This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
Executive Editor General Editors
Seth G. Benardete Charles E. Butterworth Hilail Gildin Robert Horwitz (d. 1987) Howard B. White (d. 1974)
Christopher Bruell Joseph Cropsey Ernest L. Fortin John Hallowell (d. 1992) Harry V. Jaffa David Lowenthal Muhsin Mahdi Harvey C. Mansfield Arnaldo Momigliano (d. 1987) Michael Oakeshott (d. 1990) Ellis Sandoz Leo Strauss (d. 1973)
Kenneth W. Thompson Terence E. Marshall Heinrich Meier
International Editors Editors
Wayne Ambler Maurice Auerbach Fred Baumann Amy Bonnette Patrick Coby Elizabeth C de Baca Eastman Thomas S. Engeman Edward J. Erler Maureen Feder-Marcus Pamela K. Jensen Ken Masugi Will Morrisey Susan Orr Charles T. Rubin Leslie G. Rubin Susan Meld Shell Bradford P. Wilson Michael P. Zuckert Catherine H. Zuckert
Manuscript Editor Subscriptions
Lucia B. Prochnow
rates per volume
individuals $29 libraries and all other institutions $48 students (four-year limit) $18 Single
copies available. outside
U.S.: Canada $4.50 extra; $5.40 extra by surface mail (8 or longer) or $11.00 by air. Payments: in U.S. dollars and payable by
financial institution located (or the U.S. Postal Service).
The Journal Welcomes Manuscripts
follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 1 3th ed. or manuals based on it; double-space their manuscripts, including notes; place references in the text, in endnotes or follow current journal style in printing references. Words from languages not rooted in Latin should be transliterated to English. To ensure impartial judgment of their manuscripts, contributors should omit mention of their
the title page only, their name, any affiliation desired, address in full, E-Mail and telephone. Please send four clear copies,
which will not
Binghamton, N.Y. 13904 U.S.A.
(Ms.) Joan Walsh, Assistant to the Editor College, Flushing, N.Y. 11367-1597, U.S.A. (718)997-5542 Fax (718) 997-5565
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
N. 1987) Howard B.A. To ensure impartial judgment of their manuscripts. Binghamton. including notes. outside Subscriptions U. contributors should follow The Chicago Manual of Style. their name. Queens College Executive Editor General Editors Grey Seth G. Erler Maureen Feder-Marcus Pamela K. which will not be returned.50 extra. 13904 U. Dept.00 by air. Literature.A. 1973) Kenneth W.S. U. Rubin Susan Meld Shell Bradford P. Engeman Edward J. Postal Service). Wilson Michael P. Thompson Terence E. Jaffa David Lowenthal Muhsin Mahdi Harvey C. Inquiries: (Ms. place references in the text. Postage elsewhere The Journal Welcomes Manuscripts in in Political Philosophy as Well as Those Theology. with postal/zip put. Words from languages not rooted in Latin should be transliterated to English. or manuals based on it.: Canada $4. (or the U. dollars and payable by a financial institution located within the U. White (d.) Joan Walsh. Fortin John Hallowell (d. $5. Queens College. 1 3th ed. 11367-1597. Assistant to the Editor interpretation. Payments: in U. Butterworth Hilail Gildin Robert Horwitz (d. Inc. Flushing. contributors should omit mention of their other work. Composition by Eastern Composition. Zuckert - Manuscript Editor Lucia B. Leonard of Philosophy. Please send four clear copies.S.S. on the title page only. Zuckert Catherine H. address code in full.Y. E-Mail and telephone. double-space their manuscripts. (718)997-5542 Fax (718) 997-5565 interpretation_journal@qc. N. any affiliation desired. and Jurisprudence. 1974) Consulting Editors Christopher Bruell Joseph Cropsey Ernest L.Interpretation Editor-in-Chief Hilail Gildin. in endnotes or follow current journal style in printing references.S.Y. Marshall Heinrich Meier International Editors Editors Wayne Ambler Maurice Auerbach Fred Baumann Amy Bonnette Patrick Coby Elizabeth C de Baca Eastman Thomas S. Benardete Charles E.A. Prochnow Subscription rates per volume (3 issues): individuals $29 libraries and all other institutions $48 students (four-year limit) $18 Single copies available. 1990) Ellis Sandoz Leo Strauss (d. 1992) Harry V. Rubin Leslie G. 1987) Michael Oakeshott (d. Jensen Ken Masugi Will Morrisey Susan Orr Charles T. Mansfield Arnaldo Momigliano (d.S.S.40 extra by surface mail (8 weeks or longer) or $11.edu E Mail: ..
Jewish and Christian. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. in Genesis 10. Vol. divine or conventional. those who are supposed to be First. 1 . failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. as argue. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. with superfluous and which arts. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. and in Genesis 1 1. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. The thing I wish to argue excuses. Second. man. Traditional exegesis of these stories. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. associated with and antipolitical. in light the Babel project. 26. the city is connected with land ownership. the Babel-builders. and the which Babel-builders. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. second or at least reasonable those characters. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. that of the nomadic Third. I is wish not to argue that. herds Nimrod. interpretation. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. antitechnical.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. the Lord God. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. although intent. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. or even defy. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. No. Finally. Fall 1998. Nimrod.
When he sacri Lord (Gen. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. often little basis in the text. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city.2 kills the son truly in God's image. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. if the quality is acceptable. the first city.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. according to some of the rabbis. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries.3 or. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Fi by nally. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. that is. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. . has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. fices to the most Thus. antipolitical atmosphere. 4. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. his religious performance is faulty. of the Next. Augustine's these City of God. and I have consulted Specifically. I have used tateuch. legion. Cain's very birth is suspect. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. the an which founding of the city. First. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. the refuse. Cain. Cain. A. have all been impugned.3-5). different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). In fus ing (they own. Out of antiurban. Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. 1. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain.
ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. Those interpreters. his city and people." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. Calvin on the other. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. Cain's tion: p. God intended with us. another choice. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. Isaac. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. such as Augustine and Calvin. 153). p. says bluntly "Cain. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. Augustine. and Lamech are all said vol. vol. 5. but with his hy pocrisy. 1. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. however. p. some rabbis say that he. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. One became a murderer. 21). another a drunkard. "wicked" "house" building of a city. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. p. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. 256). and David. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. 8. Jacob. Augustine. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. are supplied by the . Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. XV. The names of Irad. 17. Mehujael. career. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground.5. vol. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. 2. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. 21).The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. and them. says Abravanel. 1. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. absent from the Biblical text. 29). 192). finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. Augustine says nothing negative. life into a sophisticated. and Cain Lamech Metusael.2). The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. Noah. (City of God. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. XV. p.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. 255). to will return later. 8. 1. Moses.
however. like beasts. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. 160). did not yet exist).22).). far as we can tell from Genesis 4. violence and In a more analytical vein. the former being. His birth is suspect.) (which. with political life) fall under a dark shadow. acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. 238). Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). and because of this. XV. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp. his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. the latter who lived more virtuously.). and gifts from God (Calvin. and 159). if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. superfluous sin. Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. In general.). with human law making. 2. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. Calvin. 160-62). thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid. They eyes. Naamah. view. duced Seth's line into waywardness. Like the rabbis.6 Interpretation (ibid. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. 217-22). Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. the op for him the arts are goods. the he founded. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). sang and played in honor of idols (ibid.22. and all its connections (with the arts. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. went about stark naked. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. 237-40). of p. In sum. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. pp. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. God" at least more carnal in their interests.
" earth. they supply other examples of wicked people things. the ancestor of Israel. de Rabbi Eliezer. Finally. 175). and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. like all hunters. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. he Genesis Rabbah. vol. Esau. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. From the sense "pro fane.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9.4). who 4. so negatively. p. "beginning" is is verb. 38). First. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. too. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. tried to kill Abraham he was young. was obviously a furious Nimrod. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. in Genesis Rabbah. In this attempt. Genesis 10.26 are said. 420-21. and. however. pp. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. but mention rather. . 2. p. Esau. Since Nimrod is a slave. 2. Nimrod. 174). which is what persuaded people to let him them. although it is not mentioned in Scripture." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. 260). who.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). here found in the hiphil form. Thus. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. XVI. 3). man." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. be evil. 317). he Abraham. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. XVI. pp. tyranny (Calvin. deriving all wicked things. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. ants same Obviously. to degenerating calling "rebelling. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. that is. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. his claim to might. mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. it is p. "began" 2. as the-verb "to (halal). was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Nimrod the city-builder evil. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. he a 10. And.).9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. is a deceiver. oppressor. There is other evidence that Nimrod. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. p. is bad for two reasons. p. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. being a mighty hunter. Second. 60-61). of course.
with the upper part. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. do" translated into rabbinic. as in the case of Cain. In p. probably vol. at signifies also that they made an on 261. 2. 2. as one might expect. and. 11. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. 1. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. 260). vol. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. God's people do not rest con move." but are on the 50). being settling and building in "settled. needless to say. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. do. could hardly him have Urban life. "Settling" is moti vol. They they being given the earth. and vol." are "rebels. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. First. as I will point later. therefore. the lower part of the world. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. and Jacob. vol. Calvin Calvin. . like Abraham.4. pp. Isaac. to displace him. In any case. 324). the Babel-builders are reminiscent . 49-50). want 2." "and this they begin to which. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. the Lord. a city. according to Genesis 10. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. right motives. for they p. bad scent. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. which p. 2. like Nimrod. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. for two reasons. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. p. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. p. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. the the Ham line. 51). scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. His city. was the area of his king dom. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. XVI.4). is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. (Genesis Rabbah. too (Genesis Rabbah. The Babel-builders. heavens.8 Interpretation Nimrod. which. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. Second. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. 3. for idol They filled the sin of pride. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. in an summary. again. means.
who defined man as a political animal. without God's help by They purely human means. only God can do these things. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. but to conspire against and a God. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. rejection of God. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. God's do not need the political life of the city. Abravanel argues. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. if the materials they supplied were . The city. in order to establish the stated. are proud. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. heir of a slave. or rebels against God. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. Abravanel thus. Ruling comes from Nimrod. being Esau's way. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. and tyranny over others. is ated. they God's murderers. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. hunting. then of Seth. sinners. More generally. Nimrod. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. 4. The the city. is grounded in folly. which. They are from the wrong lines. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. and the rule of with human beings by others. in criticizing the Babel-builders. political which go with cooperation. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text. is inferior to the way of the Politics.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. B. the arts. desire of walking away from God rather than with him." us make "let build city"). manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. They story. says Abravanel. then. The city cannot provide for security against death.3-4 ("let brick. at worst it is temptation to idolatry.
the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. when they assert without philological "idol. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. believe. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. and enough reading. they in the Biblical text. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. Shinar. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. they are merely the justifications. all interpretive control is lost. far beyond this. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. more relevant interest. Nimrod. and Babel. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. however. There are Nonetheless. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. again might not be bad in itself.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. and so on. For example. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. to the fact that by Nimrod. Some of the claims are errors. Augustine's most claim that translators. point. since Lamech fathers sons who are . to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details." they ask us to accept too much on faith. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. for two First. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. however. and would maintain this even reasons. even without the extraneous material. Sec that there is ond. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. but some of fetched. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean.
execution. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. further. the city falling to his arrows. too their sheep. Ham's son." The interpretation same such is. tilling it. They they are by the farmer. And settled farmers (like Cain. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. if God will then. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. is feeble. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. the hunter is less violent. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. since not Ham but facts that do not fit. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. Babel but not in the case Cain." Again. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. the entire race. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. Further. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. rather. is cursed to in Genesis 9. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. the rabbis rage against Cain for is." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. out of the desire for a name. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. or that he ordered the people him. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. these are nity. In fact. hardly closer the model of the political man. Augustine all lifestyle. text with uncharitable motives. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. in a parallel manner. The hunter is the loner.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. which makes "children men. Abravanel. If Israel is not wicked . Nimrod. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. that Cain had a says justify God. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. he infers it in infers. How. Further. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. undertook the Babel project on his own. and that the city to protect him. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
It also helps maintain concord between stay together. for the laws of God (Gen. the "nations. whenever the tribal or them. families (mishpahoth) Shem. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. in the east. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. the new creation as it were. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. (9. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . which had no such structure discernible. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. Abel. therefore. suggests in which one will rule over many. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. Abimelech in Genesis 20). the goodness. is. among Japheth separate violence.1-7) to be enforced. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. the migrating offspring of Shem. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. the between Cain nation." earth becomes peoples of common nations. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. if we are watching a new creation. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. Recall that in Genesis 9. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. in this overspreading. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. cities a son of Shem. The new begin ning. Since. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. they occupy it as they were meant to. There is another interpretation. must not conclude. Ham. however. and since they too are related. 9. In this new creation. amicably dividing the world themselves. both over Israel and over other nations (cf.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1." Asshur. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. the city arises. which are life.19). If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. built by Asshur. Ham. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. without Thus.1-7). Thus. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. The next a region called in Shinar. One wicked one. This time. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. 13). God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. which relied too much on we are innate human told." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. something is added: God gives the first laws. The first cities are or comes to rule. will have a legal dimension absent from the old.
which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. Kings may (I Samuel 8). by God's . but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting.8) and before the Lord (10. I would suggest. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. first hunter. did the mighty men of old (6. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. how to be a "hunter. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. at overspread the earth at least potentially. For these reasons. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. Nimrod. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. one must conclude that cannot as such. the order of creation. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is.23-24). men ruling men). unlike Lamech's.4). condemn be evil. but human for up as prey beings. then. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. we must ing was Lamech's. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. may not be pretty. In important respects. In this context.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. as did Cain (4. from the above discussion. in fact. basis to nor of an adjective alone. and as did Lamech (4. and so did his empire. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. Nimrod became famous. of a any more. Nimrod does not boast about himself.9). kings are one possible source of law. Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. I represents a political would argue. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus.17). may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. vulnerability to random killing). new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. city building. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. Finally. strained passion.4) or the Babel (1 1. good. least some of the nations which legitimately source.
is. as of (11. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. I certain turn to the Babel story. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. process." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner.4). in a its top in the heavens. The "sons men" Noah. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. Rather. p. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. among these Combs and Post point out. His proj may be ambiguous. 428). God at the end of purpose." is only fitting.28). is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. like Cain's. The 11. They "scattered. The with sin of the Babel-builders. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. in one place. is by Calvin. that is. something. of super-city with together. It "scattered. and enjoying the earth. They heavenward (11.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. to obey God. case of Babel is not exactly typical city. They want live. They one spot. be was afraid of safe. and Augustine.5). if it and was a sin. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. close even antiurban exegesis.4). Finally. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. united brotherly love. He. the language of mutual entreaty. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth. too. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. I think. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. Regarding this story. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. aim spreading master to many spots. scattered. in the Babel there features grant. God wants them to move outward. wants them to the earth (1. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. then." of perhaps educated obey God. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. too. Further. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. it to be a certain un populating. Babel-builders is. the descendants of Flood. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. and he. speaking one language. The their cautiousness. No one people (which is why I would con- . At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate.
good which so I think is the one correct one. they dream. built. Cain may have been proud of his city. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. The or reputation earn. and powerful cities. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. the "sons of will founding "nations. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. In fact. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. and themselves." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. however. however thinking. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. It is true that they wish eternity. separate peoples. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. validated by the consensus of everyone in it." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. would God. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. In Genesis not allow of 11. then. speaking.7 overthrow "name. no possibility of the living. The forms of govern men" ment. will and to give it. "name" necessarily an improper desire." of that is. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). but he was not God in naming it after his son. They do not wish to God. unified world-state. hold them together in Shinar forever. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. as it were. unified world-state. noble it may be. were tribal and monarchical. the nation sired by Abraham. then. the situation be irreparable. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. God. be for . It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. are not malicious. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. they do not even mention him. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. wanting as is fact. become corrupt. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. a permanent essence which. and the only people. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. only language that exists should If the only state. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. In Genesis nized 10. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood.
2 vols. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. . trans. Isaac Abravanel. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. Cain's son. Robert Sacks. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. 12. 242. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. and not always the best." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. arts. 1847). The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. (Title henceforth: City of 5.7. 196-98. or for building great towers into the a heavens. 1985). And in one case. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. because Cain is not so commentators make out. Ont. p. Eng. Cain pp. 150 51. then. 1972). John trans. to teach. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. 1. John Calvin. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. 4. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. it due to knowing God wanted.6). There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. Augustine. Rev. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press.) Lemer 1978). Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. p. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. NOTES 1. trans. XV. or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. 44-48. 158. Genesis Rabbah. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. 1970). who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. God. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. law.: McMaster University. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. 2. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. pp. eds.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. as city of Enoch. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. in Genesis 10.. trans. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. King (Edinburgh. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer.: Penguin. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. vol. argue that the evils of 1979). One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. pp.3. Deut. 3. if one wished to put the city in a better light. 4. was the Babelers were not being scattered. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. 256. If these people strayed. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. but for purity. but these motives were not wicked. trans. Jacob Neusner. In societies other than Israel.
1990). I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. Craigie (Sheffield. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. . NY: Edwin Mellen Press. which who essay was seminal for them. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. and to Leo Strauss. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp.20 Interpretation 6. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. Robert Sacks. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. MA: JSOT Press. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. S. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss. hence. I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. 1988). The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. Due to space limitations. 1-5. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. Eugene Combs. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. 1987). Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. C. In a general way. I add that. 6.. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story." Memory of Peter C.
12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. 26. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. You see. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. Her toils caused foot can crush them. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. and who dwells city. John's College. meet armed combat. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. Fall 1998. 3 when to give birth to their young. interpretation. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more. 1 . Vol. in Volume 25 of Interpretation.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. No. or that a wild beast might trample them down. as if they were not even in all vain. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24.14 wings as if on high. 16 She treats her were all children roughly. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. Sacks St. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. 15 She has forgotten that hers. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. Num 3.
His swill it from afar. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. Whenever death defiles. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. 2Sam. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. forever Ner."18 Comments 1. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. The and single Hebrew word hul. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. he is there. 25 but facing battle from afar. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. 3:28 are of Afterward. "I and father's house." a very will complex word. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. Indeed. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. he said. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command." Hos. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. consume the of their gates.17 pinnacle. javelin." . David heard of it. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. although almost as side. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. making it his stronghold. 2. Oh. it originally meant "to whirl. and See notes to 26. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities.
hands anger burned hot. that book which begins see them dashed. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. the sister of Aaron. Judg. and dwelt in them. in her hand. Benjaminites did so. from the dancers to their and took their wives.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. Deut. The Book rule. And to us. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. Exod. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. and often when first reading the word." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. too. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. Then. Exod. 15:20 Then Miriam. only to the book Judges. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. it Psa. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. for the Lord's purposes . the prophetess. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. and watch. king. and go to the land of Benjamin. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. else you would now be guilty. Grant them graciously to us. 23:5 Jer. trembles and writhes The land in pain. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. neither did you give them to them. And the to their number. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. then they went and returned inheritance. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. and rebuilt the towns. according whom they carried off. saying.
are on high. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. tempest. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. in and your right as the noonday." and hence "to give Deu. For this reason. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. I conceive me. and ISam. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. brings forth rain. 51:5 Behold. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. birth": as in our case. Ps. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. But. and sin did my mother Prov. inhabitant. their faces be aflame. it can also mean "to be in labor. and you forgot birth. out of his sight. was revisiting the day of his own birth. angry them. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). as for his foes." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. your vindication as Ps. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. thy judgments puffs at them. There is Jer." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. brought forth in iniquity. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. pressed upon Saul. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. 31:3." English-speaking in this also recognize . it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. in visiting the day of birth. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. they aghast at looks. Job. Isa. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. They look another. 37:6 will bring was forth the light.
Here.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. dancing. The question is. This. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. Yet we can all world. has never known either burden or rein. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. To word understand used this passage. perhaps with beyond world. 8. since. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. before her she was delivered of a son. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. 6. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. fostering in each life to own its signet. 5. But quite even Job. She. the joys of our world could never come to be. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. are 3. of course. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. then. rhetorical. 7. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. speaks to Job. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. In using such a harsh word. How different things Isa. pain-ridden. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. an order for the first time. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. It is the whirling. and are what they are.
. children. and But if the slave plainly says. When a man strikes the . for nothing. I will not male or eye's female. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. so that no one should enslave a Jew. 15:12 If your brother. but he him for favor. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. all are there. Small and great.26 Interpretation Exod. gave no answer. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. he shall serve six years. It is true that. go out free. brought 9. ears to me. my wife. has served you six years. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. and the slave is free his lord. years. "servant. or a Hebrew woman. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. to undo the thongs of the yoke. And there are other passages. great riches. sake. he shall serve you six you. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. and destroys it. that was true. Hebrew man. his brother. female." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. too. along many others. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves." daughter. "I love my master. to and the man who and will give Israel. Jer. is sold to you. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. eye of my his slave. but they were treated kindness: justly and . and like a hireling he waits for wages. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. be your slaves. and in the seventh he shall go out free. male and . to oppressed go free. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. that show his concern.
whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. that its us. the vulture. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. the heron according to its kind. and them yet he did have ox. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant.. Job but. they are an abomination: the eagle. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. they and be eaten. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. is 12. It is generations.. it may seem. the . That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. "trust. the hoopoe. There were always some men suffering it caused. The an furrow. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. roaming the hills as his pasture. five hundred of them. giving it a The signets. The trees of the Ps. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not." time. not certain what bird is meant. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly." answer can do none of these things. the stork. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass." This is the only verse. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. 104:16 LORD abundantly. I do God rose up? 10. both for moved for others. ance The farm. are watered bat. 11. as we shall see. what of those who dwell in house of clay. each thing can be be what it is. Even from was within the human sphere. the cedars of . Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. it will be a long journey. it requires something like the concept of a signet. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. of course have been out of the question. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. the osprey.
Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. The first thing to be moving any to be asked.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. 16. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. and the turtledove. and in the heavens knows her times. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. character that each 17. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. too. silly beast. In them the birds build trees. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. then. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. and eyes and saw. 8:7 Even the swallow. ears his looking upon his hands. must 14. their nests. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. but my know Zech. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. 15. lest they hold a bribe. had been domesticated. the has her home in the fir stork Jer." 13. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. and behold. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. insofar as been domesticated. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. The hawk. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. who despises the gain of stops oppression. his place of defense who shakes . two women wind was in their wings. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. he will dwell on the heights. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. when if only in part. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. at least it is the can most write about. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. people crane keep the time of their coming. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character.
48:28 Jer. you who your Obad.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. and you must let me know. 1:3 heart has deceived you. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. who hold the height I will of hill. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. me dwelling set say in heart. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. you though your nest says the among the stars. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. and Jer. his bread will be given him. LORD. 13 Bury them all in the dust. 14 Then you. 49:16 Leave the cities. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated.4 even would praise you. twice. How my hand upon my mouth. 10 "Go ahead. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. for your own right have saved . the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. in returning to flow off into death. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. sixth as beast. Look upon every man of him. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. has been defeated."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. the hawk. 18. high and the pride of your heart. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. The cold and more grotesque. did for its children all that the charm to do. is high. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. The ostrich. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. is in the not Job. thence I bring down. pride of your whose says the LORD. bring clefts will down from there. you inspire has deceived you. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. but I have no answer. however. his of water be sure. Bind their faces in would obscurity. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. 5 I have spoken once.
Again it says.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. But the Tempest will go. hiding in the reeds and the fen. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. "Have you an arm like God's. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. convinced him that Elihu was right. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. under and all the beasts of the field play.9 brook in him. Indeed. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. and his teaching is not a but an 3. confident that the Jordan will mouth. beyond man is no place for a man. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. here is whom I made along with you. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue.8 21 He lies down the lotuses." 2. but he did not. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. I believe. 18 His bones iron. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. or his head with fishing his head. If Job's this not point.6 of brass. who would plead my case? ." again "asking. his warning was just. He eats fodder just like the cattle. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. had been what God had wanted. God's argument is. He is the mighty one. and if by court of law. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. and you will remember war no Comments no answer. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". or with you to be your eternal his nose. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish. are The and his thighs are are all knit together." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has .
a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. of The LORD acts of old. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. are all who teaches us more The verbs. fools despise and whatever you instruction. "laugh" or . . and I find knowledge of and discretion. His praise endures for Prov. dwell in prudence. created me at the beginning his work. Prov. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. his wisdom. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. . 4:7 The get. Man is 7. clearly are of mythic proportion. than the beasts of the earth. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. These do cosmos. Compare Ps. God is joking. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. Appropriately enough. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. with you . however. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. is this: Get wisdom. being lous nor mythical. of It is. of wisdom Prov." in the made masculine singular. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. ." "His bones are ducts brass. 8:12 . get beginning insight. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. "Behemoth cattle. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. however 6. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. I. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. iron. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. the first 8. behemoth 5. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. however.
however. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . 17:18 is ninety years old. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. "Why did Sarah laugh. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. child. I fear. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. a and said to himself. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. now that and say. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. for the pounding. But from the Gen. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. making it his drinking foun tain. He finds Thus. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. saying. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah.32 9. "After I have my husband is old. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him." looking at each usage. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. that she had laughed. Gen. The half-mythic." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. tyrannizing river. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. 10. "No. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. is usually translated "oppress. and you shall call his name Isaac." Joy and happiness are another matter. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. There is. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse.
26:8 also was actually doing. He said. "The Hebrew servant. "Go down. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. 21:6 city. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. place. whom you brought up out of the Moses. every one hears will laugh me. and the people sat down to eat and drink. playing her Isaac. you laugh". And Sarah said. saying. he with me.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. "Up." the But he seemed to be jesting. and rose your And the LORD said to people. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. his marry his daughters." a But Sarah denied. came have brought among us. but certainly the betrayed him. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. Next . have corrupted themselves. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. Gen. in to me to insult me. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. "I did laugh. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. for she was afraid. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. up to play. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. and I cried out with a loud voice. son whom she had borne Abraham. for land of Egypt. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. came "See. in the saying." and Sarah shall have son. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. Then came the golden calf: Exod. "No.
is and thrust his sword opponent's side. "Saul thousands. David. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. . "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. at Gibeon. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. Israel. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh.34 Interpretation Judg. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. they said. who chose father. twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. 2:14 And Abner us. but by the maids of whom you have spoken." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. "It was before the LORD. and he died there beside the God. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. by them I shall be held in honor. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. the abased and above all people of the his house." pillars. before the LORD. so down together. for the oxen stumbled. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great." said to Joab. but they laughed them to scorn. And in his each caught arise. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. and mocked them. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. "Call Samson. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number." has slain his thousands. They made him stand between the us. and he made sport before them. 2Sam.
Selah. wisdom. Prov. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. dost laugh nations in derision. 14:13 Prov. laughs at the time to come. and death. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. I will mock when panic strikes I. Jeremiah is not quite the same. rejoicing before him always. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. "What use is Eccles. 31:10 . at the but the LORD laughs coming. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. I you. it?" Eccles. 3:4 to a time to weep. wicked. the fool only rages and laughs. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. 8:31 Prov. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. is vanity. Strength and dignity her clothing. 10:23 beside him. 2:4 Ps. O LORD. however. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. arrows. and I find knowledge and discretion. Sorrow is better than laughter. and a time dance. he will snatch and tear you tent. . 2:2 I said of laughter. 7:3 Eccles. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. 1:26 Prov. at them. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. dwell in prudence. Prov. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. and a time to laugh. saying. and money answers everything. and fear. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. firebrands. and shall laugh your from of the at living. Ps. closer to what we finds another strain. there is no quiet. Eccles. so is the laughter of fools. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . Prov. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. all the him. the LORD has them in derision. Prov. a time to mourn. . 59:8 But thou. "I am only joking!" Prov. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. 8:12 . for he sees that his day is Ps." and of pleasure. and I was daily his delight. "It is mad. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. for Eccles. also will laugh at your calamity. like a master workman. and wine gladdens life.
36 Interpretation Jer. however. I have become a laughingstock the day. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. and the voices of those who make merry. and I was deceived. and they be be few. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. Jer. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. Then our mouth was with laughter. and your wounds Jer. Zech. I sat because thy hand was upon me. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. thou hast deceived me. shall not small. him and he too shall be held in derision. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. nor did I rejoice. 48:26 "Make him drunk. I did alone. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. every one mocks me. Was thieves. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. I will heal. and thou hast prevailed. I and the palace shall stand used to be. thou art than I. then they among nations. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. Jer. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. multiply them. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. I will make them honored. When her . When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. "The LORD has done things for them. But he also has another notion of laughter. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. says LORD. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. the we were like those and our dream. and have compassion on his dwellings. 126:1 A Song of Ascents.
and every green thing is his to search out. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. guilty men. . for they like the wind and go they make sport. whose it. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. 25. 1:10 contains much. every fortress. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. if to judge by different from the others. none to help her. laughter in the Book of 8:53. for it Hab. made him all his trouble. and there was her. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. Mat. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. and of rulers At kings they scoff. but hills as his pasture. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. and does not even hear the drivers shout. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. the a side which had always been a part Job and. 3:14 Ezek. Mark 5:40. Luke 6:21. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. Job the outcast. James 4:9). Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. mocking at her downfall. But there of was another side of we are laughter. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. The much subject was and bound to come up. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. Lam. a simple. the burden of their day says long.The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. 9:24.
and over all the earth. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. 3:8 and 13. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. this relation is seems to Dane. "It is I. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. . and over the birds air. Job has come. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. continually changing their clothing. of nature. . compare: seen as it follows from an Gen." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. wings on high. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. and one of the things he learned. the brother. and over the cattle. their iden tity. Eliphaz once had he has seen. Some English translations 12. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. but not to it. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . at fear and is not dismayed. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. 1 :26 and Then God said. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. At one first. With Job. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. after our likeness. Job has come to learn from nature. and over every of the . subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. Yet it is Lear shadow". Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. "Let us make man in our image. as we put have from the ostrich. To that extent. mountains yield him produce. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. On this question. and even their sex. Hamlet. but at violence and starvation you will laugh.
the and all the nations shall flow to it. male and female he fruitful and multiply." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. many of the peoples shall come. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. In many Isa. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. sword against nation. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. not as a thing for us. Josh. you may make brethren the another. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. ways 15. people of sons after you.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. earth. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. to slaves of inherit as a them. the land lay before them. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. "subdue" "dominate. to the house God Jacob." 39 So God created man in his created him. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. with harshness. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. and subdued them as slaves. Jer. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. but the he must perform now. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play. is not a world and 14. but the beyond is not ours. let of us go LORD." It should be noted that both words. and God said to them. We cannot divide it up and as we will. and their spears into pruning hooks. But it is not the same. . and say: of "Come. and they shall into plowshares. He judge between the beat nations. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. it is only a in which he learn about play. and and shall be raised above the hills. and over the And God blessed them. "subdue" In addition. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. in the image of God he created them. and shall their swords decide for many peoples.
15 Festoons of flesh. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . 9 Each closed8 seal.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. 12 From his cauldron. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. for he was made to dread. rises up. up by a breath between them. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. fused all together. "to or so I believe. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. 11 fire escape. nor lance. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. wait. and terror dances before him. He is king over all the sons of pride.'"9 Comments 1. nor They spear." times.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. 17 "When he sion. could. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards. and not a his shields7. word mean but along it a sense of dread. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone.13 cast as a nether millstone. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. the gods are in dread.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. stand. 14 His strength resides his neck.2 Do up. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. or exploits or the grace of his frame. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. and bronze as rotton wood. quaver.18 26 He sees every towering thing. It too.
that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. till they stood longer 2. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. YaChaL. I rain. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. falling silent to hear counsel. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. interplay between hwl and denying us the second.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. apart from their being for us. till they had finished speaking. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. which deals with our relation to the world of man. for something to say. I have no higher expectations. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. loose my his hand and cut me off! . he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. That is to say. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. The first has replaced the second. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. the Ps. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. but there came only a murk. He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. We have heard those Isa. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. on a with. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps.
One of them reads: give the Lam. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. But that knowledge rouse may admire. in already begun. You have stones trashed all mortal hope." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. shlm. They with were in disgrace. Job has nonhuman. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. The word. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. and he has and sent him off. and with the might of fact. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. occurs which I have translated "brutal." Neh. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land." From it Hebrew So for "peace. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. away. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness." 4. then. mangled never overpowered man. has fallen The waters and crumbled away.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. So. but he and His body surrounds him pain. You have resigned. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. word 'akf'zar. knew it. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. The "brutal" word seems." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. The comes the root of this word. like the in the wilderness. and in which he for itself. means "to be whole or word complete. Then the within fifty-two days. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": .
He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. know him from the Here it is taken outside only. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. dead beast shall be his. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. then. is to "make whole." importance winnowing kind." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. meganim. The again." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. sell the live on the lift. and its owner has not kept it in. case. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. he pay ox for ox. it means that the spoke Leviathan. defend. however. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. It might help. God sets the wicked to close in men." debt. of. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door. and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt." 7. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense." oil rest.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. In that sense." by all to his the scales. 8. in the however. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. cannot by No one can touch him. mean normally In either of means "to shield. If. "Go." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. from the root mgn. It leaves always room restitution. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. unlike Job. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. If He should pass by and separate or close up.
the Leviathan does Job's skin. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. Job has seen the Leviathan. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. and the face of the deep Again. as stone. fused (dbq) all together. my heart gone after my eyes. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. shameful. off. ness. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. 9." his completion and perfection. for the Leviathan. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. has. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. tight itself. flesh. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. from the way. complete. or constrictive: "stick. closed entranceway." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. But. in the world beyond man. 12." away from all other beings. the list is . are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. "tight. For us it is ugly. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. At best. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh.44 Interpretation One cannot up. For the world beyond man. become that which seals it hotam for Job. dabhaq. of murk and confusion. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. "signet. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another." sar." all others.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. . feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. one feels remorse." but. there seems "to feel deep compassion. But to others for something that one has done." to be behind their understanding of the verse. He is value. however. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. have expected but it would not be so . we have returned to Chapter One. and repentance. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is." one assumes ashes. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes." meaning to them." These passages. in itself. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. for instance. by the way." or is." 'al. 58:8. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. The root nhm means understood in the text. that the book was conceived of as a whole." where it "to It is found in Ps." and 5.epher we'phar. 18:27 the Abraham answered. require as Greenberg does. as . together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. normally as 'el. one more reason for believing tion. can establish in the world of the small. of course. if one feels sorrow guilt." wenihamti. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination." and is. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. Linguistically speaking. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. I who am but dust ashes." sorrow or Like the English word. "upon." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. "Behold. Also see Gen. means "to despise" "reject. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6.
. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. Remember Aaron. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . will consume His be away. them over. and save alive and mother. Rahab: my father them. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. my brothers and sisters. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. 10. . that the moths eaten. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. yet his soul. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. 9. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language.50 Interpretation 1. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. and Joshua 2:13 . but . 8. Gone is the vocabulary. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. that wonderful woman of the night. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. sisters each one on a different with day. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. death's first born his members. 11. destruction. living in a nutshell.
Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. and Zophar the Naamatite. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. Bildad show Shuhite. 12. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. eating joyous unity. What was not possible before has now become actual. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. three thousand camels. Gen. inheritance of the descendants 14. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. His might is in the muscles of his belly. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. not snuffed out the life of its owners. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. It fell down . were another one came in and said. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. at the end of the book. 13. Shechem's father. it became Joseph. but look at the loins. ten thousand of cattle. fodder just like the cattle. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. after character and become an act of simple Job's return.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. strength in his Now.
and wood and stones wood. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. and looked out of the window. antimony. or all the things that a self. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. including the being his 16. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. Job 3:1 Then. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . the silver of of my God. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. came to Jezreel. keren happuli1: the first two ful. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. Then. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. It is from the words It is a new Job. in the prophets. too. the iron for the things iron. "cassia." are. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. O desolate one. qesi'a. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. And you. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. and she painted her head. Job himself becomes word yom. We remember to his friends: his his day. As such it became. The Book rection. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. this name? second word. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. "day. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. 18. in English. stones. of silver. so far for the things as I was able. They are dead. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. all sorts of precious stones. and marble. Jezebel heard of it.52 Interpretation the young people. also called pukf1. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes.
and went to Ramah. tent." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. rays Hab. Moses' his face shone. hence. because I ISam. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. to begin at the beginning. said. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. It "horn. And Samuel priest took the rose up. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. to the ends of the earth. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. will give strength his king. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. that the skin of skin of face shone. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. have Samuel. salvation. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. for I sons. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. His bull has majesty. flashed from his hand. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light." 53 us look at the first word. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. and they were afraid to come near him. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. behold. 33:17 ox. and he veiled his power. Then they blew the trumpet. my derides my enemies. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. until in to speak with him. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". against he thunder in heaven. all of them. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. My mouth rejoice in thy . qeren. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. "My exalted in the LORD." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. he anointed.The Book of Job Now let name "horn.
trumpets. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. and made loud music on harps and lyres. and the IChron. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. 89:17 I say your to the horn. I have for prepared a Ps. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. And. cymbals. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout.54 Interpretation Ps. my me from violence. Often the Psalmist Ps. for Israel who are near to him. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. stronghold and my refuge. praise all his saints. 75:4 up Ps. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. of course. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. 27:2 be Exod. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. in whom I take refuge. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. "Do not lift For thou exalted. Linguistically. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. I have driven my horns into dust. "Do glory boast. my savior. thou . to the sound the hom. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. too. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar." boastful. art the of their strength. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well." not and to the wicked. 22:3 of My God. my rock.
will they will say." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. cluded however. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. he opened her womb. so he said. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. we shall have to consider the full list. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. wife. for your younger and he said." "Lord." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. and said to him. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. saw Gen. Abram's And ultimately. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. because of the woman whom you have taken. Rachel. Jacob loved Rachel. and when . has a child: Leah knows only Gen. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. so as to not mislead ourselves. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. "I the will see you. and his house because of Sarai. Leah's soft. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. though perhaps somewhat naive man. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. barren. there is also good. Gen. 19. you are a a dead man. they praised her to Pharaoh. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. and she . her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. We have not. to Sarai. he said to Sarai his behold. man's wife. And Leah conceived and bore a son. then they kill but they let you live. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. 'This is his wife'. But God sister. "Behold. in have to be Song its of Songs.
"With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. but at a very heavy price: Gen. but did not find them. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. said to me. the have son. voice and given me a has also heard my son". and she called Simon. she envied or her and she said to Jacob. therefore she called his name Dan. "Give children.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. he has given me this son also". and said. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. but his father buried Benjamin. and have prevailed". when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. saying. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. Then Rachel said. and two maidservants. she reacts not with gratitude. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. but with a demand for Gen. Bethlehem). 31:32 it. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. "Fear called not. And she her father. Rachel travailed. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. but did not find the household gods. "Because the LORD has looked me." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. and take know that Rachel had stolen them. for the way of women is upon So he searched. and entered Rachel's. And he went out of Leah's tent. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. "God has judged me. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. she called his name Benoni. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. and sat upon all about the tent. and into the tent of the not find them. but he did into Leah's tent.' and she had hard labor. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. When she finally does have another: a son of her own." She my affliction." them. so she called his name Naphtali. for she said. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. So Rachel died. And midwife said to as her. 30:6 When Rachel sister. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. 30:1 Gen. in her hard labor. Laban felt .
Abigail: ISam. behold. David was beautiful: brought him in. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. beautiful eyes." ISam." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. except can for him the land. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. but all that again it led to grave problems. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. but the ill-behaved. a youth. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. "Arise. and the name of his wife Abigail. Deut. the . . Gen. Joseph. . Now he he. him. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. anoint and was ruddy. and saw and him. he was a Calebite. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. the [beautification] in it.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. for it. for when this is ISam. and said. for blood be made pollutes the land. 41:2 and fat. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. they first seven fat cows. was Joseph himself beautiful. and had and was handsome. Nonetheless. And the LORD said. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. David. . 16:12 And he sent. he disdained appearance. "Lie with master's me.
58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. Joab's armor-bearers. and being stronger to me. and she was a beautiful woman. and killed him. he took hold sister. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. 13:1 Absalom. loved her. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. his head and fast in the oak. and found Abishag the Shunammite. Amnon lay down. But he would not he forced her. "Come. his foot to the . David's son. her. "I king). I saw Absalom hand. and pretended to be ill. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight." of her. and when the king came to see him. if I had dealt the will aloof. my than she. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. Absalom he riding his mule. and told hanging in an oak. he weighed weight. the and she became the king's not. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. oak. hair his head. but king knew her . every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. lie with her. On the other Joab. 2Sam. and brought her to the maiden was king. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. whose name So Tamar. when was heavy meet on him. "Behold. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. The very beautiful. David's son. had a beautiful sister. he it)." hand. Amnon said to the king. and after a time Amnon. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. Absalom and struck him." with And he took three darts in his of hand. nurse and ministered to him. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. with listen to her. and left hanging between heaven earth. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. . 14:27 There were name was Tamar. while the mule that was under him went on. from the sole of . born to Absalom three sons. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat.
for of a this is his lot. 3:24 Instead girdle. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. and and do not capture you with Prov. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. instead of beauty. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. O desolate one. LORD is to be beauty is vain. a there will be rottenness. when she has done vile . a girding of sackcloth. grace you poured upon your lips. therefore God has blessed for ever. 33:17 Jer. 10:3 lovers despise you. scarlet. and instead of well-set that stretches afar.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. and He had brought up Hadassah. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. baldness. of perfume Isa. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. 4:30 hair. for the customs of the peoples are false. for fair to behold. Eccles. and instead Isa. as and when her father and her mother died. 6:25 far north. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. the city of the great King. in let her Prov. Eccles. Ps. shame. Mount Zion. A tree from the forest is cut down. Esther 2:7 uncle. the maiden was beautiful lovely. Men beautify so that gold. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. also he has put eternity into man's mind. but a woman who fears the praised. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. they seek your life. Esther's beauty saved her people. 5:18 Behold. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. And you. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. Jer. that is Esther. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. is the joy of all the earth. Jer. for themselves: is Ps. her eyelashes. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. they will behold a land rope. and instead of a rich robe.
they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. 33:32 And. and say to him." I Ezek. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. iniquity was found in you. 27:4 any passer-by. you. renown. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. for down to abundant waters. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. lo. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. "Is beauty. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. and were in your towers. but they will not do it. they perfect your beauty. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you." Ezek. towered proud of Ezek. your builders beauty. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. . of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. and its branches will be consumed. high Eden envied it. offering made harlotry. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. 31:7 exposed you before kings. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. and its heart was its height. you ate raiment was of fine linen. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. made they hung Ezek. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. Son of man. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. for they hear young and men shall say. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. I have cast it out. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. 9:15 that thirst. in the length of its branches. says the Lord GOD. . beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. you then exult? The LORD once called you. and your cloth. "But trusted in beauty. and played the harlot because of your . I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. that were in the garden of God. they shall devour and . You to regal estate. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. . the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. 2:15 with goodly fruit". cast you to the ground.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. And silk.
at the door of the tent of meeting. Noah. of Gilead. corners of be full like bowl. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. The text continues: Num. And are the LORD said to Moses. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. 27:4a Why family. Noah. son of Manasseh. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. for like the jewels of a Yea. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. and Tirzah. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. And they stood before Moses. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. 20. and before Eleazar the priest. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. and he had no sons. the daughters have received an inheritance. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. but only a dowry. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. Hoglah. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. Thus. Our father died in the wilderness. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. Milcah. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. saying. a and they shall drink their blood like wine.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. The names of his daughters Mahlah. Had there been a son. the next phrase Num. but died for his sin. you shall give them . Zelophehad Mahlah. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. and before the leaders and all the congregation. Milcah. "The daughters Zelophelad right. Machir. Num. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. son of Hoglah. and new wine the maidens. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons.
36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. daughters of Zelophehad. saying. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. Tirzah.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. Milcah. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. and has no son. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. son of Joseph. tribe to another. And if he has daughter. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. for Mahlah. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. however. then his inheritance to his brothers. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. came near son of Manasseh. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. tribe. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. The only. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. and Noah. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. they said. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. 'If dies. Hoglah. it inheritance. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. In the case of Zelophehad.
and a need of clarity.The Book of Job Job's daughters. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. Of what do they speak? Of the com. the two refused to mesh. there and us. in turn. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. by the fathers and some by the mothers. . Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. This insight. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. there would no way to live as "one of com. Without whole. The inheritance is outright and absolute. men are empty and life is without taste. ways must be taught they must be learned. They be taught. there would be no bread. and it is the children who must learn them. beauty. the and all way to These some bury the dead. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding." Without these would must be no life. led. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. as we have seen." clashing for human One said while friendship. of his daughters." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. "just" by the For Job. the way to bake bread. be and of the ways. however. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. the way to go out on the hunt. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. nothing is said dowries. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
After tality seek marriage and family. 306b). 714). Charmides. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. if ally exclusive (North 1966. (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. 507a-c. an elenctic investigation begun. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e).68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . and it can of that drives a consideration of course. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg." p. from sex been Since self-control. not mutu Pit. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). with some effort to answer that I did. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). 97). We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. Still. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. at Symp.5 Furthermore. "oddness. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. important texts on the theme of eros. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. 221d). particularly restraint indulgence.
like his describes. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. pregnant If this is the case. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. least if self-control might presence. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. just as a fawn . Narrative." he says. rather than ugly ones. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra. Indeed. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. inward say. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here).Drama. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). For the second. the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. to quotation of return Cydias. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. despite body. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. and good. eternal rates beauty (Symp. distinguished. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). Like children. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. someone who is both kotos and. and gifted soul. 210a-212a). certainly will he would never anything ugly. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. is. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). like He this be very much drawn to this combination. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. try to teach the other. face. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. at least potentially. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise.
potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. him to finally renewed reflection. I caught a fawn in my claws. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. the aporia has a beneficial element. Halperin 1985. 241e). there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done. Sim sus ilarly. has not always been recognized as such.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. 81-91. inversion the expected im age. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. p. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers.6 Third. hunting (Dover. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. For of example. fond of lambs. or as a hunter tracking game. 58. In both cases. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. First. in singing. but did not drink its blood. Socrates. the perception of their own lack knowledge. of citation of the line from Cydias. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. just so do lovers love 165). right out from under hind. an pp. Socrates' (241d). with trust in my strength.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . 1978. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. of which three come immediately to mind.
their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. p. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. when. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. I thought how fair youth. 90. which as a manifestation of anteros. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. pursuer." he most likely means Charmides became. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. catch. and devour (McAvoy 1996. we can see that dialogue. Critias. Socrates to replies in kind then. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. lion. Narrative. to speak. also reads the text in this way).8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. pursue. p. If Charmides' either. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will. "don't (176a-d). respectively. perceiving his craving for Charmides. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. in which Charmides. also interprets the quotation in this sense). he must mean us to go along with the game. or . and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. he devoured appetite. who. a lover might approach his beloved. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986." no one will be able to resist him.Drama. "So Charmides." you resist me Socrates answers. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. 92. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. Another reading." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. When Socrates says. If we do." realization of his desire to be Socrates. only if a with the power to momentarily. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles.
and actually help nurture the Symp. step. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. which cf. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3).72 Interpretation merged. someone suitable body. His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. 210a. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm.). In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. philosophos (154e-155a). in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. If is . but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). or the entire body charm and the soul as well. relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. 155e). With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. Soc speak. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. but he does not condemn the desires of either party. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. Socrates' Halperin 1986. came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was.
g. own" every member of a city. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. expands his logos nomoi. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. 457b). is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. as would a so governed. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. From that on on. penulti rung (episteme). level again. They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. like walking and talking with deliberate. see Larson 1951). possibility. What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. however. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. In other dialogues. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. showing modesty generally. 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). (17 le) Socrates. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. and. Phil. the element of to doing (163e-164d). In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. Charmides. Rep. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d).g. e. and goodness (to agathon. "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein).Drama. (161b-163d). and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. (160d-161b). Narrative. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne.
74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. ostensibly. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. Rather. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. and Republic. Kahn 1996. vision. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. Laches. 56-70. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. Sadly for Socrates. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. 541-49). 148291. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). pp. would not had. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. pp. As an example. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. to topic. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d).10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. 1988. as it turned out. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. any case. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. Lysis. Phaedo. here eros. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. especially the Symposium. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not.
p. as here. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. p. p. 7. 25. Jowett 1961. [Cydias] said. Narrative. (1977. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. 1988. 154). by Mahoney (1996. but in those works he does not. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive." this . 54-55. For the 5. McAvoy (1996. .' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. (For an pp. Plutarch. the Symposium. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. in the Laches. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. that thought the experience. together with his irresistible passion . thing. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. more 184). pp. Alcibiades. p. for example. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. since he can speak 4. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. pp. 73 n. 146). in Kahn's work 203-9. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here.Drama. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener." measuring-line about such a person. pp. handsome boy. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. not opposing view. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. 187-88). and Kahn (1996. I to resist what had been an this. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. This recently. 27) and." "dates" with conversations. like in advising fawn in front of a lion. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. Cf. p. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. 'Take care not to go as a meat. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. puts 6. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1." observation has been p. Donald Watt's translation (1987. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. so to speak. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. concern " for p. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. Hyland (1981." someone. 3. 102. 2. he also thought. principles 542-46). possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. 82). 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. he "[Cydias] for the beast.
Ed. Kahn (1996. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. The Collected Dialogues. NY: Cornell University Press. eds. C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. 1988. Charmides. 1966." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. Sophrosyne. Princeton: Princeton University Press." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. 1962. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. Ithaca. It is with Menexenus. D. E. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. 1986. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne." Dialogues of Plato. 1996. p. Athens: The Ohio University Press. Nussbaum. In E. 1987. C. Kahn.." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. D. "self-control. M. Greek Homosexuality. Eng: Penguin. 99-122. Page. 1978. Saunders. Cambridge. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. North. ed. B. Plato.. Potae Melici Graeci. 1977. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. 1985. 63-103. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. University Larson..." Dover. Hyland. Benitez. M. L. Hamilton H. "Socratic Politics Charmides. McAvoy. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. Pp. 163-209. D. Pp. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. 1981. MA: Harvard University Press. Pp. K. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. 1996. and Jowett. 1986. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. J. Hanmondsworth. Charmides. 1951. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51.76 Interpretation 9. . D. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. Cairnes. C. In T. trans. Watt. 1996. trans." Mahoney. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. H." 161-204. Griswold.4). 1961. C. Cambridge: Cambridge Press." REFERENCES Bruell. 1988. T.
in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. 26.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. was an out-and-out bourgeois. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. No. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. and his himself. Vol. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. Fall 1998. and on prudential about grounds. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. 1 . was becoming of a tyranny. Like Marx. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions.
who are gland. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. Justice has two different aspects. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. The law from corrupting one another. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. also the nature of law to be just. the on account of the war being a civil one. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. On temptation. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. however. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. It is. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. rather than law. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. fight the to rebels using the an law. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. but treasonous criminals. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. A disobeyed be effectual. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. Yet. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. In doing so. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans.78 Interpretation privilege. and foreigners. while partiality to whom one's own country. there is a strong of as the part of the British. but punishment. see his thought and his peculiar genius. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. Its force . Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. love of country is a defense foreign domination. rebels. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law.
realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . They vitiate their politics. Their cynicism and 177). public spirited reasons. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. (P. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. proposing a policy. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. Of most all wars. they wish for peace (p. however. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. In order to maintain the integrity of law. a hostile light.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. for pursuing peace. because and piety. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. necessity Although law the common good. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive.5 melancholy are not. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. when the communion of our country is dissolved. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. Britain's combination. they corrupt their morals. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. bringing generality with hate. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. devoid of hope. They have lost confidence in justice. but they have not lost their humanity. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. or rather confusion.
third. therewith. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. they take the confiscated cargo. The determination a it. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. contrary. second. to enable administration to confine. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. and then distribute a war themselves. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. 179). Hatred determines the crime. defeat. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. in fact. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. as long as it shall think . 178). the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. . because. is behaving like who appear tyrant.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. and. than law. 179). THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. by treating fourth. but. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. by treating innocent citizens inequitably. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. proper. blurs the difference be (p. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. rather giving it to treasury (p. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. In fact. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. The determination infamous action. . to infamy to punishment. 178). The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. inconsistently. the British themselves. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p.
181-82). What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. peace. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. tried ac cording to form. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. but not according to justice. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. The accused is. Parliament its proper time and place. 180). finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. the absence of justice. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. tying half dead in England). and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. therefore. After strength not is American should defeats. them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. (pp.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. because it is blinded by its own indignation. rather than the the crime. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. VIII (p. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. both. 180). . that they will become savage. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. therefore. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. taking their goods. should the ment English be victorious. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. far from making the British godlike. object of their own insults.
as a life was given in return for a life. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. This offense to threat to political liberty. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. 182). justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. naval men as they were allowed to go free. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. by breaking draws the first principle of law. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. this action. Burke says general venoms equity. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. however. far as he tell. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. parliament is incapable of such prudence. never mind possible. . therefore. It hardly seems just. the limiting qualification. 188). The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. like the deter pirates. to punish the exchanged prisoners. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. but its to the corruption of manners. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. liberty principle. But the British punitive. 186). it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. instead of of taking out the sting. At the end of the war. far from being the opposed to manners.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. because it between citizens. But. 184).
in love of country. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. He speaks to the consciences. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. the attachment to country. The British must doubt themselves. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. He even speaks as courage justice. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. be can fore they be enlightened. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. made the reminds them British feel invincible). might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. . dark. 189-90). 191). The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. Burke raises the the unknown. despite American defeats. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. if only through fear. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. he says unknown a reality. have with doses of fear. of concern But. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British.
closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. dominion in which he cannot exercise. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. order to render others contemptible and wretched. Burke has for his plan. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. being that crawls on the earth. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. With the awakening of their interests. that it is directed by insolent passion. calling for battles which but his servility to it. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. states to the . He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. show little are content to real magnanimity. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. any without civil wisdom or military skill. 199). they their country. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. actually the hypocritical others. when in triumph. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. far from being manly. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. manliness and cowardice judgement. pair facing the Brit ish. contending for a violent (P. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. the taxes.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. pride of a coward. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. is in the eyes of God and man. rather than to punish and to subjugate. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. Far from man's of being cowards. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. helpless creature. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. Those in favor of the war.
above the voices of many. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. cynicism. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. therefore. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. and be trusted. both addresses popular and parliamentary. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. and Burke shows As things stand. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. to be the for the the war in England. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. He is cautious in his blame. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. Just a short time . Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. (1774). he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. to risk with defeat their own arms. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. themselves. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. 195). a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. He is the people doubt Parliament and. they must earn that trust. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. the Americans are virtually alone. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. rather than certain tyranny. the Americans must trust in themselves. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. therewith.
to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. He is thereby domestic politics. having recently tasted victory. be governed. it may be the mind. granted social rights (pp. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. because the British had suffered defeats. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. (P. that it is not will be resisted. beg leave to observe. at best. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. waves of chance and. rather than oppress it. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. even though right of they have no representation. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. 210-11). Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. when public . Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. Parliament to tax the Americans. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. Par liament must. The people are. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. I must attend to public opinion. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. therefore. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. so as to offend the people. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. 207) omnipotence. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. he can accuse aggrandizement. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. therefore. but people. 205). Now. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists.
but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. Freedom is not an abstract principle. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. just in they are needed (p. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. like authority. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. through pressures placed on. and even independence. 211). as it was by the New Whigs. Parliament must be heard. Compromise If the in the the and reform. they embody than parlia ment. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. any more than is sover of eignty. They practicing (the god of this lower world). Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. as a defense of freedom in general. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. not because of a perverse humor.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. religion more the monarchy. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. to be mistaken. It requires compromise. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. Burke is quick to point out that. In light freedom. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. rather theory require tions for injustice. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. politics. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. 208). Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. freedom others. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. and. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. ment. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. doing what one wills. . Freedom. from. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. parliament can no longer legislate religion. however. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life.
of man and the absolute hand. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. rather than acknowledges the hate. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. because it is a principle of compromise. thus denying claimed the church. Abstract ideas . as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism.88 thus. and savage cruelty. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. they claimed to embody mankind. they affection. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. rather than cod ified. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. Moments authority lived. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. General theories passions. The British Parliament the authority of a god. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. the aristocracy.6 ire of an atheist. collective are bom from disappointed trust. In abstract theory. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general.
guilt.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. and executions. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. the aristoc and monarchy. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. The Reflections. The legislator must whole. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. malice. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. They destroy . horror. in particular. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. In this. In not fact. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. and especially to science. confiscations. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. and the tence. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives. broke faith. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. their persecutors. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. greed. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. though in theory. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror.
because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. because moderation they are defi must in love. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. Like the of the good seamstress. that they . united them as a people." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. but in general. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. It is who are undoubtedly true. nor fanatic visionary. The legislator have of in his soul. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- . . is at their horizon like their horizon. philosopher.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. ranks. he teaches limits of both. offices. humanity (Pp. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. . Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. though it may paradoxical. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. they of any interest. but things. God.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. Their them. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. .10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. they from love men too little.
begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. atomism except by a principle of order. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. a mathematical order. they to represent and to secure those interests. 524).Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. Legislation is deliberative p. cannot recognize the politics. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. to have the power of ordering. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live.12 chemistry. creating Burke does. however. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. possibility (Reflections. in fact. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. the uniqueness of human beings 301). and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. unique character of Geometry. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. Its rebel to be used against them. In formative act. At best. an un geometry differentiated mass. which of it. therefore. however. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. rats. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. like promises proportion. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. and exist in much greater clearness. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution.
of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. such. about the parts are at (p. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. then there must be moral . To the contrary.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. By having right to everything they want everything. Burke opposed abstract was against began. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. of government. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. to tax in order to restore American trust. give repealing the tax. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. developed its own Ideological differences.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. 222). for America had. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. 215). The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. 221). (P. If there are to be compromise and freedom. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. or to an equal share in government.
should the people rule. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. The as are though people dis must. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. natural Burke thought the rulers. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. liberty.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. they are too strong to oppose. and a brutality of accepting of political men. satisfy those grievances. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. The people are the product of the constitution. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. therewith. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. therefore. but trust that is called to account and office. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . rather than connections of its sovereign. but. in which it depends. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. an Perhaps most important. avarice. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. however. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people.
not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. . but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. rather. and beneficence. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. . The origins are inferior to the end product. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. Burke never thought reality. Contending for an imaginary power. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. however. Burke believed that rational. force. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. . it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want.15 The hidden hand is not. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. brings a degree of the common good. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. It is something to be Although He respected. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. To the contrary. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. because he never believed is not Hegel's state. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. He economics. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. mind.
223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . Prudence makes the former feasible. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. B. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. The partial suspension. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. C. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. only because they have elected him. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. a God. 1954) p. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. the latter necessarily corrupts. he and sought indignant fanaticism. but they can trust him. which which he lends credence. on hand. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. to foster the love of Furthermore. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. contains its abuses within it. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. so or a misanthropist. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. So. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. espe cially in the great. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. His Yet one cannot of visionary. disheartened and disgusted. Capital I (Moscow. (P. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. to be grown in disrepute. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. he is in his self-right eous wrath. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. Karl Marx. Unlike Parliament. 260. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people.
Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. three sections of the city. attempt 8. CA: Sage. was cited within the text as Reflections. 9. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. vol. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. Works. 1960). of govern 3. pp. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. 282-83. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. and by looking at the man. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. pp. 533. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. Edmund Burke. 358. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. 7. 6. Glorious 1984). vol. his regime on the number 12. 15-16. In from looking to the number three for order. Eng. 4. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. 1854-89). Hippodamus models three. Old Whigs. Politics. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. p. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. vol. 10. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. and the 7. vol. 2. 282-83. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. 8. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. 3. vol. tyranny (Thomas Paine. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. in whose 6. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. although ment. CT: Greenwood Press. Works. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. Jackson Bate (Westport. 431-32. p. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. 439. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. 2. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. and three kinds of legal suits. jurors and . many other cities. remind one of the old man ed. 164. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. 31. Phaleas'. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. Furthermore. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. In desire to know nature as a whole. portrait. wore by cheap whole. The Complete Writ 1945]. pp. ultimate differences. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer.: Penguin. vol. and to Burke. page number alone are 3. pp. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. But he did give the any property. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. 431. pp. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. they both ideas. 350-52. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. There are three classes of citizens. 94. 279. W. farmers. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. 5. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. a more participatory form vol. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. he denied and the artisans arms. p. 101. 520. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. 1. p. 1994]) argument. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. pp.96 else. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. and the 2. 382-84. but according to his fancy.
thus making an who improved the law. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 1987]. 13." the ruling majority and 14. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. p. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. (Harvey Mansfield. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. vol. 1991].149-52). 1993]. susceptible of of infinite improvement. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. vol. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. He honors for those individual judgement. In the Spirit of the Laws. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. . 406-7. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. Works. 2. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. not simply its evident usefulness. and even expected. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. rather than action. 431. who lives according to the actual. Science. 1. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. Works. pp. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. Reappraisal. 77). rather than the presumptive. When questioned. vol. 15. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. pp. 1954). Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. 1. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. is taken from Montesquieu. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. p. pp. of Chicago Press. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. for men of action are often. 1965]. 29. that its authority depends habits of obedience.237). 294-95. Thus. of Chicago Press. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. 331-33. the man of actual virtue. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. as in the French Revolution. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. Canavan is for Burke life. vol. Canavan. 432. against abstract doctrine. pp. sanship. as opposed to natural rights. 1949). trans. Like Burke.9-10). to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. p. 6. pp. NJ: Transaction Publishers. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. 470. 1984]. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. Thomas Aquinas. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. because he thought it made prudence impossible. 348.
is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. 289). the truth observation surface. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. Beyond Good Evil. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. Vol. therefore." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent." Preface. .1 As readers of the book. argument and action. but to those whom he "the wisest. . but are inseparably It is joined." In interpretation. 1 .Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. In the second. 5. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra. as it stands. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. The first crests at the end of Song. 26. it is incoherent. to interpret this drama. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. "deepest. No. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. Fall 1998.
100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest. Appealing directly to the multitude.g.4 If Zarathustra is human.. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. he is met with incredulity. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. then the distribution. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. This under persuading live. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . however. he and wishes to "go down" to again. of accordingly. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. therefore. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. but as such to be more than human. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return." But this his means "to be again.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power." however. the will to power proves to doctrine. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. It. Overburdened by its superfluity. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense. therefore. however. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and." 8). ridicule and hatred. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions. e." this account. the superman. however.
he insists." 9). will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. But being. despite their variety. calls "praiseworthy. acting in the light of its truth. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. . the first. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. law. the people. activity stands the legislator or. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. therefore. however. em but rather what good and evil.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. all of of good and them. according to Zara thustra. Behind the creator." Here he that if be made to speak. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. in accordance with its law." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. The first of this wisdom will to power. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. root cause of all the will to power is the things." "will to for the first time. as Zarathustra calls him. That is to say. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. Persians. the Still." holy. including his soul and mind. in the Aristotelian phrase. since. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. speaks to man only being. its things. one Afterworldsmen. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. according to Zarathustra's understanding. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks.
That the related political and aspects of claim. divine. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. therefore. is Zarathustra's goal. however. the coming to be of the superman. as it were. overarching then. perhaps. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. law that is. but rather fellow creators. At the close of Part One. that he cities of men. the to power. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. indicates. to creating creators. however. believes. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). according in what to Zarathustra. therefore. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. Zarathustra. It is this than human. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. it were. nite laws. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. longer disciples. To create great endeavor. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends. in Zarathustra's own words. human beings seems necessarily is.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. but identity between them. to a Virtue.102 We Interpretation see that. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. a law that is. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law.
"the Great stand Noon. create dom and. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. as it were. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. a natural law. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. will creators. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. it and as well. reveal himself to a his career. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. while bringing humanity first time. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. Zarathustra will." 3). Accordingly. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it." 1)." 3). rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . therefore. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. At this culminating moment hind his veil." things. It almost goes without fails is the question. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. but animal gods are and superman.
of latter." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness." of first half his of Part Two. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. of course. wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. Nonetheless. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators.104 Interpretation so ing The that. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire ." in other words. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. the distribution of his author. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. to be absurd. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. rushes his teaching. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. In "The Child which a child his disciples. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. What and grotesque of a devil. This interpretation. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. Neverthless. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. of course. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will. appears independent inquiries. as Zarathustra has argued. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. however. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. his venom."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. however.
is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. consequently. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. Creation.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. disciples and. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. made clear through stands following reflection. this condition with another. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. therefore. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. It . but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. therefore. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. Moreover. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. On the one hand. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. to establish a community of and reciprocity. the com incoherent in its own terms. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. as through such distribution cre like himself. On the other hand. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. and this is men. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. that is. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. therefore. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. that is. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations.
and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. As "The Night Song" predicts.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. and the desire for revenge within his soul. spite. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. revenge. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. the punishment or desire for soul. wisdom. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. but by self-mockery. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. with his wisdom. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. As he puts giving. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. consequently. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will." Consequently pedantry. he is in useful a state of aporia." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. compatible with the moral law insofar tue. ("On the Giving Vir 1). dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love.
What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. that understood need on is. Thus if in Part . since. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. all human community established upon the basis of the law." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. Accordingly. therefore. therefore. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. of the rational good. the just as final political order. in which the just is included as false appearance. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. 381).The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. and that. elaborating of the beautiful. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. that false horizon now of the is. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. That is to say. and the good. He cannot painful beyond endurance.
the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. however. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. the longing for revenge. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. That is love were to say. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). and however. e. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead.g. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. "enemies" however. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. Zarathustra's primary opponents. As is his habit. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). a love expressed in (seligen Geister). It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. happy. In other words." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love.. Nevertheless. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. envy. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. consequently. that is.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. Zarathustra blames his failures position. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense.
ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge. spite. Without himself being aware of it. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. therefore. manifests itself in an infinite becoming. he also concludes that any particular vice. he realizes. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. "the good. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy." Life.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. he says is." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed .The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. As a conse good and evil quence. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine." again and soon and. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. For the will. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. Be that it may. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. however." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. in expressing its or unlimited character. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. in the infinite power of the will. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. The greatest good. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity.
good untouchable." 2)." as a form of artful play. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. 382. as the highest good. destruction of values as its Accordingly. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. the false perspective of the moral law. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. his desire for happiness as he understands it. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . But the "values. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. It is. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. he . ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. naively (The Gay Science. will's "sublime" character good. law or or as he it there. himself to purchasing his its first principle. in clinging to his its freedom. the destruction of values. . Ecce with all that was Homo. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. from opposites." he describes himself depths. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. the possession of wisdom. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. of course. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. wisdom and will and And. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. the creation of values. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. for. necessarily the greatest evil. .110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals.
" up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. Zarathustra In other gives dren. This fellow thinker is name within the work. its fundamental incoherence.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. help lower level than his The reason for this . he values the admittedly political community. Zarathustra himself has done. think through. of another like himself. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. As in the case of sexual intercourse. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. Plato. his old moral teaching. to the end of reproduc words. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. As we have already observed." "now I love only my children's land. in new doing so." as he calls it. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. Symposium reproduction of his own good. however. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. truth." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. and create engendered.207a). the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. and. with caution and of subtlety. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. in some indefinite future. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). but ultimately to the generation. demolish it. therefore. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. He listens carefully to these speeches. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. comes to understand the implications self.
his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. however. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. Nevertheless. In his dream Zarathustra has ." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. just the prophet had predicted. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. In words. Consequently.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows. therefore. become the "night-watchman death. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. the future continues way . self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. as it were." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. everything That is to say. but in terms of knowledge as well. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. bursts open. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. therefore. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. despite the in some to this region of the dead.. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life. everything is one. Zarathustra the Third. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. Thus.. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good.
This insight is cause. but to willing this willing. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. From this low point. at least at this point. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). If. . namely. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. Zarathustra." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. 1. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. not to willing all of the past. of therefore. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. Dis courses on Livy.2). that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. the Machiavelli. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. then. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. however. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. the peoples must of Yet.
he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . . Thus. in which it may be willed. according the Zarathustra's current understanding. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. but every stone that is thrown . there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. namely. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the .' 'Where force (Kraft) is. must past and Accordingly." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things. however. saying. being is an Accordingly. . cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. "O Zarathustra high. however. therefore. eternal return of . he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. .
. 21). This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. The presence of the low not only persists human life."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. knowledge would Thus.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. the that has crawled his throat. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man . the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return. into my throat. nothing be profitable.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . the life but is in creative great effect of in. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. that is." Moreover. choked me and crept . as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. as Zarathustra now describes it. all would be one. . that was my disgust at all creation" existence. "foreseeing" longer man. the of the .18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. of sickness" therefore." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. freedom will at its peak. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. paradoxically. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. of It is. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it.
however. is in accord with reason. the thought of the eternal return developed. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . Far from having escaped the its justice. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. namely. its law and sway of the rabble. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. but. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion.. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being.e. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows.21 need. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. in Part Three." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. of "justice" "freedom. the will and its desire for and i. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. on the one hand. love and. Finally." revenge. however. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. of not be given. and that genu knowing will.
He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. See "On Cf.22 upon in his wanderings. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. On the simplest level. Beyond Good and Evil. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. 9. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. 10. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption").'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. It points to the Seth Benardete. 4. 1888. and therefore of being. however. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. 202. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. parodies "wisdom. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. in that irrational. Cf. but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. 153. p. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. 8. appears to offer a 11. As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. University of Chicago Press). In Part Three. Writing"). Behind the 6. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . 7. Zarathustra." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. 4. also see Ecce Homo. Of course. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables." 3. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. 23)." 5. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. Tablets.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. Preface. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity.
an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press. it would require "something double. what 53-54. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. trans. . Zarathustra's p. "Proteus. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. Matter. or Zarathustra." "The Truthsayer." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. 17." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets.'' Great Events. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. Row. 1988). namely." 1 1. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. 15." 360-425 and Bacon. Unfortunately. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. Homer. It should come as no surprise. 14. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and. ed. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well. as man. pp. lacking . His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. "The speech Self-Overcoming." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. 13. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. but only on that of philosophical writing." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. . the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. 1984). 1935]. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). 12. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation." 16. Cf. Odyssey. 28-31. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. 23. therefore. overcoming of need. II. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. The Wisdom of the Ancients. as god. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. Vol. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. IV. XIII.
Song. 40. p. and The Gay Science. characterizes world following that terms. above all." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. however. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. for the smallest just. 283-85. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. p. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. Robespierre. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil.'' for every is an afterworld. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. (Speech of 7 June. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. 264)." Having pears by chance. "Fame and Second Sailing. on account of his 227). 289. To every soul belongs another world. She power. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. 1990). 152 and 192." 21. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. vertu' 20. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. Seth Benardete. 1794)": Daybreak. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. therefore. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. Sunrise. 27. Dithyrambs of Dionysus.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return. bridge. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. If both Zarathustra and. Unfortunately. 30. the ill-constituted. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. therefore." and 22. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and." also Dancing 4. Preface." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. 36 and 87. 29. pp. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. "All Song. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. ." merely by looking into each other's faces. namely.
University the Polity. $49. Zimmerman. xi + 382 pp. Caputo. Leslie Paul Thiele. 1993)... and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. Indeed.95. 1996). I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. In this essay. No. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. 1 . + 306 pp.50 Hans Sluga. Philosophy. $15.95. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. greater notoriety. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press.50 cloth. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. xii + 129 pp. MA: Harvard University Press. Politics. xi + 234 pp. xv + 232 pp. even to the point of at "apologetics. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. Heidegger. $15..50 paper. x + 285 pp. 1997)..95 paper. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. $19.50 cloth.Review Essays Heidegger. Fall 1998. 26. Julian Young. Michael E.. 1993)." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision.95 paper. $14. $49. NY: Cornell University Press..95 paper. $33. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. Vol. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1992). Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press.. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). 1995). xii + 263 pp. 1990). Berel Lang. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. $19. this century comes to a close. $47. Tom Rockmore.
Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. namely." in Heidegger's Crisis. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. Rockmore implements criticism. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. however. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. Unlike Zimmerman. politics. Given this historical archaeology. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. daeo-Christianity.. As bridge between reject discover. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. One point example. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. Although Farias champions this position.g. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. In the process. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. e. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. Lyotard. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. which also exemplifies historical. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. is . Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. In order to discern this tendency. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. for example. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. of and Derrida.
hence. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . e. inquiry. As Zimmerman. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. We Thiele's Timely Meditations.g. ethics. then practical concerns.. the Polity. of ethics and politics. In this work. The Farias' effect of revelations. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. raises. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. II. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. As poignant as revelations were. however. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. Philosophy. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being.Heidegger. indeed. Even been prior to Farias' book. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. already the publication of his magnum opus. Caputo. This work. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. Being and Time (1927). Nazism.
The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. That is. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. . "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. As Zimmerman emphasizes. of "enframing. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power." nature. pp.' he did not mean rational calculation.. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge.e.124 '. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. By 'thinking. i. 84). Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. but the of technology. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism. the our need to day. As Zimmerman states: . but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. On the surface. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. Interpretation . and the end of metaphysics. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. Heideg instruments of technology. is of political which things.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy. xxiii-ix) Jews. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. the which unique forgetting of being.
a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. domination humanity and nature. Consider Heidegger's . Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. what the Polity. Not surprisingly. Unfortunately. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. . (P. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. Holderlin. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. recast Going forward. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. that is. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. frenzy and violence. but instead blood and instinct. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. . 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition.Heidegger. 84) In the end. p. As reactionary modernists. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. philosophy and politics. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. harmony from strife. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. conflict and resolution. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. 127). On the one hand. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive.
charity." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p.g. love. (Lowith. Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. love otherwise absent facticity. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. in his stark concept of Dasein. According to Caputo. in must emerge "singular.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. . To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. 207). Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). . 72). . Caputo. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. including care. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. thinker. become 68). and heroism. baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. . Ironically. and temporality. the categories of tenderness. truth." community. 73). e. the scandalous comparison culture . to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. Only by possible a shepherd. The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. self-affirmation. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). As Caputo indicates. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. the dissident (Derrida). . all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity.
. 54). and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. III." Heidegger's philosophy (e. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. namely.Heidegger. link (p. for Rockmore "hero. roughly speaking. and that. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism.. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. stance. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. 74). Philosophy." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p. "What I call the 'official' view students. the Polity. however. 54). there is no. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. Because Rockmore way. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. as Nazism. National or no important.g. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. Rockmore. In Heidegger. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. This distinction becomes important.
stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. but the intellectual others. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. the public and occasional" the private. 100-101). philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. Of course. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. In Heidegger's Silence. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. of illumination and blindness. Ironically. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. insofar as the and then. Lang ger history (pp. The "tragic question then becomes. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. freedom and necessity. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. In Heidegger's Crisis. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . 5-8). But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. 5). . In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. the professional and the thesis (p. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect.
22). it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. be translated into any specific may For example. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. setting institutions the decline. for most critics construe these . There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. IV.Heidegger. but what extent a political crises of of the political. 245-48). a process occurs. and the possibility of law. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos).. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. in the 1930's. 19). not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism.g. Mill and Kant. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. action. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time." forged through the will. And ger's while one may try vision. an opportunism "timely. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. community. Indeed. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental.
Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin. in order that one to the dilemma in question. As our discussion of the previous . and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. it would a type of action irrecon (p. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. alien to all reduction to the uniform. factic plane. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. In many respects. it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). his commitment to National Socialism. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. 35 ff. vious. e. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule.)." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. however.. a Heideggerian politics must confront.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought.g. While this most problematic. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit).
which claims In ogy. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. 41). But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . in regime. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. Farias. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above.Heidegger. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. When joined Young's solicitude. 125). Rockmore. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. 38-41). 79). Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. Philosophy. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. books the Polity. In Heidegger. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. 50). Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. Young argues that Heideg for the other. if it does their objections. Young. but Wolin. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. Moreover. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. provides According to Dallmayr. 104). instead. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p.
. In words. 48-49). Western democracy. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. of light the opera Thus. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. What Heidegger recognizes. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing." Correlatively. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. As Arendt suggests. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. that moral emphasis on can (pp.g. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. namely. the nexus of politics. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. language. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. "tolerance" namely. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. if government as fully we articulated. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. that is. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . p. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. As Thiele emphasizes. facets as as Thiele indi cates. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. however. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. In this way a community develops. is that the power which permits political participation.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. the between logos and community. e. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. namely. 198). including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. 81-83).
and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. 5-12. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. even solicitous of. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. 86-100. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. Literally. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. 167). the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. censorship. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. but rather is the "openness" beliefs.) is iconoclastic. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. it Sluga. philosophy flourish only it is . Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. means or "place in on such opposition. 60-63). 16). . and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. 292).Heidegger. p. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. The arbitrary. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. . another the Polity." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. thrives within a polis the greatest importance. politics. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. While Yet. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. . in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. controversial. 128). will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment.
Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. no. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. "On Heidegger's Lowith. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. Pascal. 1981. 1991. Trans. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1 (1995): 111-86. de Beistegui. 1993. GA 31. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. Mark. Kettering. Ithaca. In this spirit." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. Marcus (ed. Johannes.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. Silence. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. Pierre. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. Lisa Harries. CA: Stanford University Press. philosophy of its task. and Gunther Neske. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. Heidegger the Trans. NY: Cornell David. Trans. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. University Press. George. 35). New York: Paragon Press. Trans.' Assertion of the German University. 15. Perhaps this time think. but. 1958. no. Truth. The Human Condition. 1962. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger.. Heidegger. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. Dallmayr. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. Jean-Francois. no. 1982. Jean T. Phil Temple University Press. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. . 1 (1991): 1-611. when such a pp. and 1995. The Other Heidegger. Wilde William Kluback. 1990." Gary Steiner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "jews. 2. Palo Alto. Ed. Kovacs. New York: World Publishing. John. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. Hannah. London: Routledge." Time Journal 14. 1998. Emil. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. Peter Collier. GA 24. Fred. 1989. Karl. New Haven: University Press. Victor." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. Trans. Heidegger and University Press. 33. 1958. Miguel." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. Political. 1990. Heidegger. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. Bourdieu. " Lyotard. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. Martin. on the words responds to this contrary.). and Farias. Blitz. Richard Wolin. Andre Michel. 1975.
" Scott. Heinrich Wiegand. 1990. Christine-Marie Gros. Nazi. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics." Philosophical Writings. Michael E. Origins. 1992). no. no. London: Fontana." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. Common Good. and Danger. The Politics of Being. Safranski. 1994. 11-24. and the January 14. Rumor of the Hidden King. 1. Encounters Parvis Emad. no. ed. Trans. Riidiger." 1996. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Time. Heidegger Jaspers. Van Buren. no. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. Albany: SUNY Press. The New York Review of Books. eds. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. 4 (1997): 554-62. William J. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. 1987. Olson. 4 (1989): 340-55." "A Question Socialism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. Scott. Alan M. C. 1993. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. 1992." University of Chicago H. no. Trans. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. 2 (1993): 121-39. Charles. "Heidegger 27-38. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. Intro.. and and Philosophical Forum 25. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. Trans. Sherover. On ington: Indiana 30-35." Holocaust. the Polity. and Ethics Schalow. and In A. Blunden. Richardson. Socialism. New York: Columbia University Press. 1998. Pp. Trans. John. Ewald Osers. Schurmann. Thomas. Zimmerman. Press. Bloom University Press. Reiner. Dallery." .Heidegger. no. 2 (1995): 137-53. Frank. Richard. Freedom. Charles E. Alan. A. 1996. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Roberts. 1994. 24. 1990. Quarterly Ott. "A Normal pp. "Heidegger's Truth eds. Heidegger and lands. Petzet. "Resoluteness Ambiguity. on Free Speech. by and Kenneth Maly. 1989. Albany: SUNY Press. Thought. and Alan Rosenberg. Chicago: Politics. NJ: Humanities Press International. Sheehan. Hugo.
each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism..95. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. Sandel. Fall second book. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. $16.. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification.. inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. On the other hand. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. 1996). 1997). versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness.95. 1995). indeed could not. Like other pluralisms. The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. No. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. 26. Francis Canavan. + 126 pp. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. but what it excludes. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. possess. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. Three recent works do both. $24. Vol. why it excludes. University Press. Rawls's Political Liberalism). penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. Liberalism and (Lanham.50. The Pluralist Game. 1 . Public $22. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. Michael Walzer.
the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. but or not limited to. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. lost unity of shared. pluralism and toleration. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. In Canavan's account. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. Naturally. Law society. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. Earlier American pluralism.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. indeed impossi ble. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. The categories overlap. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . As Canavan clearly perceives. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. In Canavan's account. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. however conflictual. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. 76). the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. and the relations between economy and polity.
Understood in individualist terms. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. schools. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. Yet of the three volumes. individ liberty. These institutions." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. but without developing the point at any length. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. had helped to flesh out religious community life. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. hospi tals and social services were injured. Canavan particular. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. their best. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. liberalism. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. to public Canavan notes. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. it displaced institutions. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights.
again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. always reflects some moral vision. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors.. cultural. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. to make room for such groups in education. to flourish. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. If anything. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. the state should reduce its direct etc. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. things look neutrality. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). social services. Protestants and devout Jews. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. Groups with spiritual. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. so vision ought Canavan argues. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. to join in the struggle. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. On the other hand. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. on pain of contradiction. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state.
People are born for citizenship. and this goal has American public policy. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. As Sandel notes. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. They natu common affairs. of citizens In the liberal conception. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. or even citizen obligation. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. others' based have chosen them. Consequently. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. ing of Again. religious duties. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. to a solution to these problems. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. the freedom tive. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. community. for instance. for Sandel and the republican tradition. When they tion. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. since these all require description of the self. with others about what is true any or good. this asocial render human good is misleading. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making.Whose Pluralism? 141 family.
thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. In both cases. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. As Sandel correctly argues. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. regarding toleration. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. and promoting. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. Or we could relativize the value of respect. judg Using the legal example of abortion. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. moral. they express. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. In principle. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. and His alternative version the self." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. not their simple capacity to choose something . community. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. prochoice their views for public purposes. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. respect not follow. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. So Sandel pluralism. 20). beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. a contradiction.
the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. Sandel's order. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. Arguably. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. in the nature of (p. the same could be said about his ily law. be Canavan suggests. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. or even malicious. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. Presumably. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. Indeed. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. That is. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. in general. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. 90). Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. With Sandel. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. Sandel replies. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether.
Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. together with leaves intact the current crisis. of and others. is right say) tradition. . since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. Maclntyre. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. as an harbor republican hopes. for example. To his credit. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. so he opposes a voucher system." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. 77). Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. ought to be barred from running in elections. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . with early roots in Protestant and English history.) Nor can we repair to . This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. Walzer here in the secondary associations. 70). (p. Canavan. With Sandel. Religious parties. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars.144 Interpretation societies. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. Naturally. . so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. according to Walzer. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. this is an omission which pluralism. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). and social Where then. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own.
. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces. Altogether then. But reading Sandel. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life.
i VERLAG J. Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). B. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78.. Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). and Lowith. cloth with dust jacket. Gershom Scholem. cloth with English) many important. The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. H. French. XXXIV. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). Jacob In addition. with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). 434 pp. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936).-). and others published here for the first time. It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937).-).. XIV. Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. Jacobis (1929). Testament Spinozas (1932). in the original languages (German English). (1921). marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. . Gerhard Kriiger. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. 1933-1935). previously unknown writings and letters. more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). among Wissenschaft writings.
Dept. The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined. the be sent as they appear. subscribe by your university 1.00). (approx. Name .metzler. 66 pp. . volumes should (approx. $53. $46. ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss. DM 16. your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library. Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ. ? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss.Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations.00 each). Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996.. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price.80 (approx. Each volume may be purchased separately. $10. Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English). Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings. The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy. ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. edition are approx.80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1). current list price. Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns.de .00). The prices of the 2. $5300). published here for the first time in its entirety in this form.B. The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes.
how Lockean and repub forcefully the origins of the American republic.New in "This is erudition. . and William Mary Quarterly Paper $18.95 ISBN 0-691-05970-5 Princeton AT FINE BOOKSTORES OR CALL 800-777-4726 University Press HTTP: //PUP.'' Richard Vernier. No one who deals with the eigh teenth-century Anglo-American political avoid tradition will be able to the unsettling challenge of original and painstak Zuckert's ingly documented tion. The Journal ofAmerican History 'hf-UitlKllS Natural Rights and the New Republicanism Michael P.. capacious and meticulous. Zuckert Here Michael Zuckert philosophy that propos es a new view of the political lay behind the founding of the United States.PRINCETON. that forces all of us back to the boards. Pangle. paperback scholarship Zuckert and vast a work of careful lican ideas recounts came to By illustrating be blended. for this is reinterpreta one of those rare at once scholarly achievements.EDU . historical of "This exemplary work of reconstruction dramati our understand cally transforms ing the genealogy of early American political thought.." drawing Thomas L.
This conference a brings together scholars and scientists as well as about policy in linking discourse the significant hunger. David Pimental. Keep checking for a link at .edu/socres/food. the joy of plenty. (21 2) 229-2488 socres@newschool. Per Pinstrup- Andersen. Paul Rozin. Raymond Sokolov. and important way foods have emerged. at editor of Social Research.newschool.edu Further details coming to the World Wide Web soon! http://www. Marc Shell. culture and political economy food in an effort elicit new perspectives on abundance. Kenneth Prewitt (Moderator) This conference is organized by Arien Mack. All conference sessions will please call be held The New School. Wendy Doniger. Theodore Zeldin. Barbara Examining the Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Moderator) 5: Food in Art/ Food as Art: Food is both an object of art and a medium in which migrated. Aristide Zolberg (Moderator) 2: Case Histories: ways Barbara a symbol in most religions and as a marker of identity and difference Maurice Bloch. the ceremonies surrounding mythic and symbolic and it. 1998 What and we eat. how food for marks our sameness differences. Robert Adams (Moderator) for artistic expression Betty Fussell. Sidney Mintz. of diet and food to and security the history. Robert Herdt (Moderator) 7: The Future: Prospects for the global availability of food and ways to increase it Gordon Conway. John Hollander (Moderator) 6: Abundance and 3: Key Note Addresses Scarcity: equal Sustainable Agriculture: Ismail Serageldin Food and Access to food is far from Culture: Margaret Visser Richard Goldman. Anne Murcott. Leonard Barkan. the fear famine makers with deprivation forum all are occasions reflections on the human condition. problems created by scarcity 1: Everyday Life: Food life as a major 4: Food not as Symbol or Sign: Food is as component of only what we eat but figures Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. been assimilated is an of understanding our histories William McNeill. or e-mail For more information and reservations. its of importance.NATURE AND CULTURE A Social Research Conference November 5-7. Marion Nestle. Steven Heller.
11367-1597 U.S. -a o PC fo a -a o CO 2 o 3 "I 3 o 3 O < CO a r 21 rra *> o m c3 CO .Y. Inc.A. Queens College Rushing N.ISSN 0020-9635 Interpretation.