as well. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. step. but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). Soc speak. philosophos (154e-155a). came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was.
Rep. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. as would a so governed. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. Phil. expands his logos nomoi. that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. 457b). (161b-163d). 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c).g. They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. and. however. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato.g. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. and goodness (to agathon. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). showing modesty generally. is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. penulti rung (episteme). he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). (160d-161b). In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. e. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . possibility. In other dialogues. and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. (17 le) Socrates. the element of to doing (163e-164d).Drama. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). Charmides. level again. Narrative. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. From that on on. like walking and talking with deliberate. own" every member of a city. see Larson 1951).
ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. pp. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). pp. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. Rather. ostensibly. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. would not had. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. 56-70. 1988. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. as it turned out. As an example. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . any case. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. here eros. vision. Phaedo. 148291. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. and Republic. to topic. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. Laches. Sadly for Socrates. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. especially the Symposium. 541-49). Lysis.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. Kahn 1996.
like in advising fawn in front of a lion." "dates" with conversations. not opposing view. principles 542-46). (For an pp. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. in Kahn's work 203-9. pp. pp. 146). The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. 54-55. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. as here. p. since he can speak 4.Drama. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. p. handsome boy. he also thought. . the Symposium.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. and Kahn (1996. puts 6. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. For the 5. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. Hyland (1981. Donald Watt's translation (1987. more 184). This recently. in the Laches. thing. 1988. 2." measuring-line about such a person. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. 25. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. 154). by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. Plutarch." someone. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1." this . p. 7. 73 n." observation has been p. 102. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. 27) and. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. I to resist what had been an this. Cf. p. (1977. concern " for p. pp. for example. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. 3. but in those works he does not. by Mahoney (1996. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. so to speak. p. he "[Cydias] for the beast. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. Alcibiades. that thought the experience. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. 82). Narrative. together with his irresistible passion . 'Take care not to go as a meat. [Cydias] said. 187-88). see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. Jowett 1961. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. McAvoy (1996.
Athens: The Ohio University Press. Greek Homosexuality. 99-122. Oxford: Oxford University Press.. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. 1986. In E. Hyland.. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. 1966. Benitez. . M. K.4). "self-control. L. 1988. Cairnes. McAvoy. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy." Mahoney. 1988. 1996. 1977. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. Griswold. University Larson. Kahn (1996." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. C. Charmides. p. NY: Cornell University Press. 1961." REFERENCES Bruell. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. Sophrosyne. D. Pp. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. trans. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides. Saunders. trans. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. 1996. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. 1987. J. Pp. T. C. Hanmondsworth. 63-103. D.76 Interpretation 9. E. Cambridge." 161-204. and Jowett. Ed. Plato. Ithaca. Page. C. Watt. 1996. eds. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. Eng: Penguin. 1985. 1951. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. Hamilton H. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. MA: Harvard University Press. The Collected Dialogues. ed." Dover. D. It is with Menexenus. M. Kahn. Charmides. 1962. Potae Melici Graeci. D.. North." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. Nussbaum. In T. B. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. 163-209. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. 1981. H. 1978. 1986. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. C. "Socratic Politics Charmides. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides." Dialogues of Plato. Pp.
Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. Vol. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. and on prudential about grounds.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. Fall 1998. 1 .2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. No. was becoming of a tyranny. and his himself. 26. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge. Like Marx. was an out-and-out bourgeois. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom.
It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence.78 Interpretation privilege. On temptation. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. also the nature of law to be just. rather than law. the on account of the war being a civil one. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. A disobeyed be effectual. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. while partiality to whom one's own country. Yet. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. In doing so. but treasonous criminals. but punishment. love of country is a defense foreign domination. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. fight the to rebels using the an law. who are gland. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. Its force . as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. rebels. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. however. The law from corrupting one another. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. there is a strong of as the part of the British. It is. see his thought and his peculiar genius. Justice has two different aspects. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. and foreigners.
they wish for peace (p. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. when the communion of our country is dissolved. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. necessity Although law the common good.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. public spirited reasons. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. They have lost confidence in justice. devoid of hope. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. a hostile light. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. however. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. proposing a policy. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. or rather confusion. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. for pursuing peace. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. because and piety. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. (P. Of most all wars. bringing generality with hate. They vitiate their politics. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive.5 melancholy are not. but they have not lost their humanity. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. Their cynicism and 177). In order to maintain the integrity of law. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. Britain's combination. they corrupt their morals. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst.
proper. . in fact. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. and. to the they rejoice at quality of the action.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. because. 179). the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. defeat. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. inconsistently. second. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. The determination a it. 178). rather giving it to treasury (p. and then distribute a war themselves. It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. to infamy to punishment. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. third. as long as it shall think . by treating innocent citizens inequitably. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. contrary. but. to enable administration to confine. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. blurs the difference be (p. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. The determination infamous action. the British themselves. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. 178). by treating fourth. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. 179). Hatred determines the crime. In fact. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. therewith. is behaving like who appear tyrant. . than law. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. they take the confiscated cargo. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death).
and The proper place for the punishments is in America. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. rather than the the crime. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. peace. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. therefore. both. because it is blinded by its own indignation. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. tried ac cording to form. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. 180). and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. 180). Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. should the ment English be victorious. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. far from making the British godlike. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. After strength not is American should defeats. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. the absence of justice. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. (pp. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. Parliament its proper time and place. VIII (p. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. but not according to justice. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. therefore. The accused is. . taking their goods. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. object of their own insults. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. tying half dead in England). 181-82). that they will become savage.
The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. however. like the deter pirates. It shakes the foundation of the nation general.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. It hardly seems just. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. instead of of taking out the sting. 184). 186). because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. far as he tell. by breaking draws the first principle of law. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. therefore. parliament is incapable of such prudence. 182). The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. 188). that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. never mind possible. but its to the corruption of manners. But. because it between citizens. But the British punitive. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. far from being the opposed to manners. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. liberty principle. this action. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. naval men as they were allowed to go free. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. the limiting qualification. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. This offense to threat to political liberty. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. as a life was given in return for a life. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. . corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. Burke says general venoms equity. to punish the exchanged prisoners. At the end of the war. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p.
Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. if only through fear. 189-90). British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. despite American defeats. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. in love of country. Burke raises the the unknown. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. made the reminds them British feel invincible). he says unknown a reality. of concern But. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. 191). . Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. dark. be can fore they be enlightened. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. The British must doubt themselves. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. the attachment to country. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. He even speaks as courage justice. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. He speaks to the consciences. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. have with doses of fear. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them.
without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. actually the hypocritical others. Those in favor of the war. show little are content to real magnanimity. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. is in the eyes of God and man. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. 199). Burke has for his plan. when in triumph. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. calling for battles which but his servility to it. manliness and cowardice judgement. being that crawls on the earth. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. helpless creature. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. dominion in which he cannot exercise. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. the taxes. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. With the awakening of their interests. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. far from being manly. any without civil wisdom or military skill. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. that it is directed by insolent passion. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. order to render others contemptible and wretched. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. rather than to punish and to subjugate. pair facing the Brit ish. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. they their country. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. Far from man's of being cowards. pride of a coward. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. states to the . but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. contending for a violent (P. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength.
the Americans must trust in themselves. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. the Americans are virtually alone. therefore. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. and be trusted. and Burke shows As things stand. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. themselves. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. Just a short time . He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. therewith. 195). Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. to risk with defeat their own arms.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. He is the people doubt Parliament and. rather than certain tyranny. they must earn that trust. to be the for the the war in England. He is cautious in his blame. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. both addresses popular and parliamentary. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. cynicism. above the voices of many. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. (1774).
Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. that it is not will be resisted. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. when public . legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. 205). at best. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. 210-11). The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. but people. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. be governed. so as to offend the people. He is thereby domestic politics. granted social rights (pp. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. rather than oppress it. Parliament to tax the Americans. Now. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. Par liament must. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. it may be the mind. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. 207) omnipotence. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. having recently tasted victory. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. therefore. The people are. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. I must attend to public opinion. (P. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. waves of chance and. even though right of they have no representation. beg leave to observe. therefore. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. because the British had suffered defeats. he can accuse aggrandizement. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists.
. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. Freedom is not an abstract principle. however.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. not because of a perverse humor. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. to be mistaken. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. just in they are needed (p. ment. as a defense of freedom in general. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. Burke is quick to point out that. Freedom. politics. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. as it was by the New Whigs. through pressures placed on. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. 211). whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. rather theory require tions for injustice. Compromise If the in the the and reform. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. and. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. religion more the monarchy. It requires compromise. any more than is sover of eignty. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. parliament can no longer legislate religion. from. doing what one wills. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. they embody than parlia ment. Parliament must be heard. and even independence. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. like authority. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. 208). In light freedom. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. They practicing (the god of this lower world). freedom others.
He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. The British Parliament the authority of a god.88 thus. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. the aristocracy. because it is a principle of compromise. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. General theories passions. thus denying claimed the church. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. rather than acknowledges the hate. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. of man and the absolute hand. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. collective are bom from disappointed trust. and savage cruelty. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. they claimed to embody mankind. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. rather than cod ified. Abstract ideas . do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. Moments authority lived. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion.6 ire of an atheist. they affection. In abstract theory. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny.
horror. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. In not fact. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. In this.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. though in theory. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. malice. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. confiscations. the aristoc and monarchy. broke faith. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. their persecutors. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. The Reflections. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. and executions. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. greed. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. They destroy . the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. guilt. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. The legislator must whole. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. and the tence. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. in particular. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. and especially to science.
" Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. . almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. though it may paradoxical. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. philosopher. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. he teaches limits of both. It is who are undoubtedly true. that they . it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. . he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. Their them. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. because moderation they are defi must in love. but things. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. ranks. united them as a people. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. nor fanatic visionary. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. The legislator have of in his soul. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. God. humanity (Pp. offices. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. they from love men too little. but in general. Like the of the good seamstress.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. . they of any interest. is at their horizon like their horizon. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- .
Legislation is deliberative p. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. rats. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. they to represent and to secure those interests. in fact. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. creating Burke does. Its rebel to be used against them. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. however. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. a mathematical order.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. and exist in much greater clearness. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. an un geometry differentiated mass. unique character of Geometry. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. which of it. however. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. cannot recognize the politics. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . At best. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. like promises proportion. possibility (Reflections. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. atomism except by a principle of order. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and.12 chemistry. the uniqueness of human beings 301). to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. therefore. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. 524). In formative act. to have the power of ordering. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants.
of government. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. Burke opposed abstract was against began. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. then there must be moral . Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. about the parts are at (p. such. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. By having right to everything they want everything. (P. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. developed its own Ideological differences. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. If there are to be compromise and freedom. 215). asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. for America had. 222). Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. To the contrary. give repealing the tax. The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. 221). inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. to tax in order to restore American trust. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. or to an equal share in government. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride.
but trust that is called to account and office. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. therewith. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. should the people rule. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. an Perhaps most important. but. natural Burke thought the rulers. however. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. they are too strong to oppose. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. satisfy those grievances. avarice. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). in which it depends. The people are the product of the constitution.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. rather than connections of its sovereign. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. and a brutality of accepting of political men. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. The as are though people dis must. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. therefore. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. liberty.
94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. It is something to be Although He respected. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. brings a degree of the common good. force. He economics. because he never believed is not Hegel's state. however. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. mind. The origins are inferior to the end product. To the contrary. . never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real.15 The hidden hand is not. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. rather. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. Burke believed that rational. and beneficence. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. Burke never thought reality. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. Contending for an imaginary power. . history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. . But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen.
1980]) follows Marx in 1. Capital I (Moscow. disheartened and disgusted. only because they have elected him. so or a misanthropist. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. So. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. Unlike Parliament.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. 1954) p. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. which which he lends credence. to be grown in disrepute. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. Prudence makes the former feasible. but they can trust him. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. he is in his self-right eous wrath. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. he and sought indignant fanaticism. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. (P. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. 260. C. Karl Marx. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. to foster the love of Furthermore. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. a God. espe cially in the great. The partial suspension. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. His Yet one cannot of visionary. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . contains its abuses within it. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. the latter necessarily corrupts. on hand. B.
There are three classes of citizens. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. pp. 1854-89). vol. remind one of the old man ed. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. page number alone are 3. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. In from looking to the number three for order. Eng. 8. Glorious 1984). pp. 350-52. in whose 6. 279.: Penguin. vol. his regime on the number 12. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. although ment. 94. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. 9. 282-83. 282-83. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. p. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. and the 7. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. tyranny (Thomas Paine. 7. portrait. W. But he did give the any property. CA: Sage. pp. but according to his fancy. Jackson Bate (Westport. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. 1. was cited within the text as Reflections. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. Works. Phaleas'. 31. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. and to Burke. 533. In desire to know nature as a whole. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. 431. 15-16. Hippodamus models three. 101. 5. three sections of the city. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. vol. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. p. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. 431-32. 1994]) argument. of govern 3. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. p. 520. 164. Politics. and by looking at the man.96 else. Old Whigs. pp. and three kinds of legal suits. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. 4. 439. wore by cheap whole. 2. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. many other cities. p. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. a more participatory form vol. vol. and the 2. ultimate differences. CT: Greenwood Press. Works. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. 10. vol. The Complete Writ 1945]. 358. 2. Edmund Burke. Furthermore. attempt 8. pp. he denied and the artisans arms. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. 3. they both ideas. vol. 1960). Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. pp. farmers. 382-84. 6. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. jurors and . and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property.
p. susceptible of of infinite improvement. NJ: Transaction Publishers. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. Works. 29. the man of actual virtue. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. When questioned. p. 77). against abstract doctrine. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. In the Spirit of the Laws. 406-7. 294-95. Thomas Aquinas. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. sanship. 1. as in the French Revolution. 431. rather than the presumptive. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. of Chicago Press. trans. Thus. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. 15. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. 432. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. pp. He honors for those individual judgement. vol. of Chicago Press. Canavan. who lives according to the actual. rather than action. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. that its authority depends habits of obedience. is taken from Montesquieu. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. vol. and even expected. 1.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. 1949). Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. 1991]. 1993]. 6. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory.237). he opposed a universal understanding of justice. as opposed to natural rights. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. pp. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. p.149-52). thus making an who improved the law. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. Like Burke. 1954). . pp. Canavan is for Burke life. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. not simply its evident usefulness. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. 348. 331-33. Works. pp. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. because he thought it made prudence impossible. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. 470.9-10). Reappraisal. 13. 2. 1965]. pp. 1987]. 1984]." the ruling majority and 14. (Harvey Mansfield. vol. vol. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. Science. for men of action are often. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence.
1 . No. 26. In the second. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. Fall 1998.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. argument and action." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. Vol. the truth observation surface." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that.1 As readers of the book. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . it is incoherent. Beyond Good Evil. . Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary." Preface. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. 5." In interpretation. . 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra. but are inseparably It is joined. but to those whom he "the wisest. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. to interpret this drama. In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. therefore. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. 289). "deepest. as it stands. The first crests at the end of Song.
3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought." But this his means "to be again. of accordingly." however." this account. then the distribution. ridicule and hatred. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them.g." 8). Overburdened by its superfluity. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense. however. the will to power proves to doctrine.. therefore. e. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. Appealing directly to the multitude. the superman.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power.4 If Zarathustra is human. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . one of these version of a man called Truthsayer. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. It. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. however. but as such to be more than human. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. This under persuading live. he is met with incredulity. he and wishes to "go down" to again. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. therefore. however. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest.
which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. the first. as Zarathustra calls him. its things. calls "praiseworthy." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. law.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. speaks to man only being. root cause of all the will to power is the things. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. one Afterworldsmen. The first of this wisdom will to power. in accordance with its law. But being. therefore. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. according to Zarathustra's understanding. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. the Still. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. That is to say." Here he that if be made to speak. activity stands the legislator or." 9). since. including his soul and mind. according to Zara thustra. Behind the creator. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and. he insists. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. however. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. acting in the light of its truth. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. all of of good and them. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or." "will to for the first time. in the Aristotelian phrase. despite their variety. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. Persians. the people." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. ." holy. em but rather what good and evil. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings.
to creating creators. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. is Zarathustra's goal. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. but identity between them. human beings seems necessarily is. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. divine. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings.102 We Interpretation see that. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. To create great endeavor." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. believes. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. a law that is. however. therefore. longer disciples. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. in Zarathustra's own words. It is this than human. perhaps. That the related political and aspects of claim. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. the to power. nite laws. but rather fellow creators. however. to a Virtue. Zarathustra. At the close of Part One. it were. according in what to Zarathustra. the coming to be of the superman. indicates. that he cities of men. therefore. overarching then. as it were. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. law that is. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core.
saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. therefore. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down." 3).The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. it and as well. a natural law. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. create dom and. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. will creators. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation." 1). in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. At this culminating moment hind his veil. as it were. It almost goes without fails is the question." things. reveal himself to a his career. but animal gods are and superman. Zarathustra will." 3). simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. "the Great stand Noon. Accordingly. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. while bringing humanity first time.
104 Interpretation so ing The that. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. to be absurd. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). In "The Child which a child his disciples. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. Neverthless. of course." in other words. as Zarathustra has argued. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators. appears independent inquiries. This interpretation. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will. Nonetheless. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts." of first half his of Part Two. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . his venom. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. the distribution of his author. however. rushes his teaching. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. of latter. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. What and grotesque of a devil. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. however. of course." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another.
munity is now apparent to Zarathustra.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. On the one hand. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). made clear through stands following reflection. as through such distribution cre like himself. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. Moreover. that is. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. therefore. is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. therefore. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. On the other hand. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. therefore. disciples and. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. consequently. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. this condition with another. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. Creation. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. the com incoherent in its own terms. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. to establish a community of and reciprocity. and this is men. that is. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. It .
Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. the punishment or desire for soul. with his wisdom." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. he is in useful a state of aporia. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. wisdom. As he puts giving. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality." Consequently pedantry. but by self-mockery. spite. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. As "The Night Song" predicts. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. consequently. revenge. ("On the Giving Vir 1). will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. and the desire for revenge within his soul. compatible with the moral law insofar tue. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause.
all human community established upon the basis of the law. He cannot painful beyond endurance. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. in which the just is included as false appearance. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. elaborating of the beautiful.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. That is to say. therefore. since. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. 381). the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. and the good. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. that understood need on is. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. Thus if in Part . he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. the just as final political order. and that. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. that false horizon now of the is. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. of the rational good. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. Accordingly. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. therefore. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra.
fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. That is love were to say. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. the longing for revenge.. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. that is. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. however.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. "enemies" however. It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. happy. In other words. Nevertheless. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . Zarathustra blames his failures position.g. consequently. e. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. envy. and however." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). As is his habit. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. Zarathustra's primary opponents.
It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. in expressing its or unlimited character. therefore. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. The greatest good. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. Be that it may. however. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. For the will. in the infinite power of the will." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. manifests itself in an infinite becoming." Life. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. he says is. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power." again and soon and. spite. As a conse good and evil quence. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge. he realizes. "the good. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. he also concludes that any particular vice. Without himself being aware of it. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine.
" as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. Ecce with all that was Homo. in clinging to his its freedom. It is. . that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. his desire for happiness as he understands it. the destruction of values. 382. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. law or or as he it there. the false perspective of the moral law." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else." as a form of artful play. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. necessarily the greatest evil. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. will's "sublime" character good. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. the creation of values. . then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. the possession of wisdom." he describes himself depths. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. for. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. himself to purchasing his its first principle. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. destruction of values as its Accordingly.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. naively (The Gay Science. as the highest good. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. good untouchable. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. from opposites." 2). as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. wisdom and will and And. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. he . of course. But the "values.
the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. demolish it. with caution and of subtlety. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. to the end of reproduc words. of another like himself. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. in some indefinite future. its fundamental incoherence. his old moral teaching. but ultimately to the generation. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. he values the admittedly political community. comes to understand the implications self." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer. This fellow thinker is name within the work. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. help lower level than his The reason for this . one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. Zarathustra himself has done. and create engendered." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. Symposium reproduction of his own good. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. truth. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator." "now I love only my children's land. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. however. Zarathustra In other gives dren. therefore." as he calls it. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. He listens carefully to these speeches. in new doing so. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. As we have already observed. think through.207a). and. As in the case of sexual intercourse. Plato. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood.
therefore. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. In his dream Zarathustra has . In words. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. therefore. just the prophet had predicted.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows. as it were. everything is one. but in terms of knowledge as well. everything That is to say. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. bursts open. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. Thus. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. however. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. the future continues way . and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life.."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. Consequently. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. Zarathustra the Third. Nevertheless. become the "night-watchman death. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble.. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. despite the in some to this region of the dead." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him.
." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. however. the Machiavelli. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. namely. then. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. If. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure.2). Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. From this low point." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. This insight is cause. the peoples must of Yet. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. 1. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. not to willing all of the past. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). of therefore. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples. but to willing this willing. Dis courses on Livy. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. Zarathustra. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. at least at this point. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer.
but every stone that is thrown . however. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. must past and Accordingly. therefore. . eternal return of . "O Zarathustra high." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. Thus. time itself is sees a Zarathustra.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. saying. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. . . In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. in which it may be willed. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. however. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. being is an Accordingly. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . namely. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. according the Zarathustra's current understanding. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him.
the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . the of the . choked me and crept . as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. the that has crawled his throat.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. knowledge would Thus. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man . The presence of the low not only persists human life. nothing be profitable. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. . that is." Moreover." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. freedom will at its peak. 21). . the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. into my throat. the life but is in creative great effect of in.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. paradoxically.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. as Zarathustra now describes it. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . all would be one. "foreseeing" longer man. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. of It is."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. of sickness" therefore. Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return. that was my disgust at all creation" existence.
116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. Finally.21 need. but." revenge. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. is in accord with reason.e. and that genu knowing will. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. however. on the one hand. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant. the thought of the eternal return developed. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being.. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. its law and sway of the rabble. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. of not be given. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. in Part Three. namely. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . love and.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. of "justice" "freedom. Far from having escaped the its justice. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. the will and its desire for and i. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. however.
are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. 23). The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. On the simplest level. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. Zarathustra. 9. and therefore of being. 202." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. appears to offer a 11. 153. Tablets. p. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. Writing"). of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. Behind the 6. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. in that irrational. but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. In Part Three.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. 4. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption"). stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. parodies "wisdom.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. also see Ecce Homo. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. 4. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. however. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite." 5. 10. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21." 3. 7. Cf. 8. Of course. 1888. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. It points to the Seth Benardete. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. Preface.22 upon in his wanderings. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. University of Chicago Press). Beyond Good and Evil. See "On Cf. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes.
reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. 17. 13." 1 1. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. "The speech Self-Overcoming.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. 28-31. 23. . paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. overcoming of need. Odyssey. Unfortunately. IV. ed. 15. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm. XIII. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. II. Vol. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. 1988)." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. but only on that of philosophical writing." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. Row. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. Zarathustra's p. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well.'' Great Events. Matter. it would require "something double. Cf. ." "The Truthsayer. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. 1935]. what 53-54. therefore. as god. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. It should come as no surprise. as man." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets." 360-425 and Bacon. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. lacking . trans. pp. 14. namely." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. Homer. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will." 16. 1984). the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. The Wisdom of the Ancients. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. or Zarathustra. 12. "Proteus.
therefore. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. "All Song." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. p. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. and The Gay Science. characterizes world following that terms. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. bridge. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. Song. 27. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. Robespierre. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. 289. p." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. If both Zarathustra and. Seth Benardete. vertu' 20. on account of his 227). and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. therefore. namely. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. 1990). Unfortunately.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. for the smallest just. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. (Speech of 7 June. 29. Zarathustra Socrates' 3." 21. 152 and 192. . 264). 36 and 87. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. Preface. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is." Having pears by chance. pp. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. 40. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. 3. "Fame and Second Sailing." merely by looking into each other's faces. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. 1794)": Daybreak. She power. 30. the ill-constituted. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. In "On the Convalescent" Cf." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. To every soul belongs another world. 283-85. however. Sunrise." also Dancing 4. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought." and 22. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone.'' for every is an afterworld. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. above all.
Caputo. Fall 1998. this century comes to a close.. 1996). Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. Berel Lang.95 paper.50 paper. greater notoriety. 1 . Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. Indeed. $19. Philosophy. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). University the Polity. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Michael E. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. NY: Cornell University Press. xi + 234 pp. even to the point of at "apologetics. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. $49. $49. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. x + 285 pp. No. xv + 232 pp. 26. Tom Rockmore. 1992). xii + 263 pp...50 cloth.95. xi + 382 pp.Review Essays Heidegger. 1990).. MA: Harvard University Press. 1993). Julian Young.95 paper.95 paper.. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. 1995). $14. xii + 129 pp. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press.95. Leslie Paul Thiele. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation. In this essay..50 cloth.50 Hans Sluga. Politics. $15. + 306 pp. 1997)." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. Vol. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge.. Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press. $47. Zimmerman. $15. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1993). Heidegger. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. $33. $19.
Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. Lyotard. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. namely.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. for example. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. politics. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. of and Derrida. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. One point example. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. In the process. Unlike Zimmerman. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. daeo-Christianity. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. e. is . Although Farias champions this position. Rockmore implements criticism. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. As bridge between reject discover. however. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. Given this historical archaeology. In order to discern this tendency. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example." in Heidegger's Crisis.. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions.g. which also exemplifies historical. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust.
which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. In this work. raises. indeed. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. e. Caputo. Nazism.. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. ethics. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. Philosophy. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely.g.Heidegger. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. however. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. already the publication of his magnum opus. Even been prior to Farias' book. This work. As Zimmerman. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. II.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. inquiry. of ethics and politics. then practical concerns. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . the Polity. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. As poignant as revelations were. Being and Time (1927). he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. The Farias' effect of revelations. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. hence. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars.
By 'thinking. As Zimmerman states: . is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. is of political which things. Interpretation . as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge.. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. That is. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. of "enframing. and the end of metaphysics." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. Heideg instruments of technology. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. As Zimmerman emphasizes.' he did not mean rational calculation. the our need to day." nature. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism.e. the which unique forgetting of being. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties. pp. 84). technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. i. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis.124 '. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. but the of technology. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power. xxiii-ix) Jews. On the surface. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. .' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves.
For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. (P. but instead blood and instinct. On the one hand. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. that is. recast Going forward. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. . Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. harmony from strife. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. 127). Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. Consider Heidegger's . for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. Not surprisingly. Holderlin. conflict and resolution. Unfortunately. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. p. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action.Heidegger. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. domination humanity and nature. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. what the Polity. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. 84) In the end. As reactionary modernists. philosophy and politics. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. . frenzy and violence. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities.
the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. in must emerge "singular. . e.g. Caputo.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. . John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. love. To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. According to Caputo. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. (Lowith. Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. 73). and heroism. As Caputo indicates. Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. charity. Ironically. the scandalous comparison culture . who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. 72). In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. thinker. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. and temporality. love otherwise absent facticity. In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. self-affirmation." community. 207). in his stark concept of Dasein. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. . become 68). in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. Only by possible a shepherd." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. . a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. . there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. the categories of tenderness. including care. the dissident (Derrida). truth. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p.
as Nazism. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought.Heidegger. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. National or no important. and that. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism." Heidegger's philosophy (e. . namely. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. This distinction becomes important. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p.g. Rockmore. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. III. stance." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. 54). Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. for Rockmore "hero. link (p. the Polity. there is no. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. Philosophy. 74). Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. roughly speaking.. however. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. In Heidegger. 54). Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. "What I call the 'official' view students. Because Rockmore way. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934.
Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. . 100-101). Of course. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . the public and occasional" the private.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. In Heidegger's Crisis. Ironically. Lang ger history (pp. philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. 5). philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. In Heidegger's Silence. of illumination and blindness. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. 5-8). Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. the professional and the thesis (p. insofar as the and then. freedom and necessity. In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. The "tragic question then becomes. but the intellectual others. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore.
Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. 22). Arendt that he quali Marcuse. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. and the possibility of law.g. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. community. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties." forged through the will. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. And ger's while one may try vision. Indeed. 245-48). Mill and Kant. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political.. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. in the 1930's. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. IV. an opportunism "timely. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. but what extent a political crises of of the political. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. a voluntaristic sense of prevails.Heidegger. 19). it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. for most critics construe these . a process occurs. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. setting institutions the decline. action. be translated into any specific may For example. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p.
Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. it would a type of action irrecon (p. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. factic plane. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). 35 ff. alien to all reduction to the uniform. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. As our discussion of the previous . An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14).g. In many respects. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things.. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. e. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. a Heideggerian politics must confront. vious. it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands.). sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. in order that one to the dilemma in question. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. his commitment to National Socialism. however. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. While this most problematic.
But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . Young. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. books the Polity. instead. Rockmore. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. Young argues that Heideg for the other. which claims In ogy. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. 38-41). Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. 104).Heidegger. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. provides According to Dallmayr. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. 125). and National Socialism - 131 indicates. In Heidegger. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. When joined Young's solicitude. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. if it does their objections. 41). in regime. 50). 79). Farias. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. Moreover. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. Philosophy. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. but Wolin.
What Heidegger recognizes. namely. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. 48-49). Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . p. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. 198). Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. "tolerance" namely. the nexus of politics. however. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices." Correlatively. namely.g. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. As Arendt suggests. 81-83). language. that moral emphasis on can (pp. of light the opera Thus. In this way a community develops. Western democracy." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. the between logos and community. is that the power which permits political participation. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. e. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. that is. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. if government as fully we articulated. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy.. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. In words. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. As Thiele emphasizes. facets as as Thiele indi cates. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him.
where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. 86-100. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. means or "place in on such opposition. challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. censorship. controversial. p.Heidegger. The arbitrary. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. Literally. While Yet. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. it Sluga. 128). Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. . even solicitous of. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover.) is iconoclastic. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. thrives within a polis the greatest importance." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. . the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. philosophy flourish only it is . politics. 167). and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. 292). "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. 5-12. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. another the Polity. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. . 16). Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. 60-63). But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other.
. GA 31.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. and Gunther Neske. Mark. Ed.). 1993. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.' Assertion of the German University. 1982. New York: World Publishing. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. no." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. John. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. Andre Michel. and 1995. and Farias. Heidegger the Trans. Lisa Harries. New Haven: University Press. philosophy of its task. Blitz. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. Trans. Marcus (ed. but." Time Journal 14.. Trans." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. Richard Wolin. Trans. Heidegger. no. 1981. Johannes. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. 33. Heidegger. 1958. Palo Alto. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. Karl. Political. Heidegger and University Press. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 2. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Jean T. Wilde William Kluback. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. Kovacs." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. Silence. Fred. New York: Paragon Press. Dallmayr. on the words responds to this contrary. Trans. Perhaps this time think. 35). Kettering. " Lyotard. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. 1 (1995): 111-86. George. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Victor. Pierre. 1989. Hannah. GA 24. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. 1991. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. "jews. 1990. The Other Heidegger. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. Miguel. University Press. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. Martin. Ithaca. de Beistegui. Pascal. The Human Condition. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. London: Routledge. NY: Cornell David. 1962. Peter Collier. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. In this spirit. Jean-Francois. when such a pp. no. CA: Stanford University Press. "On Heidegger's Lowith. 1 (1991): 1-611. Bourdieu. Phil Temple University Press. Emil. 1998. 1990. 15. Truth. 1958. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. 1975. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit." Gary Steiner.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press. no. Richardson. Trans. 1994." 1996. Christine-Marie Gros. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. Hugo. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. Sheehan. Scott." Scott. Chicago: Politics. Socialism. 2 (1995): 137-53. and Ethics Schalow. Charles E. Heinrich Wiegand. 4 (1997): 554-62. 4 (1989): 340-55. 1. Albany: SUNY Press. 1990. A. Frank. Petzet. Zimmerman. John. Dallery. Nazi. Heidegger Jaspers.Heidegger. 1993. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. Roberts. 1996. Common Good. the Polity. Michael E. 1992)." Philosophical Writings. and In A. by and Kenneth Maly. 1990. Safranski. New York: Columbia University Press. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Bloomington: Indi Wolin." Holocaust. Quarterly Ott. and Alan Rosenberg. NJ: Humanities Press International. no. and and Philosophical Forum 25. 1998. 1987. Alan M. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. 1994." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. no. eds. Charles. Pp. Origins. Riidiger. Blunden. ed. Press. 1992. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. no." "A Question Socialism. 11-24. On ington: Indiana 30-35. Intro. no.. Trans. "Heidegger 27-38. 1989. on Free Speech." University of Chicago H. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. Schurmann. Van Buren. "Heidegger's Truth eds. The Politics of Being. and Danger. 24. Freedom. London: Fontana. no. Albany: SUNY Press. Thomas." . Rumor of the Hidden King. 2 (1993): 121-39. Thought. Ewald Osers. Heidegger and lands. Encounters Parvis Emad. "A Normal pp. Alan. Olson. "Resoluteness Ambiguity. Bloom University Press. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Reiner. The New York Review of Books. C. and the January 14. Trans. Sherover. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. Richard. William J. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. Trans. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. Time.
95. No.. Fall second book. Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive.50. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. $24. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. Liberalism and (Lanham. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. 1995). why it excludes. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. Like other pluralisms. 26. $16.. Three recent works do both. possess. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes.. but what it excludes. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. 1 . and reflect their own philosophical historical development. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. On the other hand. The Pluralist Game. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. + 126 pp. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. Rawls's Political Liberalism). Michael Walzer. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. Vol. indeed could not.95. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. University Press. 1996). each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. Public $22. Sandel. Francis Canavan. 1997). The Pluralist Game: Pluralism.
norms by privileging the autonomous individual.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. pluralism and toleration. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. As Canavan clearly perceives. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. Earlier American pluralism. Naturally. however conflictual. In Canavan's account. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. Law society. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. indeed impossi ble. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. and the relations between economy and polity. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. but or not limited to. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. In Canavan's account. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. lost unity of shared. 76). The categories overlap. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. in Rawls in Political Liberalism.
He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. to public Canavan notes. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. These institutions. A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. Canavan particular. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. had helped to flesh out religious community life. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. Yet of the three volumes. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. individ liberty. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. Understood in individualist terms. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. schools. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. their best. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. liberalism. hospi tals and social services were injured. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. it displaced institutions. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. but without developing the point at any length.
If anything.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. to make room for such groups in education. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. Groups with spiritual.. always reflects some moral vision. cultural. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. to flourish. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. to join in the struggle. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. the state should reduce its direct etc. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods. so vision ought Canavan argues. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. Protestants and devout Jews. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. things look neutrality. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. On the other hand. social services. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. on pain of contradiction.
Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. with others about what is true any or good. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. As Sandel notes. When they tion. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. the freedom tive. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. of citizens In the liberal conception. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. or even citizen obligation. for Sandel and the republican tradition. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. for instance. since these all require description of the self. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. religious duties. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. They natu common affairs. ing of Again. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. Consequently. and this goal has American public policy. to a solution to these problems. this asocial render human good is misleading. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. others' based have chosen them. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. People are born for citizenship. community. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes.
respect not follow. Or we could relativize the value of respect. As Sandel correctly argues. a contradiction. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. not their simple capacity to choose something . Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. So Sandel pluralism. and His alternative version the self. moral.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. prochoice their views for public purposes. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. they express. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. In principle. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. community. judg Using the legal example of abortion. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. In both cases. 20). and promoting. regarding toleration.
be Canavan suggests. Sandel replies. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. in the nature of (p. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. in general. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. With Sandel. the same could be said about his ily law. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. That is. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. or even malicious. Presumably. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. Indeed.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. Arguably. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. Sandel's order. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . 90). There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States.
Maclntyre. Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . this is an omission which pluralism. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. (p. so he opposes a voucher system. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. of and others. ought to be barred from running in elections. Walzer here in the secondary associations. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. Naturally. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. with early roots in Protestant and English history. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. and social Where then." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. according to Walzer. Religious parties. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. With Sandel. for example. . Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. is right say) tradition. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. . as an harbor republican hopes. To his credit.) Nor can we repair to . Canavan. 77). together with leaves intact the current crisis. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism.144 Interpretation societies. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. 70). of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population.
" - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. . since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense. But reading Sandel.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. Altogether then. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life.
remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. Gerhard Kriiger. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr.i VERLAG J. XIV. among Wissenschaft writings. Jacob In addition. . cloth with dust jacket. Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. and others published here for the first time. Testament Spinozas (1932). XXXIV. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. previously unknown writings and letters. with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). Jacobis (1929). Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. (1921). It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future.. cloth with English) many important. numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. Gershom Scholem. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). and Lowith. in the original languages (German English). 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78.. Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). B. H. The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932).-). Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937). French.-). 1933-1935). The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. 434 pp.
$5300).Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations. Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. The prices of the 2. The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined.00). Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996. The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy.00 each). Name . Each volume may be purchased separately.B. volumes should (approx. $46. ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx. (approx.. Dept. Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns. the be sent as they appear. $10.de . Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ. $53. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price. The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes.metzler. published here for the first time in its entirety in this form. your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library. current list price. DM 16. ? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss. . ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. subscribe by your university 1.80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1). The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings.00).80 (approx. Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English). 66 pp. edition are approx. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss.
that forces all of us back to the boards. paperback scholarship Zuckert and vast a work of careful lican ideas recounts came to By illustrating be blended. and William Mary Quarterly Paper $18.PRINCETON..EDU .. capacious and meticulous.'' Richard Vernier. how Lockean and repub forcefully the origins of the American republic. The Journal ofAmerican History 'hf-UitlKllS Natural Rights and the New Republicanism Michael P. Pangle.95 ISBN 0-691-05970-5 Princeton AT FINE BOOKSTORES OR CALL 800-777-4726 University Press HTTP: //PUP. . for this is reinterpreta one of those rare at once scholarly achievements.New in "This is erudition." drawing Thomas L. historical of "This exemplary work of reconstruction dramati our understand cally transforms ing the genealogy of early American political thought. Zuckert Here Michael Zuckert philosophy that propos es a new view of the political lay behind the founding of the United States. No one who deals with the eigh teenth-century Anglo-American political avoid tradition will be able to the unsettling challenge of original and painstak Zuckert's ingly documented tion.
the fear famine makers with deprivation forum all are occasions reflections on the human condition. Leonard Barkan. Sidney Mintz. Theodore Zeldin. Robert Herdt (Moderator) 7: The Future: Prospects for the global availability of food and ways to increase it Gordon Conway. been assimilated is an of understanding our histories William McNeill.NATURE AND CULTURE A Social Research Conference November 5-7. and important way foods have emerged. Wendy Doniger. Barbara Examining the Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Moderator) 5: Food in Art/ Food as Art: Food is both an object of art and a medium in which migrated. Steven Heller. the joy of plenty. Keep checking for a link at . at editor of Social Research. culture and political economy food in an effort elicit new perspectives on abundance. of diet and food to and security the history. 1998 What and we eat.edu/socres/food. Kenneth Prewitt (Moderator) This conference is organized by Arien Mack. or e-mail For more information and reservations. This conference a brings together scholars and scientists as well as about policy in linking discourse the significant hunger. Aristide Zolberg (Moderator) 2: Case Histories: ways Barbara a symbol in most religions and as a marker of identity and difference Maurice Bloch. its of importance. how food for marks our sameness differences. Raymond Sokolov. Per Pinstrup- Andersen.newschool. Paul Rozin. All conference sessions will please call be held The New School. (21 2) 229-2488 socres@newschool. Anne Murcott. Robert Adams (Moderator) for artistic expression Betty Fussell. David Pimental. the ceremonies surrounding mythic and symbolic and it. John Hollander (Moderator) 6: Abundance and 3: Key Note Addresses Scarcity: equal Sustainable Agriculture: Ismail Serageldin Food and Access to food is far from Culture: Margaret Visser Richard Goldman. problems created by scarcity 1: Everyday Life: Food life as a major 4: Food not as Symbol or Sign: Food is as component of only what we eat but figures Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. Marc Shell. Marion Nestle.edu Further details coming to the World Wide Web soon! http://www.
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