Interpretation

A JOURNAL
Fall 1998

J.

OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Number 1

Volume 26

3
21

Cameron Wybrow
Robert D. Sacks

The Significance The Book

of

the

City

in Genesis 1-11

of

Job: Translation

and

Commentary

on

Chapters 39-42 65
Andrew Reece

Drama, Narrative,
Charmides

and

Socratic Eros in Plato's

77

Mark Kremer

Liberty

and

Revolution in Burke's Letter to the

Sheriffs of Bristol

99

Steven

Berg

Interpreting
to

the Twofold Presentation of the

Will

Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke

Zarathustra

Review Essays

121

Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard

Heidegger,

the

Polity,

and

National Socialism

137

Whose Pluralism?

Interpretation
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Leonard

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Interpretation
Fall 1998
-1-

Volume 26

Number 1

Cameron Wybrow
Robert D. Sacks

The Significance The Book
of

of

the

City

in Genesis 1-11
and

3
on

Job: Translation

Commentary

Chapters 39-42
Andrew Reece

21

Drama, Narrative,
Charmides

and

Socratic Eros in Plato's 65

Mark Kremer

Liberty

and

Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77

Sheriffs of Bristol Steven

Berg

Interpreting
Zarathustra

the Twofold Presentation of the Will

to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke

99

Review Essays

Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard

Heidegger,

the

Polity,

and

National Socialism

121
137

Whose Pluralism?

Copyright 1998

-

interpretation

ISSN 0020-9635

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where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. as argue. Second. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. herds Nimrod. Finally. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. and the which Babel-builders. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. interpretation. divine or conventional. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. Nimrod. in light the Babel project. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. second or at least reasonable those characters. No. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. Vol. Traditional exegesis of these stories. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. Jewish and Christian. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. that of the nomadic Third. 26. in Genesis 10. Fall 1998. antitechnical. with superfluous and which arts. associated with and antipolitical. the Lord God. the city is connected with land ownership. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. although intent. man. 1 . The thing I wish to argue excuses. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. I is wish not to argue that. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. those who are supposed to be First. the Babel-builders. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. and in Genesis 1 1. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. or even defy.

With this rather unauspicious head start in life. his religious performance is faulty. Augustine's these City of God. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. that is. Fi by nally. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. .2 kills the son truly in God's image. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. and I have consulted Specifically. Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. legion. according to some of the rabbis. I have used tateuch. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain. fices to the most Thus. Cain's very birth is suspect. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. the refuse. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. First. A.3 or. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). In fus ing (they own. When he sacri Lord (Gen. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. 1. the an which founding of the city. have all been impugned. Cain. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. Out of antiurban. if the quality is acceptable. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. the first city. 4. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. antipolitical atmosphere. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. often little basis in the text.3-5). Cain. of the Next. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies.

5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. another choice. says bluntly "Cain. his city and people. Cain's tion: p. 1. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. The names of Irad. are supplied by the . like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. vol. Augustine says nothing negative. 21). was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. Isaac. p. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. "wicked" "house" building of a city. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. p. 192).4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. Augustine.5. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. God intended with us. (City of God. Moses. 1. XV. and Lamech are all said vol. however. life into a sophisticated. 17. and Cain Lamech Metusael. 153). 256). 8. 1. Calvin on the other. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life.2). Augustine. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. Those interpreters.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. career. Mehujael. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. and them. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. p. One became a murderer. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. 21). absent from the Biblical text." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. Noah. to will return later. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. 2. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. Jacob. 5. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. p. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. 8. some rabbis say that he. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. 255). 29). and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. vol. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. and David. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. but with his hy pocrisy. says Abravanel. such as Augustine and Calvin. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. XV. another a drunkard.

sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. the op for him the arts are goods. In general. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. with human law making. Calvin. and gifts from God (Calvin. superfluous sin. XV. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin.6 Interpretation (ibid. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. however. the former being.) (which. Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. duced Seth's line into waywardness. pp. the latter who lived more virtuously.22. view. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. the he founded. His birth is suspect. They eyes.22).). 238). flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. 237-40). like beasts. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . far as we can tell from Genesis 4. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. and because of this. if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. violence and In a more analytical vein.). Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. 2. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. 217-22). Calvin refuses to condemn 257). and all its connections (with the arts. did not yet exist). acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. In sum. Naamah. God" at least more carnal in their interests. went about stark naked. Like the rabbis. with political life) fall under a dark shadow. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 160-62). Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. of p. and 159).). 160). these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp.

2. here found in the hiphil form. p. In this attempt. like all hunters. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. oppressor.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. And. Finally. who 4. pp. de Rabbi Eliezer. Since Nimrod is a slave. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. From the sense "pro fane. is a deceiver. Esau. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. 317). he Genesis Rabbah. 175). which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. as the-verb "to (halal). "began" 2. Thus. 3). of course. in Genesis Rabbah. was obviously a furious Nimrod. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. 38). so negatively. however. Second. which is what persuaded people to let him them. There is other evidence that Nimrod. man.4). and. ants same Obviously. the ancestor of Israel. Genesis 10. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. 60-61). too. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. p. they supply other examples of wicked people things." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. "beginning" is is verb. tried to kill Abraham he was young. mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. but mention rather. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. is bad for two reasons. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham." earth. XVI. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. First. pp. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. deriving all wicked things. p. Nimrod the city-builder evil. tyranny (Calvin. 260). p. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. being a mighty hunter. who. . instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. it is p. XVI. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. his claim to might." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. 174). that is. he a 10. 420-21. 2. Nimrod.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal).). if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. to degenerating calling "rebelling.26 are said. Esau. he Abraham. be evil. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. vol.

the the Ham line. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. was the area of his king dom. as one might expect. In p. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . First. being settling and building in "settled. Calvin Calvin. 1. 2. p. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. "Settling" is moti vol. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. a city. 49-50). 2. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. 2. according to Genesis 10. probably vol. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. at signifies also that they made an on 261. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. 11.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. for they p. right motives.4). "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. the Lord. His city. XVI." but are on the 50)." "and this they begin to which. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. vol. for two reasons. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. 324). it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. They they being given the earth. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. Isaac. vol. In any case. pp. 3. therefore. which p. . as I will point later. 260).4. and vol. means. for idol They filled the sin of pride. which. heavens. could hardly him have Urban life. p. like Nimrod. (Genesis Rabbah. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. the lower part of the world. The Babel-builders. God's people do not rest con move. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. bad scent. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. as in the case of Cain. in an summary. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. and. and Jacob." are "rebels. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. do" translated into rabbinic. again. with the upper part. want 2. 51). Second. too (Genesis Rabbah. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. do. to displace him. needless to say.8 Interpretation Nimrod. like Abraham.

only God can do these things. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. says Abravanel. then of Seth. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. rejection of God. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. hunting. political which go with cooperation. The city. Abravanel thus. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. Ruling comes from Nimrod. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks.3-4 ("let brick. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. The the city. the arts. without God's help by They purely human means. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. More generally. 4. is inferior to the way of the Politics. heir of a slave. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. and the rule of with human beings by others.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. or rebels against God. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. God's do not need the political life of the city. B. but to conspire against and a God. they God's murderers. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. being Esau's way. who defined man as a political animal. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. then. The city cannot provide for security against death. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. in criticizing the Babel-builders. They story. are proud. sinners. Nimrod. Abravanel argues." us make "let build city"). which. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. They are from the wrong lines. and tyranny over others. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. is ated. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. in order to establish the stated. if the materials they supplied were . is grounded in folly. which willing to supply motives which are recorded.

Nimrod. far beyond this." they ask us to accept too much on faith. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. again might not be bad in itself. and would maintain this even reasons. There are Nonetheless. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. and enough reading. Augustine's most claim that translators. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. and so on. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. when they assert without philological "idol. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. Some of the claims are errors. Shinar. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. Sec that there is ond. and Babel.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. since Lamech fathers sons who are . to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. they in the Biblical text. believe. point. but some of fetched. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. For example. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. they are merely the justifications. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. for two First. more relevant interest. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. to the fact that by Nimrod." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. all interpretive control is lost. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. even without the extraneous material. however. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. however. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again.

text with uncharitable motives. In fact. rather. further. hardly closer the model of the political man. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. Ham's son. or that he ordered the people him. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. If Israel is not wicked . but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. Further. that Cain had a says justify God. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. They they are by the farmer. too their sheep. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. The hunter is the loner. Abravanel. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. the hunter is less violent. which makes "children men. Nimrod. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. out of the desire for a name. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. since not Ham but facts that do not fit. these are nity. the entire race. the city falling to his arrows. and God does not contradict Cain on this point." The interpretation same such is. Babel but not in the case Cain. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. How. Further. undertook the Babel project on his own. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. he infers it in infers. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground." Again. And settled farmers (like Cain.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. in a parallel manner. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. is cursed to in Genesis 9. execution. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. Augustine all lifestyle. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. tilling it. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. and that the city to protect him. is feeble. if God will then. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly.

12

Interpretation
of

for wanting land exactly
of the what

its

own

to till,

the pre-Flood men are said to

"rebel"

why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
to

they

were commanded

do in Genesis 1.

Why is

their attempt at

obedience

lashed

out at as a rebellion? as motivated

forge interpreted

Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
the vengeful

ploughshares?

Certainly, his father

was

Lamech, but

one cannot

simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.

One has to say, then, that the
tional

antiurban trend of thought
without textual

interpreters,

though not
a close

clearly justified

by

of the city-builders and

completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather

among the tradi foundation, is not

is

evidence that

Cain is frightened, slighted,

than evil.

Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays

no wicked motives or

overtly

evil actions.

The

Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
There is
,

a negative

interpretation

of

Babel

would not reflect upon

Nimrod.
theo-

much

work, then, to be done if
about the

we are

to articulate a coherent

logico-political teaching

city

as presented

in Genesis 1-11.

C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11

essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this

The

broadly

speaking, human

political

effort, in

a much more positive

light than the

tradition sometimes suggests.

The line

of

interpretation

which

body am building
who

of traditional

interpretation, but in its

I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I

upon the work of

themselves are

Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
one sees

In the Midrashic writings,
political

hints here

and

there

of a a

different

account of

by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can

life,

be brought to light

ideas

further.6

What I

will

strive to establish

is

an

interpretation
rabbis,
of

of

Genesis

which, against

Augustine

and

Calvin

and

many

of the

sees the and

earthly
a

city

as

a

legitimate human

response

to the problem

justice

order,

response which

God is willing
Cain. The

to work with and, under certain

circumstances, is
so well

bless.
I begin
with classification of

Cain

as

a

"bad

guy"

The
established that

City

in Genesis

13

it

seems

impious to
Cain's

question

God's

refusal

to gaze

upon

sacrifice

trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no

it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
much

He has
worked

worked

hard to

produce

his grain, probably
more

harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
earth

to raise his sheep.

Further, he,
not

than

Abel,

apparent commandments. and

Did

God tell Adam to

subdue

(Gen. 1),

to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
would work

upon expulsion

from Eden he
Cain felt

the

land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
like the

can see

slighted.

He is, in

a way,

more qualified applicant who

why loses

the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which

injustice, his
at

rage

is

natural.

This does

not

justify

the murder

follows, but it
so perverse as

least

explains
and

Cain's

emotional

state,

which

is

not

nearly Cain's

Augustine

Calvin
supply

make out. another nonmalicious account
of

Further,

the

rabbis

themselves

motives.

Cain

saw

that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that

of vegetation.
would

Might he

not

have

concluded
vol.

that the sacrifice of a human

being

be

even

better (Genesis Rabbah,

1,

pp.

248-49)? One does

not need

to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or

jealousy;
God.

one might argue that

he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin

a misguided attempt to please

rabbinic speculation

is discounted, it is

not so clear that

Cain is

God

warns

him

"sin,"

about
ever give

is,

nor

does God

it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
until

fact, God
Cain

says

Genesis 9. That
can rule

nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if

after

the

Flood, in

man can rule

himself. If

race will not

be

his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
given will

God,

and

that no one else is

is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
tion

any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
wisest.

and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera

described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that

suggests

noninstruction

not proved

to be the
a

Man

needs

law.

We

Cain does

sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
respect

bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his

building

a

city,

and procreating. who

Cain

contrasts

favorably
great

with

his descendant Lamech,

proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
will

to be forgiven and expects that everyone

kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
to

he

will

be hidden from God's face, and,

while

God

promises

to protect Cain

from

the assaults of other men,

he

never reassures

Cain

about

his continuing

presence.

Perhaps God thinks his
not

protective sign

ence, but Cain clearly does

take

it that

way.

implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to

14

Interpretation
from his
presence

go out

(4.16)

to

dwell in the land

of

Nod ("wandering").

Believing

that he

is

no

mark, is it any

wonder

interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
longer
of not a natural course

sive arrangement of a

city

for

men who

believe they

are

in

the state of nature, with no law

but that

of

the strong to protect them?
"Enoch,"

Similarly, it is hard
"inauguration,"

to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means

does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
overtones

"Inauguration"

does

not

have

in Hebrew,

as

Isaac Friedman has

shown against

in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
good.

good ones

(Friedman,
of a new

n.

1,

pp. of

"inauguration"

way

Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to

It begins

as

the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in

something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was

hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts

of of

the arts described in Genesis 4. The

forging,

can yield weapons

does

not

in general; for the text does

not even mention and mu

weapons,

and

the other arts which arise at the same time

(tentmaking

sic)

are

My
and

clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
who seems

whitewash

Cain

or

Lamech,

to have understood God's

his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
not punish

most perverse possible manner

(i.e., God does

killers,

therefore we

have to do I

unto others

omen of the violence to come story. would

before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,

insist, however,

though a genuine theme of
conclusion remains
narrator

that urban

life, in any

ambiguous as a

Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
flesh"

judges it.
confirmed

This is

in Genesis 6. When "all
This

becomes

corrupt upon the

earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
evil

taking

place

in

cities.

makes

nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism

line,

who are not associated with

Cain's

eastern

Cain's line. The
or political

wickedness
as such.

is

more

general, and

life

In

fact, it

could

be

contended that

absence of political structures and of would seem

laws

which

it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This

by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
as

to be confirmed

by

sis

9. We
recall

that in Genesis 1 God ordered

Adam to be

replenish

the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of

fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given

the between Cain nation. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. The next a region called in Shinar. Recall that in Genesis 9. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . In this new creation. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. something is added: God gives the first laws. 9. Abimelech in Genesis 20). There is another interpretation. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit.1-7). amicably dividing the world themselves. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. suggests in which one will rule over many. will have a legal dimension absent from the old. families (mishpahoth) Shem. which are life. the city arises. the migrating offspring of Shem. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. in this overspreading. without Thus. The first cities are or comes to rule. which relied too much on we are innate human told. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist.1-7) to be enforced. (9. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. among Japheth separate violence. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. Ham. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. the "nations. the new creation as it were. therefore. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. in the east. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. for the laws of God (Gen. Since." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. whenever the tribal or them. and since they too are related. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. the goodness. This time. which had no such structure discernible. cities a son of Shem. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. Abel. if we are watching a new creation.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature." Asshur. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. The new begin ning." earth becomes peoples of common nations. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. is. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. Thus. Ham. however. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. One wicked one. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. built by Asshur. 13). they occupy it as they were meant to. must not conclude.19). whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws.

how to be a "hunter. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian.9). Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. vulnerability to random killing). "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities.4). but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. strained passion. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. Nimrod became famous. did the mighty men of old (6. good. then. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. least some of the nations which legitimately source. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world.17). and as did Lamech (4. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. by God's .8) and before the Lord (10. Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. the order of creation. Nimrod does not boast about himself. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. I represents a political would argue. basis to nor of an adjective alone. I would suggest. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. For these reasons. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. but human for up as prey beings. men ruling men). Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus. Nimrod. one must conclude that cannot as such. In this context. of a any more. and so did his empire. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. in fact.4) or the Babel (1 1. at overspread the earth at least potentially. In important respects. from the above discussion. city building. Finally. we must ing was Lamech's. Kings may (I Samuel 8). The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. may not be pretty. condemn be evil. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. first hunter. unlike Lamech's. kings are one possible source of law. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life.23-24).16 Interpretation God does dread" made. as did Cain (4.

428). No one people (which is why I would con- . turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate.5). The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. They want live. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. scattered. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. Regarding this story." of perhaps educated obey God. They heavenward (11. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. The "sons men" Noah. God at the end of purpose. They "scattered. of super-city with together. The 11. too. then. Finally. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. It "scattered. I certain turn to the Babel story. among these Combs and Post point out. united brotherly love. and enjoying the earth. and Augustine. the language of mutual entreaty. The their cautiousness. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. close even antiurban exegesis. in one place. I think. wants them to the earth (1. it to be a certain un populating. p. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam. be was afraid of safe.4)." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. is. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. God wants them to move outward. if it and was a sin. is by Calvin. Further. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. the descendants of Flood. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. aim spreading master to many spots.4). that is.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. in a its top in the heavens. in the Babel there features grant. and he. as of (11. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. They one spot. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. He. The with sin of the Babel-builders. process. case of Babel is not exactly typical city." is only fitting. something. to obey God. speaking one language. His proj may be ambiguous. too. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. Rather. like Cain's.28). settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. Babel-builders is.

In fact." of that is. and the only people. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. the situation be irreparable. they do not even mention him. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. then. a permanent essence which. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). God. In Genesis nized 10. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. hold them together in Shinar forever. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. separate peoples. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. as it were. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. are not malicious. will and to give it. but he was not God in naming it after his son. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. then. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. The or reputation earn. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. noble it may be. however. The forms of govern men" ment. wanting as is fact. would God. only language that exists should If the only state. were tribal and monarchical. no possibility of the living. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. and themselves. the "sons of will founding "nations. become corrupt. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. speaking. built. the nation sired by Abraham.7 overthrow "name. they dream. however thinking. be for . "name" necessarily an improper desire. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. unified world-state. In Genesis not allow of 11. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. and powerful cities. They do not wish to God." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. It is true that they wish eternity. unified world-state. good which so I think is the one correct one. Cain may have been proud of his city. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders.

The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. If these people strayed. then. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. (Atlanta: Scholars Press.: McMaster University. in Genesis 10. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. trans. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. p. XV. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. 242. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. arts. Augustine. In societies other than Israel. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world.. law. was the Babelers were not being scattered. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. but these motives were not wicked. because Cain is not so commentators make out. Cain pp. King (Edinburgh. . The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. it due to knowing God wanted. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. eds. NOTES 1. 4. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. or for building great towers into the a heavens. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. vol.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. 12. 1970). 44-48. Jacob Neusner. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. 3. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. (Title henceforth: City of 5. Isaac Abravanel. 196-98. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. 1972). trans. Rev. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. p. 1985). Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). 1. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9.7. 158. argue that the evils of 1979). pp. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. Eng. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press.) Lemer 1978). and not always the best. trans. as city of Enoch. to teach. 4. 1847). or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. but for purity. And in one case. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. Genesis Rabbah. God. John Calvin. 2 vols.6). Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. Deut. Robert Sacks. if one wished to put the city in a better light.3. pp. trans. Ont. 2. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. John trans. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. Cain's son. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. 150 51. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. 256.: Penguin.

and to Leo Strauss. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. I add that. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. Due to space limitations. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. Robert Sacks. 1988).20 Interpretation 6. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. . 1990). I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. Craigie (Sheffield. C. MA: JSOT Press. 1-5. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth.. S. Eugene Combs. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. 1987). and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds." Memory of Peter C. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. In a general way. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. 6. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. which who essay was seminal for them. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. hence. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

meet armed combat. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. 26. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. interpretation. Fall 1998. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. You see. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. Vol. 3 when to give birth to their young. 1 . John's College. or that a wild beast might trample them down.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout.5 thrive and flourish in the wild.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. and who dwells city. Her toils caused foot can crush them. No. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. Num 3. 16 She treats her were all children roughly.14 wings as if on high. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. as if they were not even in all vain. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. 15 She has forgotten that hers. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. in Volume 25 of Interpretation.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. Sacks St.

unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey.17 pinnacle. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses." . Whenever death defiles. 25 but facing battle from afar. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. he is there. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. Indeed. making it his stronghold. he said. His swill it from afar. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command. Oh." Hos." a very will complex word. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. "I and father's house. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. David heard of it. javelin. consume the of their gates. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. 3:28 are of Afterward. it originally meant "to whirl. 2. 2Sam. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names."18 Comments 1. and See notes to 26. forever Ner. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical. although almost as side. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. The and single Hebrew word hul. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock.

Deut. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. Grant them graciously to us. Benjaminites did so. and rebuilt the towns. And the to their number. 15:20 Then Miriam. for the Lord's purposes . And to us. that book which begins see them dashed. Judg. and go to the land of Benjamin. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. according whom they carried off. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. in her hand. from the dancers to their and took their wives. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. only to the book Judges. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. and often when first reading the word." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. trembles and writhes The land in pain. Then. Exod. too. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. then they went and returned inheritance. it Psa. The Book rule. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. and watch." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. else you would now be guilty. the sister of Aaron. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. and dwelt in them. Exod. neither did you give them to them. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. the prophetess. hands anger burned hot. saying. 23:5 Jer. king.

angry them. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). There is Jer. For this reason. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. inhabitant. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. brought forth in iniquity. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. they aghast at looks. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. their faces be aflame. 31:3." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. tempest. out of his sight. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. your vindication as Ps. it can also mean "to be in labor. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. 37:6 will bring was forth the light. 51:5 Behold. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest." and hence "to give Deu. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. pressed upon Saul. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. and ISam. Ps. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. as for his foes. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. in visiting the day of birth. But. I conceive me. birth": as in our case. brings forth rain. Job. was revisiting the day of his own birth. in and your right as the noonday. Isa. are on high. They look another. and sin did my mother Prov." English-speaking in this also recognize . Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. and you forgot birth." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. thy judgments puffs at them.

of course. then. are 3. perhaps with beyond world. speaks to Job. and are what they are. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. How different things Isa. and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. dancing. rhetorical. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. Here. To word understand used this passage. pain-ridden.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. has never known either burden or rein. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . It is the whirling. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. Yet we can all world. But quite even Job. This. fostering in each life to own its signet. 5. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. 6. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. She. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. In using such a harsh word. an order for the first time. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. 7. 8. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. before her she was delivered of a son. The question is. the joys of our world could never come to be. since. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death.

Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. he shall serve you six you. all are there. When a man strikes the . too. And there are other passages. years. so that no one should enslave a Jew. ears to me. my wife. children. go out free.26 Interpretation Exod. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. brought 9. It is true that. that show his concern. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. "servant. and like a hireling he waits for wages." daughter. has served you six years. but they were treated kindness: justly and . 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. sake. along many others. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. his brother. or a Hebrew woman. 15:12 If your brother. and the slave is free his lord. he shall serve six years. female. Hebrew man. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. great riches. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. and But if the slave plainly says. be your slaves. to and the man who and will give Israel. but he him for favor. eye of my his slave. for nothing. male and . gave no answer. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. Jer. and in the seventh he shall go out free. to oppressed go free. is sold to you. Small and great. I will not male or eye's female. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. to undo the thongs of the yoke. that was true. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. and destroys it. "I love my master. .

The an furrow. it may seem.. both for moved for others. of course have been out of the question. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. 11. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. Even from was within the human sphere. ance The farm. the cedars of . It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. There were always some men suffering it caused. the stork." time. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. The trees of the Ps. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No.. that its us. they are an abomination: the eagle. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. giving it a The signets. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. the heron according to its kind. each thing can be be what it is. roaming the hills as his pasture. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. I do God rose up? 10. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. "trust. and them yet he did have ox. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly." This is the only verse. it will be a long journey. the hoopoe." answer can do none of these things. what of those who dwell in house of clay. Job but. the vulture. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. the . five hundred of them. not certain what bird is meant. It is generations. is 12. it requires something like the concept of a signet. they and be eaten. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. the osprey. as we shall see. 104:16 LORD abundantly. are watered bat.

but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. their nests. at least it is the can most write about. two women wind was in their wings. 8:7 Even the swallow. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly." 13. 15. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. and eyes and saw. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. and behold.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. and in the heavens knows her times. then. lest they hold a bribe. must 14. had been domesticated. who despises the gain of stops oppression. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. he will dwell on the heights. In them the birds build trees. silly beast. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. ears his looking upon his hands. insofar as been domesticated. The hawk. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. when if only in part. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. his place of defense who shakes . destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. 16. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. and the turtledove. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. too. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. but my know Zech. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. people crane keep the time of their coming. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. character that each 17. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse.

order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. high and the pride of your heart. 49:16 Leave the cities." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. however. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. and you must let me know.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. his bread will be given him. 5 I have spoken once. is high. you though your nest says the among the stars. has been defeated. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. 13 Bury them all in the dust. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer.4 even would praise you. in returning to flow off into death. 18. 14 Then you. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. bring clefts will down from there. How my hand upon my mouth. The cold and more grotesque. the hawk. me dwelling set say in heart. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. LORD. twice. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. 48:28 Jer. 1:3 heart has deceived you. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. and Jer. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. did for its children all that the charm to do. is in the not Job. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. for your own right have saved . The ostrich. sixth as beast. pride of your whose says the LORD. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. 10 "Go ahead. you inspire has deceived you. thence I bring down. Look upon every man of him. his of water be sure. you who your Obad. but I have no answer. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. Bind their faces in would obscurity. who hold the height I will of hill.

Again it says. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. had been what God had wanted. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. If Job's this not point. He eats fodder just like the cattle. confident that the Jordan will mouth.8 21 He lies down the lotuses. and his teaching is not a but an 3. 18 His bones iron. God's argument is. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. beyond man is no place for a man. but he did not." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. or his head with fishing his head.6 of brass. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. I believe.9 brook in him. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. But the Tempest will go. or with you to be your eternal his nose. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling." 2. "Have you an arm like God's. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways. convinced him that Elihu was right. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish." again "asking. and if by court of law. under and all the beasts of the field play. his warning was just. He is the mighty one. here is whom I made along with you. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. and you will remember war no Comments no answer. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . Indeed. who would plead my case? . 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. hiding in the reeds and the fen.

. Appropriately enough. "laugh" or . is this: Get wisdom. being lous nor mythical. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. his wisdom. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. . and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. clearly are of mythic proportion. the first 8. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. behemoth 5. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. God is joking. however. His praise endures for Prov. 4:7 The get. We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. iron. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. however 6. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. of It is. of The LORD acts of old. . of wisdom Prov. Man is 7. fools despise and whatever you instruction. dwell in prudence. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you." "His bones are ducts brass. Compare Ps.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. than the beasts of the earth. I. and I find knowledge of and discretion. "Behemoth cattle. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. created me at the beginning his work." in the made masculine singular. are all who teaches us more The verbs. with you . get beginning insight. however. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . These do cosmos. 8:12 . Prov.

somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. a and said to himself. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen. But from the Gen." looking at each usage. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. now that and say. is usually translated "oppress. 17:18 is ninety years old. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. "No. and But had her laughter been goodnatured." Joy and happiness are another matter. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. I fear. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. however. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. making it his drinking foun tain. 10. "Why did Sarah laugh. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. for the pounding. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. tyrannizing river. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision.32 9. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. The half-mythic. that she had laughed. "After I have my husband is old. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. and you shall call his name Isaac. There is. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . He finds Thus. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. child. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. saying. Gen.

have corrupted themselves. "Go down. whom you brought up out of the Moses. "No. but certainly the betrayed him. he with me. every one hears will laugh me. son whom she had borne Abraham. He said. and rose your And the LORD said to people. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. playing her Isaac." and Sarah shall have son. Next . a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. Gen. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. place. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. up to play. And Sarah said." the But he seemed to be jesting. came have brought among us. 21:6 city. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. 26:8 also was actually doing. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. and the people sat down to eat and drink. you laugh". for land of Egypt. "Up. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen." a But Sarah denied. his marry his daughters. Then came the golden calf: Exod. for she was afraid. and I cried out with a loud voice. saying. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. came "See. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. "I did laugh. in to me to insult me. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. in the saying.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. "The Hebrew servant." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen.

and he died there beside the God. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. . twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. before the LORD. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. they said. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. "Saul thousands." said to Joab. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great. "It was before the LORD." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. but they laughed them to scorn. 2:14 And Abner us. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number." has slain his thousands. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. 2Sam. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. who chose father. the abased and above all people of the his house. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. David. and mocked them.34 Interpretation Judg. by them I shall be held in honor. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. at Gibeon." pillars. for the oxen stumbled. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. so down together. "Call Samson. And in his each caught arise. They made him stand between the us. and he made sport before them. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. Israel. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh.

7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. Selah. 59:8 But thou. the LORD has them in derision. wisdom. and wine gladdens life. wicked. at the but the LORD laughs coming. "It is mad. Jeremiah is not quite the same. I will mock when panic strikes I. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. firebrands. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. and shall laugh your from of the at living. and fear. arrows. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. and money answers everything. and I was daily his delight. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. 2:4 Ps. "What use is Eccles. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . a time to mourn. like a master workman. 14:13 Prov. rejoicing before him always. Prov. Eccles. Prov. and I find knowledge and discretion. 8:12 . Ps. 7:3 Eccles. so is the laughter of fools. O LORD. all the him. . 31:10 . Prov. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. I you.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. also will laugh at your calamity. Strength and dignity her clothing. Sorrow is better than laughter. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. Prov. it?" Eccles. saying. and death. 1:26 Prov. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. the fool only rages and laughs. at them. closer to what we finds another strain. he will snatch and tear you tent." and of pleasure. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. however. for Eccles. 3:4 to a time to weep. dost laugh nations in derision. "I am only joking!" Prov. and a time to laugh. dwell in prudence. 8:31 Prov. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. for he sees that his day is Ps. there is no quiet. 10:23 beside him. . of There only do find something find in the Book Job. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. is vanity. laughs at the time to come. 2:2 I said of laughter. and a time dance.

shall not small. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. I have become a laughingstock the day. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. him and he too shall be held in derision. 48:26 "Make him drunk. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. I will heal. and the voices of those who make merry. and I was deceived.36 Interpretation Jer. Jer. the we were like those and our dream. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. Was thieves. I and the palace shall stand used to be. When her . Then our mouth was with laughter. says LORD. But he also has another notion of laughter. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. and your wounds Jer. thou art than I. every one mocks me. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. nor did I rejoice. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. and have compassion on his dwellings. thou hast deceived me. I did alone. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. I will make them honored. Jer. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. and thou hast prevailed. Zech. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. "The LORD has done things for them. and they be be few. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. however. multiply them. I sat because thy hand was upon me. then they among nations.

They laugh at heap up earth and take on. 1:10 contains much. made him all his trouble. but hills as his pasture. laughter in the Book of 8:53. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge.The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. the a side which had always been a part Job and. 3:14 Ezek. James 4:9). but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. the burden of their day says long. and every green thing is his to search out. Job the outcast. and of rulers At kings they scoff. none to help her. whose it. mocking at her downfall. But there of was another side of we are laughter. 9:24. a simple. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. and there was her. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. guilty men. and does not even hear the drivers shout. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. Lam. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. The much subject was and bound to come up. for they like the wind and go they make sport. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. 25. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. Mark 5:40. every fortress. for it Hab. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. if to judge by different from the others. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. Mat. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. Luke 6:21. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. . Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth.

" some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. 1 :26 and Then God said. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. and over every of the . See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. continually changing their clothing. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. To that extent. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. and over the birds air. Job has come. With Job. and even their sex. . he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. 3:8 and 13. "It is I. and one of the things he learned. wings on high. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. Hamlet. "Let us make man in our image. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. of nature. as we put have from the ostrich. and over all the earth. their iden tity. and over the cattle. mountains yield him produce. the brother. Some English translations 12. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. Job has come to learn from nature. after our likeness. Eliphaz once had he has seen. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. Yet it is Lear shadow". who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . On this question." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. but not to it. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. this relation is seems to Dane.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. At one first. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. . at fear and is not dismayed.

the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. to the house God Jacob. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. is not a world and 14. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. But it is not the same. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. earth. and God said to them. people of sons after you. "subdue" In addition. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. and and shall be raised above the hills. and their spears into pruning hooks. and over the And God blessed them." It should be noted that both words. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. not as a thing for us." 39 So God created man in his created him. the land lay before them. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. in the image of God he created them. and they shall into plowshares. and subdued them as slaves. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. male and female he fruitful and multiply. sword against nation. He judge between the beat nations. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. and shall their swords decide for many peoples." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. ways 15. "subdue" "dominate. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. We cannot divide it up and as we will. you may make brethren the another. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. In many Isa. to slaves of inherit as a them. Josh. the and all the nations shall flow to it. . Jer. many of the peoples shall come. and say: of "Come. but the he must perform now. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. it is only a in which he learn about play. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. let of us go LORD. but the beyond is not ours. with harshness.

nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. up by a breath between them. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. wait. the gods are in dread. "to or so I believe. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. 15 Festoons of flesh.'"9 Comments 1. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. 14 His strength resides his neck.13 cast as a nether millstone. nor They spear. word mean but along it a sense of dread. rises up. for he was made to dread.18 26 He sees every towering thing. and not a his shields7. or exploits or the grace of his frame. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . 9 Each closed8 seal. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. fused all together. 17 "When he sion. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards. quaver. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. and terror dances before him.2 Do up." times. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. 11 fire escape. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. and bronze as rotton wood. It too. could. 12 From his cauldron. He is king over all the sons of pride. stand. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. nor lance.

falling silent to hear counsel. till they had finished speaking. apart from their being for us. He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. The first has replaced the second. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. for something to say. which deals with our relation to the world of man. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. the Ps. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. I rain. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. till they stood longer 2. YaChaL. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. loose my his hand and cut me off! . We have heard those Isa. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. That is to say. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. on a with. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. I have no higher expectations. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. but there came only a murk.

away. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . His his sons were was honored but he unaware. and in which he for itself." 4. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. occurs which I have translated "brutal. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. word 'akf'zar. The "brutal" word seems. knew it. shlm. Job has nonhuman. One of them reads: give the Lam. then. The word. in already begun. mangled never overpowered man. and with the might of fact." From it Hebrew So for "peace. The comes the root of this word. You have resigned. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. But that knowledge rouse may admire. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. and he has and sent him off. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. like the in the wilderness." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. means "to be whole or word complete.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. Then the within fifty-two days." Neh. So. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. but he and His body surrounds him pain. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. They with were in disgrace. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago.

" mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is." by all to his the scales. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. in the however. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. In that sense. cannot by No one can touch him. mean normally In either of means "to shield. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. "Go. defend. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. he pay ox for ox. If. and its owner has not kept it in. unlike Job.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. know him from the Here it is taken outside only." 7. meganim. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. sell the live on the lift. then. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. from the root mgn. God sets the wicked to close in men. of. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. dead beast shall be his." oil rest. The again. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. however. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. is to "make whole. If He should pass by and separate or close up. it means that the spoke Leviathan. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. It leaves always room restitution. case. 8. It might help." debt. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt." importance winnowing kind.

fused (dbq) all together. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. become that which seals it hotam for Job. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. ness. or constrictive: "stick. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. At best. my heart gone after my eyes." all others. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another." his completion and perfection. tight itself. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. in the world beyond man. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. But. off. Job has seen the Leviathan. 12. and the face of the deep Again. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. the Leviathan does Job's skin. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. "tight. For the world beyond man. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. flesh. shameful. from the way. "signet. for the Leviathan. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. the list is . For us it is ugly. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. has." away from all other beings. complete." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. 9. closed entranceway." sar. of murk and confusion. dabhaq.44 Interpretation One cannot up. as stone.

The Book of Job
13. Not
Job 6:12
so

45

Job,

who once said:

Do I have flesh

of

bronze?

For

man

to

be

made of

flesh is to be

able to

feel

pain:

Job 19:22

Why
flesh?

do

you pursue me

like God, taking

satisfaction out of

my

Not to feel
Job 10:4

pain

is

not

to understand pain;

Have You

eyes of

flesh?

For Job, it is through the
notion of which

feeling

of pain that we come

to understand the

importance, by seeing

ourselves

willing to

risk pain and

death for that

is important:
For

Job 13:14

what reason

do I take my flesh between my teeth

and

my life in

my hands?

flower 14.

The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but

forever in itself.

Nothing

can

be for him

what

it is for itself. Difference for him
His total
unawareness and

makes no

difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
neither

stubble."

indifference he
uses

him is

awesome.

The lights

which

flash

at

his

sneeze

to see
see

To

appreciate

by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
nor

to read

and yet we are arrested and can see

world of man

for

a world unstifled

by

human

need and

let to be itself. But in

that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could

learn to let things be.

Only

then could he return with a

fuller understanding

of

human

need. an old

15. Once

Parmenides

asked a

anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be

young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
made

into

a mud

pie,

or a

brick,

or a

house? And

we all

stand upon the earth with never a thought of

asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
16. Or
simple

being.

"perfume"

Exod. 30:25

.

.

.

and you shall make of these a sacred as

blended

by

the perfumer; a

holy

anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.

.

.

.

46

Interpretation
Whoever
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
compounds

outsider shall
will

be

cut off

any like it or whoever from his people.

puts

any

of

it

on an

take your daughters to be

perfumers and cooks and

Song

of

Sol. 5:13

His

cheeks are

like beds

of spices,
myrrh.

yielding fragrance. His

lips

are

lilies, distilling

liquid

17.
first it burst

38:8

Who

closed

up the

sea

behind the double door

when

out of

the womb

The sea,
which

long

in

our

tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,

had

always threatened to engulf
pleasure.

all, has become a simple utensil,

instru

ment of

his innocent

18. The

word which

I have translated

"dread"

as

is

a

very

obscure

word, and

in fact

appears

in only

one other passage

in the

whole of

Biblical literature.

Ironically,
Gen. 9:2

the passage reads:

on

all

and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.

Panic

But the Leviathan "was
emerges,
and perhaps

made

to

be

dread."

without correction

Thus, Job 41:25

intentionally

so, as a

to

Genesis 9:2. If the

human

understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
sphere of

19. in

shahas.

The

one other verse

exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:

not

very

clear.

It only

appears

Job 28:7-9

The

eye of the

falcon has it

never caught sight of

it,

nor

have the

sons of pride ever trampled

over.

The lion

can

bear it

no witness, mountains

but

man

has

put

his hand to the flint

and overturned

its

by

the root.

In Aramaic, the
means

shahsa'

word

means

"a

lion,"

while

in Ethiopian the
elevated,"

root

"to be

insolent."

root comes

the word

In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky

root means
or

"to be

from

which

man"

"a

rank."

man of

Thus,

there

king
since

over

beasts

is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a

it is

not so clear

distinction is
that

the Leviathan himself. It

is

not even clear

of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though

king

indeed he surely is.
grand

This

beast,

above and

beneath

all malice or

ambition, oblivious to all,

The Book of Job
rules all and

47

by

the mere weight of his

being. In him

we recognize our

limitations

hence

see our

definition.

CHAPTER FORTY-TWO

1 Then Job
that no
without
design'

answered
can

the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You

can

do

all and counsel

be

withheld

from You. 3 Who is this I had
wonders2

one that

hides

knowledge? I have

spoken though

not understood.

There is

a

beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
world

have both

contempt and compassion

for4

dust

and

ashes."5

7

And6

it

was

so, that

after

the LORD had spoken these words unto
Temanite,7

Job,
you,

that
and

the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as

"My

anger

fumes

against

friends: for

you

have

not spoken of me the

thing

that

is right,
rams,

has my

servant

Job. 8 Therefore,
and offer

get yourselves seven

bulls

and seven

Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant

up for

yourselves a

burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the

thing

that

is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
Naamathite
also

has."

and

Bildad the

Shuhite

and

Zophar

the

went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his

friends,

and

the LORD returned all that Job
all of

had,

twice over.

11 Then his house
sion

his brothers
with which

sisters'0

and

and all of

his friends
him.12

came over to

supped"

and

him.

They
12

consoled

him

and showed

him

compas

for

all

the evils

the LORD

had brought

upon

Each

one gave a of

Qesitahn

and each a golden ring;

and the

LORD blessed the last days

his 13
the
all

life

even more

than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
asses;'4

thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
and

he

also

had

seven sons and three

daughters.'5

14 The first he

called

by

name of

Jamimah,16

the second to be

Keziah,17

and the third

Keren-Hapuch.18

15 In

the land there

could not

daughters,
knew his

and their

found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
hundred
and

beautiful'9

than Job's
brothers.20

their

16 And Job lived

another one

forty

years after

these events, and

sons and

his

son's

sons, and

died,

an old man contented with

theirs, four his days.

generations.

17 And

so

Job

Comments 1 It is terribly
how
translate this word. Gener

.

mezimah.

unclear

one should

ally speaking it usually implies

evil or wicked

intent:

48

Interpretation
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2

Oh, I know
devised In

what you are

thinking, the

machination you

have

against me.

arrogance the wicked

hotly

pursue the poor;

let them be

caught

in

the schemes which

they have devised.
often means

In the Book
cretion":

of

Proverbs, however, it

something

more

like "dis

Prov. 8:12

I,
on

wisdom, dwell

in prudence,

and

I find knowledge

and

discretion.

Jeremiah,
wicked:

the other

hand,

uses

it to describe God's

plans

against

the

Jer. 30:24

The fierce

anger of

the LORD

will not

turn

back

until

he has

executed and accomplished the you will understand this.

intents

of

his

mind.

In the latter days

The
sage

in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
verb

occurs

in the

passive

in

one other pas

Gen. 1 1 :6

all one and

And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;

nothing

that

they

propose to

do

can

be

withheld

from

them."

The verb, then,
sense one

would seem or

to preclude

finds in Proverbs

taking the in Jeremiah, since in
also

word mzmh either

in the

neither case

is anything
Perhaps Job

being

spoken of which one would want to prevent.

This leaves the first meaning, but that is
means,

difficult to

accept.

however,

that that too can

be

accepted as

long

as

it is known to be

without malice or

intent. beyond me,
a world

2. "There is
are]
wonders

a world

full

wonders,"

of

literally, "[There

beyond
'em'

me."

3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
ear,"

and

King
least

James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does

abhor

myself, and repent

on

dust

and

ashes."

about the

same,

except that

King

James

at

puts the word

"myself in
ashes."

italics, indicating

that there

is nothing

corre

sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
as the

stop

after the second verb rather than the

first

King

James

would require.

ashes."

The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had

and

already

and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes." and is. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane." but." sorrow or Like the English word. of course. if one feels sorrow guilt." 'al. But to others for something that one has done. we have returned to Chapter One. one feels remorse. in itself." meaning to them." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. The the root m 's fundamentally Again." These passages. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. require as Greenberg does." wenihamti. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes. "Behold. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not. normally as 'el. there seems "to feel deep compassion. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. as . also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination. He is value. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. 58:8. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. for instance." one assumes ashes. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. ." to be behind their understanding of the verse. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6. Also see Gen.epher we'phar." where it "to It is found in Ps. 18:27 the Abraham answered. The root nhm means understood in the text.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now. and repentance. that the book was conceived of as a whole." and 5. Linguistically speaking. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. however. I who am but dust ashes. by the way. "upon. have expected but it would not be so . "Dust meaning mankind ashes. means "to despise" "reject. one more reason for believing tion." or is. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. can establish in the world of the small.

sisters each one on a different with day. but . and save alive and mother. Remember Aaron. death's first born his members. Rahab: my father them. that wonderful woman of the night. . 8. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. and Joshua 2:13 . "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. Gone is the vocabulary. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. will consume His be away. 9.50 Interpretation 1. them over. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . yet his soul. 10. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. destruction. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. . It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. that the moths eaten. 11. living in a nutshell. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. my brothers and sisters. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple.

they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. but look at the loins. 13. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. strength in his Now. ten thousand of cattle. Bildad show Shuhite. What was not possible before has now become actual. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. 12.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. eating joyous unity. it became Joseph. His might is in the muscles of his belly. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. not snuffed out the life of its owners. It fell down . Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. Gen. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. and Zophar the Naamatite. at the end of the book. inheritance of the descendants 14. Shechem's father. three thousand camels. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. were another one came in and said. fodder just like the cattle.

and I alone have escaped to tell thee." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him." are. Then. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. keren happuli1: the first two ful. came to Jezreel. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. Job 3:1 Then. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. We remember to his friends: his his day. and wood and stones wood. in the prophets." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. too. As such it became. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. or all the things that a self. Jezebel heard of it. in English. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. the iron for the things iron. the silver of of my God. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. stones. and looked out of the window. "cassia. all sorts of precious stones. so far for the things as I was able. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. They are dead. including the being his 16. this name? second word. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer.52 Interpretation the young people. also called pukf1. 18. of silver. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. Job himself becomes word yom. and she painted her head. and marble. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. It is from the words It is a new Job. And you. qesi'a. "day. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. antimony. The Book rection. O desolate one.

The Book of Job Now let name "horn. and he veiled his power. all of them. Then they blew the trumpet. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. My mouth rejoice in thy . have Samuel." 53 us look at the first word. and they were afraid to come near him. until in to speak with him. rays Hab. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. 33:17 ox. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. tent. "My exalted in the LORD. that the skin of skin of face shone. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". qeren. because I ISam. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. behold. for I sons. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. salvation. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. Moses' his face shone. to the ends of the earth. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. against he thunder in heaven. and went to Ramah. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. hence. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. His bull has majesty. my derides my enemies. to begin at the beginning. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. It "horn. And Samuel priest took the rose up. said. flashed from his hand. will give strength his king. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. he anointed. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul.

and the IChron. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. of course. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. my me from violence. in whom I take refuge. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. to the sound the hom. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. "Do not lift For thou exalted. thou . too. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. my rock. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. for Israel who are near to him. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. I have driven my horns into dust. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. praise all his saints. stronghold and my refuge. trumpets. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar.54 Interpretation Ps." not and to the wicked. 27:2 be Exod. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it." boastful. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. art the of their strength. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. and made loud music on harps and lyres. 75:4 up Ps. Linguistically. 22:3 of My God. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. my savior. "Do glory boast. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. 89:17 I say your to the horn. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. I have for prepared a Ps. And. Often the Psalmist Ps. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. cymbals.

Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. he said to Sarai his behold. Abram's And ultimately. they praised her to Pharaoh. man's wife. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. 'This is his wife'. we shall have to consider the full list. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. Rachel. Jacob loved Rachel. barren. in have to be Song its of Songs. Gen. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. But God sister. 19. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. so as to not mislead ourselves. he opened her womb." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. and his house because of Sarai." "Lord. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. "Behold. because of the woman whom you have taken. you are a a dead man. there is also good. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. will they will say." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. and when . but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. then they kill but they let you live. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. though perhaps somewhat naive man. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. Leah's soft. and said to him. wife. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. "I the will see you. so he said. And Leah conceived and bore a son. saw Gen. to Sarai. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. cluded however. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. and she . And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. for your younger and he said. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. We have not. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent.

in her hard labor. for the way of women is upon So he searched. he has given me this son also". and she called Simon. for she said. Bethlehem). When she finally does have another: a son of her own. saying. but at a very heavy price: Gen. but he did into Leah's tent. but with a demand for Gen. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. voice and given me a has also heard my son"." them. but did not find them. Rachel travailed. and entered Rachel's. she called his name Benoni. but his father buried Benjamin. and sat upon all about the tent. and have prevailed". And she her father. and two maidservants. and take know that Rachel had stolen them. "Because the LORD has looked me. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. therefore she called his name Dan. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. and into the tent of the not find them. "God has judged me. she envied or her and she said to Jacob.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. Laban felt .' and she had hard labor. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. Then Rachel said. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. 31:32 it. and said. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. she reacts not with gratitude. the have son. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. 30:1 Gen. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). but did not find the household gods. saw that she bore Jacob me no children." She my affliction. So Rachel died. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. And midwife said to as her. said to me. "Fear called not. 30:6 When Rachel sister. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. so she called his name Naphtali. "Give children. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. And he went out of Leah's tent.

" ISam. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. Deut. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. and said. and saw and him. beautiful eyes. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. . Abigail: ISam. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. Now he he. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. him. . 17:42 And the Philistine looked. except can for him the land. the [beautification] in it. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. they first seven fat cows. behold. and the name of his wife Abigail. was Joseph himself beautiful. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. and had and was handsome. . for blood be made pollutes the land. he was a Calebite. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. 41:2 and fat. And the LORD said. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. for it. Nonetheless. anoint and was ruddy. for when this is ISam. but the ill-behaved. a youth. David was beautiful: brought him in. but all that again it led to grave problems. "Lie with master's me.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. he disdained appearance. the . "Arise. 16:12 And he sent." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. Joseph. David. Gen.

Joab's armor-bearers. Absalom and struck him. and told hanging in an oak." hand. he it). and pretended to be ill. hair his head. had a beautiful sister. and being stronger to me. his head and fast in the oak. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. and killed him. On the other Joab. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. nurse and ministered to him. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. Amnon said to the king. But he would not he forced her. loved her. his foot to the . and left hanging between heaven earth. Amnon lay down. 2Sam. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. with listen to her.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. oak. he weighed weight. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. the and she became the king's not." of her. "Come." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. . David's son. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. "Behold. and she was a beautiful woman. whose name So Tamar. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. if I had dealt the will aloof." with And he took three darts in his of hand. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. when was heavy meet on him. he took hold sister. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. "I king). and found Abishag the Shunammite. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. but king knew her . born to Absalom three sons. while the mule that was under him went on. I saw Absalom hand. and when the king came to see him. The very beautiful. and after a time Amnon. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. 14:27 There were name was Tamar. from the sole of . but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. Absalom he riding his mule. David's son. 13:1 Absalom. and brought her to the maiden was king. my than she. lie with her. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. her.

baldness. grace you poured upon your lips. also he has put eternity into man's mind. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. when she has done vile . Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. Men beautify so that gold. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. Eccles. for of a this is his lot. but a woman who fears the praised. LORD is to be beauty is vain. Esther's beauty saved her people. the maiden was beautiful lovely. her eyelashes. 4:30 hair. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. is the joy of all the earth. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. they will behold a land rope. 10:3 lovers despise you. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. as and when her father and her mother died. for fair to behold. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. Jer. scarlet. shame. Mount Zion.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. a girding of sackcloth. and instead of a rich robe. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. for themselves: is Ps. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. of perfume Isa. they seek your life. Esther 2:7 uncle. in let her Prov. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. 6:25 far north. Jer. that is Esther. and He had brought up Hadassah. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. for the customs of the peoples are false. 3:24 Instead girdle. Eccles. A tree from the forest is cut down. and and do not capture you with Prov. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. the city of the great King. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. Ps. And you. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. 5:18 Behold. a there will be rottenness. 33:17 Jer. O desolate one. and instead Isa. instead of beauty. therefore God has blessed for ever.

offering made harlotry. in the length of its branches. and played the harlot because of your . they shall devour and . Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. but they will not do it. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. . he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. for down to abundant waters. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. . "But trusted in beauty. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. high Eden envied it. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations." Ezek. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. And silk. 2:15 with goodly fruit". I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. lo. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. 27:4 any passer-by. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. you then exult? The LORD once called you. says the Lord GOD. I have cast it out. "Is beauty.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. you. 33:32 And. for they hear young and men shall say. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. cast you to the ground. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful." I Ezek. towered proud of Ezek. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. You to regal estate. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. and its heart was its height. made they hung Ezek. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. and say to him. iniquity was found in you. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. they perfect your beauty. and your cloth. and were in your towers. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. you ate raiment was of fine linen. . but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. 9:15 that thirst. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. renown. and its branches will be consumed. your builders beauty. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. Son of man. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. 31:7 exposed you before kings. that were in the garden of God. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches.

Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. saying. and before the leaders and all the congregation. Hoglah. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. but died for his sin. Noah. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. you shall give them . given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. corners of be full like bowl. at the door of the tent of meeting. "The daughters Zelophelad right. but only a dowry. Milcah. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. Num. 27:4a Why family. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. The names of his daughters Mahlah. Milcah. 20. Zelophehad Mahlah. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. Our father died in the wilderness. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. and before Eleazar the priest. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. The text continues: Num. Had there been a son. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. son of Manasseh. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. and new wine the maidens. Noah. Machir. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. son of Hoglah. the next phrase Num. for like the jewels of a Yea. And they stood before Moses. And are the LORD said to Moses. the daughters have received an inheritance. Thus. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. and he had no sons. and Tirzah. of Gilead.

then his inheritance to his brothers. came near son of Manasseh. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. they said. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. 'If dies. Hoglah. and has no son. tribe. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. Tirzah. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. The only. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. and Noah. And if he has daughter. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . for Mahlah. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. son of Joseph. tribe to another. it inheritance. In the case of Zelophehad. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. Milcah. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. daughters of Zelophehad.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. however. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. saying. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father.

as we have seen. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. nothing is said dowries. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. and it is the children who must learn them. in turn. men are empty and life is without taste. be and of the ways. . and a need of clarity. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. "just" by the For Job. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk." Without these would must be no life. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. led. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. Of what do they speak? Of the com. This insight.The Book of Job Job's daughters. ways must be taught they must be learned. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. the way to bake bread. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. the two refused to mesh. the way to go out on the hunt. beauty. the and all way to These some bury the dead." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets." clashing for human One said while friendship. however. They be taught. there would no way to live as "one of com. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see. of his daughters. by the fathers and some by the mothers. there and us. Without whole. there would be no bread. The inheritance is outright and absolute.

.

Drama, Narrative,
Plato's Charmides
Andrew Reece
Earlham College

and

Socratic Eros in

Plato's Charmides is
the
reader multiple

an evocative and

highly
of

nuanced

dialogue, offering
of possible

to

themes

for

consideration and a

variety

inter

pretative approaches.
open

Three formal factors

Plato's

composition

immediately

an

corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
three

and

his interlocutors
term, in this

attempt

but fail to formulate
("prudence,"

a

satisfactory definition
(first
posed at

of a

"sound-mindedness,"

moral

case sophrosyne

or "self-

control").

By leaving

the question "What is

sophrosyne?"

159a)

unanswered at

the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed

definitions (as Socrates
ment

does, 175a-c)

and

to scrutinize the processes of argu
aporia.

by

which the

investigation has derailed in
not

Second,

the Charmides

is

a narrated

dialogue, featuring Socrates

only

as a participant

in the discus
on the next

sion
day.1

but In

also as a reporter of

the proceedings to
gives

an unnamed

friend

so

casting his dialogue Plato
the
"friend"

his

readers

the opportunity to as

sume the role of

and to evaluate

Socrates'

own

commentary

on

the

previous

day's

events.

Third,

the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a

dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
particular
on

the definitions of

sophrosyne presented within

the text and the complex and
knowledge"

intriguing
175a). I

introduction

of the concept of a approach

"knowledge

of

(166e-

propose

here to

the dialogue the

by

the second and third routes,

responding to
cratic eros.

Socrates'

narrative and

overall

dramatic frame, in
the

order

to

consider a theme not

usually discussed

with reference to

Charmides, So
Socrates tell the
Charmides'

Plato story
of

prefaces the elenctic core of the

dialogue

by having
Charmides

his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
night

a

story that

has

conspicuous elements of and at

an erotic encounter.

says that when

he

met

cousin

Critias the

before, he had just
his

come

back from battle
grounds

Potidaea

stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this

and was

happy

to

be

able return to

usual

in Athens. He

subject, he turned the

conversation

toward the latest

happenings in the
interpretation, Fall

philosophical

community, asking

whether there were

any

1998, Vol. 26, No. 1

66

Interpretation
men who

young
their

had

proven themselves exceptional
worth

for

their wisdom or

for
one

beauty

(153a-d). It is
about

breath both
echoi

"what's going

noting that Socrates (peri on in

should

have

asked

in

philosophy"

philosophias

hopos

ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
anticipated this
where

Plato has

already

juxtaposition

of themes

palaistra,

Athenian

males would

setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel

by

lectually by
Lysis, in
palaistra

one another's presence.

We

are reminded of the

beginning

of the

which

by

looking
author

ones"

Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our

Hippothales

and

has

established a

link between eros, the desire for beauty,

and philoso

phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
clear.

immediately

No

sooner

had he

asked about the

young men,
all of

continues

throng
was

of them

began to fill the room,
Critias'

whom,

Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin

lovers (erastai)

of

cousin

Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
man

by

common consent the soon

best-looking

in his

age group. of all

Char

mides

himself

entered, to the

present, in
of

cluding Socrates,
this youth:

who confides

to his anonymous

companion

his impression

My friend,

I

am no good at measuring.

I

am

simply
and

a

blank

ruler when me.

it

comes to

beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
Charmides'

age seem

beautiful to

But still,

beautiful.

(154b-c)
youngest

arrival

had

a

like

effect on all the men

present, from the
were a

to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
agalma

him "as if he

statue"

(hosper

154c). Plato's

use of words and

images here is
is

suggestive.

What I have
a white

translated as "I am

measuring-line."

simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
regard to.
. .

ruler"

literally
. .

"I

am

simply

eimi pros

was colloquial

for "I

make no extended make

distinctions in

Presumably

the expression

derived this

meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
while

white chalk could not

so

it is

an appropriate

image here

Socrates is

looking

at a man who seems to

be

an agalma,

perhaps of stone.

Socrates

then says that

his friend

Chaerephon,

who was also

present, remarked upon
was so

Charmides'

and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
Charmides'

handsome face

beauty,

whose admirers

temporarily forgot
and a

ual with a

distinctive face
Charmides'

beauty

was

that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the

Drama, Narrative,
metrically inept
companion

and

Eros in Plato 's Charmides

67

Socrates,
narrative

even while

in the him.
was

that beautiful youths

admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
he
Charmides'

the same to

Socrates
at

indeed

not convinced that

needed to see
cousin
thing,"

body,
noble

least

until

he had

Critias'

assurance that

his

possessed, besides his specifically, "a
soul was

obvious

soul"

stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that

Charmides'

indeed

kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
he
asked

"undressing"

that part of the young man

prevent
call

Critias,
of

Charmides'

guardian, to

any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this

Socrates'

example

politesse older man

explicit, Plato

ironically

heightens the

erotic

ambience.

An

in

a palaistra

suspected of sexual motives often

(and it

was

have

paidagogoi attend

their sons

approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
Charmides'

possible seduction.

See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.

At the

same

time,

by having
the

Socrates

bring

up the issue Socrates

of wres

tling-school protocol,

Plato

makes

reader aware

that this meeting does at
and

least have the
were
on

appearance of a seductive approach. enough

Happily

Critias

good

terms that

they

could collaborate

in

a

ruse

to draw

for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.

They

pretended

that Socrates knew a

cure

charged

scenario

than a removal of the garments

from

Charmides'

soul and

(as

McAvoy 1996,
came.

pp.

83-84,

suggests).

In any event, it worked,
companion

Charmides

Socrates

continues

his narrative, telling his among the
to
make

proach caused a great ruckus man

men

pushing his

neighbor aside opted

ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next

that

Charmides'

to himself. He eventually
mides'

to sit between Socrates and
a

Critias,

and

Char

sudden nearness threw

Socrates into

dither:

At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who

knew the cure, he looked

me

right in the

eyes with an

indescribable look

and was on the verge of

asking
I

me a question.

Everyone in the
longer

palaistra gathered round us

in

a

circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
cloak. caught

friend,
of

that I saw what was

inside his

fire, I

was no

within

myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the

wisest counselor with respect

to matters

love.

Speaking

of a

beautiful boy, he fawn before

gave the a

following
be

advice to someone:

Take
meat.

care not to go as a

lion

and

snatched

up like

a piece of

not mutu Pit." p. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. with some effort to answer that I did. 97). was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. important texts on the theme of eros. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. Charmides. at Symp. Still. 714). Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. "oddness.5 Furthermore. 507a-c. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. 221d). (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. from sex been Since self-control. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . if ally exclusive (North 1966. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. After tality seek marriage and family. an elenctic investigation begun. We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. The second leads us back into Socratic eros.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. particularly restraint indulgence. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). 306b).

dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. rather than ugly ones. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. Indeed. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. is. least if self-control might presence. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. try to teach the other. 210a-212a). pregnant If this is the case." he says. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). at least potentially. and gifted soul. face. just as a fawn . to quotation of return Cydias. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. Like children. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. someone who is both kotos and. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. inward say. eternal rates beauty (Symp. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). like his describes. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. Narrative. distinguished. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. and good.Drama. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. despite body. For the second. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra. certainly will he would never anything ugly.

Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. has not always been recognized as such. or as a hunter tracking game. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers. him to finally renewed reflection. of which three come immediately to mind. of citation of the line from Cydias. 81-91. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. fond of lambs. in singing. Socrates' (241d). p. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. Halperin 1985. just so do lovers love 165). but did not drink its blood. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. an pp. the aporia has a beneficial element. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. 58. with trust in my strength. Socrates. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. First. In both cases. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. Sim sus ilarly. right out from under hind.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. I caught a fawn in my claws. inversion the expected im age. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. 241e). with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. the perception of their own lack knowledge. For of example. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion.6 Third. 1978. there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. hunting (Dover. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus.

Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. pursuer. "don't (176a-d). while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. If Charmides' either. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. pursue. If we do. which as a manifestation of anteros. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will." realization of his desire to be Socrates. a lover might approach his beloved. When Socrates says. and devour (McAvoy 1996. Narrative. when. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. Another reading. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. or . Critias. we can see that dialogue. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. also reads the text in this way). p. who." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. in which Charmides. also interprets the quotation in this sense). Socrates to replies in kind then. p. 90." he most likely means Charmides became. to speak. 92. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. he must mean us to go along with the game. perceiving his craving for Charmides." you resist me Socrates answers. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. catch.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. only if a with the power to momentarily.Drama. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. he devoured appetite. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him." no one will be able to resist him. lion. I thought how fair youth. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. "So Charmides. respectively. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias.

cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. philosophos (154e-155a). came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). but he does not condemn the desires of either party. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. 155e). 210a. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. step.72 Interpretation merged. Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). Socrates' Halperin 1986. and actually help nurture the Symp. relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. or the entire body charm and the soul as well. The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b).). which cf. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. Soc speak. someone suitable body. If is . a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface.

and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. level again. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. like walking and talking with deliberate.Drama. and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. as would a so governed. (161b-163d). that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. showing modesty generally. Phil. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. possibility. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). Rep. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. own" every member of a city. Narrative. What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. 457b). but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . penulti rung (episteme). Charmides.g. see Larson 1951). keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). however.g. From that on on. he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). (17 le) Socrates. In other dialogues. and. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. (160d-161b). When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). e. and goodness (to agathon. 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). the element of to doing (163e-164d). In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. expands his logos nomoi.

especially the Symposium. he shows that the notion of the knowl- .74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. 1988. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. Sadly for Socrates. Laches. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. Lysis. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. As an example. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). and Republic. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. would not had. Rather. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. Kahn 1996. vision. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. Phaedo. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). any case. to topic. here eros. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. 56-70. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. as it turned out. pp. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. pp. 148291. 541-49). ostensibly.

I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. I to resist what had been an this. and Kahn (1996." measuring-line about such a person. puts 6. like in advising fawn in front of a lion. principles 542-46). as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. 102. 82). 25. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. Donald Watt's translation (1987. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. (1977. . 54-55. pp. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. p. as here. 2. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. p. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. he also thought. 3. handsome boy. Hyland (1981. p. together with his irresistible passion . 27) and. pp. p. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. 'Take care not to go as a meat. Jowett 1961. McAvoy (1996. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue." this . who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. Alcibiades. by Mahoney (1996." "dates" with conversations. since he can speak 4. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. so to speak. This recently. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. but in those works he does not. 154). while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. Plutarch. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. the Symposium. more 184). well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. not opposing view. that thought the experience." observation has been p. 146)." someone. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. 1988. Cf. he "[Cydias] for the beast. in Kahn's work 203-9. for example. 187-88). p. [Cydias] said. Narrative. in the Laches. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. 7. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. pp.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. (For an pp.Drama. thing. concern " for p. For the 5. 73 n.

"Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. C. In T. The Collected Dialogues. M.76 Interpretation 9. . eds. 1987. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. 1996. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. Ithaca. and Jowett. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. "Socratic Politics Charmides. p. 1986. Greek Homosexuality. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. Page. Nussbaum. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. 99-122. Pp. Hanmondsworth. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51. Sophrosyne. MA: Harvard University Press. Benitez. Plato. D. 1988. Hyland. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Ed. D." 161-204. In E. Cambridge. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Athens: The Ohio University Press. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. Saunders. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. Pp.4). 1981. McAvoy. 1986. Charmides." REFERENCES Bruell. 1988. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. trans. H. Kahn. 1951." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides. D. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. Kahn (1996. J. Potae Melici Graeci. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. Hamilton H.. "self-control. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. Charmides. It is with Menexenus. D. 1985. 1966. 1962. C. B. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. Cairnes. L." Mahoney. M. Pp. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. K. University Larson." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. C. Princeton: Princeton University Press. C." Dialogues of Plato.. NY: Cornell University Press. E. Griswold. T. ed." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. North. Eng: Penguin. Watt.. 1978. 1977." Dover. 1996. 1961. trans.. 163-209. 63-103. 1996.

Fall 1998. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. and his himself. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. was becoming of a tyranny.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. and on prudential about grounds. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. Vol. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. No. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. 1 .2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. Like Marx. was an out-and-out bourgeois. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. 26.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions.

the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. the on account of the war being a civil one.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. Its force . In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. On temptation. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. love of country is a defense foreign domination. rather than law. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. however. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. who are gland. but punishment. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. A disobeyed be effectual. fight the to rebels using the an law. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. there is a strong of as the part of the British. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. rebels. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. The law from corrupting one another. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. It is. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. but treasonous criminals. In doing so. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. while partiality to whom one's own country. also the nature of law to be just. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. Yet. see his thought and his peculiar genius. and foreigners. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war.78 Interpretation privilege. Justice has two different aspects.

They have lost confidence in justice. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . and by bringing the partiality of war into law. devoid of hope. or rather confusion. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war.5 melancholy are not. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. because and piety. Their cynicism and 177). they corrupt their morals. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. They vitiate their politics. public spirited reasons. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. (P. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. necessity Although law the common good. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. Britain's combination. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. proposing a policy. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. bringing generality with hate. however. they wish for peace (p. for pursuing peace. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. when the communion of our country is dissolved. a hostile light. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. Of most all wars. but they have not lost their humanity. In order to maintain the integrity of law. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice.

than law. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. blurs the difference be (p. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. . The determination infamous action. to enable administration to confine. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. The determination a it. and. and then distribute a war themselves. It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. defeat. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. . inconsistently. second. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. rather giving it to treasury (p. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. therewith. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. third. In fact. contrary.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. they take the confiscated cargo. Hatred determines the crime. the British themselves. by treating innocent citizens inequitably. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. because. is behaving like who appear tyrant. but. 179). by treating fourth. 178). in fact. to infamy to punishment. as long as it shall think . proper. 179). 178). the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god.

Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. both. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. the absence of justice. therefore. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. peace. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. but not according to justice. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. After strength not is American should defeats. because it is blinded by its own indignation. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. that they will become savage. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. rather than the the crime. The accused is. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. tried ac cording to form. . it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. should the ment English be victorious. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. 181-82). but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. 180). and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. tying half dead in England). as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. VIII (p. object of their own insults. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. 180). Parliament its proper time and place. far from making the British godlike. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. (pp. taking their goods. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. therefore.

liberty principle. never mind possible. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. to punish the exchanged prisoners. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. therefore. this action. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. But the British punitive. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. by breaking draws the first principle of law. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. far as he tell. But. 184).82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. This offense to threat to political liberty. instead of of taking out the sting. naval men as they were allowed to go free. like the deter pirates. but its to the corruption of manners. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. far from being the opposed to manners. At the end of the war. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. however. 186). justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. It hardly seems just. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. 182). as a life was given in return for a life. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. . Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. parliament is incapable of such prudence. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. because it between citizens. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. the limiting qualification. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. 188). Burke says general venoms equity.

He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. 189-90). . have with doses of fear. be can fore they be enlightened. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. he says unknown a reality. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. the attachment to country. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. 191). He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. made the reminds them British feel invincible). of concern But. Burke raises the the unknown.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. in love of country. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. dark. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. He speaks to the consciences. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. The British must doubt themselves. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. despite American defeats. He even speaks as courage justice. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. if only through fear. The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year.

191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. dominion in which he cannot exercise. manliness and cowardice judgement. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. order to render others contemptible and wretched. actually the hypocritical others. Burke has for his plan. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. that it is directed by insolent passion. states to the . rather than to punish and to subjugate.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. any without civil wisdom or military skill. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. is in the eyes of God and man. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. when in triumph. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. the taxes. show little are content to real magnanimity. With the awakening of their interests. 199). Those in favor of the war. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. pride of a coward. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. they their country. being that crawls on the earth. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. far from being manly. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. contending for a violent (P. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. helpless creature. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. Far from man's of being cowards. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. pair facing the Brit ish. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. calling for battles which but his servility to it. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death.

remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. they must earn that trust. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. to risk with defeat their own arms. (1774).Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. Just a short time . cynicism. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. both addresses popular and parliamentary. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. therefore. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. therewith. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. the Americans must trust in themselves. and Burke shows As things stand. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. He is cautious in his blame. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. and be trusted. He is the people doubt Parliament and. rather than certain tyranny. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. 195). The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. the Americans are virtually alone. above the voices of many. to be the for the the war in England. themselves. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy.

by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. therefore. be governed. because the British had suffered defeats. I must attend to public opinion. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. when public . rather than oppress it. therefore. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. granted social rights (pp. it may be the mind. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. waves of chance and. he can accuse aggrandizement. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. 210-11). without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. even though right of they have no representation. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. 205). Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. Parliament to tax the Americans. The people are. but people. at best. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. 207) omnipotence. Par liament must. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. beg leave to observe. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. He is thereby domestic politics. (P. that it is not will be resisted. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. having recently tasted victory. so as to offend the people. Now.

as a defense of freedom in general. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. Freedom is not an abstract principle. just in they are needed (p. doing what one wills. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. Parliament must be heard. Freedom. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. Burke is quick to point out that. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. to be mistaken. ment. rather theory require tions for injustice. any more than is sover of eignty. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. 208). He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. from. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. not because of a perverse humor. . through pressures placed on. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. like authority. politics. freedom others. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. Compromise If the in the the and reform. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. religion more the monarchy. however. as it was by the New Whigs. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). In light freedom. they embody than parlia ment. parliament can no longer legislate religion. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. They practicing (the god of this lower world). but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. and even independence. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. 211). ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. and. It requires compromise.

on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. because it is a principle of compromise. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament.6 ire of an atheist. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. Moments authority lived.88 thus. of man and the absolute hand. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. The British Parliament the authority of a god. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. rather than acknowledges the hate. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. they affection. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. rather than cod ified. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. collective are bom from disappointed trust. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. the aristocracy. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. Abstract ideas . The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. In abstract theory. they claimed to embody mankind. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. and savage cruelty. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. thus denying claimed the church. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. General theories passions.

He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. and executions. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. in particular. the aristoc and monarchy. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. confiscations. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. malice. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. The Reflections. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. their persecutors. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. broke faith. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. guilt. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. though in theory. and the tence. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. horror. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. greed. In not fact. In this. and especially to science. The legislator must whole. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. They destroy .

which means they have feasted exclusively on satire.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. but things. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. God. nor fanatic visionary. he teaches limits of both. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. Their them. It is who are undoubtedly true. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. united them as a people. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. ranks. is at their horizon like their horizon. but in general. offices.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. humanity (Pp. though it may paradoxical. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. Like the of the good seamstress. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. . for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. . Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- . those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. they of any interest. philosopher. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. because moderation they are defi must in love. The legislator have of in his soul. that they . they from love men too little. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. . which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics.

Legislation is deliberative p. an un geometry differentiated mass. unique character of Geometry. in fact. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. and exist in much greater clearness.12 chemistry. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. they to represent and to secure those interests. Its rebel to be used against them. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. like promises proportion. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. 524). whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. a mathematical order. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. to have the power of ordering. however. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. which of it. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. rats. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. creating Burke does. cannot recognize the politics. possibility (Reflections. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. In formative act. the uniqueness of human beings 301). chemistry and geometry can produce a association. therefore. however. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. At best. atomism except by a principle of order. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry.

221). The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. Burke opposed abstract was against began. or to an equal share in government. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. such. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. (P. then there must be moral . from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. to tax in order to restore American trust. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. of government. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. 222). people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. for America had. To the contrary. developed its own Ideological differences. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. If there are to be compromise and freedom. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. give repealing the tax. 215). Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. about the parts are at (p.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. By having right to everything they want everything. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public.

have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. natural Burke thought the rulers. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. and a brutality of accepting of political men. rather than connections of its sovereign. The people are the product of the constitution. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . satisfy those grievances. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. avarice. should the people rule. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. an Perhaps most important. in which it depends. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. therewith. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. they are too strong to oppose. liberty. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. but trust that is called to account and office. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. however. therefore. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). The as are though people dis must. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. but.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings.

But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. The origins are inferior to the end product. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. mind. force. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. He economics. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. because he never believed is not Hegel's state. rather. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. . but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things.15 The hidden hand is not. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. . It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. Burke believed that rational. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. . Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. however.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. Contending for an imaginary power. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. brings a degree of the common good. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. It is something to be Although He respected. To the contrary. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. Burke never thought reality. and beneficence. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time.

Karl Marx. on hand. C. only because they have elected him. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. Unlike Parliament. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. B. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. which which he lends credence. to foster the love of Furthermore. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. disheartened and disgusted. 260. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. so or a misanthropist. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. he and sought indignant fanaticism. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. The partial suspension. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. His Yet one cannot of visionary. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. contains its abuses within it. to be grown in disrepute. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. (P. he is in his self-right eous wrath. but they can trust him. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. a God. 1954) p. Capital I (Moscow. espe cially in the great. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. the latter necessarily corrupts. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. Prudence makes the former feasible. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. So.

6. vol. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. in whose 6. p. pp. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. Edmund Burke. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. p. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. 1994]) argument. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. pp. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. tyranny (Thomas Paine. p. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. 4. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. 3. 1. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. was cited within the text as Reflections. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. page number alone are 3. remind one of the old man ed. vol. ultimate differences. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. 8. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. 350-52. Jackson Bate (Westport. 2. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. pp. 10. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. There are three classes of citizens. pp. although ment. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. many other cities. CT: Greenwood Press. 7. 431-32. his regime on the number 12. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. In from looking to the number three for order. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. Works. 31. Furthermore. wore by cheap whole. Old Whigs. Hippodamus models three. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. Works. portrait. and the 2. CA: Sage. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. of govern 3. a more participatory form vol. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. 279. But he did give the any property. 1960). 533. The Complete Writ 1945]. 520. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. and the 7. 5. Phaleas'. and three kinds of legal suits. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. 101. 1854-89). Eng. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. he denied and the artisans arms. pp. Politics. Glorious 1984). they both ideas. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. jurors and .: Penguin. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. 282-83. 2. but according to his fancy. 94. 431. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. 282-83.96 else. farmers. W. 382-84. 15-16. and by looking at the man. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. pp. and to Burke. 9. 439. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. vol. 358. 164. In desire to know nature as a whole. p. attempt 8. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. vol. vol. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. vol. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. three sections of the city.

Thus. of Chicago Press. 1. 1984].149-52). The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. 1954). p.9-10). 6. because he thought it made prudence impossible. 1965]. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. NJ: Transaction Publishers. rather than action. 1. 406-7. He honors for those individual judgement. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. 15. p. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle.237). Canavan is for Burke life. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. . 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. p. pp. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. 2. vol. who lives according to the actual. thus making an who improved the law. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. Like Burke. and even expected. pp. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. not simply its evident usefulness. rather than the presumptive. Thomas Aquinas. vol. 432. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. 331-33. pp. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. sanship. 1987]. 470. When questioned. vol. In the Spirit of the Laws." the ruling majority and 14. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. against abstract doctrine. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. 1993]. 294-95. 13. 29. Works. 77). as opposed to natural rights. 1991]. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. (Harvey Mansfield. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. Works. Canavan. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. the man of actual virtue. that its authority depends habits of obedience. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. as in the French Revolution. trans. pp. pp. Science.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. is taken from Montesquieu. 348. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. 431. susceptible of of infinite improvement. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. for men of action are often. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. Reappraisal. 1949). Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. of Chicago Press. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. vol.

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might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. as it stands. therefore. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects." In interpretation. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be.1 As readers of the book. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. . is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. The first crests at the end of Song. Beyond Good Evil." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. 26. 289). 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Fall 1998. 1 . A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . the truth observation surface.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. but to those whom he "the wisest. No. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. Vol. "deepest. to interpret this drama." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. In the second. ." Preface. 5. it is incoherent. argument and action. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. but are inseparably It is joined.

Overburdened by its superfluity.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest." however." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition." But this his means "to be again. of accordingly. the will to power proves to doctrine. This under persuading live. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. e. ridicule and hatred." 8). the superman. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. however. It. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. he is met with incredulity. he and wishes to "go down" to again. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue.. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return. therefore. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. but as such to be more than human.g. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. then the distribution.4 If Zarathustra is human. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue." this account. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. however. however. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense. Appealing directly to the multitude.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. therefore.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise.

The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. in accordance with its law. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. all of of good and them. the people. root cause of all the will to power is the things. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal." "will to for the first time. he insists. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. its things. since. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. law. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. But being. the first. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. the Still. therefore. . Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. That is to say." 9). including his soul and mind. activity stands the legislator or. despite their variety. one Afterworldsmen. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. as Zarathustra calls him. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue." Here he that if be made to speak. according to Zarathustra's understanding. speaks to man only being. calls "praiseworthy. Behind the creator." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. em but rather what good and evil. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. according to Zara thustra. Persians. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and. however." holy.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. The first of this wisdom will to power." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. in the Aristotelian phrase. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. acting in the light of its truth.

This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. to a Virtue. That the related political and aspects of claim. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. but identity between them. longer disciples. however." nations" among its brotherhood of equals.102 We Interpretation see that. believes. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). however. nite laws. To create great endeavor. human beings seems necessarily is. to creating creators. Zarathustra. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. in Zarathustra's own words. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. overarching then. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. perhaps. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. therefore. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. At the close of Part One. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. law that is. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. but rather fellow creators. according in what to Zarathustra. the coming to be of the superman. that he cities of men. therefore. a law that is. It is this than human. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . the to power. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. it were. divine. indicates. is Zarathustra's goal. as it were.

friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. will creators. create dom and. At this culminating moment hind his veil. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. it and as well. Accordingly. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. It almost goes without fails is the question. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it. as it were. but animal gods are and superman. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. therefore. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. reveal himself to a his career." 1). a natural law." things." 3)." 3). If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. while bringing humanity first time. "the Great stand Noon. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. Zarathustra will. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples.

of latter. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. What and grotesque of a devil. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators. the distribution of his author. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will.104 Interpretation so ing The that. as Zarathustra has argued. This interpretation. appears independent inquiries. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . In "The Child which a child his disciples. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. however. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. Neverthless. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. Nonetheless." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. to be absurd. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. rushes his teaching. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality." in other words. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. of course. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. his venom. wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. of course. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently." of first half his of Part Two. however. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness.

and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. as through such distribution cre like himself. therefore. consequently. On the one hand. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. the com incoherent in its own terms. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. therefore. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. therefore. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. made clear through stands following reflection. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. this condition with another. Creation. that is.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. to establish a community of and reciprocity. and this is men. Moreover. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. It . fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. disciples and. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. that is. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. On the other hand.

and the desire for revenge within his soul.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. but by self-mockery. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of .7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. As he puts giving. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. spite. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. compatible with the moral law insofar tue. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame. wisdom. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. consequently. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. As "The Night Song" predicts. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms." Consequently pedantry. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. the punishment or desire for soul. he is in useful a state of aporia. ("On the Giving Vir 1)." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. with his wisdom. revenge. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward.

that false horizon now of the is. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. all human community established upon the basis of the law.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. 381). He cannot painful beyond endurance. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. That is to say. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. the just as final political order. of the rational good. and the good. Accordingly. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. since. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. in which the just is included as false appearance. Thus if in Part . ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. therefore. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. and that. therefore. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. that understood need on is. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. elaborating of the beautiful.

As is his habit. envy." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. consequently. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. happy. e. that is. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). In other words. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). Nevertheless. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power.g.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors.. the longing for revenge. Zarathustra's primary opponents. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. That is love were to say. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). Zarathustra blames his failures position. and however. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead. "enemies" however." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. however.

Without himself being aware of it. As a conse good and evil quence. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . The greatest good." Life. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. manifests itself in an infinite becoming. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. "the good. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. in expressing its or unlimited character. For the will. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest." again and soon and.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. he also concludes that any particular vice. however. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. Be that it may. therefore. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. he says is. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. in the infinite power of the will. spite. he realizes. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create.

" as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. for." as a form of artful play. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. the creation of values. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. destruction of values as its Accordingly. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. 382. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. will's "sublime" character good. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. law or or as he it there. the possession of wisdom. he .110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. ."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. from opposites. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. himself to purchasing his its first principle. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. of course. as the highest good. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. naively (The Gay Science. in clinging to his its freedom. his desire for happiness as he understands it." 2). But the "values. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. wisdom and will and And. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. good untouchable. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. . the false perspective of the moral law." he describes himself depths. necessarily the greatest evil. Ecce with all that was Homo. the destruction of values. It is. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy.

think through. and. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. Zarathustra In other gives dren. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. of another like himself. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. truth. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. its fundamental incoherence.207a).12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. Plato. Symposium reproduction of his own good. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. As we have already observed. with caution and of subtlety. in new doing so. in some indefinite future. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. As in the case of sexual intercourse. and create engendered. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. however. He listens carefully to these speeches. therefore." "now I love only my children's land. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. but ultimately to the generation. Zarathustra himself has done. comes to understand the implications self." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. demolish it. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). he values the admittedly political community.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. to the end of reproduc words. help lower level than his The reason for this . his old moral teaching." as he calls it. This fellow thinker is name within the work. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf.

. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up. Thus. just the prophet had predicted. everything That is to say. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. however. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. In his dream Zarathustra has . the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. Nevertheless. the future continues way ."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. despite the in some to this region of the dead. everything is one. as it were. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. therefore. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. Consequently. Zarathustra the Third. bursts open. In words. therefore." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. but in terms of knowledge as well.. become the "night-watchman death. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows.

is the causal principle of number of of those peoples." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. however. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer. namely. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. the peoples must of Yet. at least at this point. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. Dis courses on Livy." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. then. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. not to willing all of the past. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. .The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. the Machiavelli. From this low point. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. of therefore. This insight is cause. but to willing this willing. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream.2). If. Zarathustra. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. 1. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5).

eternal return of . but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. being is an Accordingly. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. therefore. namely. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. however. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. in which it may be willed. . according the Zarathustra's current understanding. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. Thus. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. however. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. saying. must past and Accordingly. . . In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. "O Zarathustra high. but every stone that is thrown . regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole.

21)."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. . "foreseeing" longer man. the life but is in creative great effect of in. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it. all would be one. paradoxically. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . knowledge would Thus. that is.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it. into my throat. The presence of the low not only persists human life. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. of sickness" therefore. freedom will at its peak. the that has crawled his throat. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of ." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. of It is. choked me and crept ." Moreover. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. that was my disgust at all creation" existence.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man . When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. the of the . Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. . the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. as Zarathustra now describes it. nothing be profitable.

which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. and that genu knowing will. the thought of the eternal return developed. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good.21 need. of not be given. Finally. its law and sway of the rabble. love and. namely. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. in Part Three. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit .e. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community.. is in accord with reason. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. however. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. but. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order." revenge.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. Far from having escaped the its justice. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. on the one hand." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. of "justice" "freedom. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. however. the will and its desire for and i.

9. p. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. On the simplest level. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . 4. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. Tablets. 4." turns out to be Cupido or Eros.22 upon in his wanderings. See "On Cf. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. however. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. appears to offer a 11. Zarathustra. 10. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good." 5. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. in that irrational. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. In Part Three." 3. Of course. 202. Preface. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. 8. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. also see Ecce Homo. 23). 153.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. Behind the 6. 1888. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. 7. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. Cf. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. parodies "wisdom. Beyond Good and Evil. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption")." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. and therefore of being. It points to the Seth Benardete. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. Writing").'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. University of Chicago Press). As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables.

12." 1 1. 1988). as god. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. 15. 1935]. namely. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. 1984). what 53-54. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. lacking . "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. . Cf. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. but only on that of philosophical writing.'' Great Events. XIII. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. "The speech Self-Overcoming. Homer." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. 13. ed." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. IV. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. The Wisdom of the Ancients." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press." 360-425 and Bacon. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. . he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm. 17. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. 28-31. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. II. Vol. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds. or Zarathustra. the realm of ignorance and falsehood." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. pp. trans. 14. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. Matter. as man. It should come as no surprise. Odyssey. 23. "Proteus. Unfortunately. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work." "The Truthsayer." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. therefore. overcoming of need. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. it would require "something double. Zarathustra's p." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets. Row. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power." 16. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and.

she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. Song. Sunrise. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. p. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seth Benardete. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. the ill-constituted. Robespierre. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone." 21." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. To every soul belongs another world. characterizes world following that terms. 40. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. 152 and 192. (Speech of 7 June. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. "All Song. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. 289. 1990)." Having pears by chance. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. bridge." merely by looking into each other's faces." also Dancing 4. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. and The Gay Science. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. therefore. "Fame and Second Sailing. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. pp. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. 36 and 87. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. 264). 3. She power. therefore. however. p. vertu' 20. above all. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. 1794)": Daybreak. 27. 30. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. Unfortunately. namely." and 22. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you.'' for every is an afterworld. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. for the smallest just. 29. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. on account of his 227). Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. If both Zarathustra and. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. 283-85. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. Preface.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. . "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden.

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xii + 263 pp. Philosophy. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. $19. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. 1995). 1997). and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. greater notoriety. 1993). Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. 1992). NY: Cornell University Press. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). Indeed. University the Polity... $49. $15. xi + 382 pp. x + 285 pp. Julian Young. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. this century comes to a close.95 paper. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. 1996). $15.50 Hans Sluga. Berel Lang. Heidegger. Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press.Review Essays Heidegger. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. $19.95 paper.95.. Vol. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1990).95. xii + 129 pp.50 paper. 1993). + 306 pp. In this essay." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision.. $14. $47. even to the point of at "apologetics. Zimmerman.. Politics. Leslie Paul Thiele. xv + 232 pp... One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. 1 . Fall 1998.50 cloth. 26. Michael E. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. $33. $49. xi + 234 pp.50 cloth. No. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. MA: Harvard University Press.95 paper. Tom Rockmore. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. Caputo. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation.

several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. Unlike Zimmerman. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. daeo-Christianity. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. In order to discern this tendency. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. Although Farias champions this position. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. which also exemplifies historical. however. namely. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. Given this historical archaeology. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas.g. politics. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. of and Derrida. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. is . We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom." in Heidegger's Crisis. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. As bridge between reject discover. for example. Lyotard. e. One point example. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. In the process.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. Rockmore implements criticism. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger..

sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. In this work. ethics. The Farias' effect of revelations. Being and Time (1927).g. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. inquiry. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. Nazism. of ethics and politics. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. As poignant as revelations were. As Zimmerman. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. however. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. raises. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. the Polity. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. indeed. II. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. already the publication of his magnum opus. This work. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. Philosophy. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. then practical concerns. Caputo. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. hence. Even been prior to Farias' book. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. e. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence.Heidegger..

Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. That is. and the end of metaphysics. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. i. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties. By 'thinking.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. Interpretation ." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. As Zimmerman states: . and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite.124 '. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. As Zimmerman emphasizes. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. is of political which things. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power." nature. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. the our need to day. but the of technology.e. of "enframing.. . A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. On the surface. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. 84). spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves. Heideg instruments of technology. the which unique forgetting of being. pp. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy.' he did not mean rational calculation. xxiii-ix) Jews. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration.

Holderlin. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. Unfortunately. domination humanity and nature. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. As reactionary modernists. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. . that is. but instead blood and instinct. On the one hand. Consider Heidegger's . p. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. recast Going forward. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. . elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. conflict and resolution. (P. Not surprisingly. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. 127). frenzy and violence. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. philosophy and politics. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. 84) In the end. what the Polity. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. harmony from strife. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation.Heidegger. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought.

including care. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. Only by possible a shepherd. . the categories of tenderness. . 207). To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith.g. 72). self-affirmation. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p." community. In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. and heroism. (Lowith. Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). the dissident (Derrida). Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. . Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). love. As Caputo indicates. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. charity.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. 73). . all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. Ironically. in must emerge "singular. . in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. love otherwise absent facticity. truth. and temporality. The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. in his stark concept of Dasein. thinker. the scandalous comparison culture . Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. e. become 68). According to Caputo. the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. Caputo. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas).

maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. 54)." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p. namely. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism.g. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. 74). these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. for Rockmore "hero. stance. Rockmore. roughly speaking. III. "What I call the 'official' view students. there is no.Heidegger.. Philosophy. the Polity. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. National or no important. In Heidegger. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. Because Rockmore way. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. This distinction becomes important. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. as Nazism. . Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. and that. link (p. however. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism." Heidegger's philosophy (e. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. 54).

Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. The "tragic question then becomes. 5-8). What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. Lang ger history (pp. 5). In Heidegger's Crisis. 100-101). philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. In Heidegger's Silence. the public and occasional" the private. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. of illumination and blindness. Ironically. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. . never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. but the intellectual others. freedom and necessity. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. insofar as the and then. Of course. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. the professional and the thesis (p. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines.

We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. setting institutions the decline. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. Indeed.. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. and the possibility of law. for most critics construe these . an opportunism "timely. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. be translated into any specific may For example. Mill and Kant. IV. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. community. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism.Heidegger. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act." forged through the will. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. 245-48). And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. And ger's while one may try vision. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp.g. 19). There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. but what extent a political crises of of the political. a process occurs. action. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. 22). in the 1930's.

e. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book.g. however. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. As our discussion of the previous . his commitment to National Socialism. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. alien to all reduction to the uniform. 35 ff. it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. In many respects. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin.). Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. While this most problematic." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. a Heideggerian politics must confront. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. factic plane. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). vious.. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. it would a type of action irrecon (p. in order that one to the dilemma in question.

When joined Young's solicitude. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. Philosophy. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. provides According to Dallmayr.Heidegger. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. Rockmore. 104). Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. which claims In ogy. 50). 38-41). a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. 125). Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. instead. Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. 79). Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Young argues that Heideg for the other. Moreover. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. but Wolin. Young. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. if it does their objections. In Heidegger. Farias. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. in regime. books the Polity. 41). is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front.

As Thiele emphasizes. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. of light the opera Thus. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it. namely. In words. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. that is. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. is that the power which permits political participation. 198). the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way.. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. "tolerance" namely. e. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. if government as fully we articulated. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. In this way a community develops. p. Western democracy. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. that moral emphasis on can (pp." Correlatively. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. the between logos and community. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. 81-83). including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. however. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. 48-49). namely. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. facets as as Thiele indi cates. the nexus of politics. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. As Arendt suggests. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making.g. What Heidegger recognizes. language. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him.

" According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. 16). Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. censorship. even solicitous of. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. The arbitrary. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. 128). and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way.) is iconoclastic. it Sluga. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. p. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. . philosophy flourish only it is . Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. politics. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. 167). While Yet. will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. thrives within a polis the greatest importance. Literally. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. 86-100. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. 292). 60-63). the process of unconcealment freedom" itself.Heidegger. . in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. another the Polity. means or "place in on such opposition. . but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. 5-12. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. controversial. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal.

New York: Paragon Press. Ithaca. Mark. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. Hannah. Miguel. no. Heidegger the Trans. Peter Collier. 1 (1991): 1-611. London: Routledge. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. 1998. and Farias. Lisa Harries. but. GA 24. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. The Human Condition. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. The Origins of Totalitarianism. on the words responds to this contrary. 1958. Truth. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. 1982. in which the fac- eloquently suggest." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. 1990. CA: Stanford University Press. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. Kettering. 1981. no. Trans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Marcus (ed. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. Heidegger. Trans. Pierre. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. Wilde William Kluback.. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. 2. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. John. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. GA 31. Heidegger and University Press. Perhaps this time think. Andre Michel. 1989. Martin. philosophy of its task. 15. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. New Haven: University Press. George. Dallmayr. University Press. Johannes. 1991. NY: Cornell David. Trans. 1958. 1962. 1 (1995): 111-86. "On Heidegger's Lowith. 35). Karl. Pascal. and Gunther Neske. Jean T.). Blitz. Phil Temple University Press. "jews. Jean-Francois. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. Palo Alto. Emil. and What Is Philosophy? Trans." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. The Other Heidegger. and 1995. de Beistegui. Silence.' Assertion of the German University. New York: World Publishing. 33. Political. Fred. In this spirit. 1975.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. 1993. Ed. Bourdieu. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. no. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. " Lyotard. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. Trans. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. 1990." Time Journal 14. . Victor." Gary Steiner. Heidegger. Kovacs. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. Richard Wolin. when such a pp." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias.

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Michael Walzer. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. No. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. Fall second book. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. but what it excludes. On the other hand.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. University Press. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation.50.. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. 1997). Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive.95.95. Public $22. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism. Sandel. 26. why it excludes. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Francis Canavan. Like other pluralisms. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. 1 . $16. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998.. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. Three recent works do both. 1995). Rawls's Political Liberalism). Liberalism and (Lanham. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. $24. indeed could not. 1996). + 126 pp. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. Vol.. possess. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. The Pluralist Game. inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not.

and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. In Canavan's account. but or not limited to. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . indeed impossi ble. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. Law society. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. pluralism and toleration. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. 76). and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. Naturally. In Canavan's account. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. however conflictual. Earlier American pluralism. As Canavan clearly perceives. and the relations between economy and polity. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. The categories overlap. lost unity of shared. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration.

A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. to public Canavan notes. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . Yet of the three volumes. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. Canavan particular. liberalism. their best. had helped to flesh out religious community life. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. Understood in individualist terms. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. hospi tals and social services were injured. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. but without developing the point at any length. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. individ liberty. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. it displaced institutions." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. These institutions. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). schools. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights.

Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. the state should reduce its direct etc. on pain of contradiction. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. If anything. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. to join in the struggle. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. to flourish. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. Protestants and devout Jews. so vision ought Canavan argues. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. things look neutrality. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. always reflects some moral vision. cultural. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit.. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. On the other hand. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. social services. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). Groups with spiritual. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. to make room for such groups in education. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing.

But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. with others about what is true any or good. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. to a solution to these problems. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. Consequently. religious duties. this asocial render human good is misleading. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. for Sandel and the republican tradition. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. ing of Again. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. They natu common affairs. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. When they tion. since these all require description of the self. and this goal has American public policy. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. As Sandel notes. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. the freedom tive. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. others' based have chosen them. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. People are born for citizenship. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. for instance. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . or even citizen obligation. community. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. of citizens In the liberal conception. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions.

But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. community. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. So Sandel pluralism. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. As Sandel correctly argues. respect not follow. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. regarding toleration. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. In principle. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. judg Using the legal example of abortion. not their simple capacity to choose something . then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. and His alternative version the self. In both cases. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. a contradiction. they express. 20). beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. Or we could relativize the value of respect. prochoice their views for public purposes. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. and promoting. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. moral.

Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. or even malicious. in the nature of (p. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. Indeed. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. Sandel's order. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. Arguably. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. Presumably. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. Sandel replies. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. in general. the same could be said about his ily law. With Sandel. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. That is. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. be Canavan suggests. 90). it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. Walzer of toleration and coexistence.

77). Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). . With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. Walzer here in the secondary associations.) Nor can we repair to . Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. for example. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. . of and others. is right say) tradition. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. this is an omission which pluralism. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. 70). so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. ought to be barred from running in elections. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. With Sandel. Maclntyre. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. together with leaves intact the current crisis. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. with early roots in Protestant and English history. since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. (p. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. as an harbor republican hopes. according to Walzer. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. so he opposes a voucher system.144 Interpretation societies. and social Where then. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. Religious parties. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. Naturally. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . To his credit. Canavan.

it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. .Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense. Altogether then." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. But reading Sandel.

. numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. (1921). marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. XXXIV. The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. Testament Spinozas (1932).i VERLAG J. and Lowith. XIV.-). It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937.. Jacobis (1929). Gershom Scholem. politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. among Wissenschaft writings. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. Jacob In addition. DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. Gerhard Kriiger. and others published here for the first time. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). cloth with English) many important. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. B. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997.. 434 pp. more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). previously unknown writings and letters. Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937). 1933-1935). French. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. H. in the original languages (German English).-). cloth with dust jacket.

your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library. The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings. The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy. ? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss.80 (approx. The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes. Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English). Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns. The prices of the 2. current list price. ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx. $53.metzler.00). Dept.Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations. the be sent as they appear. 66 pp. Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996.00).de . $10. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss. published here for the first time in its entirety in this form. subscribe by your university 1.80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1).B. Each volume may be purchased separately. The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined. (approx. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price.00 each). $46. Name . DM 16. Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ. volumes should (approx.. edition are approx. . $5300).

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11367-1597 U. -a o PC fo a -a o CO 2 o 3 "I 3 o 3 O < CO a r 21 rra *> o m c3 CO .A.Y. Inc.S.ISSN 0020-9635 Interpretation. Queens College Rushing N.

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