Interpretation

A JOURNAL
Fall 1998

J.

OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Number 1

Volume 26

3
21

Cameron Wybrow
Robert D. Sacks

The Significance The Book

of

the

City

in Genesis 1-11

of

Job: Translation

and

Commentary

on

Chapters 39-42 65
Andrew Reece

Drama, Narrative,
Charmides

and

Socratic Eros in Plato's

77

Mark Kremer

Liberty

and

Revolution in Burke's Letter to the

Sheriffs of Bristol

99

Steven

Berg

Interpreting
to

the Twofold Presentation of the

Will

Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke

Zarathustra

Review Essays

121

Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard

Heidegger,

the

Polity,

and

National Socialism

137

Whose Pluralism?

Interpretation
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Interpretation
Fall 1998
-1-

Volume 26

Number 1

Cameron Wybrow
Robert D. Sacks

The Significance The Book
of

of

the

City

in Genesis 1-11
and

3
on

Job: Translation

Commentary

Chapters 39-42
Andrew Reece

21

Drama, Narrative,
Charmides

and

Socratic Eros in Plato's 65

Mark Kremer

Liberty

and

Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77

Sheriffs of Bristol Steven

Berg

Interpreting
Zarathustra

the Twofold Presentation of the Will

to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke

99

Review Essays

Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard

Heidegger,

the

Polity,

and

National Socialism

121
137

Whose Pluralism?

Copyright 1998

-

interpretation

ISSN 0020-9635

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and the which Babel-builders. Finally. Second. interpretation. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. as argue. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. that of the nomadic Third. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. 26. with superfluous and which arts. Vol. Traditional exegesis of these stories. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. The thing I wish to argue excuses. 1 . from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. in Genesis 10. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. Nimrod. associated with and antipolitical. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. the city is connected with land ownership. antitechnical. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. man. in light the Babel project. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. the Lord God. No. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. Jewish and Christian. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. divine or conventional. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. and in Genesis 1 1. although intent. second or at least reasonable those characters. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. Fall 1998. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. I is wish not to argue that. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. the Babel-builders. herds Nimrod. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. those who are supposed to be First. or even defy. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders.

the an which founding of the city.3 or. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. In fus ing (they own. With this rather unauspicious head start in life.3-5). Out of antiurban. the first city.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain.2 kills the son truly in God's image. Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. if the quality is acceptable. have all been impugned. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. 1. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. and I have consulted Specifically. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. First. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. Cain's very birth is suspect. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. I have used tateuch. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. Cain. of the Next. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. Cain. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). fices to the most Thus. A. his religious performance is faulty. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. Augustine's these City of God. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. according to some of the rabbis. legion. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. that is. Fi by nally. the refuse. often little basis in the text. . When he sacri Lord (Gen. antipolitical atmosphere. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. 4.

The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. XV. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. 21).4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. (City of God. 192). p. Augustine says nothing negative. vol. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. 1. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. The names of Irad. career. One became a murderer. absent from the Biblical text. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. 29). that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. some rabbis say that he. 1. but with his hy pocrisy. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. vol. Jacob. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. Augustine. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. 5.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. Calvin on the other. Augustine. 8. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. 255). p. another choice. to will return later. Cain's tion: p.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. another a drunkard. says Abravanel. Moses. p. life into a sophisticated. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. God intended with us. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. "wicked" "house" building of a city. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. 153). his city and people. 2. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. 21). and Lamech are all said vol. 256). XV. and Cain Lamech Metusael. Those interpreters.5. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. Mehujael. p. and them. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. are supplied by the . however." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. and David. Isaac.2). 8. such as Augustine and Calvin. Noah. 17. 1. says bluntly "Cain.

Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. 237-40). and gifts from God (Calvin. and 159).22). Calvin. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . violence and In a more analytical vein. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts.). far as we can tell from Genesis 4. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. 217-22). acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. His birth is suspect. 238). did not yet exist). his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. In general. however. Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. 160). Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. the former being. Naamah. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. went about stark naked. In sum. sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. God" at least more carnal in their interests. view. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp. 160-62). he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. like beasts. pp. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God.).22. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. and all its connections (with the arts. Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. with political life) fall under a dark shadow. duced Seth's line into waywardness. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. with human law making. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. the latter who lived more virtuously. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). 2.) (which. of p. They eyes. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. XV. Like the rabbis. the he founded. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth.6 Interpretation (ibid. and because of this. superfluous sin.). the op for him the arts are goods.

is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. Nimrod the city-builder evil. as the-verb "to (halal). deriving all wicked things. he a 10. Genesis 10. 420-21. First. like all hunters. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. is bad for two reasons. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. Nimrod. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. Esau. 317). he was the foe of his brother Jacob. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. the ancestor of Israel. is a deceiver.26 are said. Thus. Finally. too.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. being a mighty hunter. 60-61). he Abraham. 3).9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. he Genesis Rabbah. who 4. was obviously a furious Nimrod. "began" 2. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. oppressor. 174). when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. Second." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol." earth. ants same Obviously. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. who. vol. that is. Esau. to degenerating calling "rebelling. pp. here found in the hiphil form. p. but mention rather. . his claim to might. "beginning" is is verb. And. mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord.). as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. and. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. pp. 175). Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. man. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. of course. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. tyranny (Calvin. however. p. 2. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. 260). being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. be evil. 2. There is other evidence that Nimrod. de Rabbi Eliezer. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. it is p. p. XVI. In this attempt. they supply other examples of wicked people things. which is what persuaded people to let him them. so negatively. in Genesis Rabbah. p. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid.4)." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. tried to kill Abraham he was young.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). Since Nimrod is a slave. From the sense "pro fane. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. XVI. 38).

8 Interpretation Nimrod. for they p. and Jacob. They they being given the earth. which. a city. like Abraham." "and this they begin to which. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked.4). Calvin Calvin. too (Genesis Rabbah. In p. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. and vol. the lower part of the world. needless to say. probably vol. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. First. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. 3. like Nimrod. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. p. Isaac. In any case. the the Ham line. heavens. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. which p. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . vol. therefore. to displace him. The Babel-builders. at signifies also that they made an on 261. for idol They filled the sin of pride. 2. 11. . 324)." are "rebels. as in the case of Cain. do. God's people do not rest con move. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. as one might expect. XVI. was the area of his king dom. 2. in an summary. (Genesis Rabbah. 1. "Settling" is moti vol. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. according to Genesis 10. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. vol. Second. 49-50). again. 2. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. as I will point later. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. and. could hardly him have Urban life. pp. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. means. being settling and building in "settled. right motives. p.4. for two reasons. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. His city. want 2. 260)." but are on the 50). the Lord. 51). There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. with the upper part. bad scent. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. do" translated into rabbinic.

Abravanel argues. God's do not need the political life of the city. hunting. and tyranny over others. Ruling comes from Nimrod. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks.3-4 ("let brick. sinners. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. then. is inferior to the way of the Politics. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. They are from the wrong lines. political which go with cooperation. being Esau's way. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. is ated. they God's murderers. The the city. 4. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. and the rule of with human beings by others. is grounded in folly. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. without God's help by They purely human means. who defined man as a political animal. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. but to conspire against and a God. B. only God can do these things. says Abravanel. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. More generally. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. are proud. The city. in criticizing the Babel-builders. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. if the materials they supplied were ." us make "let build city"). the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. They story. Abravanel thus. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. The city cannot provide for security against death. which. heir of a slave. then of Seth. the arts. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. rejection of God. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. Nimrod. or rebels against God. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. in order to establish the stated. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name.

" but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. to the fact that by Nimrod. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. Nimrod. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. Some of the claims are errors. and Babel." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. There are Nonetheless. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. since Lamech fathers sons who are . the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil. when they assert without philological "idol. for two First. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. however. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling." they ask us to accept too much on faith. but some of fetched. and so on. they are merely the justifications. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. they in the Biblical text. however. point. and would maintain this even reasons. more relevant interest. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. again might not be bad in itself. For example. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. and enough reading. even without the extraneous material. Sec that there is ond. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. believe. Augustine's most claim that translators. Shinar. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. all interpretive control is lost. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. far beyond this.

Nimrod. or that he ordered the people him. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. if God will then. is cursed to in Genesis 9. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. further.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. the city falling to his arrows. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. since not Ham but facts that do not fit. Further. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. which makes "children men. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. out of the desire for a name." The interpretation same such is. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. the hunter is less violent. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. execution. Abravanel. If Israel is not wicked . Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. undertook the Babel project on his own. the entire race. They they are by the farmer. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. text with uncharitable motives. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. hardly closer the model of the political man. In fact. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. that Cain had a says justify God. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. Babel but not in the case Cain. he infers it in infers. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. And settled farmers (like Cain. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. and that the city to protect him. Augustine all lifestyle. Ham's son. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. these are nity. is feeble. rather. tilling it. in a parallel manner. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle." Again. too their sheep. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. The hunter is the loner. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. Further. How. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions.

12

Interpretation
of

for wanting land exactly
of the what

its

own

to till,

the pre-Flood men are said to

"rebel"

why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
to

they

were commanded

do in Genesis 1.

Why is

their attempt at

obedience

lashed

out at as a rebellion? as motivated

forge interpreted

Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
the vengeful

ploughshares?

Certainly, his father

was

Lamech, but

one cannot

simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.

One has to say, then, that the
tional

antiurban trend of thought
without textual

interpreters,

though not
a close

clearly justified

by

of the city-builders and

completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather

among the tradi foundation, is not

is

evidence that

Cain is frightened, slighted,

than evil.

Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays

no wicked motives or

overtly

evil actions.

The

Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
There is
,

a negative

interpretation

of

Babel

would not reflect upon

Nimrod.
theo-

much

work, then, to be done if
about the

we are

to articulate a coherent

logico-political teaching

city

as presented

in Genesis 1-11.

C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11

essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this

The

broadly

speaking, human

political

effort, in

a much more positive

light than the

tradition sometimes suggests.

The line

of

interpretation

which

body am building
who

of traditional

interpretation, but in its

I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I

upon the work of

themselves are

Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
one sees

In the Midrashic writings,
political

hints here

and

there

of a a

different

account of

by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can

life,

be brought to light

ideas

further.6

What I

will

strive to establish

is

an

interpretation
rabbis,
of

of

Genesis

which, against

Augustine

and

Calvin

and

many

of the

sees the and

earthly
a

city

as

a

legitimate human

response

to the problem

justice

order,

response which

God is willing
Cain. The

to work with and, under certain

circumstances, is
so well

bless.
I begin
with classification of

Cain

as

a

"bad

guy"

The
established that

City

in Genesis

13

it

seems

impious to
Cain's

question

God's

refusal

to gaze

upon

sacrifice

trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no

it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
much

He has
worked

worked

hard to

produce

his grain, probably
more

harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
earth

to raise his sheep.

Further, he,
not

than

Abel,

apparent commandments. and

Did

God tell Adam to

subdue

(Gen. 1),

to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
would work

upon expulsion

from Eden he
Cain felt

the

land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
like the

can see

slighted.

He is, in

a way,

more qualified applicant who

why loses

the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which

injustice, his
at

rage

is

natural.

This does

not

justify

the murder

follows, but it
so perverse as

least

explains
and

Cain's

emotional

state,

which

is

not

nearly Cain's

Augustine

Calvin
supply

make out. another nonmalicious account
of

Further,

the

rabbis

themselves

motives.

Cain

saw

that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that

of vegetation.
would

Might he

not

have

concluded
vol.

that the sacrifice of a human

being

be

even

better (Genesis Rabbah,

1,

pp.

248-49)? One does

not need

to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or

jealousy;
God.

one might argue that

he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin

a misguided attempt to please

rabbinic speculation

is discounted, it is

not so clear that

Cain is

God

warns

him

"sin,"

about
ever give

is,

nor

does God

it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
until

fact, God
Cain

says

Genesis 9. That
can rule

nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if

after

the

Flood, in

man can rule

himself. If

race will not

be

his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
given will

God,

and

that no one else is

is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
tion

any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
wisest.

and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera

described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that

suggests

noninstruction

not proved

to be the
a

Man

needs

law.

We

Cain does

sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
respect

bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his

building

a

city,

and procreating. who

Cain

contrasts

favorably
great

with

his descendant Lamech,

proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
will

to be forgiven and expects that everyone

kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
to

he

will

be hidden from God's face, and,

while

God

promises

to protect Cain

from

the assaults of other men,

he

never reassures

Cain

about

his continuing

presence.

Perhaps God thinks his
not

protective sign

ence, but Cain clearly does

take

it that

way.

implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to

14

Interpretation
from his
presence

go out

(4.16)

to

dwell in the land

of

Nod ("wandering").

Believing

that he

is

no

mark, is it any

wonder

interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
longer
of not a natural course

sive arrangement of a

city

for

men who

believe they

are

in

the state of nature, with no law

but that

of

the strong to protect them?
"Enoch,"

Similarly, it is hard
"inauguration,"

to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means

does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
overtones

"Inauguration"

does

not

have

in Hebrew,

as

Isaac Friedman has

shown against

in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
good.

good ones

(Friedman,
of a new

n.

1,

pp. of

"inauguration"

way

Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to

It begins

as

the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in

something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was

hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts

of of

the arts described in Genesis 4. The

forging,

can yield weapons

does

not

in general; for the text does

not even mention and mu

weapons,

and

the other arts which arise at the same time

(tentmaking

sic)

are

My
and

clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
who seems

whitewash

Cain

or

Lamech,

to have understood God's

his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
not punish

most perverse possible manner

(i.e., God does

killers,

therefore we

have to do I

unto others

omen of the violence to come story. would

before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,

insist, however,

though a genuine theme of
conclusion remains
narrator

that urban

life, in any

ambiguous as a

Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
flesh"

judges it.
confirmed

This is

in Genesis 6. When "all
This

becomes

corrupt upon the

earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
evil

taking

place

in

cities.

makes

nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism

line,

who are not associated with

Cain's

eastern

Cain's line. The
or political

wickedness
as such.

is

more

general, and

life

In

fact, it

could

be

contended that

absence of political structures and of would seem

laws

which

it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This

by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
as

to be confirmed

by

sis

9. We
recall

that in Genesis 1 God ordered

Adam to be

replenish

the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of

fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given

One wicked one. In this new creation. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. will have a legal dimension absent from the old. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. 9. without Thus. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar." earth becomes peoples of common nations. therefore. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. 13). the between Cain nation. The next a region called in Shinar. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. families (mishpahoth) Shem. the migrating offspring of Shem. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. (9." Asshur. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. if we are watching a new creation. among Japheth separate violence. which relied too much on we are innate human told. Thus.19). for the laws of God (Gen. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. amicably dividing the world themselves." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. which had no such structure discernible. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1.1-7). is. suggests in which one will rule over many. This time. Abel. The new begin ning. Since. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. the "nations. must not conclude. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. the city arises. in this overspreading. and since they too are related. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. cities a son of Shem. Recall that in Genesis 9.1-7) to be enforced. which are life. Abimelech in Genesis 20). a slight modification to Genesis 1 . the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. however. whenever the tribal or them. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. the new creation as it were. the goodness. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. they occupy it as they were meant to. The first cities are or comes to rule. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. something is added: God gives the first laws. Ham. Ham. in the east. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. There is another interpretation. built by Asshur. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land.

The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. I represents a political would argue. Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus. then. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. In this context. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. vulnerability to random killing). For these reasons. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. as did Cain (4. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. but human for up as prey beings. the order of creation.23-24).4) or the Babel (1 1. basis to nor of an adjective alone. Kings may (I Samuel 8). kings are one possible source of law.8) and before the Lord (10. and so did his empire. I would suggest. may not be pretty. condemn be evil. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. did the mighty men of old (6. In important respects. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. in fact. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. Nimrod does not boast about himself. men ruling men).4). Nimrod. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. at overspread the earth at least potentially. first hunter. strained passion. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. how to be a "hunter. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10.17). we must ing was Lamech's. Nimrod became famous. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. good. from the above discussion. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. by God's . God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. one must conclude that cannot as such. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. Finally. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. of a any more. least some of the nations which legitimately source. and as did Lamech (4. unlike Lamech's. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. city building.9).

It "scattered. They "scattered. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. wants them to the earth (1. process.5). aim spreading master to many spots. and enjoying the earth. if it and was a sin. The "sons men" Noah. p. is. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. God wants them to move outward. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. 428). Rather. to obey God. be was afraid of safe. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam. then. Finally. too. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. case of Babel is not exactly typical city. scattered. and he.4).4)." is only fitting. Regarding this story. in one place." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. too. of super-city with together. speaking one language. I think. the language of mutual entreaty. The their cautiousness. He. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. The with sin of the Babel-builders.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. Further. the descendants of Flood. united brotherly love. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. Babel-builders is. They heavenward (11. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth.28). close even antiurban exegesis. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. something. is by Calvin." of perhaps educated obey God. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. His proj may be ambiguous. as of (11. They want live. like Cain's. God at the end of purpose. in a its top in the heavens. No one people (which is why I would con- . The 11. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. and Augustine. I certain turn to the Babel story. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. among these Combs and Post point out. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. it to be a certain un populating. They one spot. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. that is. in the Babel there features grant. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God.

as it were. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. speaking." of that is. be for . In fact. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. hold them together in Shinar forever. only language that exists should If the only state." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. are not malicious. separate peoples. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. "name" necessarily an improper desire. the situation be irreparable. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. the "sons of will founding "nations. a permanent essence which. The or reputation earn. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. then. It is true that they wish eternity. wanting as is fact. they dream. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. The forms of govern men" ment. noble it may be. become corrupt. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. built. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. will and to give it. Cain may have been proud of his city. and the only people. then. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. however. They do not wish to God. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. and powerful cities. good which so I think is the one correct one. and themselves. however thinking. no possibility of the living. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. unified world-state. In Genesis nized 10. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. God. In Genesis not allow of 11.7 overthrow "name. unified world-state. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. they do not even mention him. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. were tribal and monarchical. but he was not God in naming it after his son. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. the nation sired by Abraham. would God.

Isaac Abravanel.: McMaster University. 12. because Cain is not so commentators make out. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. 1847). pp. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 1985). or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. trans. John trans. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton.: Penguin. . Rev. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. trans. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. if one wished to put the city in a better light. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. and not always the best. 1970). trans. 4. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. vol. 44-48. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. 1. or for building great towers into the a heavens. Ont. In societies other than Israel. Deut. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press.3. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. Genesis Rabbah. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. in Genesis 10. it due to knowing God wanted. as city of Enoch. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. 150 51. And in one case. NOTES 1. God. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. Cain's son. John Calvin. 196-98.. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. Eng. 256. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. 2 vols. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. trans. 242. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. but for purity. Jacob Neusner. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. (Title henceforth: City of 5. 2. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. eds. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. pp. Augustine. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. p. was the Babelers were not being scattered. King (Edinburgh. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. If these people strayed. arts. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. 1972)." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. p. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). Robert Sacks. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. but these motives were not wicked. to teach.) Lemer 1978). Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. XV.6). Cain pp. 3. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9. 4. 158. law. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. argue that the evils of 1979). then.7.

except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. Robert Sacks. I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. 1988). Due to space limitations. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. which who essay was seminal for them.20 Interpretation 6. I add that. 1990). Eugene Combs. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. . hence. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. In a general way. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here.." Memory of Peter C. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. MA: JSOT Press. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. S. 6. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. and to Leo Strauss. 1-5. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. 1987). C. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. Craigie (Sheffield.

26. You see.14 wings as if on high. and who dwells city.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. as if they were not even in all vain. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. Fall 1998. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. 1 . 15 She has forgotten that hers. John's College. 16 She treats her were all children roughly. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny. Num 3. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. Vol. Her toils caused foot can crush them. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. Sacks St. meet armed combat.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. No. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. or that a wild beast might trample them down. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. 3 when to give birth to their young.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. interpretation. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out.

22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. consume the of their gates. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab.17 pinnacle. he is there. he said. Oh. 25 but facing battle from afar." . much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. javelin. Whenever death defiles. 2Sam. "I and father's house. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. The and single Hebrew word hul. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. making it his stronghold. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation." a very will complex word. 3:28 are of Afterward. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. His swill it from afar. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. it originally meant "to whirl. 2. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. Indeed. although almost as side. forever Ner. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical."18 Comments 1. David heard of it. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command. and See notes to 26." Hos.

15:20 Then Miriam. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. Exod. it Psa. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. Judg. Benjaminites did so. and rebuilt the towns.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. that book which begins see them dashed. for the Lord's purposes . 23:5 Jer. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. and go to the land of Benjamin. The Book rule. and often when first reading the word. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. else you would now be guilty. hands anger burned hot. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. saying. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. in her hand. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. from the dancers to their and took their wives. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. according whom they carried off. And to us. Then." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. And the to their number. and watch. and dwelt in them. only to the book Judges. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. Grant them graciously to us. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. Exod. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. the prophetess. too. neither did you give them to them. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. trembles and writhes The land in pain. then they went and returned inheritance. king. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. Deut." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. the sister of Aaron.

25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. brought forth in iniquity. Isa. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. in visiting the day of birth." and hence "to give Deu. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. 51:5 Behold. thy judgments puffs at them. But. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. tempest. birth": as in our case. and sin did my mother Prov. angry them. pressed upon Saul. their faces be aflame. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. out of his sight. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. For this reason. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. in and your right as the noonday. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. Ps. and ISam. Job. They look another. 31:3. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. 37:6 will bring was forth the light. as for his foes. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. are on high. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher).24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. your vindication as Ps. it can also mean "to be in labor." English-speaking in this also recognize . brings forth rain. and you forgot birth. they aghast at looks. I conceive me. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. was revisiting the day of his own birth." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. There is Jer. inhabitant." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth.

and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. the joys of our world could never come to be. 5.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. perhaps with beyond world. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. an order for the first time. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. Yet we can all world. 8. 6. has never known either burden or rein. But quite even Job. This. It is the whirling. 7. The question is. speaks to Job. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. To word understand used this passage. In using such a harsh word. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . before her she was delivered of a son. pain-ridden. and are what they are. of course. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. then. rhetorical. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. She. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. fostering in each life to own its signet. dancing. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). since. How different things Isa. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. are 3. Here. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are.

so that no one should enslave a Jew. and like a hireling he waits for wages. "servant. 15:12 If your brother. that was true. too. It is true that. children. and destroys it. go out free. Jer. male and . and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. that show his concern. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. my wife. and in the seventh he shall go out free. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. to undo the thongs of the yoke. or a Hebrew woman. be your slaves. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. sake. he shall serve six years. but they were treated kindness: justly and . and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. and But if the slave plainly says. gave no answer. and the slave is free his lord. is sold to you. brought 9. ears to me.26 Interpretation Exod. Small and great." daughter. female. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. for nothing. his brother. I will not male or eye's female. . When a man strikes the . Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. to oppressed go free. but he him for favor. great riches. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. eye of my his slave. all are there. has served you six years. to and the man who and will give Israel. Hebrew man. And there are other passages. along many others. he shall serve you six you. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. years. "I love my master. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa.

whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. I do God rose up? 10.. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. of course have been out of the question. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. each thing can be be what it is. the stork. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering.. "trust. the . they are an abomination: the eagle. they and be eaten. 104:16 LORD abundantly." This is the only verse. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. the cedars of . The trees of the Ps. it requires something like the concept of a signet. giving it a The signets. the vulture. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. Even from was within the human sphere. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. the heron according to its kind. it may seem. are watered bat. it will be a long journey. is 12. that its us. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. roaming the hills as his pasture." time.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. 11. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. not certain what bird is meant. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. as we shall see. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. The an furrow. There were always some men suffering it caused. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. It is generations. what of those who dwell in house of clay. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. the osprey. both for moved for others. ance The farm. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would." answer can do none of these things. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. the hoopoe. five hundred of them. Job but. and them yet he did have ox.

33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. two women wind was in their wings. must 14. insofar as been domesticated. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. when if only in part. had been domesticated. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. people crane keep the time of their coming. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one." 13. In them the birds build trees. their nests. 15. and the turtledove. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. 16. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. lest they hold a bribe. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. he will dwell on the heights. but my know Zech. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. at least it is the can most write about. The hawk. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. 8:7 Even the swallow. who despises the gain of stops oppression. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. his place of defense who shakes . then. character that each 17. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. and in the heavens knows her times. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. and eyes and saw. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. and behold. The first thing to be moving any to be asked.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. silly beast. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. too. ears his looking upon his hands.

cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. 13 Bury them all in the dust. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. 49:16 Leave the cities. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. 48:28 Jer. pride of your whose says the LORD. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. 14 Then you. but I have no answer. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. The ostrich. twice. sixth as beast. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. bring clefts will down from there. 10 "Go ahead. is in the not Job. and Jer."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. How my hand upon my mouth. thence I bring down. however. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. is high. me dwelling set say in heart. in returning to flow off into death. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. 18. who hold the height I will of hill. you who your Obad. 5 I have spoken once. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. 1:3 heart has deceived you. his bread will be given him. and you must let me know. Look upon every man of him. LORD. you inspire has deceived you. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's.4 even would praise you. his of water be sure. did for its children all that the charm to do.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. you though your nest says the among the stars. the hawk. high and the pride of your heart. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. The cold and more grotesque." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. has been defeated. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. Bind their faces in would obscurity. for your own right have saved . the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer.

" again "asking. and you will remember war no Comments no answer.8 21 He lies down the lotuses. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce.9 brook in him. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. who would plead my case? . and if by court of law. under and all the beasts of the field play.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. He eats fodder just like the cattle. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . beyond man is no place for a man. or with you to be your eternal his nose. Again it says. But the Tempest will go.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. convinced him that Elihu was right. confident that the Jordan will mouth. Indeed. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. "Have you an arm like God's. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. If Job's this not point. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways. God's argument is. his warning was just. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. and his teaching is not a but an 3. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. 18 His bones iron. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was." 2. hiding in the reeds and the fen. or his head with fishing his head. He is the mighty one. here is whom I made along with you. but he did not. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. I believe. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly.6 of brass. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. had been what God had wanted. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish.

of The LORD acts of old. is this: Get wisdom. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. . In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. Compare Ps.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. however. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. are all who teaches us more The verbs. and I find knowledge of and discretion. Prov. being lous nor mythical. His praise endures for Prov. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. iron. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. God is joking. These do cosmos. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. behemoth 5. Man is 7. dwell in prudence. Appropriately enough. however 6. "laugh" or . a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it." "His bones are ducts brass. fools despise and whatever you instruction. clearly are of mythic proportion. his wisdom. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. of It is. the first 8. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . 8:12 . in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. however. ." in the made masculine singular. I. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. get beginning insight. than the beasts of the earth. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. with you . We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. "Behemoth cattle. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. 4:7 The get. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. created me at the beginning his work. . of wisdom Prov.

no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. "No. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. making it his drinking foun tain. now that and say. however. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. for the pounding." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. I fear. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. "After I have my husband is old. "Why did Sarah laugh. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . is usually translated "oppress. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. But from the Gen. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. child. and you shall call his name Isaac. 10. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. that she had laughed. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse." looking at each usage. Gen. tyrannizing river. a and said to himself. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. 17:18 is ninety years old. The half-mythic." Joy and happiness are another matter. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress.32 9. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. saying. There is. He finds Thus.

The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring." a But Sarah denied. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. Next . Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. and I cried out with a loud voice. playing her Isaac. Then came the golden calf: Exod. "Up. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. He said. up to play. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. he with me." the But he seemed to be jesting. you laugh". for she was afraid. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. And Sarah said. "The Hebrew servant. his marry his daughters. and rose your And the LORD said to people. whom you brought up out of the Moses. saying. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. but certainly the betrayed him. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time." and Sarah shall have son. in to me to insult me. "I did laugh. "No. place. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. Gen. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. son whom she had borne Abraham. 26:8 also was actually doing. have corrupted themselves. came "See. and the people sat down to eat and drink. came have brought among us. 21:6 city." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. in the saying. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. for land of Egypt. "Go down. every one hears will laugh me.

and he made sport before them. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. and he died there beside the God. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. before the LORD. David." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. 2Sam. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. And in his each caught arise. who chose father. the abased and above all people of the his house. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. Israel. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might." said to Joab. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. for the oxen stumbled. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. but they laughed them to scorn. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. "Saul thousands. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam.34 Interpretation Judg. so down together. at Gibeon. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. They made him stand between the us. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. by them I shall be held in honor. "Call Samson. 2:14 And Abner us. they said." has slain his thousands. twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul." pillars. . and mocked them. "It was before the LORD.

29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. Prov. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. "What use is Eccles. 7:3 Eccles. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. wicked. 59:8 But thou. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. 10:23 beside him. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. is vanity. he will snatch and tear you tent. 31:10 . He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . and shall laugh your from of the at living. at them. and money answers everything. laughs at the time to come. also will laugh at your calamity. all the him. 2:2 I said of laughter. so is the laughter of fools. 8:12 . and fear. and death. and I find knowledge and discretion. and wine gladdens life. at the but the LORD laughs coming. Ps. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. Prov. and I was daily his delight. O LORD. 8:31 Prov. Prov. I you. Strength and dignity her clothing. there is no quiet. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. like a master workman. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. 14:13 Prov. for Eccles. "I am only joking!" Prov. . however. the LORD has them in derision." and of pleasure. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. and a time dance. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. the fool only rages and laughs. . rejoicing before him always. closer to what we finds another strain. dwell in prudence. Prov. a time to mourn. Jeremiah is not quite the same. dost laugh nations in derision. I will mock when panic strikes I. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. "It is mad. firebrands. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. it?" Eccles. Sorrow is better than laughter. for he sees that his day is Ps. saying. arrows. 2:4 Ps. and a time to laugh. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. Selah. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. wisdom. 3:4 to a time to weep. Eccles. 1:26 Prov. 10:19 Bread is for laughter.

48:26 "Make him drunk. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. and the voices of those who make merry. I have become a laughingstock the day. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. thou hast deceived me. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. I will make them honored. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. I sat because thy hand was upon me. him and he too shall be held in derision. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. every one mocks me. I did alone. and your wounds Jer. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. and I was deceived. nor did I rejoice. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. But he also has another notion of laughter. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. and thou hast prevailed. Was thieves. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. says LORD. Jer. Jer. I and the palace shall stand used to be. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. and have compassion on his dwellings. then they among nations. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. "The LORD has done things for them. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. thou art than I. multiply them. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. shall not small. Zech. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. however. When her . Then our mouth was with laughter. I will heal. the we were like those and our dream. and they be be few. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy.36 Interpretation Jer. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us.

3:14 Ezek. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. for they like the wind and go they make sport. every fortress. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. mocking at her downfall. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. none to help her. James 4:9). rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. . the a side which had always been a part Job and. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. if to judge by different from the others. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. Mat. and of rulers At kings they scoff. Job the outcast. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. whose it. laughter in the Book of 8:53. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. but hills as his pasture. the burden of their day says long. The much subject was and bound to come up. and there was her. 25. and does not even hear the drivers shout. 1:10 contains much. a simple. 9:24. and every green thing is his to search out. for it Hab. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. made him all his trouble.The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. Mark 5:40. Lam. Luke 6:21. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. guilty men. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. But there of was another side of we are laughter.

and even their sex. and one of the things he learned. wings on high. "Let us make man in our image. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. On this question. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. Some English translations 12. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. 3:8 and 13. Eliphaz once had he has seen. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. and over the birds air. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. and over the cattle. "It is I. but not to it. the brother. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. continually changing their clothing. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. at fear and is not dismayed. and over every of the . as we put have from the ostrich. 1 :26 and Then God said. At one first. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. mountains yield him produce. and over all the earth. . he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. With Job." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. . Job has come. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. To that extent. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. their iden tity.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. Job has come to learn from nature. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. Yet it is Lear shadow". this relation is seems to Dane. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. Hamlet. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . of nature. after our likeness.

people of sons after you. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. and and shall be raised above the hills. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. "subdue" "dominate. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. and their spears into pruning hooks." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. but the beyond is not ours. But it is not the same. and subdued them as slaves. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. male and female he fruitful and multiply. is not a world and 14. We cannot divide it up and as we will. the land lay before them. but the he must perform now. to the house God Jacob. to slaves of inherit as a them. Jer.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image." 39 So God created man in his created him. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. and they shall into plowshares. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. earth. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. Josh. let of us go LORD. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. the and all the nations shall flow to it. in the image of God he created them. "subdue" In addition. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. with harshness. and over the And God blessed them. you may make brethren the another. He judge between the beat nations. In many Isa." It should be noted that both words. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play. many of the peoples shall come. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. . But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free. and say: of "Come." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. not as a thing for us. and God said to them. sword against nation. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. it is only a in which he learn about play. ways 15. "Be fill the earth and subdue it.

Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. rises up. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. for he was made to dread. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. up by a breath between them. 15 Festoons of flesh. and not a his shields7. stand. or exploits or the grace of his frame. 17 "When he sion. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. nor lance. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. the gods are in dread. 12 From his cauldron. and bronze as rotton wood. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. fused all together. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards.'"9 Comments 1. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. and terror dances before him. quaver. could. He is king over all the sons of pride." times. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. It too. 14 His strength resides his neck. word mean but along it a sense of dread. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. 9 Each closed8 seal.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother.2 Do up. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . nor They spear. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. wait. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. 11 fire escape. "to or so I believe.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw.13 cast as a nether millstone.18 26 He sees every towering thing. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1.

insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. the Ps. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. The first has replaced the second. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. YaChaL. till they had finished speaking. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. on a with. I have no higher expectations. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. but there came only a murk. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. apart from their being for us. falling silent to hear counsel. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. That is to say. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. loose my his hand and cut me off! . which deals with our relation to the world of man. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. I rain.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. for something to say. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. We have heard those Isa. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. till they stood longer 2.

They with were in disgrace. shlm." From it Hebrew So for "peace. Then the within fifty-two days." Neh. and in which he for itself. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home." 4. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. One of them reads: give the Lam. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. away. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. The "brutal" word seems. mangled never overpowered man. in already begun. and he has and sent him off. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. So. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. The comes the root of this word. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. You have resigned. word 'akf'zar. Job has nonhuman.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. occurs which I have translated "brutal. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. means "to be whole or word complete. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. and with the might of fact. But that knowledge rouse may admire. but he and His body surrounds him pain. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . The word. like the in the wilderness. then. knew it.

" by all to his the scales. cannot by No one can touch him. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. case. of." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. It might help. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. sell the live on the lift. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. and its owner has not kept it in. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. is to "make whole. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. meganim. dead beast shall be his. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. however. If He should pass by and separate or close up." importance winnowing kind. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. in the however. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. know him from the Here it is taken outside only." debt." oil rest." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. from the root mgn.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. In that sense. then." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. it means that the spoke Leviathan. It leaves always room restitution. defend. unlike Job. If." 7. mean normally In either of means "to shield. God sets the wicked to close in men. he pay ox for ox. "Go. 8. The again.

fused (dbq) all together. ness. of murk and confusion. become that which seals it hotam for Job. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. shameful. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. my heart gone after my eyes. as stone. 12. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. complete. off. At best. for the Leviathan." sar. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. Job has seen the Leviathan. from the way. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. 9. in the world beyond man. has." his completion and perfection. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. the Leviathan does Job's skin." away from all other beings.44 Interpretation One cannot up. "signet. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. closed entranceway. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. the list is . "tight. For us it is ugly. dabhaq. For the world beyond man. tight itself. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. flesh. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. But. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. and the face of the deep Again. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother." all others. or constrictive: "stick.

The Book of Job
13. Not
Job 6:12
so

45

Job,

who once said:

Do I have flesh

of

bronze?

For

man

to

be

made of

flesh is to be

able to

feel

pain:

Job 19:22

Why
flesh?

do

you pursue me

like God, taking

satisfaction out of

my

Not to feel
Job 10:4

pain

is

not

to understand pain;

Have You

eyes of

flesh?

For Job, it is through the
notion of which

feeling

of pain that we come

to understand the

importance, by seeing

ourselves

willing to

risk pain and

death for that

is important:
For

Job 13:14

what reason

do I take my flesh between my teeth

and

my life in

my hands?

flower 14.

The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but

forever in itself.

Nothing

can

be for him

what

it is for itself. Difference for him
His total
unawareness and

makes no

difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
neither

stubble."

indifference he
uses

him is

awesome.

The lights

which

flash

at

his

sneeze

to see
see

To

appreciate

by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
nor

to read

and yet we are arrested and can see

world of man

for

a world unstifled

by

human

need and

let to be itself. But in

that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could

learn to let things be.

Only

then could he return with a

fuller understanding

of

human

need. an old

15. Once

Parmenides

asked a

anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be

young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
made

into

a mud

pie,

or a

brick,

or a

house? And

we all

stand upon the earth with never a thought of

asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
16. Or
simple

being.

"perfume"

Exod. 30:25

.

.

.

and you shall make of these a sacred as

blended

by

the perfumer; a

holy

anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.

.

.

.

46

Interpretation
Whoever
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
compounds

outsider shall
will

be

cut off

any like it or whoever from his people.

puts

any

of

it

on an

take your daughters to be

perfumers and cooks and

Song

of

Sol. 5:13

His

cheeks are

like beds

of spices,
myrrh.

yielding fragrance. His

lips

are

lilies, distilling

liquid

17.
first it burst

38:8

Who

closed

up the

sea

behind the double door

when

out of

the womb

The sea,
which

long

in

our

tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,

had

always threatened to engulf
pleasure.

all, has become a simple utensil,

instru

ment of

his innocent

18. The

word which

I have translated

"dread"

as

is

a

very

obscure

word, and

in fact

appears

in only

one other passage

in the

whole of

Biblical literature.

Ironically,
Gen. 9:2

the passage reads:

on

all

and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.

Panic

But the Leviathan "was
emerges,
and perhaps

made

to

be

dread."

without correction

Thus, Job 41:25

intentionally

so, as a

to

Genesis 9:2. If the

human

understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
sphere of

19. in

shahas.

The

one other verse

exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:

not

very

clear.

It only

appears

Job 28:7-9

The

eye of the

falcon has it

never caught sight of

it,

nor

have the

sons of pride ever trampled

over.

The lion

can

bear it

no witness, mountains

but

man

has

put

his hand to the flint

and overturned

its

by

the root.

In Aramaic, the
means

shahsa'

word

means

"a

lion,"

while

in Ethiopian the
elevated,"

root

"to be

insolent."

root comes

the word

In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky

root means
or

"to be

from

which

man"

"a

rank."

man of

Thus,

there

king
since

over

beasts

is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a

it is

not so clear

distinction is
that

the Leviathan himself. It

is

not even clear

of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though

king

indeed he surely is.
grand

This

beast,

above and

beneath

all malice or

ambition, oblivious to all,

The Book of Job
rules all and

47

by

the mere weight of his

being. In him

we recognize our

limitations

hence

see our

definition.

CHAPTER FORTY-TWO

1 Then Job
that no
without
design'

answered
can

the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You

can

do

all and counsel

be

withheld

from You. 3 Who is this I had
wonders2

one that

hides

knowledge? I have

spoken though

not understood.

There is

a

beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
world

have both

contempt and compassion

for4

dust

and

ashes."5

7

And6

it

was

so, that

after

the LORD had spoken these words unto
Temanite,7

Job,
you,

that
and

the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as

"My

anger

fumes

against

friends: for

you

have

not spoken of me the

thing

that

is right,
rams,

has my

servant

Job. 8 Therefore,
and offer

get yourselves seven

bulls

and seven

Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant

up for

yourselves a

burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the

thing

that

is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
Naamathite
also

has."

and

Bildad the

Shuhite

and

Zophar

the

went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his

friends,

and

the LORD returned all that Job
all of

had,

twice over.

11 Then his house
sion

his brothers
with which

sisters'0

and

and all of

his friends
him.12

came over to

supped"

and

him.

They
12

consoled

him

and showed

him

compas

for

all

the evils

the LORD

had brought

upon

Each

one gave a of

Qesitahn

and each a golden ring;

and the

LORD blessed the last days

his 13
the
all

life

even more

than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
asses;'4

thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
and

he

also

had

seven sons and three

daughters.'5

14 The first he

called

by

name of

Jamimah,16

the second to be

Keziah,17

and the third

Keren-Hapuch.18

15 In

the land there

could not

daughters,
knew his

and their

found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
hundred
and

beautiful'9

than Job's
brothers.20

their

16 And Job lived

another one

forty

years after

these events, and

sons and

his

son's

sons, and

died,

an old man contented with

theirs, four his days.

generations.

17 And

so

Job

Comments 1 It is terribly
how
translate this word. Gener

.

mezimah.

unclear

one should

ally speaking it usually implies

evil or wicked

intent:

48

Interpretation
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2

Oh, I know
devised In

what you are

thinking, the

machination you

have

against me.

arrogance the wicked

hotly

pursue the poor;

let them be

caught

in

the schemes which

they have devised.
often means

In the Book
cretion":

of

Proverbs, however, it

something

more

like "dis

Prov. 8:12

I,
on

wisdom, dwell

in prudence,

and

I find knowledge

and

discretion.

Jeremiah,
wicked:

the other

hand,

uses

it to describe God's

plans

against

the

Jer. 30:24

The fierce

anger of

the LORD

will not

turn

back

until

he has

executed and accomplished the you will understand this.

intents

of

his

mind.

In the latter days

The
sage

in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
verb

occurs

in the

passive

in

one other pas

Gen. 1 1 :6

all one and

And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;

nothing

that

they

propose to

do

can

be

withheld

from

them."

The verb, then,
sense one

would seem or

to preclude

finds in Proverbs

taking the in Jeremiah, since in
also

word mzmh either

in the

neither case

is anything
Perhaps Job

being

spoken of which one would want to prevent.

This leaves the first meaning, but that is
means,

difficult to

accept.

however,

that that too can

be

accepted as

long

as

it is known to be

without malice or

intent. beyond me,
a world

2. "There is
are]
wonders

a world

full

wonders,"

of

literally, "[There

beyond
'em'

me."

3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
ear,"

and

King
least

James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does

abhor

myself, and repent

on

dust

and

ashes."

about the

same,

except that

King

James

at

puts the word

"myself in
ashes."

italics, indicating

that there

is nothing

corre

sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
as the

stop

after the second verb rather than the

first

King

James

would require.

ashes."

The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had

and

already

epher we'phar." 'al. one more reason for believing tion. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. one feels remorse. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. have expected but it would not be so . He is value. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes. "upon. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord." meaning to them. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes. 18:27 the Abraham answered. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. as ." or is. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. in itself. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination. means "to despise" "reject. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other." and is. we have returned to Chapter One. can establish in the world of the small. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both. The root nhm means understood in the text. "Behold. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now." and 5. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6." wenihamti. But to others for something that one has done.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not. however. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. 58:8. of course." where it "to It is found in Ps. I who am but dust ashes. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is. normally as 'el. there seems "to feel deep compassion." These passages. Linguistically speaking." one assumes ashes." to be behind their understanding of the verse. that the book was conceived of as a whole." but. if one feels sorrow guilt. for instance." sorrow or Like the English word. . Also see Gen. and repentance. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . require as Greenberg does. by the way.

Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. yet his soul. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. 8. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. .50 Interpretation 1. and Joshua 2:13 . that wonderful woman of the night. but . and save alive and mother. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. 11. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. Gone is the vocabulary. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. will consume His be away. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. living in a nutshell. that the moths eaten. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. . He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. sisters each one on a different with day. Rahab: my father them. destruction. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. 9. Remember Aaron. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. death's first born his members." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. 10. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. them over. my brothers and sisters. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language.

not snuffed out the life of its owners. it became Joseph. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. eating joyous unity. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. Gen. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. three thousand camels. 13. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. His might is in the muscles of his belly. at the end of the book. but look at the loins. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. fodder just like the cattle. inheritance of the descendants 14. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. Shechem's father. ten thousand of cattle. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. It fell down . can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. What was not possible before has now become actual. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. and Zophar the Naamatite. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. Bildad show Shuhite. 12. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. strength in his Now. were another one came in and said. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep.

O desolate one. of silver. in English. Jezebel heard of it. including the being his 16. all sorts of precious stones. 18. came to Jezreel. stones. "cassia. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. We remember to his friends: his his day. Job 3:1 Then. As such it became. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. and wood and stones wood. "day. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. and looked out of the window. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. The Book rection. this name? second word. too. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. also called pukf1.52 Interpretation the young people. And you. so far for the things as I was able." are. and marble. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. in the prophets. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. It is from the words It is a new Job. keren happuli1: the first two ful. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . and I alone have escaped to tell thee. They are dead. Job himself becomes word yom. Then. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. antimony. the silver of of my God. or all the things that a self. qesi'a. the iron for the things iron. and she painted her head. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him.

" of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. Then they blew the trumpet. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. qeren. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. "My exalted in the LORD. have Samuel. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. 33:17 ox. my derides my enemies. for I sons. hence. It "horn. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. to the ends of the earth. tent. salvation. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. and went to Ramah. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. to begin at the beginning." 53 us look at the first word." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. against he thunder in heaven. he anointed. until in to speak with him. His bull has majesty." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. because I ISam. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. Moses' his face shone. that the skin of skin of face shone. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. behold. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. rays Hab. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. My mouth rejoice in thy . And Samuel priest took the rose up. and he veiled his power. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. flashed from his hand. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. said. and they were afraid to come near him. all of them. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. will give strength his king. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go.

because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. stronghold and my refuge. my me from violence. "Do glory boast. too. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. my rock. for Israel who are near to him. in whom I take refuge. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn." not and to the wicked. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. art the of their strength. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. 89:17 I say your to the horn. Often the Psalmist Ps. my savior. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it." boastful. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. praise all his saints. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. "Do not lift For thou exalted. and the IChron. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. to the sound the hom. of course. 27:2 be Exod. Linguistically.54 Interpretation Ps. cymbals. thou . Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. I have for prepared a Ps. 22:3 of My God. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. And. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. trumpets. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. and made loud music on harps and lyres. 75:4 up Ps. I have driven my horns into dust.

but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. "Behold. Jacob loved Rachel. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. because of the woman whom you have taken. 'This is his wife'. and said to him. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. and she . a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades." "Lord. man's wife. he said to Sarai his behold. And Leah conceived and bore a son. and when . But God sister. Gen. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. so he said. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. then they kill but they let you live.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. in have to be Song its of Songs. there is also good." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. though perhaps somewhat naive man. Abram's And ultimately. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. and his house because of Sarai. cluded however. to Sarai. they praised her to Pharaoh. Rachel. you are a a dead man. 19. saw Gen. for your younger and he said. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. wife. We have not. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. so as to not mislead ourselves. he opened her womb. Leah's soft. "I the will see you. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. we shall have to consider the full list. will they will say. barren. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. has a child: Leah knows only Gen." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters.

but at a very heavy price: Gen. Bethlehem). saw that she bore Jacob me no children. in her hard labor. and two maidservants. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. voice and given me a has also heard my son". but did not find them. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. but his father buried Benjamin. Laban felt . he has given me this son also". she called his name Benoni. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). "Give children. "Because the LORD has looked me. saying. she envied or her and she said to Jacob. so she called his name Naphtali.' and she had hard labor. 31:32 it. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. 30:1 Gen. and entered Rachel's. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. and have prevailed". And he went out of Leah's tent. for she said. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. she reacts not with gratitude. and said. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you." She my affliction." them. therefore she called his name Dan. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. So Rachel died. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. and she called Simon. but did not find the household gods. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. and into the tent of the not find them. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. but he did into Leah's tent. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. and sat upon all about the tent. "God has judged me. And she her father. said to me. but with a demand for Gen. for the way of women is upon So he searched. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. Then Rachel said. "Fear called not. Rachel travailed. And midwife said to as her. 30:6 When Rachel sister. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. and take know that Rachel had stolen them.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. the have son.

he was a Calebite. "Arise. but the ill-behaved. except can for him the land." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. Deut. for it. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. . 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. and the name of his wife Abigail. a youth. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. David was beautiful: brought him in. "Lie with master's me. they first seven fat cows. Nonetheless. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. . was Joseph himself beautiful. . 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. David. the [beautification] in it. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. And the LORD said. but all that again it led to grave problems. for blood be made pollutes the land. 41:2 and fat. Gen. and said. anoint and was ruddy. Abigail: ISam. he disdained appearance. and had and was handsome. the . and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah." ISam. Now he he. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. and saw and him. 16:12 And he sent. Joseph. behold. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. beautiful eyes. for when this is ISam. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. him. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live.

and told hanging in an oak. but king knew her . 14:27 There were name was Tamar. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. when was heavy meet on him. and killed him. and brought her to the maiden was king. born to Absalom three sons. Absalom he riding his mule. The very beautiful. lie with her. On the other Joab." hand. Joab's armor-bearers. "Behold." of her. loved her. "Come. his foot to the . Amnon said to the king. and left hanging between heaven earth. he took hold sister. if I had dealt the will aloof. Absalom and struck him. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. her. had a beautiful sister. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom." with And he took three darts in his of hand.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. his head and fast in the oak. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. my than she. I saw Absalom hand. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. oak. and she was a beautiful woman. nurse and ministered to him. David's son. he weighed weight. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. from the sole of . and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. . but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. 13:1 Absalom. with listen to her. he it). 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. But he would not he forced her. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. Amnon lay down. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. and being stronger to me. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. while the mule that was under him went on. "I king). 2Sam. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. whose name So Tamar. the and she became the king's not. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. and found Abishag the Shunammite. David's son. and when the king came to see him. and pretended to be ill. and after a time Amnon. hair his head." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said.

her eyelashes.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. as and when her father and her mother died. a girding of sackcloth. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. LORD is to be beauty is vain. the maiden was beautiful lovely. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. Eccles. Eccles. 4:30 hair. scarlet. but a woman who fears the praised. Esther 2:7 uncle. for themselves: is Ps. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. for the customs of the peoples are false. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. baldness. they will behold a land rope. A tree from the forest is cut down. and instead of a rich robe. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. and instead Isa. 6:25 far north. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. 3:24 Instead girdle. the city of the great King. also he has put eternity into man's mind. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. O desolate one. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. for fair to behold. and and do not capture you with Prov. and He had brought up Hadassah. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. 10:3 lovers despise you. in let her Prov. Jer. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. Mount Zion. Men beautify so that gold. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. shame. grace you poured upon your lips. that is Esther. for of a this is his lot. when she has done vile . And you. 5:18 Behold. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. instead of beauty. they seek your life. is the joy of all the earth. of perfume Isa. Esther's beauty saved her people. therefore God has blessed for ever. 33:17 Jer. a there will be rottenness. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. Jer. Ps.

the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. 2:15 with goodly fruit". and played the harlot because of your . and went forth among the nations you because beauty. Son of man. I have cast it out. 27:4 any passer-by. and its branches will be consumed. says the Lord GOD. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. towered proud of Ezek. 31:7 exposed you before kings. iniquity was found in you. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. you ate raiment was of fine linen.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. in the length of its branches. You to regal estate. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. "Is beauty. and your cloth. you then exult? The LORD once called you. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. for down to abundant waters." I Ezek. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. And silk. offering made harlotry. . raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. that were in the garden of God. high Eden envied it. . 33:32 And. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. and were in your towers. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . your builders beauty. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. cast you to the ground. and its heart was its height. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. you. 9:15 that thirst. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. lo. but they will not do it. "But trusted in beauty. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. and say to him. for they hear young and men shall say. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations." Ezek. . to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. they perfect your beauty. renown. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. they shall devour and . no tree in the God was like it in beauty. made they hung Ezek.

the next phrase Num. you shall give them . and he had no sons. Num. and new wine the maidens. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. Milcah. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. but died for his sin. the daughters have received an inheritance. corners of be full like bowl. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. and before the leaders and all the congregation. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. and before Eleazar the priest. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. Machir. Zelophehad Mahlah. of Gilead. The names of his daughters Mahlah. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. for like the jewels of a Yea. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. son of Hoglah. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. saying. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. "The daughters Zelophelad right. 20. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. And they stood before Moses. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. 27:4a Why family. Our father died in the wilderness. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. Thus. Had there been a son. but only a dowry. and Tirzah. son of Manasseh.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. Milcah. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. Noah. Hoglah. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. at the door of the tent of meeting. The text continues: Num. Noah. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. And are the LORD said to Moses. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar.

and Noah. Tirzah. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. son of Joseph. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. for Mahlah. tribe to another. tribe. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. they said. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . daughters of Zelophehad. came near son of Manasseh. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. it inheritance. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. saying. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. Hoglah. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. and has no son. And if he has daughter. Milcah. 'If dies. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. In the case of Zelophehad. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. however. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. The only. then his inheritance to his brothers. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong.

"just" by the For Job. . Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. in turn. They be taught. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. men are empty and life is without taste. there would no way to live as "one of com. there and us.The Book of Job Job's daughters. as we have seen. and a need of clarity. beauty. led. the and all way to These some bury the dead. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. by the fathers and some by the mothers. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. the way to bake bread. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together." Without these would must be no life. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. Of what do they speak? Of the com. ways must be taught they must be learned. and it is the children who must learn them. be and of the ways. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. the way to go out on the hunt. the two refused to mesh. This insight." clashing for human One said while friendship. Without whole. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. The inheritance is outright and absolute. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. however. of his daughters. nothing is said dowries. there would be no bread. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding.

.

Drama, Narrative,
Plato's Charmides
Andrew Reece
Earlham College

and

Socratic Eros in

Plato's Charmides is
the
reader multiple

an evocative and

highly
of

nuanced

dialogue, offering
of possible

to

themes

for

consideration and a

variety

inter

pretative approaches.
open

Three formal factors

Plato's

composition

immediately

an

corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
three

and

his interlocutors
term, in this

attempt

but fail to formulate
("prudence,"

a

satisfactory definition
(first
posed at

of a

"sound-mindedness,"

moral

case sophrosyne

or "self-

control").

By leaving

the question "What is

sophrosyne?"

159a)

unanswered at

the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed

definitions (as Socrates
ment

does, 175a-c)

and

to scrutinize the processes of argu
aporia.

by

which the

investigation has derailed in
not

Second,

the Charmides

is

a narrated

dialogue, featuring Socrates

only

as a participant

in the discus
on the next

sion
day.1

but In

also as a reporter of

the proceedings to
gives

an unnamed

friend

so

casting his dialogue Plato
the
"friend"

his

readers

the opportunity to as

sume the role of

and to evaluate

Socrates'

own

commentary

on

the

previous

day's

events.

Third,

the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a

dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
particular
on

the definitions of

sophrosyne presented within

the text and the complex and
knowledge"

intriguing
175a). I

introduction

of the concept of a approach

"knowledge

of

(166e-

propose

here to

the dialogue the

by

the second and third routes,

responding to
cratic eros.

Socrates'

narrative and

overall

dramatic frame, in
the

order

to

consider a theme not

usually discussed

with reference to

Charmides, So
Socrates tell the
Charmides'

Plato story
of

prefaces the elenctic core of the

dialogue

by having
Charmides

his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
night

a

story that

has

conspicuous elements of and at

an erotic encounter.

says that when

he

met

cousin

Critias the

before, he had just
his

come

back from battle
grounds

Potidaea

stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this

and was

happy

to

be

able return to

usual

in Athens. He

subject, he turned the

conversation

toward the latest

happenings in the
interpretation, Fall

philosophical

community, asking

whether there were

any

1998, Vol. 26, No. 1

66

Interpretation
men who

young
their

had

proven themselves exceptional
worth

for

their wisdom or

for
one

beauty

(153a-d). It is
about

breath both
echoi

"what's going

noting that Socrates (peri on in

should

have

asked

in

philosophy"

philosophias

hopos

ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
anticipated this
where

Plato has

already

juxtaposition

of themes

palaistra,

Athenian

males would

setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel

by

lectually by
Lysis, in
palaistra

one another's presence.

We

are reminded of the

beginning

of the

which

by

looking
author

ones"

Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our

Hippothales

and

has

established a

link between eros, the desire for beauty,

and philoso

phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
clear.

immediately

No

sooner

had he

asked about the

young men,
all of

continues

throng
was

of them

began to fill the room,
Critias'

whom,

Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin

lovers (erastai)

of

cousin

Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
man

by

common consent the soon

best-looking

in his

age group. of all

Char

mides

himself

entered, to the

present, in
of

cluding Socrates,
this youth:

who confides

to his anonymous

companion

his impression

My friend,

I

am no good at measuring.

I

am

simply
and

a

blank

ruler when me.

it

comes to

beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
Charmides'

age seem

beautiful to

But still,

beautiful.

(154b-c)
youngest

arrival

had

a

like

effect on all the men

present, from the
were a

to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
agalma

him "as if he

statue"

(hosper

154c). Plato's

use of words and

images here is
is

suggestive.

What I have
a white

translated as "I am

measuring-line."

simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
regard to.
. .

ruler"

literally
. .

"I

am

simply

eimi pros

was colloquial

for "I

make no extended make

distinctions in

Presumably

the expression

derived this

meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
while

white chalk could not

so

it is

an appropriate

image here

Socrates is

looking

at a man who seems to

be

an agalma,

perhaps of stone.

Socrates

then says that

his friend

Chaerephon,

who was also

present, remarked upon
was so

Charmides'

and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
Charmides'

handsome face

beauty,

whose admirers

temporarily forgot
and a

ual with a

distinctive face
Charmides'

beauty

was

that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the

Drama, Narrative,
metrically inept
companion

and

Eros in Plato 's Charmides

67

Socrates,
narrative

even while

in the him.
was

that beautiful youths

admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
he
Charmides'

the same to

Socrates
at

indeed

not convinced that

needed to see
cousin
thing,"

body,
noble

least

until

he had

Critias'

assurance that

his

possessed, besides his specifically, "a
soul was

obvious

soul"

stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that

Charmides'

indeed

kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
he
asked

"undressing"

that part of the young man

prevent
call

Critias,
of

Charmides'

guardian, to

any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this

Socrates'

example

politesse older man

explicit, Plato

ironically

heightens the

erotic

ambience.

An

in

a palaistra

suspected of sexual motives often

(and it

was

have

paidagogoi attend

their sons

approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
Charmides'

possible seduction.

See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.

At the

same

time,

by having
the

Socrates

bring

up the issue Socrates

of wres

tling-school protocol,

Plato

makes

reader aware

that this meeting does at
and

least have the
were
on

appearance of a seductive approach. enough

Happily

Critias

good

terms that

they

could collaborate

in

a

ruse

to draw

for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.

They

pretended

that Socrates knew a

cure

charged

scenario

than a removal of the garments

from

Charmides'

soul and

(as

McAvoy 1996,
came.

pp.

83-84,

suggests).

In any event, it worked,
companion

Charmides

Socrates

continues

his narrative, telling his among the
to
make

proach caused a great ruckus man

men

pushing his

neighbor aside opted

ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next

that

Charmides'

to himself. He eventually
mides'

to sit between Socrates and
a

Critias,

and

Char

sudden nearness threw

Socrates into

dither:

At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who

knew the cure, he looked

me

right in the

eyes with an

indescribable look

and was on the verge of

asking
I

me a question.

Everyone in the
longer

palaistra gathered round us

in

a

circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
cloak. caught

friend,
of

that I saw what was

inside his

fire, I

was no

within

myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the

wisest counselor with respect

to matters

love.

Speaking

of a

beautiful boy, he fawn before

gave the a

following
be

advice to someone:

Take
meat.

care not to go as a

lion

and

snatched

up like

a piece of

and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. important texts on the theme of eros. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. 221d). and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. Still. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. 507a-c. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). 714)." p. particularly restraint indulgence. 306b). entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. not mutu Pit. Charmides. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. "oddness. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. After tality seek marriage and family.5 Furthermore. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. an elenctic investigation begun. if ally exclusive (North 1966. 97). at Symp. from sex been Since self-control. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. with some effort to answer that I did.

Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. For the second. like his describes. distinguished. try to teach the other. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. rather than ugly ones. Narrative. at least potentially. to quotation of return Cydias. despite body. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. eternal rates beauty (Symp. someone who is both kotos and. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. inward say. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. least if self-control might presence. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. and gifted soul. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). is. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. face. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions." he says. Like children. Indeed. pregnant If this is the case. certainly will he would never anything ugly. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. just as a fawn . Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. 210a-212a). but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). and good. the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match.Drama. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a).

has not always been recognized as such. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. of which three come immediately to mind. fond of lambs. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. the aporia has a beneficial element. Halperin 1985.6 Third.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. 81-91. 58. an pp. right out from under hind. hunting (Dover. inversion the expected im age. Sim sus ilarly. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. For of example. him to finally renewed reflection. of citation of the line from Cydias. the perception of their own lack knowledge. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. Socrates' (241d). with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. 1978.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. 241e). "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. but did not drink its blood. First. just so do lovers love 165). but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. with trust in my strength. p. in singing. or as a hunter tracking game. In both cases. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. I caught a fawn in my claws. Socrates. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes.

8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. only if a with the power to momentarily. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles. Narrative." you resist me Socrates answers. If Charmides' either. in which Charmides. p. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. pursuer. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. perceiving his craving for Charmides. respectively. also reads the text in this way). and devour (McAvoy 1996. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. a lover might approach his beloved. he devoured appetite." realization of his desire to be Socrates. pursue." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. "So Charmides. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. we can see that dialogue. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. also interprets the quotation in this sense).Drama. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. which as a manifestation of anteros. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. 92. "don't (176a-d). "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. 90." he most likely means Charmides became. he must mean us to go along with the game. catch. lion. who. I thought how fair youth. Critias. p. when. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. Another reading. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. Socrates to replies in kind then. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. If we do. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will. or . When Socrates says. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. to speak. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings." no one will be able to resist him.

Socrates' Halperin 1986. 210a.72 Interpretation merged. bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). which cf.). or the entire body charm and the soul as well. his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. If is . came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. but he does not condemn the desires of either party. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. step. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. and actually help nurture the Symp. relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). someone suitable body. Soc speak. This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. 155e). will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. philosophos (154e-155a). His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm.

In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. e. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. as would a so governed. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). (161b-163d). penulti rung (episteme). Narrative. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. level again. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. Phil. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. From that on on. Rep. and. (160d-161b).g.Drama. showing modesty generally. the element of to doing (163e-164d). is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). see Larson 1951). and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. Charmides. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c).g. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. (17 le) Socrates. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. 457b). possibility. They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. and goodness (to agathon. and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. expands his logos nomoi. keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). own" every member of a city. like walking and talking with deliberate. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . In other dialogues. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). however. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover.

74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. 541-49). here eros. As an example. ostensibly. 1988. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. Kahn 1996. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). as it turned out. Lysis. would not had. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). 56-70. and Republic. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. Rather. especially the Symposium. Laches. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. pp. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. pp. Phaedo.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . vision. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. to topic. 148291. any case. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. Sadly for Socrates. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne.

(1977. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. 82). principles 542-46). by Mahoney (1996. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. as here. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. [Cydias] said. concern " for p. For the 5. in Kahn's work 203-9. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. p. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. Narrative. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. Alcibiades. more 184). puts 6." observation has been p. since he can speak 4. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. for example. pp. 3.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. This recently. like in advising fawn in front of a lion." measuring-line about such a person. 154). Hyland (1981. handsome boy." "dates" with conversations. he "[Cydias] for the beast. not opposing view. p." someone. p. pp. 2. p." this .) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. (For an pp. he also thought. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. pp. 27) and. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. 187-88). 7. McAvoy (1996. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. in the Laches. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. Jowett 1961. and Kahn (1996. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. 73 n. but in those works he does not. Cf. together with his irresistible passion . 102. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. so to speak. Plutarch. . see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. 'Take care not to go as a meat. that thought the experience. 25. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. thing. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. 1988. 54-55. Donald Watt's translation (1987. I to resist what had been an this.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. 146).Drama. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. p. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. the Symposium. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp.

" Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51. D." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203." Dialogues of Plato. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. Nussbaum. Ithaca. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. University Larson. Saunders. Kahn (1996. trans. Watt." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29.76 Interpretation 9. ed. 1996.. In T. 1988. Benitez. 1962. Plato. L. McAvoy. Page. The Collected Dialogues. 99-122." Dover." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides. D. 1996. 1966. C. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. MA: Harvard University Press. . "Socratic Politics Charmides. Pp. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. Princeton: Princeton University Press. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. J. Charmides. p. 1977. 1987. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In E. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge Press." 161-204. Potae Melici Graeci. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing.. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. Hanmondsworth.4). Pp. It is with Menexenus. 163-209. C. Hyland. Athens: The Ohio University Press. Kahn. "self-control. NY: Cornell University Press. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. K. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. 1985. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cairnes. Greek Homosexuality. and Jowett. 1978. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99." Mahoney. M. Charmides. 1988. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. 1961. Ed. D. C. 1996. Hamilton H. M. B. 1981. Sophrosyne. Cambridge. Griswold. eds. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. 1986. H. Eng: Penguin. E.. C. D. Pp. T.. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. 1986. 63-103. North." REFERENCES Bruell. 1951. trans.

He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. Vol.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. 1 . and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. Fall 1998. Like Marx. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. and on prudential about grounds. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. and his himself. was an out-and-out bourgeois. 26. No. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. was becoming of a tyranny.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge.

He did not write a theoretical work on politics. rather than law. while partiality to whom one's own country. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. love of country is a defense foreign domination. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. A disobeyed be effectual. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. It is. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. see his thought and his peculiar genius. but treasonous criminals.78 Interpretation privilege. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. the on account of the war being a civil one. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. who are gland.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. The law from corrupting one another. there is a strong of as the part of the British. however. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. In doing so. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. but punishment. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. On temptation. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. Its force . rebels. and foreigners. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. Yet. also the nature of law to be just. fight the to rebels using the an law. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. Justice has two different aspects. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law.

Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. Britain's combination. they wish for peace (p. but they have not lost their humanity. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. bringing generality with hate. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. (P. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. public spirited reasons. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. They vitiate their politics. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. devoid of hope. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. They have lost confidence in justice. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . when the communion of our country is dissolved. because and piety. for pursuing peace. or rather confusion. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. necessity Although law the common good. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. however. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. In order to maintain the integrity of law. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. proposing a policy. Their cynicism and 177). they corrupt their morals.5 melancholy are not. a hostile light. Of most all wars.

Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. they take the confiscated cargo. rather giving it to treasury (p. because. the British themselves. inconsistently.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. Hatred determines the crime. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. 179). 179). Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. by treating innocent citizens inequitably. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. contrary. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. blurs the difference be (p. in fact. The determination a it. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. . therewith. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. defeat. to infamy to punishment. but. and. is behaving like who appear tyrant. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. 178). In fact. . second. by treating fourth. as long as it shall think . rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. to enable administration to confine. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. than law. It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. 178). proper. and then distribute a war themselves. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. third. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. The determination infamous action. the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates.

(pp. 181-82). them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. therefore. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. tried ac cording to form. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. but not according to justice. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. The accused is. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. therefore. far from making the British godlike. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. that they will become savage. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. . 180). in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. peace. 180). After strength not is American should defeats. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. the absence of justice. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. VIII (p. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. taking their goods. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. should the ment English be victorious. Parliament its proper time and place. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. because it is blinded by its own indignation. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. object of their own insults. tying half dead in England). Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. both. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. rather than the the crime. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates.

. 186). therefore. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. naval men as they were allowed to go free. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. 188). At the end of the war. as a life was given in return for a life. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. by breaking draws the first principle of law. the limiting qualification. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. never mind possible. liberty principle. far as he tell. this action. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. But the British punitive. But. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. It hardly seems just. instead of of taking out the sting. far from being the opposed to manners. to punish the exchanged prisoners. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. like the deter pirates. because it between citizens. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. but its to the corruption of manners. This offense to threat to political liberty. 184). justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. Burke says general venoms equity.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. 182). however. parliament is incapable of such prudence.

might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. He even speaks as courage justice. he says unknown a reality. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. 189-90). of concern But. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. in love of country. dark. The British must doubt themselves. He speaks to the consciences. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. . the attachment to country. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. despite American defeats. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. have with doses of fear. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. 191). The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. be can fore they be enlightened. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. if only through fear. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. Burke raises the the unknown.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. made the reminds them British feel invincible).

states to the . They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. any without civil wisdom or military skill. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. With the awakening of their interests. manliness and cowardice judgement. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. when in triumph. contending for a violent (P. calling for battles which but his servility to it. rather than to punish and to subjugate. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. that it is directed by insolent passion. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. show little are content to real magnanimity. far from being manly. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. pride of a coward. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. helpless creature. dominion in which he cannot exercise. pair facing the Brit ish. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. 199). being that crawls on the earth. Those in favor of the war. Burke has for his plan. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. Far from man's of being cowards. is in the eyes of God and man. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. order to render others contemptible and wretched. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. they their country. actually the hypocritical others. the taxes.

the Americans are virtually alone.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. both addresses popular and parliamentary. He is cautious in his blame. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. 195). Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. rather than certain tyranny. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. to be the for the the war in England. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. and be trusted. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. therewith. to risk with defeat their own arms. the Americans must trust in themselves. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. Just a short time . In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. therefore. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. above the voices of many. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. themselves. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. and Burke shows As things stand. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. cynicism. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. they must earn that trust. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. (1774). He is the people doubt Parliament and. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear.

Par liament must. Now. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. when public . because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. even though right of they have no representation. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. granted social rights (pp. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. so as to offend the people. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. beg leave to observe. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. waves of chance and. that it is not will be resisted. I must attend to public opinion. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. rather than oppress it. having recently tasted victory. at best. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. because the British had suffered defeats. The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. 205). but people. The people are. therefore. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. Parliament to tax the Americans. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. be governed. he can accuse aggrandizement. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. He is thereby domestic politics. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. (P. 210-11). therefore. it may be the mind. 207) omnipotence.

because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. not because of a perverse humor. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. rather theory require tions for injustice. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. from. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. Parliament must be heard. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. In light freedom. They practicing (the god of this lower world). and. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. freedom others. 211). as it was by the New Whigs. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. Burke is quick to point out that. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. as a defense of freedom in general. like authority. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. politics. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. Compromise If the in the the and reform. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. 208). parliament can no longer legislate religion. just in they are needed (p. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. ment. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. religion more the monarchy. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. . through pressures placed on. to be mistaken. Freedom. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. however. they embody than parlia ment. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. It requires compromise. any more than is sover of eignty. and even independence. doing what one wills. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. Freedom is not an abstract principle.

Abstract ideas . The British Parliament the authority of a god. rather than acknowledges the hate. and savage cruelty. In abstract theory. they claimed to embody mankind. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. thus denying claimed the church. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. collective are bom from disappointed trust. because it is a principle of compromise. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. they affection. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. the aristocracy. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. Moments authority lived. of man and the absolute hand. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. General theories passions.88 thus. rather than cod ified. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist.6 ire of an atheist. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny.

order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. in particular. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. and especially to science. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. the aristoc and monarchy. malice. and executions.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. In this. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. broke faith. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. guilt. greed. The legislator must whole. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. confiscations. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. They destroy . It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. and placed personal gain was before their ideals.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. The Reflections. though in theory. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. horror. their persecutors. and the tence. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. In not fact.

The legislator have of in his soul. Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. offices. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. ranks. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. . . .10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- . though it may paradoxical. humanity (Pp. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. he teaches limits of both." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. that they . because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. is at their horizon like their horizon. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. because moderation they are defi must in love. they from love men too little. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. philosopher. but things.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. but in general. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. It is who are undoubtedly true. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. united them as a people. they of any interest. Their them. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. nor fanatic visionary. Like the of the good seamstress. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. God. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science.

At best. and exist in much greater clearness. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. Legislation is deliberative p. unique character of Geometry. which of it. however. creating Burke does. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. possibility (Reflections. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. In formative act. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. therefore. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. like promises proportion. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. 524). to have the power of ordering. the uniqueness of human beings 301). they to represent and to secure those interests.12 chemistry. Its rebel to be used against them. cannot recognize the politics.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. in fact. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. rats. an un geometry differentiated mass. a mathematical order. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. however. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. atomism except by a principle of order. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater .

He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. 221). Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. then there must be moral . give repealing the tax. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. of government.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. for America had. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. To the contrary. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. By having right to everything they want everything. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. If there are to be compromise and freedom. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. 215). (P. The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. developed its own Ideological differences. 222). or to an equal share in government. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. Burke opposed abstract was against began. about the parts are at (p. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. such. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. to tax in order to restore American trust. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation.

of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. avarice. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. therewith. but trust that is called to account and office. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. in which it depends. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. and a brutality of accepting of political men. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. but. an Perhaps most important. should the people rule. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. rather than connections of its sovereign. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. they are too strong to oppose.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. The people are the product of the constitution.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. liberty. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. satisfy those grievances. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. however. natural Burke thought the rulers. therefore. The as are though people dis must. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription.

rather. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. The origins are inferior to the end product. mind. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. It is something to be Although He respected. . Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal.15 The hidden hand is not. Burke believed that rational. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. however. because he never believed is not Hegel's state.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. . and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. To the contrary. Burke never thought reality. He economics. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. force. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. . viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. and beneficence. Contending for an imaginary power. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. brings a degree of the common good. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real.

Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. on hand. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. he and sought indignant fanaticism. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. but they can trust him. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. So. 1954) p. to foster the love of Furthermore. which which he lends credence. contains its abuses within it. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. C. to be grown in disrepute. Prudence makes the former feasible. disheartened and disgusted. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. His Yet one cannot of visionary. the latter necessarily corrupts. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. The partial suspension. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. Karl Marx. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. so or a misanthropist. he is in his self-right eous wrath. Unlike Parliament. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. espe cially in the great. B. 260. Capital I (Moscow. a God. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. (P. only because they have elected him. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality.

three sections of the city. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. 282-83. and to Burke. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. jurors and . 282-83. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. 431. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. Glorious 1984). Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. vol. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. they both ideas. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. farmers. But he did give the any property. vol. W. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. 1. vol. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. and by looking at the man. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. 10. CA: Sage. Edmund Burke. Works. p. many other cities. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. pp. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. remind one of the old man ed. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. 431-32. 1854-89). 2.96 else. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. 5. Works. 1994]) argument. CT: Greenwood Press. attempt 8. 6. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. vol. 4. Hippodamus models three. 279. 2. 439. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. 31. in whose 6. Phaleas'. he denied and the artisans arms. p. and the 2. Jackson Bate (Westport. vol. 382-84. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. page number alone are 3. but according to his fancy. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. tyranny (Thomas Paine. was cited within the text as Reflections. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. There are three classes of citizens. Furthermore. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. In from looking to the number three for order. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. 350-52. The Complete Writ 1945]. 101. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. 164. 520. In desire to know nature as a whole. p. 358. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. 94. portrait. 15-16. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. 7. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. and the 7. pp. a more participatory form vol. 8. 9. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. pp. pp. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. Old Whigs. although ment. his regime on the number 12. and three kinds of legal suits. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. Politics. pp. of govern 3. ultimate differences. 3. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. p. 533. wore by cheap whole. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. 1960). vol. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship.: Penguin. pp. Eng.

2. 470. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. of Chicago Press. 29. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat.237). for men of action are often. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. Canavan is for Burke life. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. 1993]. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. is taken from Montesquieu. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. pp. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. rather than action. rather than the presumptive. 6. the man of actual virtue. 1. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. NJ: Transaction Publishers. 331-33. 348. vol. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. 1984]. against abstract doctrine. Like Burke. 13. because he thought it made prudence impossible. p. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. 15. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. When questioned. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. vol. In the Spirit of the Laws.9-10). thus making an who improved the law. pp. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. Works. 431. He honors for those individual judgement. sanship. vol. not simply its evident usefulness. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. 406-7. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. trans. 294-95. pp. pp. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. 432. who lives according to the actual. vol. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. 1. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. that its authority depends habits of obedience. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. pp. (Harvey Mansfield. 77). to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. 1949). Works. Thomas Aquinas. 1991]. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. Reappraisal. p." the ruling majority and 14. . of Chicago Press. as opposed to natural rights. as in the French Revolution. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. Thus. and even expected.149-52). those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. 1954). p. Science. 1987]. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. Canavan. 1965]. susceptible of of infinite improvement. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S.

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but to those whom he "the wisest. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra. 5. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. No. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. it is incoherent. but are inseparably It is joined. In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. . ." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel." Preface. therefore. is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. 26. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation.1 As readers of the book. The first crests at the end of Song. to interpret this drama." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. Vol. 289). "deepest. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. In the second. Fall 1998. 1 . might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. argument and action. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. Beyond Good Evil. as it stands." In interpretation. the truth observation surface.

It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue. Appealing directly to the multitude. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. This under persuading live. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . e. therefore. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. the superman. of accordingly. the will to power proves to doctrine. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them." however. It." 8).4 If Zarathustra is human. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is." this account. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. therefore. he and wishes to "go down" to again. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest." But this his means "to be again.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise.. but as such to be more than human. then the distribution." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. Overburdened by its superfluity. however. however. however. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. he is met with incredulity.g. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. ridicule and hatred.

Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. despite their variety. the first. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. root cause of all the will to power is the things. the people." Here he that if be made to speak.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. as Zarathustra calls him. acting in the light of its truth. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue." 9). Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. he insists. the Still. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and. . The first of this wisdom will to power. however. em but rather what good and evil." holy. Persians." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. according to Zarathustra's understanding. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. therefore. in accordance with its law." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. law. But being. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. since. including his soul and mind. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. in the Aristotelian phrase. Behind the creator. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. one Afterworldsmen. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. That is to say. its things. calls "praiseworthy. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. according to Zara thustra. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. speaks to man only being." "will to for the first time. all of of good and them. activity stands the legislator or. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal.

102 We Interpretation see that. to creating creators. that he cities of men. perhaps. therefore. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2)." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. That the related political and aspects of claim. it were. divine. To create great endeavor. therefore. but rather fellow creators. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. according in what to Zarathustra. in Zarathustra's own words. to a Virtue. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. a law that is. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. as it were. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. At the close of Part One. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. the coming to be of the superman. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. however. overarching then. the to power. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. is Zarathustra's goal. believes. human beings seems necessarily is. nite laws. It is this than human. longer disciples. however.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. Zarathustra. law that is. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . indicates. but identity between them. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion.

in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. Accordingly. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. "the Great stand Noon. reveal himself to a his career. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. as it were. while bringing humanity first time. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. create dom and. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. will creators. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down." 3). the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. it and as well. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. a natural law. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that ." 1). by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. Zarathustra will. It almost goes without fails is the question. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law." 3)." things. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. but animal gods are and superman. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. therefore. At this culminating moment hind his veil. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic.

they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth.104 Interpretation so ing The that. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. This interpretation. however. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another." in other words. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. rushes his teaching." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. to be absurd. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. the distribution of his author. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. of course." of first half his of Part Two. What and grotesque of a devil. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. In "The Child which a child his disciples. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. Neverthless. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. of course. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. Nonetheless. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. however. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). appears independent inquiries. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. his venom." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. of latter. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators. as Zarathustra has argued.

which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. On the one hand. therefore. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. therefore. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. made clear through stands following reflection. that is. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. and this is men. On the other hand. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. that is. consequently. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. It . But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. the com incoherent in its own terms. Creation. this condition with another.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. therefore. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. Moreover. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. to establish a community of and reciprocity. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. as through such distribution cre like himself. disciples and. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. they must liberate above oneself as one's it.

my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. As he puts giving. spite. revenge. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently. he is in useful a state of aporia. ("On the Giving Vir 1). demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . consequently. compatible with the moral law insofar tue. As "The Night Song" predicts. but by self-mockery. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. wisdom. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. and the desire for revenge within his soul. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. the punishment or desire for soul." Consequently pedantry.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. with his wisdom.

9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. all human community established upon the basis of the law. therefore. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. that false horizon now of the is. and the good. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. of the rational good. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. in which the just is included as false appearance. therefore. elaborating of the beautiful. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. That is to say. that understood need on is. 381). he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. Accordingly.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. Thus if in Part . since. He cannot painful beyond endurance. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. and that. the just as final political order. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good.

Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. envy. consequently. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. e.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. Nevertheless. Zarathustra's primary opponents. It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. that is. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love.. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. That is love were to say. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. "enemies" however." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). In other words. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]).g. fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. happy. and however. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). Zarathustra blames his failures position. however. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. As is his habit. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead. the longing for revenge.

must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. Without himself being aware of it. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. For the will. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. he realizes. "the good. in expressing its or unlimited character. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. in the infinite power of the will. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. therefore." again and soon and. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. spite. As a conse good and evil quence." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. he also concludes that any particular vice. Be that it may. however. The greatest good. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. he says is. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge. manifests itself in an infinite becoming. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge." Life.

then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. good untouchable. But the "values. It is." as a form of artful play. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. . 382. for. naively (The Gay Science. . the destruction of values. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. the creation of values. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. law or or as he it there." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. the possession of wisdom. wisdom and will and And. in clinging to his its freedom. he . the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. from opposites. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity." he describes himself depths. necessarily the greatest evil. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. of course. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. Ecce with all that was Homo. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful." 2). "Thus Spake Zarathustra. as the highest good. himself to purchasing his its first principle. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. will's "sublime" character good. destruction of values as its Accordingly. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . the false perspective of the moral law.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. his desire for happiness as he understands it. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue.

demolish it. of another like himself. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. This fellow thinker is name within the work. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values.207a). He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. think through. his old moral teaching." "now I love only my children's land. he values the admittedly political community. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. in some indefinite future. Plato. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. but ultimately to the generation. He listens carefully to these speeches. therefore. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. its fundamental incoherence. however. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. help lower level than his The reason for this . and. Zarathustra himself has done." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. to the end of reproduc words. truth. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. As we have already observed. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. in new doing so. comes to understand the implications self. with caution and of subtlety. and create engendered. As in the case of sexual intercourse.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. Symposium reproduction of his own good. Zarathustra In other gives dren. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor." as he calls it.

therefore. In words. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. but in terms of knowledge as well. however. Nevertheless. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. In his dream Zarathustra has . self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. everything is one." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. despite the in some to this region of the dead. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. just the prophet had predicted. become the "night-watchman death. the future continues way . and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life.. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. everything That is to say. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. as it were."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble. Thus. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. therefore. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. Zarathustra the Third.. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. Consequently." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. bursts open.

more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. the peoples must of Yet. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples. From this low point. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. If. 1." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. This insight is cause. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer. the Machiavelli. but to willing this willing. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. Zarathustra. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. not to willing all of the past. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. Dis courses on Livy. .2). Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. namely." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. however.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. at least at this point. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. then. of therefore.

however.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. eternal return of . the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. "O Zarathustra high. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. according the Zarathustra's current understanding. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. . there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. however. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. in which it may be willed. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. . must past and Accordingly. he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. Thus. . being is an Accordingly. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. saying. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. but every stone that is thrown ." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. therefore. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. namely. The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle.

paradoxically." Moreover. . freedom will at its peak. of sickness" therefore.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . "foreseeing" longer man. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. nothing be profitable. the that has crawled his throat. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man . Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return. as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. into my throat. the life but is in creative great effect of in. that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. all would be one. . but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. of It is." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it. as Zarathustra now describes it. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. knowledge would Thus. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. The presence of the low not only persists human life. When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. that was my disgust at all creation" existence. the of the .18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. that is. 21). choked me and crept .

but. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. the will and its desire for and i. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. Finally. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. however.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible. of "justice" "freedom. however. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause.e. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. the thought of the eternal return developed. and that genu knowing will. in Part Three. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. Far from having escaped the its justice. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being.. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will." revenge.21 need. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. its law and sway of the rabble. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. is in accord with reason. namely. on the one hand. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. love and. of not be given.

however. 7. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. Preface. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption"). it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. Zarathustra. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. 8. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. parodies "wisdom. See "On Cf. In Part Three. Behind the 6." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. 4." 3. 1888. and therefore of being. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. appears to offer a 11. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate." 5. Writing"). Cf. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. 202. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. also see Ecce Homo. Tablets. 9. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. p. 23)." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude.22 upon in his wanderings. in that irrational. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. Of course. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. It points to the Seth Benardete. 4. Beyond Good and Evil. University of Chicago Press). Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. On the simplest level. 10. 153. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good.

his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. namely. 15. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. 1935]. 23. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. XIII. Vol." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets. 17. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. as god. 1984). turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. "The speech Self-Overcoming.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. 14." 1 1. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. overcoming of need. it would require "something double. 12. Cf. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp." "The Truthsayer. what 53-54. The Wisdom of the Ancients. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. 28-31." 16. Row. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). Matter. but only on that of philosophical writing. lacking . Unfortunately. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. 13. pp." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer." 360-425 and Bacon. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. Homer. IV. . or Zarathustra. Odyssey. "Proteus. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. 1988).'' Great Events. therefore. ed. Zarathustra's p. II. It should come as no surprise. trans. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. as man. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm. .

p. characterizes world following that terms. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. 283-85.'' for every is an afterworld." 21. therefore. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. 152 and 192. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark." merely by looking into each other's faces. and The Gay Science. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. Robespierre. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return. 27. 1794)": Daybreak. 29. above all. pp. by "convictions" ("Antichrist." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and." and 22. Sunrise." also Dancing 4. on account of his 227). however. To every soul belongs another world. "Fame and Second Sailing. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. "All Song. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. Song. therefore. 30. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. for the smallest just. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. 40. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. Preface. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. namely. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. Seth Benardete.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. If both Zarathustra and. 36 and 87. 264). a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. bridge. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense." Having pears by chance. p. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. vertu' 20. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. Unfortunately. 289. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. She power. 1990). (Speech of 7 June. the ill-constituted. ." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time.

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1995).50 paper.. $19. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D.. Heidegger. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. 1992). NY: Cornell University Press. greater notoriety. Berel Lang. Tom Rockmore.50 cloth. 1996). 1993). In this essay. Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge.50 cloth.. $47. x + 285 pp.. $49. Fall 1998. + 306 pp. Leslie Paul Thiele. 1 . and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. xv + 232 pp. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. Michael E. Vol. No..95. University the Polity.. $15.. $33. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation. xii + 129 pp. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. $14.95 paper. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. Zimmerman. Philosophy. 1993). Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. even to the point of at "apologetics. 1990). MA: Harvard University Press. $49." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. $19.95 paper. 1997). xi + 234 pp. Politics. Caputo.50 Hans Sluga.Review Essays Heidegger. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. Indeed. xi + 382 pp. Julian Young.95 paper. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. 26. xii + 263 pp.95. this century comes to a close. $15.

politics. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. for example. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. is . Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe." in Heidegger's Crisis. Lyotard. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. Unlike Zimmerman. e. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom.. Given this historical archaeology. In the process. In order to discern this tendency. As bridge between reject discover. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. One point example. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies.g. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. daeo-Christianity. Rockmore implements criticism. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. which also exemplifies historical. however. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. Although Farias champions this position. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. of and Derrida. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. namely. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics.

Even been prior to Farias' book. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. inquiry. In this work. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. Being and Time (1927). indeed. This work. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. Nazism. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. Philosophy. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . As Zimmerman. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. As poignant as revelations were. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being.. ethics. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. We Thiele's Timely Meditations.Heidegger. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. Caputo. II. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. e. the Polity. then practical concerns. raises. however.g.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. The Farias' effect of revelations. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. already the publication of his magnum opus. hence. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. of ethics and politics.

' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. pp. is of political which things. On the surface. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. the which unique forgetting of being. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. 84). Heideg instruments of technology. As Zimmerman states: . By 'thinking. That is. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's.' he did not mean rational calculation. Interpretation . considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism." nature. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation.. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy. i. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. and the end of metaphysics.124 '. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. the our need to day. but the of technology. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. of "enframing. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties. xxiii-ix) Jews." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course.e. As Zimmerman emphasizes. .

and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. Consider Heidegger's . The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. philosophy and politics.Heidegger. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. As reactionary modernists. but instead blood and instinct. 84) In the end. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. 127). translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. conflict and resolution. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. frenzy and violence. Unfortunately. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. p. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. (P. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. . Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. . Holderlin. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. what the Polity. harmony from strife. On the one hand. domination humanity and nature. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. recast Going forward. Not surprisingly. that is. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment.

To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. e. the dissident (Derrida). The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. the scandalous comparison culture . who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. . "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. self-affirmation. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). Only by possible a shepherd. . 73). we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. . . and heroism. love. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. charity.g. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. Caputo. in his stark concept of Dasein. become 68). Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. love otherwise absent facticity. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. in must emerge "singular. 72). in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. truth. 207). baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. . including care. thinker. (Lowith.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. According to Caputo. The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin." community. Ironically. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. the categories of tenderness. and temporality. As Caputo indicates.

being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. link (p. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. for Rockmore "hero. namely. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. . In Heidegger. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. however." Heidegger's philosophy (e. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. National or no important. as Nazism. Because Rockmore way. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. This distinction becomes important. III. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. "What I call the 'official' view students. 54). stance. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism.Heidegger.g. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. 74). there is no. 54). construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states.. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. and that. Philosophy." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p. Rockmore. the Polity. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. roughly speaking. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence.

philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. the public and occasional" the private. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. In Heidegger's Crisis. Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. In Heidegger's Silence. 5-8). freedom and necessity. philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . Lang ger history (pp. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. the professional and the thesis (p. insofar as the and then. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. Ironically. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. of illumination and blindness. but the intellectual others. In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. 100-101). Of course. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking .128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. . 5). but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. The "tragic question then becomes.

inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p.Heidegger. in the 1930's." forged through the will. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology.g. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis.. setting institutions the decline. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. IV. be translated into any specific may For example. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. Mill and Kant. a process occurs. an opportunism "timely. And ger's while one may try vision. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. 19). Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. 245-48). 22). and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). but what extent a political crises of of the political. Indeed. for most critics construe these . action. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. community. and the possibility of law.

" paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. a Heideggerian politics must confront. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. vious. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. factic plane.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. alien to all reduction to the uniform. As our discussion of the previous . and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things.). in order that one to the dilemma in question. While this most problematic. his commitment to National Socialism. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. it would a type of action irrecon (p. 35 ff. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around.g. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip.. In many respects. however. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). Thus Wolin concept of resolve. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. e. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism.

which claims In ogy. Philosophy. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. books the Polity. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. if it does their objections. When joined Young's solicitude. 79). on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme.Heidegger. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. Young. provides According to Dallmayr. 38-41). Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. 104). Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. 41). in regime. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. In Heidegger. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. 50). as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. but Wolin. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . Farias. 125). Young argues that Heideg for the other. Moreover. Rockmore. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. instead. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought.

As Thiele emphasizes. e." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. however. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. the between logos and community. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. p. 81-83). if government as fully we articulated. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it. namely. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. that is. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. As Arendt suggests. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. 198). Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. is that the power which permits political participation. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. of light the opera Thus. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. In words..132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies.g. namely. the nexus of politics. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. facets as as Thiele indi cates. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. "tolerance" namely. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them." Correlatively. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. Western democracy. 48-49). then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. language. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. What Heidegger recognizes. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. In this way a community develops. that moral emphasis on can (pp.

is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. p. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. 5-12. and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. 292). 86-100. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. 60-63). The arbitrary. politics. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. it Sluga. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. Literally. another the Polity. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. thrives within a polis the greatest importance. . the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. controversial.Heidegger. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. 128).) is iconoclastic. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. censorship. means or "place in on such opposition. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. philosophy flourish only it is . the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. . but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. While Yet. challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. 16). Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. 167). Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. even solicitous of. . and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom.

Trans. In this spirit. Richard Wolin. Trans. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. GA 24. Ithaca." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. New York: Paragon Press. Heidegger. Kettering. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. and Gunther Neske. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. 1991. Wilde William Kluback. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. Political. Heidegger and University Press. no. 1990. on the words responds to this contrary." Time Journal 14. Phil Temple University Press. The Other Heidegger. Andre Michel. 1990. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. Peter Collier. Blitz. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. Marcus (ed. GA 31. "On Heidegger's Lowith. 1 (1995): 111-86. no. University Press. Trans. and Farias.). Victor. "jews. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. Fred. New York: World Publishing. Johannes. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. 35). 1982. Miguel.. 33. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. Mark. 15." Gary Steiner. London: Routledge. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. . 1962. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. Heidegger. Perhaps this time think. Palo Alto. Truth." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. Lisa Harries. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. philosophy of its task. Jean T. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. Kovacs. 1958. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. de Beistegui. and 1995. Pascal. but. when such a pp. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1975. Silence. Trans." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. 2. Heidegger the Trans. NY: Cornell David. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. Emil. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.' Assertion of the German University. 1993. 1958. Pierre. George. Karl. 1981. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. Dallmayr. Martin. Hannah. 1 (1991): 1-611. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. Ed. John. 1998. " Lyotard. 1989. Bourdieu. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. Jean-Francois. no. New Haven: University Press. CA: Stanford University Press.

The New York Review of Books. Pp. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. William J. 1990. 24. and and Philosophical Forum 25. Rumor of the Hidden King. 1993. no. eds. 11-24. on Free Speech. Frank. Roberts. the Polity. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. no. The Politics of Being. 1987. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. Scott. Common Good. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. Hugo. Encounters Parvis Emad. Richardson. Heidegger Jaspers.. "A Normal pp. Bloom University Press. Sheehan. Christine-Marie Gros. no. 1994." 1996. 2 (1995): 137-53. Zimmerman. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil." Scott. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. On ington: Indiana 30-35. Press." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. Trans." University of Chicago H. Quarterly Ott. 1998. Dallery. Freedom. C. no. Sherover. Alan. London: Fontana. 2 (1993): 121-39. by and Kenneth Maly. 1992. 1996." "A Question Socialism. Trans. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. Time. Albany: SUNY Press. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. no. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Alan M. 1994. Albany: SUNY Press. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Ewald Osers. Intro. "Heidegger's Truth eds. and Ethics Schalow. A. Socialism. Richard." . Olson. 4 (1989): 340-55. Chicago: Politics. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. and In A. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. Riidiger. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. Safranski. Charles. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. and the January 14. Heinrich Wiegand. Michael E. no. ed. Charles E. 1992). John. Heidegger and lands. New York: Columbia University Press. 4 (1997): 554-62." Philosophical Writings. and Alan Rosenberg. Blunden. Reiner. Petzet." Holocaust. Van Buren. and Danger. Thomas. 1989. Nazi. Thought. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 1. Trans. 1990. "Heidegger 27-38. NJ: Humanities Press International. Trans. Schurmann. Origins. "Resoluteness Ambiguity.Heidegger.

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Liberalism and (Lanham. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. indeed could not. The Pluralist Game. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. No. Three recent works do both. $24. Like other pluralisms. $16. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. Francis Canavan. Public $22. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. Sandel. possess. Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. why it excludes. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments.. Fall second book. The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness.95. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. + 126 pp. 1 .95. 1997). and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. Rawls's Political Liberalism). inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. 1995). Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. On the other hand.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. 1996). penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan.50.. 26. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism. Vol. Michael Walzer.. but what it excludes. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. University Press. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998.

the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. indeed impossi ble. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. and the relations between economy and polity. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. As Canavan clearly perceives. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. Naturally. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. In Canavan's account. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. however conflictual. 76). In Canavan's account. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. The categories overlap. Law society. lost unity of shared. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. but or not limited to. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. Earlier American pluralism. pluralism and toleration. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism.

what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. to public Canavan notes. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. their best. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. schools. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. hospi tals and social services were injured. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. Canavan particular. individ liberty. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. Yet of the three volumes. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. it displaced institutions. but without developing the point at any length. These institutions. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. had helped to flesh out religious community life. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . Understood in individualist terms. liberalism.

The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. to flourish.. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). the state should reduce its direct etc. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. things look neutrality. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. on pain of contradiction. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. to make room for such groups in education. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. Groups with spiritual. If anything. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. cultural. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. Protestants and devout Jews. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. On the other hand. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. so vision ought Canavan argues. to join in the struggle. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. social services. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. always reflects some moral vision. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods.

But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. others' based have chosen them. community. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. religious duties. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. the freedom tive. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. Consequently. with others about what is true any or good. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. As Sandel notes. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. People are born for citizenship. or even citizen obligation. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. of citizens In the liberal conception. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. ing of Again. for Sandel and the republican tradition. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. since these all require description of the self. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. for instance. to a solution to these problems. and this goal has American public policy. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. They natu common affairs. When they tion. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. this asocial render human good is misleading. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene.

In principle. Or we could relativize the value of respect. So Sandel pluralism. respect not follow. and His alternative version the self. moral. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. regarding toleration. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. they express. 20). The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. and promoting. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. community. As Sandel correctly argues. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. not their simple capacity to choose something . thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. judg Using the legal example of abortion. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. In both cases. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. a contradiction. prochoice their views for public purposes. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon.

be Canavan suggests. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. in the nature of (p. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. Sandel replies. Indeed. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. Arguably. in general. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. 90). be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. With Sandel. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. Presumably. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. Sandel's order.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. That is. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. or even malicious. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. the same could be said about his ily law. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them.

"one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . . of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. ought to be barred from running in elections. Walzer here in the secondary associations. is right say) tradition. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. (p. and social Where then. so he opposes a voucher system. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. With Sandel. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. Naturally. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. To his credit. of and others. according to Walzer. Maclntyre. Religious parties. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship.) Nor can we repair to . 77). . attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. for example. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. as an harbor republican hopes. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. this is an omission which pluralism. Canavan. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. 70). with early roots in Protestant and English history. together with leaves intact the current crisis. Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism.144 Interpretation societies.

" - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense. Altogether then. . it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. But reading Sandel.

434 pp. The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). Gershom Scholem. XIV. Gerhard Kriiger. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). H. XXXIV. Jacob In addition. 1933-1935). Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). B. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). Jacobis (1929). cloth with dust jacket. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937). among Wissenschaft writings. and others published here for the first time.. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time.-). 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937.-). numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. previously unknown writings and letters.i VERLAG J. It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. Testament Spinozas (1932).. Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). French. Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. in the original languages (German English). (1921). Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. cloth with English) many important. marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. . and Lowith.

00). The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings.B. $46. .metzler. 66 pp.de . Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ. Dept. published here for the first time in its entirety in this form. subscribe by your university 1. ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx. $5300). edition are approx. your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library. Name . Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. current list price. The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes.80 (approx. the be sent as they appear. Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996. Each volume may be purchased separately.80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1). volumes should (approx.00 each). DM 16.Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations.. ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. (approx. Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns. Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English). ? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss. $10. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price. The prices of the 2. The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy. $53.00). The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined.

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Y.ISSN 0020-9635 Interpretation.A. Inc. -a o PC fo a -a o CO 2 o 3 "I 3 o 3 O < CO a r 21 rra *> o m c3 CO .S. Queens College Rushing N. 11367-1597 U.

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