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OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
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Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Zuckert Catherine H.50 extra.S. (718)997-5542 Fax (718) 997-5565 interpretation_journal@qc. 1992) Harry V.: Canada $4. Rubin Leslie G.S. Binghamton. 1974) Consulting Editors Christopher Bruell Joseph Cropsey Ernest L. Please send four clear copies. (or the U. contributors should omit mention of their other work.40 extra by surface mail (8 weeks or longer) or $11.Interpretation Editor-in-Chief Hilail Gildin. Inc. 1987) Howard B. U. Thompson Terence E. their name.) Joan Walsh. Words from languages not rooted in Latin should be transliterated to English. double-space their manuscripts. outside Subscriptions U. which will not be returned. Wilson Michael P. 13904 U. To ensure impartial judgment of their manuscripts.S.edu E Mail: . in endnotes or follow current journal style in printing references.A. Marshall Heinrich Meier International Editors Editors Wayne Ambler Maurice Auerbach Fred Baumann Amy Bonnette Patrick Coby Elizabeth C de Baca Eastman Thomas S. Rubin Susan Meld Shell Bradford P. Jaffa David Lowenthal Muhsin Mahdi Harvey C.A. Queens College.A.S. 1990) Ellis Sandoz Leo Strauss (d. Fortin John Hallowell (d. Postal Service).S. Postage elsewhere The Journal Welcomes Manuscripts in in Political Philosophy as Well as Those Theology. Queens College Executive Editor General Editors Grey Seth G. and Jurisprudence. N. Zuckert - Manuscript Editor Lucia B. 1973) Kenneth W. Assistant to the Editor interpretation. Jensen Ken Masugi Will Morrisey Susan Orr Charles T. or manuals based on it. 1987) Michael Oakeshott (d. contributors should follow The Chicago Manual of Style. Prochnow Subscription rates per volume (3 issues): individuals $29 libraries and all other institutions $48 students (four-year limit) $18 Single copies available. E-Mail and telephone. place references in the text. Inquiries: (Ms. Payments: in U. dollars and payable by a financial institution located within the U. including notes. Butterworth Hilail Gildin Robert Horwitz (d. Leonard of Philosophy. 1 3th ed. Flushing. Literature.Y. Dept. $5. address code in full.Y. White (d.. any affiliation desired. on the title page only. Benardete Charles E.S.00 by air. Erler Maureen Feder-Marcus Pamela K. N. Composition by Eastern Composition. with postal/zip put. Engeman Edward J. Mansfield Arnaldo Momigliano (d. 11367-1597.
antitechnical. man. Fall 1998. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. Jewish and Christian. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. and in Genesis 1 1. Vol. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. the Lord God. that of the nomadic Third. Traditional exegesis of these stories. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. Finally. associated with and antipolitical. interpretation. herds Nimrod. with superfluous and which arts. in light the Babel project. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. and the which Babel-builders. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. second or at least reasonable those characters. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. although intent. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. 26. those who are supposed to be First. The thing I wish to argue excuses. Second. I is wish not to argue that. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. Nimrod. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. or even defy. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. as argue. in Genesis 10. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. the city is connected with land ownership. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. 1 . The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. divine or conventional. No. the Babel-builders. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator.
often little basis in the text. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. A. In fus ing (they own. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. of the Next. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. antipolitical atmosphere. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes).2 kills the son truly in God's image. First. 4. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. Cain.3 or. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. and I have consulted Specifically. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. I have used tateuch. have all been impugned. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. 1. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants.3-5). . Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. that is. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. the refuse. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain. if the quality is acceptable. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. legion. Cain. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. Augustine's these City of God. the first city. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. When he sacri Lord (Gen.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. fices to the most Thus. Cain's very birth is suspect. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. the an which founding of the city. his religious performance is faulty. Out of antiurban. according to some of the rabbis. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. Fi by nally.
(City of God. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. XV." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. The names of Irad.5. vol. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. his city and people. 256). his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. 8. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. life into a sophisticated. Moses. vol. p. and them. Augustine. 1. says bluntly "Cain. 1. says Abravanel. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. God intended with us. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. but with his hy pocrisy. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. One became a murderer. and Lamech are all said vol. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. 5. 8. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. another a drunkard. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. Noah. to will return later. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. are supplied by the . "wicked" "house" building of a city. and David. Augustine. some rabbis say that he. 153). Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. absent from the Biblical text. 255). that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. 21). p. XV. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. Isaac. 192).The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. Augustine says nothing negative. 21). p.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. 2. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. 29). and Cain Lamech Metusael. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. Jacob. 17. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. Calvin on the other. Cain's tion: p. 1. p.2). Those interpreters. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. Mehujael. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. however. another choice. such as Augustine and Calvin.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. career.
if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. pp. 160-62). it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. In sum.22). these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp.). XV. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). with political life) fall under a dark shadow. Calvin.). Like the rabbis. They eyes. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. God" at least more carnal in their interests. went about stark naked. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. superfluous sin. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. the op for him the arts are goods. 2. the he founded. his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. Naamah. Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. and because of this. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid. of p. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer.).6 Interpretation (ibid. the latter who lived more virtuously. and gifts from God (Calvin. sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. duced Seth's line into waywardness. did not yet exist). his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. view. acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. 237-40). he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. 238). In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. 160). In general. like beasts. and all its connections (with the arts. the former being. and 159). far as we can tell from Genesis 4. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line.22. however. His birth is suspect. Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. 217-22). with human law making. violence and In a more analytical vein.) (which.
XVI." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. 3). as the-verb "to (halal). 2. is bad for two reasons. 60-61). he Genesis Rabbah. which is what persuaded people to let him them. . tyranny (Calvin. de Rabbi Eliezer.). who. 420-21. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. but mention rather. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. to degenerating calling "rebelling. Nimrod. p. 2. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. 317). ants same Obviously. too. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. the ancestor of Israel. 174). pp. however. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. in Genesis Rabbah.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). p. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden." earth. he a 10. Since Nimrod is a slave. it is p. Second. is a deceiver. Esau. oppressor. From the sense "pro fane. man. deriving all wicked things. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. that is. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. Esau.4). such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. Thus. There is other evidence that Nimrod. here found in the hiphil form. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. so negatively. vol. XVI. who 4. tried to kill Abraham he was young. 175)." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. like all hunters. Finally. First. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. 260). as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. pp. "beginning" is is verb. his claim to might. p. And. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts.26 are said. and.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Genesis 10. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. of course. In this attempt. Nimrod the city-builder evil. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. "began" 2." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. being a mighty hunter. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. 38). was obviously a furious Nimrod. they supply other examples of wicked people things. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. be evil. he Abraham. p. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer.
2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. p. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. XVI. and Jacob. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. means. being settling and building in "settled. bad scent. a city. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. 2. Isaac. again. 2. the the Ham line. like Nimrod. could hardly him have Urban life." are "rebels. the Lord. 324). pp. "Settling" is moti vol. for two reasons. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. 3. The Babel-builders." "and this they begin to which. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. His city. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. 11. in an summary. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. too (Genesis Rabbah. which p. want 2. p. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. needless to say. In any case. do. do" translated into rabbinic. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. as I will point later. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. 49-50). to make a "name" themselves (Gen. to displace him. vol. according to Genesis 10. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. Second. 260). which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. and vol. with the upper part. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. (Genesis Rabbah.4). the lower part of the world. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. heavens. for idol They filled the sin of pride. vol. Calvin Calvin. 1. as in the case of Cain.4. was the area of his king dom. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . 51). for they p. right motives. They they being given the earth.8 Interpretation Nimrod. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. like Abraham. at signifies also that they made an on 261." but are on the 50). it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. 2. therefore. as one might expect. First. God's people do not rest con move. In p. probably vol. which. and. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. . is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind.
They are from the wrong lines. B. Abravanel argues. The city. Nimrod. then. who defined man as a political animal.3-4 ("let brick. without God's help by They purely human means.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. or rebels against God. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. and the rule of with human beings by others. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. heir of a slave. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel." us make "let build city"). Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. only God can do these things. sinners. The the city. then of Seth. The city cannot provide for security against death. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. God's do not need the political life of the city. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. is inferior to the way of the Politics. the arts. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. says Abravanel. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. they God's murderers. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. in criticizing the Babel-builders. in order to establish the stated. are proud. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. and tyranny over others. Ruling comes from Nimrod. Abravanel thus. is ated. if the materials they supplied were . are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text. is grounded in folly. political which go with cooperation. More generally. rejection of God. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. which. They story. but to conspire against and a God. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. being Esau's way. hunting. 4.
" they ask us to accept too much on faith. but some of fetched. and would maintain this even reasons. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. since Lamech fathers sons who are . far beyond this. believe. There are Nonetheless. however. and so on. all interpretive control is lost. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. point. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. Augustine's most claim that translators. again might not be bad in itself. however. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. when they assert without philological "idol. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. they in the Biblical text. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. Nimrod. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. for two First. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. even without the extraneous material. and Babel. Some of the claims are errors. they are merely the justifications. For example." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. Sec that there is ond. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. more relevant interest. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. Shinar. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. and enough reading." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. to the fact that by Nimrod. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean.
further. is cursed to in Genesis 9. They they are by the farmer. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it." Again. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. tilling it. which makes "children men. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. the hunter is less violent. undertook the Babel project on his own. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. In fact. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. in a parallel manner. and that the city to protect him. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. he infers it in infers. If Israel is not wicked . since not Ham but facts that do not fit. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. How. if God will then." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. text with uncharitable motives. execution.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. Further. Nimrod. And settled farmers (like Cain. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. the city falling to his arrows. out of the desire for a name. Abravanel. The hunter is the loner. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. too their sheep. Ham's son. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. that Cain had a says justify God. rather. is feeble. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. hardly closer the model of the political man. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer." The interpretation same such is. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. or that he ordered the people him. Babel but not in the case Cain. Augustine all lifestyle. the entire race. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. these are nity. Further. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. the rabbis rage against Cain for is.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
19). the "nations. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. which relied too much on we are innate human told. without Thus. amicably dividing the world themselves. 13). 9. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws.1-7). and since they too are related. whenever the tribal or them. This time. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. therefore. built by Asshur. must not conclude. Recall that in Genesis 9. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. in this overspreading." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . Thus. suggests in which one will rule over many. Ham. something is added: God gives the first laws." earth becomes peoples of common nations. (9. which had no such structure discernible. The new begin ning. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature.1-7) to be enforced. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well." Asshur. Abimelech in Genesis 20). cities a son of Shem. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. the between Cain nation. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. the city arises. Ham. if we are watching a new creation. the new creation as it were. is. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. for the laws of God (Gen. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. the goodness. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. they occupy it as they were meant to. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. There is another interpretation. The next a region called in Shinar. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. Abel. will have a legal dimension absent from the old. Since. which are life. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. however. among Japheth separate violence. in the east. One wicked one. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. families (mishpahoth) Shem. The first cities are or comes to rule. the migrating offspring of Shem. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. In this new creation.
kings are one possible source of law. Nimrod does not boast about himself. strained passion. of a any more. we must ing was Lamech's. from the above discussion.23-24). vulnerability to random killing). Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. as did Cain (4. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. In this context. one must conclude that cannot as such. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old.9). Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. Finally. I represents a political would argue. in fact. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. men ruling men). first hunter. For these reasons. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. good. Nimrod. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. city building. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. basis to nor of an adjective alone. condemn be evil. at overspread the earth at least potentially. then. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. but human for up as prey beings. Nimrod became famous.4). did the mighty men of old (6. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. In important respects.4) or the Babel (1 1.17). "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. unlike Lamech's. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. least some of the nations which legitimately source. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments.8) and before the Lord (10. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. I would suggest. and so did his empire. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. the order of creation." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. how to be a "hunter. may not be pretty. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. and as did Lamech (4. Kings may (I Samuel 8). by God's . Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus.
and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. Further. in a its top in the heavens. Regarding this story. in the Babel there features grant. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. It "scattered. be was afraid of safe. The with sin of the Babel-builders. scattered. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. something. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth. that is. 428)." is only fitting. then. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. is. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. in one place." of perhaps educated obey God. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. is by Calvin. Rather. speaking one language.4). They one spot. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. p. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. They heavenward (11. and Augustine.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. The their cautiousness. as of (11. He. close even antiurban exegesis. like Cain's. too. and he. They "scattered. and enjoying the earth. wants them to the earth (1. Finally.28). process. No one people (which is why I would con- . case of Babel is not exactly typical city. united brotherly love. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam.5)." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. too. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. if it and was a sin. His proj may be ambiguous. The "sons men" Noah. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. it to be a certain un populating. Babel-builders is. They want live. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. The 11. God wants them to move outward. the language of mutual entreaty. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. among these Combs and Post point out. I certain turn to the Babel story. of super-city with together. the descendants of Flood. God at the end of purpose. I think. aim spreading master to many spots. to obey God.4).
because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. will and to give it. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. only language that exists should If the only state. hold them together in Shinar forever. but he was not God in naming it after his son. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. the "sons of will founding "nations. and the only people." of that is. good which so I think is the one correct one. In Genesis nized 10. they dream. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. then. the situation be irreparable. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10." a and that this may indicate worldly pride." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. would God. The or reputation earn. In Genesis not allow of 11. however. They do not wish to God. become corrupt. as it were. It is true that they wish eternity. and themselves. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. unified world-state. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. no possibility of the living. noble it may be. wanting as is fact. In fact. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. The forms of govern men" ment. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. then. separate peoples. God. built. "name" necessarily an improper desire. are not malicious. however thinking. a permanent essence which. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. the nation sired by Abraham. be for .7 overthrow "name. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. speaking. and powerful cities. were tribal and monarchical. Cain may have been proud of his city. unified world-state. they do not even mention him.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11).
because Cain is not so commentators make out. Robert Sacks. trans. 1847). Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. in Genesis 10. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. 2. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. . pp. 150 51. XV. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. John Calvin. it due to knowing God wanted. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. or for building great towers into the a heavens. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. God. 4. 242. 1. argue that the evils of 1979). And in one case. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Rev. as city of Enoch. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. 2 vols. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. trans. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. and not always the best. if one wished to put the city in a better light.: McMaster University. Isaac Abravanel. 12. p. 256. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. 1970). (Title henceforth: City of 5.: Penguin. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections).The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. 44-48. 196-98. 3. arts. 1985)." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. Jacob Neusner. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. but these motives were not wicked. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. trans. John trans. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. but for purity. NOTES 1. Augustine. King (Edinburgh. 158. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. In societies other than Israel. Ont. If these people strayed. vol. Eng. eds. Cain's son. 4. pp. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9.) Lemer 1978). the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. law. Deut. trans. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. Cain pp. or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes..7. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. Genesis Rabbah.6). was the Babelers were not being scattered. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. p. to teach. then. 1972).3.
NY: Edwin Mellen Press. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. hence. 1-5." Memory of Peter C. . Robert Sacks. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. which who essay was seminal for them. Craigie (Sheffield. S. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. and to Leo Strauss. In a general way. I add that. MA: JSOT Press. 6. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. C. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. 1987). But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. Eugene Combs. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis.20 Interpretation 6. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story.. 1990). Due to space limitations. I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. 1988). As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss.
interpretation. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. No. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. 15 She has forgotten that hers. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. 16 She treats her were all children roughly.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. 3 when to give birth to their young. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. meet armed combat. Her toils caused foot can crush them. John's College.14 wings as if on high.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. 26. Vol. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. or that a wild beast might trample them down. You see. 1 .9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. as if they were not even in all vain. Sacks St. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. Fall 1998. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. Num 3. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. and who dwells city. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great.
The and single Hebrew word hul. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. David heard of it."18 Comments 1.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. Indeed. "I and father's house. forever Ner. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. 25 but facing battle from afar. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical. consume the of their gates. Whenever death defiles." a very will complex word. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. although almost as side. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. making it his stronghold. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe." Hos. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. 3:28 are of Afterward. it originally meant "to whirl. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. 2. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. javelin. 2Sam." . It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. His swill it from afar. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command.17 pinnacle. he is there. he said. and See notes to 26. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. Oh.
And to us. that book which begins see them dashed. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. king. Grant them graciously to us. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. it Psa. and go to the land of Benjamin. only to the book Judges. neither did you give them to them. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. The Book rule. else you would now be guilty. Judg. Exod." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. and often when first reading the word. trembles and writhes The land in pain. too. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. And the to their number. and dwelt in them. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. 23:5 Jer. from the dancers to their and took their wives. the prophetess. for the Lord's purposes . "Go and lie in in the vineyards. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. 15:20 Then Miriam. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. hands anger burned hot. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. Deut. and rebuilt the towns. according whom they carried off. Exod. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. the sister of Aaron. Then. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. saying.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. in her hand. then they went and returned inheritance. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. Benjaminites did so." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. and watch.
" If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. Ps. are on high. brings forth rain." English-speaking in this also recognize . 37:6 will bring was forth the light. out of his sight. But. angry them. thy judgments puffs at them. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. For this reason. I conceive me. 31:3. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. 51:5 Behold. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. inhabitant. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). was revisiting the day of his own birth. They look another. your vindication as Ps." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. tempest. Isa. as for his foes. pressed upon Saul. There is Jer. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. birth": as in our case. Job. brought forth in iniquity. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. and you forgot birth. in and your right as the noonday. and ISam. in visiting the day of birth. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. and sin did my mother Prov. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. their faces be aflame." and hence "to give Deu. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. it can also mean "to be in labor. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. they aghast at looks. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings.
To word understand used this passage. fostering in each life to own its signet. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. It is the whirling. dancing. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). of course. since. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. How different things Isa. In using such a harsh word. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. She. The question is. But quite even Job. 5. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. perhaps with beyond world. This. then. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . Yet we can all world. speaks to Job. 6. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. and are what they are. the joys of our world could never come to be. are 3. 8. has never known either burden or rein. an order for the first time. rhetorical. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. pain-ridden. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. Here. before her she was delivered of a son. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. 7. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech.
too. It is true that. or a Hebrew woman." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. Jer. has served you six years. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. female. but he him for favor. Hebrew man. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. all are there." daughter. my wife. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. and But if the slave plainly says. Small and great. And there are other passages. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. . and destroys it. that show his concern. go out free. "servant. is sold to you. years. ears to me. and the slave is free his lord. and like a hireling he waits for wages. 15:12 If your brother. great riches. so that no one should enslave a Jew. to oppressed go free. and in the seventh he shall go out free. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. sake. he shall serve you six you.26 Interpretation Exod. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. "I love my master. along many others. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. he shall serve six years. brought 9. but they were treated kindness: justly and . "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. to undo the thongs of the yoke. eye of my his slave. for nothing. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. I will not male or eye's female. When a man strikes the . 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. children. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. his brother. that was true. gave no answer. to and the man who and will give Israel. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. be your slaves. male and .
" time. the . what of those who dwell in house of clay. giving it a The signets. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. The trees of the Ps. of course have been out of the question. 104:16 LORD abundantly. Even from was within the human sphere.. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No.. There were always some men suffering it caused. they are an abomination: the eagle. I do God rose up? 10." answer can do none of these things. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. It is generations. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. it requires something like the concept of a signet. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. the stork. each thing can be be what it is. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. the heron according to its kind. and them yet he did have ox. the vulture.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. as we shall see. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. are watered bat. the cedars of . But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. ance The farm. roaming the hills as his pasture." This is the only verse. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. five hundred of them. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. the osprey. is 12. they and be eaten. it may seem. it will be a long journey. 11. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. Job but. "trust. that its us. The an furrow. the hoopoe. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. not certain what bird is meant. both for moved for others.
Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. but my know Zech. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. at least it is the can most write about. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. he will dwell on the heights. too. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. insofar as been domesticated. The hawk. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. 15. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care." 13. 16. two women wind was in their wings. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. silly beast. and in the heavens knows her times. 8:7 Even the swallow. and the turtledove. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. then. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. who despises the gain of stops oppression. people crane keep the time of their coming.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. must 14. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. lest they hold a bribe. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. ears his looking upon his hands. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. when if only in part. his place of defense who shakes . Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. their nests. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. and eyes and saw. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. and behold. had been domesticated. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. character that each 17. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. In them the birds build trees. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses.
you though your nest says the among the stars. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. LORD. is high. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. twice. is in the not Job. 10 "Go ahead. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. his of water be sure. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. pride of your whose says the LORD. and Jer. 14 Then you. bring clefts will down from there. but I have no answer. you who your Obad.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. in returning to flow off into death. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. 1:3 heart has deceived you. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. and you must let me know. did for its children all that the charm to do. The ostrich. 48:28 Jer. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. for your own right have saved . thence I bring down.4 even would praise you. The cold and more grotesque. 18. who hold the height I will of hill. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. Bind their faces in would obscurity. the hawk. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. How my hand upon my mouth. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. however. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. 5 I have spoken once. sixth as beast. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. 13 Bury them all in the dust. me dwelling set say in heart. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. 49:16 Leave the cities. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. has been defeated. Look upon every man of him. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. high and the pride of your heart. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. his bread will be given him." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. you inspire has deceived you.
30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. He is the mighty one. He eats fodder just like the cattle. had been what God had wanted. But the Tempest will go. convinced him that Elihu was right. and his teaching is not a but an 3. hiding in the reeds and the fen. If Job's this not point. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. or his head with fishing his head. or with you to be your eternal his nose. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. here is whom I made along with you. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. 18 His bones iron.8 21 He lies down the lotuses. beyond man is no place for a man. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. and you will remember war no Comments no answer." again "asking. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. his warning was just. "Have you an arm like God's.9 brook in him." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. Indeed. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways. Again it says. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you." 2.6 of brass. confident that the Jordan will mouth. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. who would plead my case? . God's argument is. and if by court of law.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. I believe. under and all the beasts of the field play. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. but he did not. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)".
111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. the first 8. however. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. . behemoth 5. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. . Prov. however 6. of The LORD acts of old. 8:12 . in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. dwell in prudence. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. fools despise and whatever you instruction. We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. of wisdom Prov. being lous nor mythical. than the beasts of the earth. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice." "His bones are ducts brass. however. These do cosmos. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. I. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. "laugh" or . created me at the beginning his work. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. and I find knowledge of and discretion. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. is this: Get wisdom. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . Compare Ps.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. 4:7 The get. with you . not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. Man is 7. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. are all who teaches us more The verbs. his wisdom. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. God is joking. clearly are of mythic proportion. "Behemoth cattle. get beginning insight. iron. of It is. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. . His praise endures for Prov." in the made masculine singular. Appropriately enough.
that she had laughed. 10. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play. But from the Gen. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. is usually translated "oppress. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. "Why did Sarah laugh. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. child. Gen. and you shall call his name Isaac. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. There is. making it his drinking foun tain. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen. I fear. 17:18 is ninety years old." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. for the pounding. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. tyrannizing river. a and said to himself. now that and say. "No. "After I have my husband is old. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind." Joy and happiness are another matter.32 9. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. however. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. saying. He finds Thus. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter." looking at each usage. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. The half-mythic.
saying. whom you brought up out of the Moses. came have brought among us. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. his marry his daughters." and Sarah shall have son. for land of Egypt. in the saying. you laugh". place. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous." the But he seemed to be jesting. Then came the golden calf: Exod. came "See. every one hears will laugh me. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. 21:6 city. "No. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. Next . he with me. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. son whom she had borne Abraham. but certainly the betrayed him. And Sarah said. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. "Go down. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. and I cried out with a loud voice. 26:8 also was actually doing. Gen. He said. have corrupted themselves. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. "I did laugh. and the people sat down to eat and drink. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen." a But Sarah denied. playing her Isaac.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. for she was afraid. "Up. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. up to play. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. and rose your And the LORD said to people. "The Hebrew servant. in to me to insult me.
by them I shall be held in honor. "It was before the LORD. . so down together. before the LORD." pillars. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. who chose father. David. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head.34 Interpretation Judg." has slain his thousands. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great." said to Joab. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. for the oxen stumbled. "Call Samson. And in his each caught arise. "Saul thousands. Israel. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. and he made sport before them. at Gibeon. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. the abased and above all people of the his house. 2Sam. and he died there beside the God. and mocked them. They made him stand between the us. they said. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. 2:14 And Abner us. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. but they laughed them to scorn. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon.
wisdom. it?" Eccles. and I find knowledge and discretion. 8:31 Prov. Prov. and a time dance. 1:26 Prov. firebrands. there is no quiet. dwell in prudence. I you. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. . 7:3 Eccles. for Eccles. Ps. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. and death. arrows." and of pleasure. I will mock when panic strikes I. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. the LORD has them in derision. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. "It is mad. and money answers everything. Selah. Prov. all the him. dost laugh nations in derision. 10:23 beside him. 3:4 to a time to weep. at the but the LORD laughs coming. saying. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. Jeremiah is not quite the same. 8:12 . O LORD. 2:4 Ps. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. also will laugh at your calamity. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. 59:8 But thou. at them. Sorrow is better than laughter. 31:10 . It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. the fool only rages and laughs. is vanity. Prov. so is the laughter of fools. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. rejoicing before him always. laughs at the time to come. and a time to laugh. and wine gladdens life. a time to mourn. Eccles. Strength and dignity her clothing. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. like a master workman. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. closer to what we finds another strain.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. he will snatch and tear you tent. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. 2:2 I said of laughter. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. for he sees that his day is Ps. "I am only joking!" Prov. Prov. and I was daily his delight. . and shall laugh your from of the at living. wicked. and fear. "What use is Eccles. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. however. 14:13 Prov.
and your wounds Jer. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. I will heal. every one mocks me. Then our mouth was with laughter. the we were like those and our dream. I have become a laughingstock the day. however. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. "The LORD has done things for them. thou hast deceived me. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. shall not small. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. Zech. I and the palace shall stand used to be. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. When her . and I was deceived. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. thou art than I. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. says LORD. I sat because thy hand was upon me. Was thieves. I did alone. Jer. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. I will make them honored. 48:26 "Make him drunk. and they be be few. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam.36 Interpretation Jer. him and he too shall be held in derision. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. and have compassion on his dwellings. and the voices of those who make merry. multiply them. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. But he also has another notion of laughter. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. Jer. then they among nations. nor did I rejoice. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. and thou hast prevailed. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion.
Luke 6:21. 9:24. a simple. Job the outcast. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. and there was her. 3:14 Ezek. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. 25. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. The much subject was and bound to come up. mocking at her downfall. guilty men. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. .The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. the a side which had always been a part Job and. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. and of rulers At kings they scoff. if to judge by different from the others. Mark 5:40. for they like the wind and go they make sport. James 4:9). They laugh at heap up earth and take on. 1:10 contains much. every fortress. But there of was another side of we are laughter. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. laughter in the Book of 8:53. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. the burden of their day says long. for it Hab. Mat. and does not even hear the drivers shout. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. whose it. but hills as his pasture. and every green thing is his to search out. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. Lam. none to help her. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. made him all his trouble. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends.
Yet it is Lear shadow". Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. and over all the earth. this relation is seems to Dane. and even their sex. and over every of the . Job has come to learn from nature. the brother." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. as we put have from the ostrich. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. Eliphaz once had he has seen. With Job. "Let us make man in our image. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. and over the cattle. and one of the things he learned. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. "It is I. On this question. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. To that extent. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. Hamlet.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. . . mountains yield him produce. and over the birds air. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. Job has come. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. of nature. their iden tity. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. but not to it. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . Some English translations 12. continually changing their clothing. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. At one first. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. after our likeness. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. 3:8 and 13. wings on high. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. 1 :26 and Then God said. at fear and is not dismayed." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic.
18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. and and shall be raised above the hills. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free." 39 So God created man in his created him. people of sons after you. to slaves of inherit as a them. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. "subdue" "dominate. the and all the nations shall flow to it. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there." It should be noted that both words. with harshness. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. In many Isa. the land lay before them. it is only a in which he learn about play. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. and say: of "Come. "subdue" In addition.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. and God said to them. but the beyond is not ours. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. and their spears into pruning hooks. male and female he fruitful and multiply. but the he must perform now. We cannot divide it up and as we will. is not a world and 14. not as a thing for us. earth. you may make brethren the another. and subdued them as slaves." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. in the image of God he created them. ways 15. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. to the house God Jacob. Josh. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. many of the peoples shall come. and over the And God blessed them. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. sword against nation. . But it is not the same. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. and they shall into plowshares. He judge between the beat nations. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. let of us go LORD. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. Jer. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play.
stand. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. quaver." times. He is king over all the sons of pride. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . for he was made to dread. or exploits or the grace of his frame. 11 fire escape. and bronze as rotton wood. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. wait.13 cast as a nether millstone.18 26 He sees every towering thing. word mean but along it a sense of dread.2 Do up. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. fused all together. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. nor They spear. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. and not a his shields7. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. 15 Festoons of flesh. 17 "When he sion.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw.'"9 Comments 1. 12 From his cauldron. could. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. rises up. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. and terror dances before him. up by a breath between them. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. nor lance. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. "to or so I believe. 9 Each closed8 seal. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. It too. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards. 14 His strength resides his neck. the gods are in dread. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone.
YaChaL. loose my his hand and cut me off! . We have heard those Isa. the Ps. I rain. That is to say. for something to say. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. The first has replaced the second. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. apart from their being for us. on a with. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. I have no higher expectations. falling silent to hear counsel. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. but there came only a murk. till they stood longer 2. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. till they had finished speaking. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. which deals with our relation to the world of man. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation.
and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. The word. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. means "to be whole or word complete. His his sons were was honored but he unaware." 4. shlm. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. like the in the wilderness. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. The "brutal" word seems. They with were in disgrace. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. and with the might of fact." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job." From it Hebrew So for "peace. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. then. You have resigned. in already begun. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. mangled never overpowered man. knew it. word 'akf'zar. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. Job has nonhuman. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. Then the within fifty-two days. and he has and sent him off." Neh. and in which he for itself. But that knowledge rouse may admire. but he and His body surrounds him pain. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. The comes the root of this word. One of them reads: give the Lam. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. occurs which I have translated "brutal. So. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. away.
it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself." by all to his the scales. unlike Job. on me and casts me into the hands guilty ." 7." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. In that sense. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. "Go. it means that the spoke Leviathan. then. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past." oil rest. of. however. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. dead beast shall be his. sell the live on the lift. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. If He should pass by and separate or close up. 8. meganim. The again. is to "make whole. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. and its owner has not kept it in. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. It might help. cannot by No one can touch him. case. mean normally In either of means "to shield. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm." debt. If. know him from the Here it is taken outside only. God sets the wicked to close in men." importance winnowing kind. defend.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. It leaves always room restitution. he pay ox for ox. from the root mgn. in the however.
in the world beyond man. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate." all others. "signet. closed entranceway. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. For us it is ugly. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. "tight. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. and the face of the deep Again. For the world beyond man. has. or constrictive: "stick. ness. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. for the Leviathan. of murk and confusion. But. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. complete. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. Job has seen the Leviathan. 9. At best. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. fused (dbq) all together. shameful. the Leviathan does Job's skin. from the way." his completion and perfection. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. dabhaq. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11." away from all other beings. off. the list is . are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. tight itself." sar. as stone. flesh. 12. my heart gone after my eyes.44 Interpretation One cannot up. become that which seals it hotam for Job. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
" and 5. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes." sorrow or Like the English word. I who am but dust ashes. as ." meaning to them. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. The root nhm means understood in the text.epher we'phar. "upon." one assumes ashes." These passages. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. by the way. that the book was conceived of as a whole. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. . The the root m 's fundamentally Again. for instance. however." where it "to It is found in Ps." wenihamti. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption." or is." 'al. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. in itself. one more reason for believing tion. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other." to be behind their understanding of the verse. 58:8. if one feels sorrow guilt. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. 18:27 the Abraham answered. we have returned to Chapter One. there seems "to feel deep compassion." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. "Behold. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. of course. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination. can establish in the world of the small. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6. have expected but it would not be so . and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not." and is. He is value. But to others for something that one has done. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. one feels remorse. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . means "to despise" "reject. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now. require as Greenberg does. Linguistically speaking." but. normally as 'el. Also see Gen. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. and repentance.
them over. . living in a nutshell. 8. 11. 9. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. destruction. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. ." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. death's first born his members. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. but . that wonderful woman of the night. and Joshua 2:13 . my brothers and sisters. and save alive and mother. that the moths eaten. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. Remember Aaron. 10. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. Gone is the vocabulary. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. will consume His be away. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . Rahab: my father them. sisters each one on a different with day. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. yet his soul. Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire.50 Interpretation 1. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow.
"Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. Shechem's father. His might is in the muscles of his belly. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. ten thousand of cattle. What was not possible before has now become actual. and Zophar the Naamatite. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. were another one came in and said. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. or even eat a crust of when bread alone.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. Gen. fodder just like the cattle. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. inheritance of the descendants 14. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. it became Joseph. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. strength in his Now. eating joyous unity. It fell down . at the end of the book. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. but look at the loins. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. 13. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. Bildad show Shuhite. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. 12. three thousand camels. not snuffed out the life of its owners. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. after character and become an act of simple Job's return.
It is from the words It is a new Job. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. including the being his 16. so far for the things as I was able. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. also called pukf1. keren happuli1: the first two ful. antimony. They are dead. Then. qesi'a. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. and marble. We remember to his friends: his his day. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. this name? second word. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. and wood and stones wood. 18. stones. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. in the prophets. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. The Book rection. "day. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. Jezebel heard of it. and looked out of the window." are. Job himself becomes word yom. And you. or all the things that a self.52 Interpretation the young people. came to Jezreel. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. Job 3:1 Then. "cassia. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. O desolate one. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. too." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. and she painted her head. the iron for the things iron. As such it became. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. in English. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. the silver of of my God. all sorts of precious stones. of silver.
It "horn. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. 33:17 ox. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. to begin at the beginning. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. tent. that the skin of skin of face shone. for I sons. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. he anointed. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. "My exalted in the LORD." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. because I ISam. His bull has majesty. qeren. my derides my enemies. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. to the ends of the earth. and they were afraid to come near him. and he veiled his power." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. have Samuel. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. hence. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam." 53 us look at the first word. rays Hab. all of them. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. and went to Ramah. will give strength his king. said.The Book of Job Now let name "horn." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. against he thunder in heaven. My mouth rejoice in thy . behold. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. until in to speak with him. Then they blew the trumpet. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. Moses' his face shone. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. salvation. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. And Samuel priest took the rose up. flashed from his hand.
89:17 I say your to the horn. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. stronghold and my refuge. in whom I take refuge. I have for prepared a Ps. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. Linguistically. I have driven my horns into dust.54 Interpretation Ps. "Do not lift For thou exalted. and made loud music on harps and lyres. 75:4 up Ps. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. praise all his saints. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. my savior. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. 27:2 be Exod. my rock. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. of course. thou . art the of their strength. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin." not and to the wicked. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. trumpets. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people." boastful. cymbals. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. 22:3 of My God. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. Often the Psalmist Ps. too. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. to the sound the hom. my me from violence. for Israel who are near to him. "Do glory boast. And. and the IChron.
"I the will see you. so as to not mislead ourselves." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. barren. and his house because of Sarai. wife. and when . we shall have to consider the full list. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. Jacob loved Rachel. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. "Behold. for your younger and he said. so he said. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. Rachel. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. Abram's And ultimately. though perhaps somewhat naive man. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. and said to him. 'This is his wife'. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. 19. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. will they will say. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. in have to be Song its of Songs. We have not. Leah's soft. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. and she . then they kill but they let you live. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. there is also good. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah." "Lord. to Sarai." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. But God sister. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. you are a a dead man. And Leah conceived and bore a son. because of the woman whom you have taken. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. cluded however. saw Gen. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. man's wife. Gen. they praised her to Pharaoh. he said to Sarai his behold. he opened her womb. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way.
and said. for she said. in her hard labor. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. "God has judged me. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. And he went out of Leah's tent. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. and she called Simon. And midwife said to as her." them. Bethlehem). but he did into Leah's tent. so she called his name Naphtali. but did not find them. and entered Rachel's. 31:32 it. she envied or her and she said to Jacob. she reacts not with gratitude. but with a demand for Gen. therefore she called his name Dan." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live." She my affliction. but at a very heavy price: Gen. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. Then Rachel said. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. 30:6 When Rachel sister. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. "Give children. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). she called his name Benoni. "Because the LORD has looked me. voice and given me a has also heard my son". but his father buried Benjamin. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. and two maidservants. And she her father. and sat upon all about the tent. said to me. for the way of women is upon So he searched. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. Rachel travailed. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. and take know that Rachel had stolen them. he has given me this son also". 30:1 Gen. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. Laban felt . (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. "Fear called not. and have prevailed". 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph.' and she had hard labor. the have son. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. but did not find the household gods. saying. So Rachel died. and into the tent of the not find them. When she finally does have another: a son of her own.
. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. "Lie with master's me. the . 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. for when this is ISam." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. they first seven fat cows. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. and had and was handsome. . Deut." ISam. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. Now he he. 41:2 and fat. David. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. 16:12 And he sent. him. and said. he was a Calebite. And the LORD said. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. for it. Nonetheless. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. but all that again it led to grave problems. Gen. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. anoint and was ruddy. Abigail: ISam. and the name of his wife Abigail. for blood be made pollutes the land. the [beautification] in it. a youth. he disdained appearance. but the ill-behaved.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. David was beautiful: brought him in. and saw and him. except can for him the land. "Arise. Joseph. behold. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. was Joseph himself beautiful. . beautiful eyes. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah.
But he would not he forced her. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. I saw Absalom hand. Absalom and struck him. but king knew her ." hand. had a beautiful sister. . and when the king came to see him. 14:27 There were name was Tamar." of her. Joab's armor-bearers. nurse and ministered to him. he weighed weight. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. the and she became the king's not. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. from the sole of . alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. David's son. "I king). and told hanging in an oak." with And he took three darts in his of hand. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. my than she. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. Absalom he riding his mule. and brought her to the maiden was king. lie with her. and she was a beautiful woman. 2Sam. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. and left hanging between heaven earth. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. and after a time Amnon. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. Amnon said to the king. with listen to her.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. if I had dealt the will aloof. and killed him. while the mule that was under him went on." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. her. "Behold. oak. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. On the other Joab. David's son. his head and fast in the oak. hair his head. when was heavy meet on him. loved her. 13:1 Absalom. Amnon lay down. and being stronger to me. and pretended to be ill. and found Abishag the Shunammite. "Come. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. born to Absalom three sons. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. he took hold sister. his foot to the . The very beautiful. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. whose name So Tamar. he it). but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam.
and He had brought up Hadassah. for themselves: is Ps.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. therefore God has blessed for ever. and and do not capture you with Prov. Jer. Esther's beauty saved her people. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. baldness. a there will be rottenness. 5:18 Behold. as and when her father and her mother died. of perfume Isa. when she has done vile . 6:25 far north. Ps. and instead Isa. Eccles. for of a this is his lot. Mount Zion. scarlet. they seek your life. that is Esther. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. for the customs of the peoples are false. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. her eyelashes. Jer. 10:3 lovers despise you. but a woman who fears the praised. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. And you. LORD is to be beauty is vain. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. Eccles. a girding of sackcloth. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. shame. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. the maiden was beautiful lovely. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. the city of the great King. grace you poured upon your lips. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. also he has put eternity into man's mind. 4:30 hair. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. for fair to behold. instead of beauty. in let her Prov. and instead of a rich robe. they will behold a land rope. 33:17 Jer. A tree from the forest is cut down. Esther 2:7 uncle. Men beautify so that gold. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. O desolate one. is the joy of all the earth. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. 3:24 Instead girdle.
You to regal estate. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. and your cloth. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. offering made harlotry. says the Lord GOD. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . in the length of its branches. Son of man. I have cast it out. made they hung Ezek. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. . The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. they perfect your beauty. and say to him. 9:15 that thirst. 27:4 any passer-by. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. "Is beauty. iniquity was found in you. your builders beauty. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. 31:7 exposed you before kings. you. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. they shall devour and . 2:15 with goodly fruit". . nor the fir trees equal its boughs. renown. for down to abundant waters." I Ezek. and played the harlot because of your . 33:32 And. and its heart was its height. but they will not do it. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. lo. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. towered proud of Ezek. you ate raiment was of fine linen." Ezek. cast you to the ground. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. that were in the garden of God. "But trusted in beauty. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. you then exult? The LORD once called you. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. . and were in your towers. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. for they hear young and men shall say. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. And silk. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. high Eden envied it. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. and its branches will be consumed.
saying. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. 27:4a Why family. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. you shall give them . of Gilead. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. at the door of the tent of meeting. 20. and before the leaders and all the congregation. And are the LORD said to Moses. Milcah. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. the next phrase Num. The names of his daughters Mahlah. Noah. Our father died in the wilderness. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. son of Hoglah. and new wine the maidens. but died for his sin. The text continues: Num. the daughters have received an inheritance. but only a dowry. Had there been a son.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. Zelophehad Mahlah. And they stood before Moses. Num. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. and before Eleazar the priest. Thus. and Tirzah. Milcah. corners of be full like bowl. Hoglah. son of Manasseh. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. for like the jewels of a Yea. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. "The daughters Zelophelad right. Noah. and he had no sons. Machir. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher.
son of Joseph. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. The only. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. 'If dies. they said. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. tribe. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. saying. And if he has daughter. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. came near son of Manasseh. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. tribal the women inheritance is paramount.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. Milcah. and Noah. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. Tirzah. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. Hoglah. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. then his inheritance to his brothers. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. for Mahlah. it inheritance. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. daughters of Zelophehad. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. and has no son. In the case of Zelophehad." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. tribe to another. however.
men are empty and life is without taste. in turn." Without these would must be no life. Of what do they speak? Of the com. there would be no bread. nothing is said dowries. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. as we have seen. there and us." clashing for human One said while friendship. They be taught. This insight. however. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. there would no way to live as "one of com. by the fathers and some by the mothers. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. the two refused to mesh. . the way to go out on the hunt. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. beauty. of his daughters. The inheritance is outright and absolute. and it is the children who must learn them. the and all way to These some bury the dead. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together.The Book of Job Job's daughters. "just" by the For Job. led. ways must be taught they must be learned. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. the way to bake bread. and a need of clarity. be and of the ways. Without whole. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. Still. from sex been Since self-control. After tality seek marriage and family. 221d). those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. important texts on the theme of eros. Charmides. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue.5 Furthermore. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). not mutu Pit. "oddness. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue." p.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). with some effort to answer that I did. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). 507a-c. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. particularly restraint indulgence. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. an elenctic investigation begun. 306b). the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. if ally exclusive (North 1966. at Symp. 97). 714). (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962.
" he says. For the second. 210a-212a). who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy.Drama. is. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. to quotation of return Cydias. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. Narrative. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). pregnant If this is the case. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. inward say. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. face. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. try to teach the other. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. Like children. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. Indeed. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. distinguished. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. at least potentially. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. like his describes. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). rather than ugly ones. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). eternal rates beauty (Symp. and good. despite body. and gifted soul. least if self-control might presence. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. just as a fawn . certainly will he would never anything ugly. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. someone who is both kotos and. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities.
The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. but did not drink its blood. Socrates. fond of lambs. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. hunting (Dover. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. has not always been recognized as such. him to finally renewed reflection. I caught a fawn in my claws. 241e). the perception of their own lack knowledge. inversion the expected im age. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. 1978. For of example. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done. an pp. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. the aporia has a beneficial element. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. just so do lovers love 165). Halperin 1985. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. First. In both cases. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. with trust in my strength. in singing. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. Socrates' (241d). The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. 81-91. 58.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. right out from under hind. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. p. of citation of the line from Cydias. Sim sus ilarly.6 Third. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. or as a hunter tracking game. of which three come immediately to mind. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers.
"So Charmides. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. only if a with the power to momentarily." he most likely means Charmides became. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. which as a manifestation of anteros. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. also interprets the quotation in this sense). Narrative. Socrates to replies in kind then. in which Charmides. to speak. p. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will. he must mean us to go along with the game. pursuer. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. p." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. or . Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. a lover might approach his beloved. lion. we can see that dialogue." you resist me Socrates answers. If we do." no one will be able to resist him. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. 92. respectively. I thought how fair youth. "don't (176a-d)." realization of his desire to be Socrates. who. and devour (McAvoy 1996. catch. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. Critias. when. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. Another reading. If Charmides' either. pursue. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. When Socrates says.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. perceiving his craving for Charmides.Drama. also reads the text in this way). 90. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. he devoured appetite. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles.
). he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. 210a. If is . his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. Soc speak. or the entire body charm and the soul as well. The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). but he does not condemn the desires of either party. Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). which cf. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover.72 Interpretation merged. step. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). and actually help nurture the Symp. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. philosophos (154e-155a). relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. 155e). Socrates' Halperin 1986. someone suitable body. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better.
e. From that on on. In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. Phil. that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. showing modesty generally. the element of to doing (163e-164d). penulti rung (episteme). and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. Rep. Charmides. like walking and talking with deliberate. possibility.Drama. and goodness (to agathon. and. and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice.g. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. 457b). Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. Narrative. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. (161b-163d). diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. level again. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). (160d-161b). seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). (17 le) Socrates. however. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. expands his logos nomoi. own" every member of a city. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne.g. In other dialogues. as would a so governed. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. see Larson 1951).
pp. Lysis. Laches. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. Phaedo. and Republic. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. pp. here eros. Kahn 1996. As an example. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. 1988. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. as it turned out. 541-49). vision. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. 56-70. would not had. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). ostensibly. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. 148291. to topic. Rather.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. especially the Symposium. Sadly for Socrates. any case.
" this . One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. 1988. (1977. since he can speak 4.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. p. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. concern " for p. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. in Kahn's work 203-9. For the 5." observation has been p. 146). 187-88). . 54-55. and Kahn (1996. p. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. for example. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. principles 542-46). 25. I to resist what had been an this. by Mahoney (1996. (For an pp. so to speak. Donald Watt's translation (1987. This recently. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. together with his irresistible passion . puts 6. 82). 3.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. thing. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. [Cydias] said. Hyland (1981. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. 154). proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. Narrative. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. the Symposium." "dates" with conversations. 73 n. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. in the Laches. as here. he also thought. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. pp. p. handsome boy. p. Plutarch. 102. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. Jowett 1961. 2. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. not opposing view. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. McAvoy (1996. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. 7. pp. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. 27) and. like in advising fawn in front of a lion. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. more 184). possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. p. Cf. he "[Cydias] for the beast. that thought the experience. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. pp." measuring-line about such a person. 'Take care not to go as a meat. Alcibiades. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. but in those works he does not.Drama." someone.
Sophrosyne. "Socratic Politics Charmides. 1966. Kahn (1996. T. "self-control. C. Page. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10." REFERENCES Bruell. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. p. 1978. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. D. Cambridge. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. Hanmondsworth. It is with Menexenus. C.. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. E. H. Hyland. D." 161-204. trans. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. 1996. 1986. Benitez. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. The Collected Dialogues. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy.." Dover. Hamilton H. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. Ed. M. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. 1977. 1961. D. 1988. C. D.4). 1986. McAvoy. In T. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. Plato. 1996. 63-103. Charmides. J. Eng: Penguin. Saunders. Nussbaum. MA: Harvard University Press. Potae Melici Graeci. Cairnes. and Jowett. NY: Cornell University Press. C. 99-122." Mahoney. 1985. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. 1987. . ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Pp. Griswold. 1962. 1981. Oxford: Oxford University Press. M." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. B. trans. University Larson. K.76 Interpretation 9. Kahn. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. L. 1951. 1996. Greek Homosexuality. Pp." Dialogues of Plato. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. Charmides. eds. Cambridge: Cambridge Press.. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge.. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. In E. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. Ithaca. 1988. Athens: The Ohio University Press. 163-209. North. Watt. Pp.
and his himself. was becoming of a tyranny. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. No. 1 . because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions. was an out-and-out bourgeois. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. Vol. Fall 1998. Like Marx. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. and on prudential about grounds. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. 26. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans.
The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. but treasonous criminals. while partiality to whom one's own country. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. but punishment. however. the on account of the war being a civil one. see his thought and his peculiar genius. yet it must also execute partially American traitors.78 Interpretation privilege. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. who are gland. Justice has two different aspects. The law from corrupting one another. also the nature of law to be just. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. Its force . His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. Yet. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. rebels. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. On temptation. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. and foreigners. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. there is a strong of as the part of the British. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. In doing so. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. rather than law. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. fight the to rebels using the an law. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. A disobeyed be effectual. It is. love of country is a defense foreign domination.
The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny.5 melancholy are not. however. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. (P. public spirited reasons. They vitiate their politics. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. but they have not lost their humanity. proposing a policy. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. because and piety. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. bringing generality with hate. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. Their cynicism and 177). In order to maintain the integrity of law. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. they wish for peace (p. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. for pursuing peace. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. a hostile light. necessity Although law the common good. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. when the communion of our country is dissolved. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. Britain's combination. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. They have lost confidence in justice. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. or rather confusion. devoid of hope. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. Of most all wars. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. they corrupt their morals. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice.
. blurs the difference be (p. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. is behaving like who appear tyrant. by treating innocent citizens inequitably.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. contrary. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. 179). 179). Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. to infamy to punishment. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. the British themselves. . rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. in fact. therewith. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. In fact. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. third. they take the confiscated cargo. and then distribute a war themselves. the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. rather giving it to treasury (p. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. by treating fourth. The determination a it. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). 178). inconsistently. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. proper. Hatred determines the crime. as long as it shall think . It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. to enable administration to confine. because. but. than law. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. second. defeat. and. The determination infamous action. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. 178).
This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. because it is blinded by its own indignation. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. both. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. 180). Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. tried ac cording to form. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. that they will become savage. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. the absence of justice. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. peace. rather than the the crime. VIII (p. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. After strength not is American should defeats. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. therefore. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. should the ment English be victorious. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. but not according to justice. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. (pp. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. The accused is. and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. Parliament its proper time and place. 181-82). tying half dead in England). 180). Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. object of their own insults. taking their goods. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. therefore. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. far from making the British godlike. . ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war.
justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. But. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. instead of of taking out the sting. parliament is incapable of such prudence. 182). that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. like the deter pirates. never mind possible. This offense to threat to political liberty. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. liberty principle. Burke says general venoms equity.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. far as he tell. 186). naval men as they were allowed to go free. 188). therefore. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. by breaking draws the first principle of law. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. At the end of the war. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. . justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. It hardly seems just. 184). this action. because it between citizens. the limiting qualification. to punish the exchanged prisoners. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. far from being the opposed to manners. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. but its to the corruption of manners. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. But the British punitive. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. as a life was given in return for a life. however. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments.
Burke raises the the unknown. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. have with doses of fear. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. He even speaks as courage justice. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. the attachment to country. he says unknown a reality. despite American defeats. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. be can fore they be enlightened. if only through fear. . 191). The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. made the reminds them British feel invincible). In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. dark. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. 189-90). and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. in love of country. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. The British must doubt themselves. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. He speaks to the consciences. of concern But. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels.
No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. Far from man's of being cowards. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. states to the . They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. manliness and cowardice judgement. With the awakening of their interests. rather than to punish and to subjugate. when in triumph. Burke has for his plan. actually the hypocritical others. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. any without civil wisdom or military skill. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. that it is directed by insolent passion. is in the eyes of God and man. they their country. helpless creature. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. show little are content to real magnanimity. order to render others contemptible and wretched. contending for a violent (P. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. pride of a coward. pair facing the Brit ish. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. being that crawls on the earth. 199). contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. the taxes. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. far from being manly. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. calling for battles which but his servility to it. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. Those in favor of the war. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. dominion in which he cannot exercise. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead.
therewith. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. and be trusted. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. above the voices of many. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. rather than certain tyranny. Just a short time . In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. both addresses popular and parliamentary. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. (1774). 195). as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. and Burke shows As things stand. the Americans must trust in themselves. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. He is the people doubt Parliament and. to risk with defeat their own arms. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. they must earn that trust. cynicism. themselves. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. the Americans are virtually alone. He is cautious in his blame. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. therefore. to be the for the the war in England. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. the power under will be popularly recognized as such.
Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. Now. The people are. Par liament must. when public . by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. Parliament to tax the Americans. because the British had suffered defeats. therefore. waves of chance and. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. at best. 205). The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. even though right of they have no representation. so as to offend the people. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. that it is not will be resisted. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. he can accuse aggrandizement. I must attend to public opinion. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. He is thereby domestic politics. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. (P. 207) omnipotence. rather than oppress it. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. but people. having recently tasted victory. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. beg leave to observe. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. it may be the mind. be governed. therefore. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. granted social rights (pp. 210-11). its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets.
not because of a perverse humor. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. as a defense of freedom in general. Parliament must be heard. doing what one wills. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. religion more the monarchy. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. like authority. just in they are needed (p. They practicing (the god of this lower world).Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. In light freedom. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. to be mistaken. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. they embody than parlia ment. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. ment. and. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. . any more than is sover of eignty. through pressures placed on. 211). If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. politics. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. parliament can no longer legislate religion. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. Compromise If the in the the and reform. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. however. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. as it was by the New Whigs. rather theory require tions for injustice. from. 208). Freedom is not an abstract principle. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. Freedom. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. freedom others. It requires compromise. and even independence. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. Burke is quick to point out that.
One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. Abstract ideas . of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. General theories passions. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. Moments authority lived. they claimed to embody mankind. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion.88 thus. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. thus denying claimed the church. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. rather than cod ified. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. because it is a principle of compromise. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. In abstract theory. rather than acknowledges the hate. collective are bom from disappointed trust. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war.6 ire of an atheist. of man and the absolute hand. the aristocracy. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. The British Parliament the authority of a god. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. and savage cruelty. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. they affection.
is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. their persecutors. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. and executions. in particular.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. and the tence. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. The legislator must whole. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. horror. In not fact. The Reflections. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. and especially to science. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. confiscations. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. though in theory. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. broke faith.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. malice. greed. They destroy . just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. guilt. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. In this.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. the aristoc and monarchy. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it.
philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. philosopher. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. humanity (Pp. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. It is who are undoubtedly true. ranks. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. is at their horizon like their horizon. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. but things. they from love men too little. united them as a people. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. they of any interest. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. though it may paradoxical. The legislator have of in his soul. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. . Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. . which means they have feasted exclusively on satire.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. Like the of the good seamstress. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. but in general. nor fanatic visionary. . he teaches limits of both. because moderation they are defi must in love. Their them. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- . but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. offices. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. God. that they . Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil.
Legislation is deliberative p. Its rebel to be used against them. they to represent and to secure those interests. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. creating Burke does. rats. however.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. unique character of Geometry. In formative act. however. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. a mathematical order. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. like promises proportion. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. atomism except by a principle of order. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. and exist in much greater clearness. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. 524). These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. which of it. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. an un geometry differentiated mass. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control.12 chemistry. the uniqueness of human beings 301). in fact. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. to have the power of ordering. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. cannot recognize the politics. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. At best. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. possibility (Reflections. therefore. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. chemistry and geometry can produce a association.
or to an equal share in government. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. 222). for America had. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. 215). Burke opposed abstract was against began. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. To the contrary. such. By having right to everything they want everything. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. then there must be moral . If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. If there are to be compromise and freedom. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. (P. The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. about the parts are at (p. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. give repealing the tax. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. to tax in order to restore American trust. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. developed its own Ideological differences.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. 221). of government. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants.
He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. The people are the product of the constitution. The as are though people dis must. liberty.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. avarice. rather than connections of its sovereign. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. in which it depends. but trust that is called to account and office. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. should the people rule. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. however. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. therewith. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. satisfy those grievances. an Perhaps most important. they are too strong to oppose. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. natural Burke thought the rulers. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). therefore. but. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. and a brutality of accepting of political men.
Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. The origins are inferior to the end product. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. It is something to be Although He respected. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. force. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. Burke never thought reality. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. Burke believed that rational. He economics. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. . rather. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. . brings a degree of the common good. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. . History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. and beneficence. Contending for an imaginary power.15 The hidden hand is not. mind. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. however. To the contrary. because he never believed is not Hegel's state.
but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. but they can trust him. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. he and sought indignant fanaticism. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. espe cially in the great. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. 260. the latter necessarily corrupts. Capital I (Moscow. only because they have elected him. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. on hand. 1954) p. so or a misanthropist. to foster the love of Furthermore. (P. Karl Marx. disheartened and disgusted. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. The partial suspension. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. His Yet one cannot of visionary. Unlike Parliament. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. which which he lends credence. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. a God. Prudence makes the former feasible. C. So. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. he is in his self-right eous wrath. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. contains its abuses within it. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. B. to be grown in disrepute. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue.
Old Whigs. 1960). although ment. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. 439. pp. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. Furthermore. 431. pp. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. and the 7. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. CA: Sage. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. 533. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. Phaleas'. But he did give the any property. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. three sections of the city. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. they both ideas. vol. 31. In desire to know nature as a whole. p. p. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. 15-16. 6. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. portrait. CT: Greenwood Press. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. pp. wore by cheap whole. farmers. vol. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. 350-52. vol. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. 1994]) argument.96 else. 382-84. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. Eng. pp. 3. 7. Jackson Bate (Westport. pp. 9. a more participatory form vol. The Complete Writ 1945]. many other cities. 164. Works. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. his regime on the number 12. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. 1. remind one of the old man ed. Glorious 1984). page number alone are 3. 10. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. 8. p. 431-32. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. 2. 358. 4. 2. he denied and the artisans arms. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. jurors and . vol. and by looking at the man. In from looking to the number three for order. p. was cited within the text as Reflections. 282-83. but according to his fancy. Hippodamus models three. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. pp. and the 2. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. vol. Politics. and to Burke. 520. ultimate differences. 94. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. 282-83. There are three classes of citizens. vol. and three kinds of legal suits. 279. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. 101. W. tyranny (Thomas Paine. attempt 8.: Penguin. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. 5. 1854-89). Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. Edmund Burke. Works. in whose 6. of govern 3.
a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. 15.237). vol. of Chicago Press. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. 432. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. Works. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. 331-33. for men of action are often. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. Thus. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. not simply its evident usefulness. 77). Science. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. against abstract doctrine. p. 29. . Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. pp. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. p. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. vol. vol. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. rather than action. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. thus making an who improved the law. He honors for those individual judgement. 1993]. because he thought it made prudence impossible. as in the French Revolution. 431. pp. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. 1965]. 294-95. NJ: Transaction Publishers. In the Spirit of the Laws. When questioned. as opposed to natural rights. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. is taken from Montesquieu. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 6. pp. vol. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. who lives according to the actual. Reappraisal. 1984]. 2. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. 1987]. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another.9-10). 13. sanship. 348. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. Like Burke. 1. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. 1. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. rather than the presumptive. trans. 406-7. Canavan is for Burke life. and even expected. 1954)." the ruling majority and 14. that its authority depends habits of obedience. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. 470. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. of Chicago Press. (Harvey Mansfield. pp. 1949). the man of actual virtue. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. susceptible of of infinite improvement. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. Works. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. p. Thomas Aquinas. 1991].149-52). Canavan. pp. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular.
is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil." In interpretation. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. 26. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. 5. therefore. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. but are inseparably It is joined. 1 . No. 289). New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. Beyond Good Evil.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. the truth observation surface." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. it is incoherent. ." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. to interpret this drama. In the second. "deepest. Fall 1998. In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. Vol. but to those whom he "the wisest.1 As readers of the book. as it stands. . Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra. The first crests at the end of Song." Preface. argument and action.
he and wishes to "go down" to again." this account. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance.. Appealing directly to the multitude." however. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. however. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. however. of accordingly. It." But this his means "to be again. therefore. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest. then the distribution. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. he is met with incredulity. however." 8).g. This under persuading live.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. but as such to be more than human. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue. the superman. e. therefore. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue. the will to power proves to doctrine. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. ridicule and hatred. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions.4 If Zarathustra is human.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. Overburdened by its superfluity. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought.
all of of good and them. Behind the creator. The first of this wisdom will to power. That is to say. the first. its things. according to Zarathustra's understanding. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. the Still. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. according to Zara thustra. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples." "will to for the first time. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. however. he insists. acting in the light of its truth. em but rather what good and evil." 9)." Here he that if be made to speak. activity stands the legislator or. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. But being. root cause of all the will to power is the things. therefore." holy. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. the people.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. calls "praiseworthy. including his soul and mind. one Afterworldsmen. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. law. since. in accordance with its law. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. as Zarathustra calls him." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. speaks to man only being. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. . in the Aristotelian phrase. despite their variety. Persians. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end.
is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. indicates. however. To create great endeavor. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. overarching then. longer disciples. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. That the related political and aspects of claim. to a Virtue. It is this than human. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. but rather fellow creators. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). that he cities of men. human beings seems necessarily is. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. is Zarathustra's goal. therefore. to creating creators. divine. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. as it were. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. however. believes. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. it were. according in what to Zarathustra. At the close of Part One. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. in Zarathustra's own words. therefore. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. the coming to be of the superman. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends.102 We Interpretation see that.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. the to power. but identity between them. Zarathustra." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. law that is. perhaps. nite laws. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. a law that is.
At this culminating moment hind his veil. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. Zarathustra will. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. It almost goes without fails is the question. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. "the Great stand Noon. therefore. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue." things. as it were. it and as well." 1). the superhuman creator over his human creatures. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor." 3). will creators. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. reveal himself to a his career. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. Accordingly. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws." 3).The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. while bringing humanity first time. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. a natural law. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . create dom and. but animal gods are and superman. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it.
" victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge." in other words. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. the distribution of his author. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. appears independent inquiries. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. of course. of course. rushes his teaching. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . however. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. of latter. Neverthless. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. This interpretation. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. In "The Child which a child his disciples. however."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. as Zarathustra has argued." of first half his of Part Two. his venom. to be absurd. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. What and grotesque of a devil.104 Interpretation so ing The that. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. Nonetheless.
friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. that is. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. On the one hand. and this is men. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. therefore. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. disciples and. as through such distribution cre like himself. consequently. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. the com incoherent in its own terms. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. that is. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. to establish a community of and reciprocity. this condition with another. On the other hand. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. It . Moreover. Creation. therefore. therefore. made clear through stands following reflection.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality.
spite.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently." Consequently pedantry. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. he is in useful a state of aporia. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. with his wisdom. the punishment or desire for soul. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. but by self-mockery. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. ("On the Giving Vir 1). compatible with the moral law insofar tue. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. As "The Night Song" predicts. and the desire for revenge within his soul. wisdom. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. consequently. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame. revenge." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. As he puts giving." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido.
and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. the just as final political order. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. elaborating of the beautiful. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. that false horizon now of the is. and that. 381). The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. therefore. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. since. therefore. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. all human community established upon the basis of the law. in which the just is included as false appearance. He cannot painful beyond endurance. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. Thus if in Part . That is to say. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. of the rational good. Accordingly. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. that understood need on is. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. and the good.
g. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. Zarathustra's primary opponents. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. As is his habit. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]).. and however. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. Nevertheless. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). e. That is love were to say. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. however. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. happy. that is." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. In other words. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. "enemies" however. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. the longing for revenge. consequently. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. envy. Zarathustra blames his failures position. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life.
" Life. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. he says is." again and soon and. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. As a conse good and evil quence." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. in the infinite power of the will. "the good. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. however. spite. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine. The greatest good. he realizes. manifests itself in an infinite becoming. Without himself being aware of it.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. in expressing its or unlimited character. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. therefore. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. Be that it may. For the will. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. he also concludes that any particular vice." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed .
that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. wisdom and will and And. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. the creation of values. the false perspective of the moral law. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. 382. Ecce with all that was Homo. his desire for happiness as he understands it." he describes himself depths. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. the destruction of values. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . It is." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. . to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality." 2). will's "sublime" character good. But the "values. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. the possession of wisdom. for. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. from opposites." as a form of artful play. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. destruction of values as its Accordingly. good untouchable. law or or as he it there.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. himself to purchasing his its first principle. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. in clinging to his its freedom. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. he . necessarily the greatest evil. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. . as the highest good. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. naively (The Gay Science. of course.
of another like himself.207a). comes to understand the implications self. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. but ultimately to the generation." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. He listens carefully to these speeches. help lower level than his The reason for this . this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. As we have already observed." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. This fellow thinker is name within the work. however. Zarathustra himself has done. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer").12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. Plato. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. Symposium reproduction of his own good." as he calls it. its fundamental incoherence." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. his old moral teaching. truth. demolish it. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. in new doing so. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer. he values the admittedly political community. and. in some indefinite future. therefore." "now I love only my children's land. with caution and of subtlety. to the end of reproduc words. and create engendered. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. think through. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. As in the case of sexual intercourse.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. Zarathustra In other gives dren. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another.
Nevertheless. In words. just the prophet had predicted. despite the in some to this region of the dead. however. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. everything That is to say. but in terms of knowledge as well." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. therefore.. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. as it were. everything is one. In his dream Zarathustra has . serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. Thus."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. therefore. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. the future continues way . bursts open..14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. Consequently. Zarathustra the Third. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. become the "night-watchman death." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot.
however. the Machiavelli. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. This insight is cause. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. then. of therefore. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. Dis courses on Livy. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. From this low point.2). Zarathustra." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. at least at this point.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. not to willing all of the past. ." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer. the peoples must of Yet. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. namely. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). If. but to willing this willing. 1. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power.
his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. being is an Accordingly. . however. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. therefore. In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things. but every stone that is thrown . "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. must past and Accordingly. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. saying. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. . however. namely. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. "O Zarathustra high. . he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. eternal return of . the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . according the Zarathustra's current understanding. in which it may be willed. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. Thus. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence.
. When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. that was my disgust at all creation" existence. the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. all would be one. choked me and crept . Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man . knowledge would Thus. nothing be profitable. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. 21). Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. the life but is in creative great effect of in. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. of It is. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . as Zarathustra now describes it. that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. the that has crawled his throat. . of sickness" therefore. into my throat. that is. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. The presence of the low not only persists human life. Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. freedom will at its peak. the of the . paradoxically. "foreseeing" longer man. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another." Moreover.
In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. Far from having escaped the its justice. namely. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order.e. but." revenge. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. and that genu knowing will. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. its law and sway of the rabble." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. of not be given. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. however. of "justice" "freedom. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. is in accord with reason.. in Part Three. love and. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . on the one hand. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. Finally.21 need. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. however. the will and its desire for and i.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. the thought of the eternal return developed.
appears to offer a 11. 7. 202. It points to the Seth Benardete. parodies "wisdom. Beyond Good and Evil.22 upon in his wanderings. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. Writing"). That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. 10. On the simplest level." 3. 4. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. 4. As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. p. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. Behind the 6. Tablets. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. Cf. however. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. University of Chicago Press). 9. 1888. in that irrational. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. Preface. also see Ecce Homo." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption"). Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. Zarathustra. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. 153. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. Of course. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed." 5. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. 23). See "On Cf. In Part Three. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. 8.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. and therefore of being. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will.
" Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. Matter. XIII. what 53-54." "The Truthsayer. therefore. Cf. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. but only on that of philosophical writing. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth.'' Great Events. 28-31." 360-425 and Bacon. . In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death." 16. It should come as no surprise. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. namely. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well. IV." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and. as god. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm. II. 13. "The speech Self-Overcoming." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. 15. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. or Zarathustra. 1984). 14. 12. Homer. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press. pp. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. 17. it would require "something double. Unfortunately. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. Zarathustra's p. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. 1988). Odyssey. Row. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. as man. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. . paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. "Proteus. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds." 1 1. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. ed. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. Vol. 1935]. 23. The Wisdom of the Ancients. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. lacking . overcoming of need. trans.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science.
by "convictions" ("Antichrist. the ill-constituted. vertu' 20. namely. Robespierre.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. 40. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. "All Song. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. 264)." also Dancing 4. She power. Sunrise. 283-85." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. 27." Having pears by chance. 3. and The Gay Science. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. . however. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. therefore. bridge.'' for every is an afterworld. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. characterizes world following that terms. p. Song. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. 29. "Fame and Second Sailing. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. p. 1794)": Daybreak. 289. Preface. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. (Speech of 7 June. pp. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seth Benardete. 1990)." and 22. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. To every soul belongs another world." 21. for the smallest just. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time." merely by looking into each other's faces. 152 and 192. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. If both Zarathustra and. Unfortunately. 36 and 87. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. on account of his 227). above all. Dithyrambs of Dionysus." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. 30. therefore.
Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. In this essay. Zimmerman.50 cloth. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme.. Tom Rockmore. 1997). NY: Cornell University Press. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. $47. even to the point of at "apologetics. xi + 234 pp. 1990).. Philosophy. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. Julian Young. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation.95." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision. Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press. $33. xi + 382 pp. MA: Harvard University Press. Caputo.50 Hans Sluga... Heidegger..Review Essays Heidegger. greater notoriety. this century comes to a close. Fall 1998. xii + 263 pp. xii + 129 pp.95 paper. $49. 1993). Vol. 1996). $14.95. 1992). $15. 26. Politics.. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. Michael E. Berel Lang. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D.95 paper. University the Polity. 1993).. $15. + 306 pp. x + 285 pp. $19. Indeed. Leslie Paul Thiele. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought.50 cloth.50 paper. No.95 paper. xv + 232 pp. $49. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. 1 . 1995). $19. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent.
of and Derrida.. daeo-Christianity. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. In the process. Rockmore implements criticism. politics. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. for example. e. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. Given this historical archaeology. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. however. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. As bridge between reject discover. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. is . we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. One point example. which also exemplifies historical. Although Farias champions this position. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. In order to discern this tendency. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe." in Heidegger's Crisis. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. Lyotard.g. Unlike Zimmerman. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. namely. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics.
philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . raises.g. indeed.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. hence. inquiry. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. ethics. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. of ethics and politics. The Farias' effect of revelations. As poignant as revelations were. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. Even been prior to Farias' book. As Zimmerman. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. the Polity. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. In this work. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. Philosophy. however.Heidegger.. then practical concerns. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. Nazism. already the publication of his magnum opus. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. e. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. Caputo. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. This work. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. Being and Time (1927). II.
the which unique forgetting of being.' he did not mean rational calculation. As Zimmerman states: . but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. pp." nature. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. and the end of metaphysics. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite.e. is of political which things. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. i.124 '. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. . considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties. That is.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. xxiii-ix) Jews.. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. the our need to day. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. On the surface. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. Heideg instruments of technology. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. As Zimmerman emphasizes. 84). but the of technology. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. By 'thinking. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. Interpretation . of "enframing.
As reactionary modernists. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. conflict and resolution. .Heidegger. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. frenzy and violence. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. Not surprisingly. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. 84) In the end. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. On the one hand. p. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. Unfortunately. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. . According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. (P. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. domination humanity and nature. Holderlin. that is. Consider Heidegger's . what the Polity. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. harmony from strife. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. recast Going forward. 127). but instead blood and instinct. philosophy and politics. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis.
Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. become 68).126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. in his stark concept of Dasein. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. . to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. e. 73). the categories of tenderness. Ironically. thinker. the dissident (Derrida). . and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. As Caputo indicates. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. . Only by possible a shepherd. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. Caputo. in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. According to Caputo. and heroism." community. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. in must emerge "singular. 72). including care. The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. (Lowith. who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. truth. . the scandalous comparison culture . love otherwise absent facticity." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. . self-affirmation.g. charity. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). love. and temporality. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. 207).
Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. namely. National or no important.. roughly speaking. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. link (p. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. and that. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. Rockmore. 54). stance. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history.g. for Rockmore "hero. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. . Philosophy. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. 54). Because Rockmore way. This distinction becomes important. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. as Nazism." Heidegger's philosophy (e. In Heidegger. however. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. III. "What I call the 'official' view students. the Polity. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. there is no.Heidegger. 74)." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p.
philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . The "tragic question then becomes. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. freedom and necessity. In Heidegger's Silence. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . Of course. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. Ironically. 100-101). He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. the public and occasional" the private. the professional and the thesis (p. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. 5). Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. but the intellectual others. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. In Heidegger's Crisis. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. insofar as the and then. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. . Lang ger history (pp. philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. 5-8). In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. of illumination and blindness. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect.
But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. in the 1930's. 19). Given this philosophy politics the Polity. and the possibility of law. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. action. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong." forged through the will. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. community. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. for most critics construe these .g. 245-48). In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. IV. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. setting institutions the decline. a process occurs. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. 22).Heidegger. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. And ger's while one may try vision.. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. Indeed. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. Mill and Kant. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. an opportunism "timely. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. be translated into any specific may For example. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. but what extent a political crises of of the political.
Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. While this most problematic. e. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. alien to all reduction to the uniform. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). vious. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin.g. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. it would a type of action irrecon (p. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. As our discussion of the previous . he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. in order that one to the dilemma in question. his commitment to National Socialism." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. factic plane. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. 35 ff. a Heideggerian politics must confront.).. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. however. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. In many respects.
Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. Rockmore. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. Moreover. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. Philosophy. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. if it does their objections. In Heidegger. provides According to Dallmayr. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. 41). which claims In ogy. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. books the Polity. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. 50). Farias. Young argues that Heideg for the other. 104). Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. Young. is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. but Wolin. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. When joined Young's solicitude. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. instead. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. 79).Heidegger. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. 125). philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. in regime. 38-41).
however. "tolerance" namely.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. language. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense.g. What Heidegger recognizes. is that the power which permits political participation. In words. the nexus of politics. that moral emphasis on can (pp. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. Western democracy.. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. As Arendt suggests. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. 198). Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. 48-49). they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. 81-83). Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. In this way a community develops. namely. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. that is. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers." Correlatively. if government as fully we articulated. the between logos and community. of light the opera Thus. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. p. namely. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. facets as as Thiele indi cates. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. As Thiele emphasizes. e.
and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. 167). 5-12. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. censorship. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. 86-100. 16). 292). Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. philosophy flourish only it is . controversial. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. even solicitous of. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. 60-63). is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. . challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. 128).) is iconoclastic. The arbitrary. Literally. While Yet. another the Polity. means or "place in on such opposition. politics. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. p. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. thrives within a polis the greatest importance.Heidegger. . . it Sluga. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive.
Fred. Silence. Heidegger the Trans. Jean T. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger.' Assertion of the German University. London: Routledge.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. Martin. but. Trans. New Haven: University Press. Karl. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. 1989. Pascal. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism." Time Journal 14. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. University Press. 1981. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. Pierre. and Gunther Neske. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. 1 (1995): 111-86. 1975. Mark. on the words responds to this contrary..). politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions." Gary Steiner. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. Hannah. 1998. CA: Stanford University Press. 1962. GA 31. de Beistegui. Phil Temple University Press. NY: Cornell David. Trans. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. no. philosophy of its task." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. no. John. and Farias. when such a pp. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. Miguel. "On Heidegger's Lowith. Perhaps this time think. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Trans. Heidegger. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. and 1995. Emil. The Other Heidegger. 15. Peter Collier. Jean-Francois. Truth. 1993. Johannes. Andre Michel. . Bourdieu. Marcus (ed. 1991. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. Lisa Harries. Heidegger and University Press. Heidegger. Victor. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. Wilde William Kluback. Kettering." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. Ed. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. Ithaca. Palo Alto. Blitz. 1990. 1958. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. 1 (1991): 1-611. 1982. New York: World Publishing. Kovacs. The Human Condition. 2. Richard Wolin. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. no. 1990. Trans. In this spirit. Political. George. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. 1958. 35). "jews. GA 24. Dallmayr. 33. " Lyotard. New York: Paragon Press.
1990. Trans. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. Heidegger Jaspers. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. no. Charles E. no." . 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. William J. eds. no. Bloom University Press. by and Kenneth Maly. 2 (1993): 121-39. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. no. A." 1996. Schurmann. Michael E. Thomas. Intro. Alan M. no. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. and and Philosophical Forum 25. Chicago: Politics. Olson. Alan. 1992). Pp. Encounters Parvis Emad. "A Normal pp. "Heidegger 27-38. Riidiger. 1990. Safranski. John. 4 (1997): 554-62. Quarterly Ott. 1993. and the January 14. Time. on Free Speech. Reiner. Dallery. Bloomington: Indi Wolin.Heidegger. Richard. New York: Columbia University Press. Socialism. Albany: SUNY Press. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. Press. ed. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. 1992. Roberts. 1994.. Van Buren. Heinrich Wiegand. the Polity. Nazi. Heidegger and lands. Scott. "Heidegger's Truth eds. Trans. "Resoluteness Ambiguity. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. Sherover." Scott. Frank. and Ethics Schalow. Ewald Osers." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. Origins. Common Good. Rumor of the Hidden King. London: Fontana. Christine-Marie Gros. C. 1987." Holocaust. 11-24. Philadelphia: Temple University Press." University of Chicago H. 1996. no. The New York Review of Books. Albany: SUNY Press. Hugo. 1989. 2 (1995): 137-53. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. Trans. Petzet. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. 24. NJ: Humanities Press International. 4 (1989): 340-55. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. 1994." "A Question Socialism. Sheehan. Thought. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1." Philosophical Writings. and Danger. Richardson. 1998. Charles. and In A. On ington: Indiana 30-35. Blunden. Trans. and Alan Rosenberg. Freedom. Zimmerman. The Politics of Being.
Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. Vol. University Press. The Pluralist Game.. No. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. $16. Sandel. 1996). Public $22. On the other hand. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. why it excludes. Like other pluralisms. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. 1997). Michael Walzer. and reflect their own philosophical historical development... $24. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Rawls's Political Liberalism). 1995). Liberalism and (Lanham. indeed could not.50.95. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. possess.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. 26. Three recent works do both. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. Fall second book.95. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. + 126 pp. 1 . The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. but what it excludes. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. Francis Canavan. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism.
in Rawls in Political Liberalism. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. indeed impossi ble.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. and the relations between economy and polity. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. however conflictual. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. Naturally. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. In Canavan's account. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. but or not limited to. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. pluralism and toleration. Earlier American pluralism. In Canavan's account. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. The categories overlap. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. lost unity of shared. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. Law society. 76). also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. As Canavan clearly perceives. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion.
hospi tals and social services were injured. their best. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). These institutions. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. Understood in individualist terms. liberalism. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. Yet of the three volumes. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. it displaced institutions. Canavan particular. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. but without developing the point at any length. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. individ liberty. had helped to flesh out religious community life. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. schools. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. to public Canavan notes.
so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. to make room for such groups in education. On the other hand. to flourish. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. cultural. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. the state should reduce its direct etc. so vision ought Canavan argues. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. always reflects some moral vision. Protestants and devout Jews. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation.. Groups with spiritual. on pain of contradiction. If anything. to join in the struggle. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. things look neutrality. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. social services. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state.
since these all require description of the self. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. ing of Again. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. They natu common affairs. for instance.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. this asocial render human good is misleading. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. with others about what is true any or good. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. Consequently. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. When they tion. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. for Sandel and the republican tradition. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. community. People are born for citizenship. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. of citizens In the liberal conception. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. or even citizen obligation. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. and this goal has American public policy. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. religious duties. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. to a solution to these problems. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. As Sandel notes. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. the freedom tive. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. others' based have chosen them. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice.
" up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. In both cases. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. respect not follow. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. moral. judg Using the legal example of abortion. community. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. So Sandel pluralism. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. 20). His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. and His alternative version the self. prochoice their views for public purposes. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. As Sandel correctly argues. In principle.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. not their simple capacity to choose something . question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. Or we could relativize the value of respect. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. and promoting. they express. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. a contradiction. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. regarding toleration. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism.
Arguably. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . the same could be said about his ily law. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. That is. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. With Sandel. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. 90). To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. Presumably. in the nature of (p. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. in general. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. or even malicious. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. be Canavan suggests. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. Indeed. Sandel replies. Sandel's order. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other.
is right say) tradition. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. Naturally. with early roots in Protestant and English history. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. and social Where then. With Sandel. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. this is an omission which pluralism. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. ." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. ought to be barred from running in elections. together with leaves intact the current crisis. so he opposes a voucher system. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. (p. Maclntyre. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism.144 Interpretation societies. 70). Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. as an harbor republican hopes. 77).) Nor can we repair to . since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. . Canavan. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. Religious parties. Walzer here in the secondary associations. for example. To his credit. according to Walzer. of and others. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own.
. Altogether then. But reading Sandel. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus.
Jacob In addition. Testament Spinozas (1932). with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). cloth with dust jacket.-). B. cloth with English) many important. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. XIV. . 434 pp. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). and Lowith. 1933-1935). numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. among Wissenschaft writings. French. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. H. marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). Gerhard Kriiger.-). be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78.. Gershom Scholem. Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937).. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. Jacobis (1929).i VERLAG J. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). and others published here for the first time. (1921). XXXIV. Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. previously unknown writings and letters. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. in the original languages (German English). The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932).
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