This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
Executive Editor General Editors
Seth G. Benardete Charles E. Butterworth Hilail Gildin Robert Horwitz (d. 1987) Howard B. White (d. 1974)
Christopher Bruell Joseph Cropsey Ernest L. Fortin John Hallowell (d. 1992) Harry V. Jaffa David Lowenthal Muhsin Mahdi Harvey C. Mansfield Arnaldo Momigliano (d. 1987) Michael Oakeshott (d. 1990) Ellis Sandoz Leo Strauss (d. 1973)
Kenneth W. Thompson Terence E. Marshall Heinrich Meier
International Editors Editors
Wayne Ambler Maurice Auerbach Fred Baumann Amy Bonnette Patrick Coby Elizabeth C de Baca Eastman Thomas S. Engeman Edward J. Erler Maureen Feder-Marcus Pamela K. Jensen Ken Masugi Will Morrisey Susan Orr Charles T. Rubin Leslie G. Rubin Susan Meld Shell Bradford P. Wilson Michael P. Zuckert Catherine H. Zuckert
Manuscript Editor Subscriptions
Lucia B. Prochnow
rates per volume
individuals $29 libraries and all other institutions $48 students (four-year limit) $18 Single
copies available. outside
U.S.: Canada $4.50 extra; $5.40 extra by surface mail (8 or longer) or $11.00 by air. Payments: in U.S. dollars and payable by
financial institution located (or the U.S. Postal Service).
The Journal Welcomes Manuscripts
follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 1 3th ed. or manuals based on it; double-space their manuscripts, including notes; place references in the text, in endnotes or follow current journal style in printing references. Words from languages not rooted in Latin should be transliterated to English. To ensure impartial judgment of their manuscripts, contributors should omit mention of their
the title page only, their name, any affiliation desired, address in full, E-Mail and telephone. Please send four clear copies,
which will not
Binghamton, N.Y. 13904 U.S.A.
(Ms.) Joan Walsh, Assistant to the Editor College, Flushing, N.Y. 11367-1597, U.S.A. (718)997-5542 Fax (718) 997-5565
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Erler Maureen Feder-Marcus Pamela K. 1990) Ellis Sandoz Leo Strauss (d. N. Postal Service). dollars and payable by a financial institution located within the U. Zuckert Catherine H. Binghamton..Y. U. Marshall Heinrich Meier International Editors Editors Wayne Ambler Maurice Auerbach Fred Baumann Amy Bonnette Patrick Coby Elizabeth C de Baca Eastman Thomas S. Thompson Terence E. 1987) Michael Oakeshott (d. Mansfield Arnaldo Momigliano (d.S.edu E Mail: . their name. any affiliation desired.S. Zuckert - Manuscript Editor Lucia B.S.Interpretation Editor-in-Chief Hilail Gildin. (718)997-5542 Fax (718) 997-5565 interpretation_journal@qc. including notes. Fortin John Hallowell (d. address code in full. Wilson Michael P. Rubin Susan Meld Shell Bradford P. or manuals based on it. Prochnow Subscription rates per volume (3 issues): individuals $29 libraries and all other institutions $48 students (four-year limit) $18 Single copies available. with postal/zip put. in endnotes or follow current journal style in printing references. Flushing. outside Subscriptions U.40 extra by surface mail (8 weeks or longer) or $11.S.50 extra. $5. 1992) Harry V. N. Jaffa David Lowenthal Muhsin Mahdi Harvey C. Please send four clear copies. Literature. Words from languages not rooted in Latin should be transliterated to English. Butterworth Hilail Gildin Robert Horwitz (d.: Canada $4. Postage elsewhere The Journal Welcomes Manuscripts in in Political Philosophy as Well as Those Theology. place references in the text. 1973) Kenneth W. Inc. White (d. Composition by Eastern Composition. E-Mail and telephone. 13904 U. Leonard of Philosophy. and Jurisprudence. 1987) Howard B. 1 3th ed. 1974) Consulting Editors Christopher Bruell Joseph Cropsey Ernest L. (or the U. To ensure impartial judgment of their manuscripts. Benardete Charles E.S. on the title page only. which will not be returned.Y.A. Payments: in U. 11367-1597. contributors should omit mention of their other work.00 by air.) Joan Walsh. Rubin Leslie G. Jensen Ken Masugi Will Morrisey Susan Orr Charles T.A. Engeman Edward J. Dept.S. contributors should follow The Chicago Manual of Style.A. Inquiries: (Ms. double-space their manuscripts. Queens College Executive Editor General Editors Grey Seth G. Assistant to the Editor interpretation. Queens College.
I is wish not to argue that. the Lord God. associated with and antipolitical. that of the nomadic Third. Finally. the city is connected with land ownership. The thing I wish to argue excuses. Second. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. divine or conventional. with superfluous and which arts. 1 . Fall 1998. Vol. herds Nimrod. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. and the which Babel-builders. in Genesis 10. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. second or at least reasonable those characters. the Babel-builders. No. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. antitechnical. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. interpretation. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. and in Genesis 1 1.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. Traditional exegesis of these stories. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. 26. in light the Babel project. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. as argue. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. although intent. or even defy. man. those who are supposed to be First. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. Nimrod. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. Jewish and Christian. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel.
1. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. Cain's very birth is suspect. Out of antiurban. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. When he sacri Lord (Gen. A. Cain. legion. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain.3-5). Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. his religious performance is faulty. I have used tateuch.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. often little basis in the text. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. Cain. if the quality is acceptable. and I have consulted Specifically.2 kills the son truly in God's image. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. the refuse.3 or. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. according to some of the rabbis. Fi by nally. Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. First. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. Augustine's these City of God. the first city. that is. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. have all been impugned. fices to the most Thus. the an which founding of the city. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. In fus ing (they own. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. of the Next. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. 4. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. . antipolitical atmosphere.
who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. XV. Moses. Isaac. vol. but with his hy pocrisy. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. Jacob. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. 255). Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. 17. Augustine. 153).2). and Cain Lamech Metusael. 192). some rabbis say that he. Augustine. 1. 8. vol. such as Augustine and Calvin. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. Augustine says nothing negative. absent from the Biblical text. 1. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. (City of God. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. and them. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. The names of Irad. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. another choice. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. 5.5. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. career. Cain's tion: p. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. p.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. Calvin on the other." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. "wicked" "house" building of a city. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. 1. another a drunkard. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. One became a murderer. Noah. Those interpreters. to will return later. 8. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. however. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. p. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. 29). dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. his city and people. 21). 256). says Abravanel. p. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. God intended with us. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. are supplied by the . Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. and Lamech are all said vol.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 2. says bluntly "Cain. p. life into a sophisticated. XV. 21).4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. Mehujael. and David.
Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. the he founded. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. the latter who lived more virtuously. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp.22). acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. however. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid.). and all its connections (with the arts. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. Calvin.). violence and In a more analytical vein. 237-40). Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. with political life) fall under a dark shadow. the op for him the arts are goods.). flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. duced Seth's line into waywardness. and gifts from God (Calvin. Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. XV. his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. of p. Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. God" at least more carnal in their interests. 2.) (which. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. Like the rabbis. His birth is suspect. did not yet exist). the former being.22. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. went about stark naked. with human law making. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. Calvin refuses to condemn 257).6 Interpretation (ibid. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. 217-22). pp. They eyes. like beasts. In general. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . In sum. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. view. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. superfluous sin. Naamah. 238). his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. and because of this. 160-62). Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. and 159). far as we can tell from Genesis 4. 160). Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis).
mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. p. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. vol. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. p. There is other evidence that Nimrod.26 are said. who. In this attempt. "beginning" is is verb. Esau.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. so negatively. 60-61). Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. who 4. the ancestor of Israel. Genesis 10. de Rabbi Eliezer. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). to degenerating calling "rebelling. is bad for two reasons. Since Nimrod is a slave. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. like all hunters. 38). being a mighty hunter. which is what persuaded people to let him them. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. Nimrod the city-builder evil. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. p. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. And.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. it is p. here found in the hiphil form. in Genesis Rabbah. pp. From the sense "pro fane. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. he Genesis Rabbah. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. as the-verb "to (halal). tried to kill Abraham he was young. ants same Obviously. Nimrod. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord.). he a 10. Finally. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. deriving all wicked things. his claim to might. 175). 260).4). First. tyranny (Calvin. 420-21. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. they supply other examples of wicked people things. he Abraham. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. is a deceiver. Thus. p. 3). 2. too. XVI. Esau. 174). however. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. . and." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. that is. Augustine tells us that Nimrod." earth. XVI. man. Second. but mention rather. was obviously a furious Nimrod. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. oppressor. "began" 2. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. be evil. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. pp. 2. of course. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. 317). if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter.
p. for two reasons. being settling and building in "settled. is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. means. do" translated into rabbinic. with the upper part. the the Ham line. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11." but are on the 50). In any case. 2. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. needless to say. as I will point later. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires." "and this they begin to which. according to Genesis 10. bad scent.8 Interpretation Nimrod.4). vol. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. which. do. and vol. XVI. want 2. too (Genesis Rabbah. right motives. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. Calvin Calvin. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. (Genesis Rabbah. which p. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. Isaac. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. takes on a associated with and his kingdom." are "rebels. First. 2. pp. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. was the area of his king dom. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. 324). the Lord. His city. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. 2. 49-50). to displace him.4. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. They they being given the earth. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . for they p. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. again. 51). vol. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. could hardly him have Urban life. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. "Settling" is moti vol. 11. like Abraham. and. at signifies also that they made an on 261. p. . 260). The Babel-builders. In p. as in the case of Cain. the lower part of the world. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. in an summary. for idol They filled the sin of pride. and Jacob. 3. as one might expect. 1. a city. Second. probably vol. like Nimrod. therefore. heavens. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. God's people do not rest con move.
which. Abravanel argues. and tyranny over others. They are from the wrong lines. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. who defined man as a political animal. More generally. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. or rebels against God. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. sinners. God's do not need the political life of the city. but to conspire against and a God." us make "let build city"). At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. Nimrod. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. is grounded in folly. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. in order to establish the stated. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. and the rule of with human beings by others. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. only God can do these things. hunting. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. 4. being Esau's way. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. they God's murderers. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. without God's help by They purely human means. then of Seth. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. political which go with cooperation. in criticizing the Babel-builders. Abravanel thus. are proud. is inferior to the way of the Politics. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. They story. The the city. says Abravanel. Ruling comes from Nimrod. then. rejection of God. the arts. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. is ated. The city. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. The city cannot provide for security against death. if the materials they supplied were . heir of a slave. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. B.3-4 ("let brick. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11.
The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. however. Augustine's most claim that translators. believe. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. Sec that there is ond. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. Some of the claims are errors. but some of fetched. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. There are Nonetheless. since Lamech fathers sons who are . to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. they are merely the justifications." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. however. they in the Biblical text. For example. far beyond this. point. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. when they assert without philological "idol. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. and so on." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. and enough reading. again might not be bad in itself. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. all interpretive control is lost. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. Nimrod. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. and Babel. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. more relevant interest. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. and would maintain this even reasons. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil. even without the extraneous material. for two First. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. to the fact that by Nimrod. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper." they ask us to accept too much on faith. Shinar.
because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. They they are by the farmer. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. that Cain had a says justify God. is cursed to in Genesis 9." Again. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. or that he ordered the people him. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. the hunter is less violent. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. tilling it. If Israel is not wicked . For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. hardly closer the model of the political man. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. In fact. he infers it in infers. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. How. Abravanel. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. execution. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient." The interpretation same such is. The hunter is the loner. which makes "children men. undertook the Babel project on his own. and that the city to protect him. Augustine all lifestyle." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. text with uncharitable motives. Babel but not in the case Cain. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. is feeble. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. Further. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. And settled farmers (like Cain. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. if God will then.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. further. these are nity. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. out of the desire for a name. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. Ham's son. Further. Nimrod. in a parallel manner. rather. the city falling to his arrows. too their sheep. since not Ham but facts that do not fit. the entire race. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
a slight modification to Genesis 1 . the new creation as it were. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. This time.1-7) to be enforced. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. suggests in which one will rule over many. the between Cain nation. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. which relied too much on we are innate human told.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1.1-7). will have a legal dimension absent from the old. The next a region called in Shinar. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. Since. amicably dividing the world themselves. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. The first cities are or comes to rule. 9. for the laws of God (Gen. 13). Abel. without Thus. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. Ham. is. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. the "nations. Abimelech in Genesis 20). which echoed Genesis 1 generally. cities a son of Shem. built by Asshur. and since they too are related. something is added: God gives the first laws. Recall that in Genesis 9. in this overspreading. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist." earth becomes peoples of common nations." Asshur. In this new creation. the migrating offspring of Shem. if we are watching a new creation. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth.19). the city arises. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. which had no such structure discernible. among Japheth separate violence. which are life. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. they occupy it as they were meant to. families (mishpahoth) Shem. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. The new begin ning. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. (9. Thus. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. the goodness. There is another interpretation. One wicked one. however. must not conclude. Ham. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. whenever the tribal or them. therefore. in the east. those restraining murder and improper diet (9.
8) and before the Lord (10. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. men ruling men). which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. In important respects. one must conclude that cannot as such. condemn be evil. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure.9). first hunter. from the above discussion. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. as did Cain (4. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. but human for up as prey beings. city building. Nimrod. in fact. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. vulnerability to random killing). but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. Finally. Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. did the mighty men of old (6. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. For these reasons. unlike Lamech's. I would suggest. we must ing was Lamech's.4) or the Babel (1 1. strained passion. and so did his empire. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. least some of the nations which legitimately source. good. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. the order of creation. then. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. In this context. how to be a "hunter. and as did Lamech (4. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. Nimrod does not boast about himself. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. by God's . the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. of a any more.17). Nimrod became famous. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod.4)." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals.23-24). basis to nor of an adjective alone. I represents a political would argue. at overspread the earth at least potentially. may not be pretty. Kings may (I Samuel 8). kings are one possible source of law.
the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. be was afraid of safe. as of (11. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. and Augustine. among these Combs and Post point out. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. He. to obey God. too. I certain turn to the Babel story. that is. The with sin of the Babel-builders. like Cain's. wants them to the earth (1. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. The "sons men" Noah. They one spot. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. Further. They heavenward (11. speaking one language. God at the end of purpose. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. 428). turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. It "scattered. then. scattered.28). close even antiurban exegesis." is only fitting." of perhaps educated obey God. Finally. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. the language of mutual entreaty. They want live. His proj may be ambiguous. Regarding this story. and he. in a its top in the heavens.4).5). and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. in one place. is. too. the descendants of Flood. process. I think. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. The 11. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. if it and was a sin. God wants them to move outward. aim spreading master to many spots. of super-city with together. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. No one people (which is why I would con- . in the Babel there features grant. something. and enjoying the earth. it to be a certain un populating. The their cautiousness.4). kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. Babel-builders is. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. case of Babel is not exactly typical city. p. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. Rather. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. They "scattered. united brotherly love. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. is by Calvin.
they dream. a permanent essence which. they do not even mention him." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. become corrupt. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. but he was not God in naming it after his son. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. the situation be irreparable. and the only people. are not malicious. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. In fact. separate peoples. God. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. the "sons of will founding "nations. as it were. built. In Genesis not allow of 11. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. The or reputation earn. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. and themselves. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. "name" necessarily an improper desire.7 overthrow "name. would God. Cain may have been proud of his city. be for . having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. unified world-state. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. only language that exists should If the only state. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11)." of that is. then. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. will and to give it. then. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. noble it may be. however thinking. The forms of govern men" ment. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. however. the nation sired by Abraham. and powerful cities. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. wanting as is fact. hold them together in Shinar forever. It is true that they wish eternity. good which so I think is the one correct one. no possibility of the living. In Genesis nized 10. were tribal and monarchical. unified world-state. speaking. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. They do not wish to God. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further.
Genesis Rabbah. in Genesis 10.3. Cain's son. Isaac Abravanel. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. 4. 3. p. NOTES 1. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death.7. John Calvin. it due to knowing God wanted. because Cain is not so commentators make out. 12. arts. King (Edinburgh. and not always the best. then. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. trans. Robert Sacks. 2 vols." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. God. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. 242. 1972). 2. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. Deut. 196-98. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. (Atlanta: Scholars Press.: McMaster University. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. 1985). If these people strayed. And in one case. John trans. 158. pp. to teach.. but these motives were not wicked. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. or for building great towers into the a heavens. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. as city of Enoch. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. if one wished to put the city in a better light. 150 51. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. Eng. 256. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. XV. argue that the evils of 1979). trans. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. Cain pp. . or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. vol. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. In societies other than Israel. 1847). was the Babelers were not being scattered. pp. trans. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. 1.: Penguin. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. Ont. 4. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. law. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor.6). eds.) Lemer 1978). who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. but for purity. Rev. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. trans. Jacob Neusner. 1970). Augustine. 44-48. (Title henceforth: City of 5.
MA: JSOT Press. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story." Memory of Peter C. 1988). Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. S. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. 6. Eugene Combs.. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. Robert Sacks. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. 1-5. I add that. 1987). which who essay was seminal for them. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. In a general way. Craigie (Sheffield. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds.20 Interpretation 6. 1990). I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. C. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. . I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. Due to space limitations. hence. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. and to Leo Strauss.
No. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny. or that a wild beast might trample them down. 3 when to give birth to their young. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. John's College. Vol. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. and who dwells city.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. 15 She has forgotten that hers. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. Fall 1998. Her toils caused foot can crush them. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. 16 She treats her were all children roughly.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. Num 3. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. interpretation. 1 . and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. You see.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. Sacks St. as if they were not even in all vain.14 wings as if on high. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. meet armed combat.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. 26.
eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. Whenever death defiles. David heard of it. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. he is there. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. 25 but facing battle from afar. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. 2Sam. 3:28 are of Afterward. Indeed. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. The and single Hebrew word hul.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. forever Ner. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. consume the of their gates. 2. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command. and See notes to 26. by the flashing into the spear and the earth." a very will complex word. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe." Hos. he said."18 Comments 1. "I and father's house. making it his stronghold. Oh. it originally meant "to whirl. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. javelin. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. His swill it from afar. although almost as side.17 pinnacle. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast." .
Exod. too. that book which begins see them dashed. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. 15:20 Then Miriam. And to us. and rebuilt the towns. the sister of Aaron. the prophetess. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. Judg. in her hand. then they went and returned inheritance. from the dancers to their and took their wives. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. according whom they carried off. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. Exod. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. hands anger burned hot. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. Benjaminites did so. it Psa. Then. The Book rule. neither did you give them to them. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. and dwelt in them.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. and watch. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. king. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. 23:5 Jer. saying. only to the book Judges. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. And the to their number. else you would now be guilty. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. for the Lord's purposes . anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. and go to the land of Benjamin. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. trembles and writhes The land in pain. Grant them graciously to us. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. Deut. and often when first reading the word. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. they will be in anguish over the Tyre.
10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. brings forth rain. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers." and hence "to give Deu." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. Job. and ISam. out of his sight. tempest. They look another.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. pressed upon Saul. There is Jer. your vindication as Ps. was revisiting the day of his own birth. birth": as in our case." English-speaking in this also recognize . 37:6 will bring was forth the light. But. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. they aghast at looks." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. as for his foes. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. thy judgments puffs at them. are on high. angry them. brought forth in iniquity. inhabitant. 51:5 Behold. their faces be aflame. Isa. Ps. in and your right as the noonday. and sin did my mother Prov. and you forgot birth. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. in visiting the day of birth. 31:3. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. I conceive me. For this reason. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. it can also mean "to be in labor. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher).
and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. and are what they are. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. since. 7. In using such a harsh word. rhetorical. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. It is the whirling. an order for the first time. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. This.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. How different things Isa. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. 5. perhaps with beyond world. the joys of our world could never come to be. 6. Yet we can all world. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. then. has never known either burden or rein. of course. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. But quite even Job. 8. before her she was delivered of a son. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. The question is. Here. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. are 3. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . fostering in each life to own its signet. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. She. pain-ridden. dancing. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. To word understand used this passage. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. speaks to Job. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert.
17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. Hebrew man. along many others. children. to undo the thongs of the yoke. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. female. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. It is true that. so that no one should enslave a Jew. that show his concern. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. for nothing. years. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. eye of my his slave. male and . but they were treated kindness: justly and . has served you six years. go out free. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. or a Hebrew woman. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. "servant. and destroys it. he shall serve you six you. all are there. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. gave no answer. to and the man who and will give Israel. is sold to you. but he him for favor. and like a hireling he waits for wages. When a man strikes the . 15:12 If your brother. that was true. Jer. great riches." daughter. brought 9. And there are other passages. he shall serve six years. Small and great. and in the seventh he shall go out free. . be your slaves. to oppressed go free. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. sake. and the slave is free his lord.26 Interpretation Exod. and But if the slave plainly says. "I love my master. I will not male or eye's female. my wife. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. his brother. ears to me. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. too. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave.
The trees of the Ps." time. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. that its us. it will be a long journey. five hundred of them. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. 11. "trust. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. what of those who dwell in house of clay. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. the cedars of . and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. is 12. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. it may seem. it requires something like the concept of a signet. I do God rose up? 10. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. are watered bat. It is generations. Job but. There were always some men suffering it caused. ance The farm.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. each thing can be be what it is. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. both for moved for others... the vulture. giving it a The signets. the stork. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. 104:16 LORD abundantly. they are an abomination: the eagle. of course have been out of the question." This is the only verse. Even from was within the human sphere. the . the heron according to its kind. they and be eaten. the hoopoe. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. The an furrow. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. the osprey. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. roaming the hills as his pasture." answer can do none of these things. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. not certain what bird is meant. and them yet he did have ox. as we shall see.
when if only in part. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. who despises the gain of stops oppression. but my know Zech. people crane keep the time of their coming. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. must 14. and behold. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. two women wind was in their wings. he will dwell on the heights. and eyes and saw. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. then. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. character that each 17. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. his place of defense who shakes . There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. and the turtledove. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. at least it is the can most write about. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. insofar as been domesticated. The hawk." 13. lest they hold a bribe. and in the heavens knows her times. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. 15. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. ears his looking upon his hands. had been domesticated. too. In them the birds build trees. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. their nests. 16. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. silly beast. 8:7 Even the swallow.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted.
5 I have spoken once. but I have no answer. thence I bring down. Bind their faces in would obscurity. 14 Then you. LORD. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. 1:3 heart has deceived you. 10 "Go ahead. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. high and the pride of your heart. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. me dwelling set say in heart. and you must let me know. however. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. 13 Bury them all in the dust.4 even would praise you." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. bring clefts will down from there. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. The ostrich.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. The cold and more grotesque. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. twice. 18. who hold the height I will of hill. Look upon every man of him. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. 48:28 Jer. pride of your whose says the LORD. did for its children all that the charm to do. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. sixth as beast. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. 49:16 Leave the cities. is in the not Job. you though your nest says the among the stars. and Jer. has been defeated. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. you who your Obad. for your own right have saved . his of water be sure. is high. his bread will be given him. in returning to flow off into death. the hawk. How my hand upon my mouth."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. you inspire has deceived you. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge.
8 21 He lies down the lotuses. here is whom I made along with you. or his head with fishing his head. confident that the Jordan will mouth.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. 18 His bones iron.6 of brass. had been what God had wanted. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. hiding in the reeds and the fen. If Job's this not point. under and all the beasts of the field play. Again it says. He eats fodder just like the cattle.9 brook in him. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. He is the mighty one. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways." again "asking. his warning was just. God's argument is. convinced him that Elihu was right. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. But the Tempest will go. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. but he did not." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. and if by court of law. "Have you an arm like God's. or with you to be your eternal his nose. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. Indeed. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. beyond man is no place for a man. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. I believe. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. who would plead my case? ." 2. and his teaching is not a but an 3. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. and you will remember war no Comments no answer. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength.
Prov. "Behemoth cattle. are all who teaches us more The verbs. of The LORD acts of old. being lous nor mythical. than the beasts of the earth. the first 8. dwell in prudence." "His bones are ducts brass. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you." in the made masculine singular. however. "laugh" or . Appropriately enough. his wisdom. get beginning insight. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. fools despise and whatever you instruction. however 6. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. 8:12 . with you . is this: Get wisdom. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. iron. behemoth 5. of It is.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. These do cosmos. clearly are of mythic proportion. I. God is joking. created me at the beginning his work. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. . Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. however. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. . The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. Man is 7. His praise endures for Prov. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. Compare Ps. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. . in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. of wisdom Prov. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. 4:7 The get. and I find knowledge of and discretion. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice.
18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen.32 9. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. making it his drinking foun tain. Gen. I fear. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. a and said to himself. tyrannizing river. however. is usually translated "oppress. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. "After I have my husband is old." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. "No. He finds Thus. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. that she had laughed. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. The half-mythic. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. "Why did Sarah laugh." Joy and happiness are another matter. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. and you shall call his name Isaac. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. 17:18 is ninety years old. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. now that and say. There is. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. 10. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. But from the Gen. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. saying. for the pounding." looking at each usage. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. child.
"No. playing her Isaac. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. every one hears will laugh me." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. and the people sat down to eat and drink. he with me. and I cried out with a loud voice. came "See. for land of Egypt. "I did laugh. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. He said. have corrupted themselves. his marry his daughters. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. up to play. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law." the But he seemed to be jesting. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. for she was afraid. in the saying. Gen. in to me to insult me.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. 26:8 also was actually doing. "Up. son whom she had borne Abraham. but certainly the betrayed him." and Sarah shall have son. came have brought among us." a But Sarah denied. "The Hebrew servant. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. 21:6 city. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. and rose your And the LORD said to people. you laugh". not 33 appointed time I will return to you. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. And Sarah said. Next . for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. place. whom you brought up out of the Moses. saying. "Go down. Then came the golden calf: Exod.
I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. 2:14 And Abner us. who chose father. "Call Samson. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh. twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. is and thrust his sword opponent's side." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. And in his each caught arise. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. David. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. at Gibeon. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. so down together. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said." pillars. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah." said to Joab. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. but they laughed them to scorn. 2Sam. the abased and above all people of the his house. They made him stand between the us. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. "Saul thousands. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. and mocked them. Israel. for the oxen stumbled. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. they said.34 Interpretation Judg." has slain his thousands. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. "It was before the LORD. by them I shall be held in honor. before the LORD. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. and he made sport before them. . 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. and he died there beside the God. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam.
Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. 8:31 Prov. he will snatch and tear you tent. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. closer to what we finds another strain. and shall laugh your from of the at living. 31:10 . wisdom. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. at them. 59:8 But thou. "It is mad. O LORD. and I find knowledge and discretion. Selah. there is no quiet. all the him. Jeremiah is not quite the same. laughs at the time to come." and of pleasure. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. it?" Eccles. also will laugh at your calamity. 8:12 . however. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. Prov. rejoicing before him always. for Eccles. for he sees that his day is Ps. 7:3 Eccles.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. and death. I you. Prov. 14:13 Prov. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. saying. firebrands. "I am only joking!" Prov. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. a time to mourn. like a master workman. and I was daily his delight. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. and a time dance. and money answers everything. so is the laughter of fools. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. dwell in prudence. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . and fear. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. at the but the LORD laughs coming. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. 2:4 Ps. 3:4 to a time to weep. is vanity. the LORD has them in derision. Strength and dignity her clothing. 1:26 Prov. and wine gladdens life. Ps. dost laugh nations in derision. the fool only rages and laughs. I will mock when panic strikes I. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. and a time to laugh. 2:2 I said of laughter. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. wicked. 10:23 beside him. arrows. . he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. Sorrow is better than laughter. Eccles. Prov. . "What use is Eccles. Prov.
a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. Then our mouth was with laughter. thou art than I. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. multiply them. and I was deceived. nor did I rejoice. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. and they be be few.36 Interpretation Jer. But he also has another notion of laughter. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. however. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. I did alone. I will make them honored. When her . Jer. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. I will heal. and the voices of those who make merry. every one mocks me. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. Was thieves. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. I have become a laughingstock the day. the we were like those and our dream. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. Jer. Zech. and your wounds Jer. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. 48:26 "Make him drunk. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. then they among nations. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. says LORD. and have compassion on his dwellings. him and he too shall be held in derision. and thou hast prevailed. shall not small. I and the palace shall stand used to be. thou hast deceived me. "The LORD has done things for them. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. I sat because thy hand was upon me.
Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. the a side which had always been a part Job and. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. 25. Mat. and of rulers At kings they scoff. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. 1:10 contains much. guilty men. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. The much subject was and bound to come up. but hills as his pasture. none to help her. if to judge by different from the others. and there was her. But there of was another side of we are laughter. every fortress. laughter in the Book of 8:53. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. 3:14 Ezek. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. and every green thing is his to search out. James 4:9). for they like the wind and go they make sport. 9:24. Luke 6:21. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. for it Hab. and does not even hear the drivers shout. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. mocking at her downfall. made him all his trouble. Job the outcast. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. whose it. Lam. Mark 5:40. a simple. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. .The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. the burden of their day says long.
their iden tity. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. On this question. the brother. after our likeness. . Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. and over every of the . 1 :26 and Then God said. and over all the earth. but not to it. With Job. 3:8 and 13. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. as we put have from the ostrich. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. Job has come. of nature." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. "It is I. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. this relation is seems to Dane. mountains yield him produce. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. continually changing their clothing. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. To that extent. Job has come to learn from nature. and over the cattle. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . Hamlet. and even their sex. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. Yet it is Lear shadow". and one of the things he learned. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. . but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. "Let us make man in our image. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. Some English translations 12. Eliphaz once had he has seen. at fear and is not dismayed. At one first. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. wings on high. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. and over the birds air." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic.
the and all the nations shall flow to it. "subdue" "dominate. the land lay before them. and over the And God blessed them. is not a world and 14." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. male and female he fruitful and multiply. earth. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. But it is not the same." 39 So God created man in his created him. and subdued them as slaves. it is only a in which he learn about play. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. He judge between the beat nations. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. and they shall into plowshares. not as a thing for us." It should be noted that both words. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. In many Isa. . and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. We cannot divide it up and as we will. ways 15. "subdue" In addition. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. in the image of God he created them. many of the peoples shall come. people of sons after you. Josh. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. and their spears into pruning hooks. to the house God Jacob. you may make brethren the another. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play. to slaves of inherit as a them. but the beyond is not ours. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. sword against nation. but the he must perform now.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. Jer. and and shall be raised above the hills. let of us go LORD." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. and God said to them. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. and say: of "Come. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. with harshness.
shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. 11 fire escape. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. 15 Festoons of flesh. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . or exploits or the grace of his frame.13 cast as a nether millstone. and bronze as rotton wood. fused all together. nor lance. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. up by a breath between them.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. could. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl.2 Do up. for he was made to dread. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. 17 "When he sion. It too. 9 Each closed8 seal. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. the gods are in dread. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. "to or so I believe. 12 From his cauldron. rises up. nor They spear. quaver. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. He is king over all the sons of pride.18 26 He sees every towering thing. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. stand.'"9 Comments 1. wait. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. and not a his shields7." times. and terror dances before him. word mean but along it a sense of dread.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. 14 His strength resides his neck.
interplay between hwl and denying us the second. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. That is to say. on a with. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. the Ps. I have no higher expectations. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. for something to say. falling silent to hear counsel. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. which deals with our relation to the world of man. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. YaChaL. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. loose my his hand and cut me off! . Men would hear me and wait in expectation. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. till they had finished speaking. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. The first has replaced the second.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. till they stood longer 2. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. We have heard those Isa. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. apart from their being for us. I rain. but there came only a murk.
to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. away." 4. The word. Then the within fifty-two days." From it Hebrew So for "peace. word 'akf'zar. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. in already begun. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. and in which he for itself. The comes the root of this word. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. The "brutal" word seems." Neh. means "to be whole or word complete. They with were in disgrace. But that knowledge rouse may admire. occurs which I have translated "brutal. then. but he and His body surrounds him pain.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. So. mangled never overpowered man. Job has nonhuman. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. You have resigned. and he has and sent him off. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . One of them reads: give the Lam. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. like the in the wilderness. shlm. and with the might of fact. knew it." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness.
and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. and its owner has not kept it in. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said." 7. If. The again. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. cannot by No one can touch him. meganim." oil rest.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. from the root mgn. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. dead beast shall be his. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. 8. in the however. God sets the wicked to close in men. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. defend." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. is to "make whole. In that sense. "Go. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. then. sell the live on the lift. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. unlike Job. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. know him from the Here it is taken outside only. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. case." importance winnowing kind. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open." debt. mean normally In either of means "to shield. If He should pass by and separate or close up. of. it means that the spoke Leviathan." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. he pay ox for ox. It leaves always room restitution. It might help. however." by all to his the scales. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5.
" all others. Job has seen the Leviathan. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. shameful. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. 9. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. the Leviathan does Job's skin. or constrictive: "stick. dabhaq. For the world beyond man. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. off. for the Leviathan. fused (dbq) all together. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. in the world beyond man. "signet." his completion and perfection. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. tight itself. complete. of murk and confusion. ness.44 Interpretation One cannot up. has. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction." sar. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. my heart gone after my eyes. and the face of the deep Again. the list is . Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. as stone. "tight. become that which seals it hotam for Job. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. 12. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. closed entranceway. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. flesh. At best. But. from the way." away from all other beings. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. For us it is ugly.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not. one more reason for believing tion. means "to despise" "reject. "Behold. that the book was conceived of as a whole. But to others for something that one has done. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. can establish in the world of the small." one assumes ashes." wenihamti. by the way. there seems "to feel deep compassion." These passages. if one feels sorrow guilt. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. and repentance. for instance. require as Greenberg does. Linguistically speaking. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. have expected but it would not be so . This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. I who am but dust ashes. Also see Gen. The root nhm means understood in the text. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. He is value. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt." and 5. 18:27 the Abraham answered. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. in itself." to be behind their understanding of the verse. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord.epher we'phar. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes. we have returned to Chapter One. normally as 'el. "upon." but. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other." 'al. 58:8. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . one feels remorse. . "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. of course. however. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned." where it "to It is found in Ps. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6." or is." sorrow or Like the English word." meaning to them. as ." and is.
but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act.50 Interpretation 1. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. that the moths eaten. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. Gone is the vocabulary. Rahab: my father them. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. Remember Aaron." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. 11. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. 10. living in a nutshell. that wonderful woman of the night. . . another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. sisters each one on a different with day. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. yet his soul. 8. them over. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. and save alive and mother. death's first born his members. destruction. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. but . "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. and Joshua 2:13 . my brothers and sisters. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. 9. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. will consume His be away.
in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. three thousand camels. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. 12. Gen. His might is in the muscles of his belly. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. were another one came in and said. but look at the loins. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. strength in his Now.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. not snuffed out the life of its owners. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. fodder just like the cattle. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. Shechem's father. at the end of the book. What was not possible before has now become actual. eating joyous unity. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. 13. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. it became Joseph. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. inheritance of the descendants 14. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. It fell down . Bildad show Shuhite. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. and Zophar the Naamatite. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. ten thousand of cattle.
and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. this name? second word. or all the things that a self. came to Jezreel. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. "day. We remember to his friends: his his day. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. of silver. Job himself becomes word yom. Job 3:1 Then. The Book rection. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. antimony. in English. stones. "cassia. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking. also called pukf1." are. all sorts of precious stones. and wood and stones wood. And you. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . O desolate one. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. in the prophets. too. so far for the things as I was able. As such it became. Jezebel heard of it. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. keren happuli1: the first two ful. the iron for the things iron. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting.52 Interpretation the young people. They are dead. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. and marble. and she painted her head. 18. including the being his 16. the silver of of my God. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. Then." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. It is from the words It is a new Job. and looked out of the window. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. qesi'a.
The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. said. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. behold. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. my derides my enemies. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. Moses' his face shone. It "horn. 33:17 ox. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. all of them. for I sons." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. qeren. and went to Ramah. Then they blew the trumpet. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. His bull has majesty. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. because I ISam. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. and he veiled his power. salvation.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. "My exalted in the LORD. that the skin of skin of face shone. until in to speak with him. will give strength his king. to the ends of the earth. My mouth rejoice in thy . 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. hence. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. have Samuel. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". he anointed. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. against he thunder in heaven. rays Hab. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. tent. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. flashed from his hand. And Samuel priest took the rose up. and they were afraid to come near him. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. to begin at the beginning." 53 us look at the first word." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon.
because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. "Do not lift For thou exalted. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. in whom I take refuge. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. 89:17 I say your to the horn. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. to the sound the hom. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. art the of their strength. And. "Do glory boast. praise all his saints. too. stronghold and my refuge. my savior. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. my me from violence." boastful." not and to the wicked. I have driven my horns into dust. of course. Often the Psalmist Ps. 27:2 be Exod. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners.54 Interpretation Ps. cymbals. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. I have for prepared a Ps. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. thou . by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. and the IChron. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. my rock. for Israel who are near to him. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. 22:3 of My God. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. trumpets. and made loud music on harps and lyres. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. 75:4 up Ps. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. Linguistically.
they praised her to Pharaoh. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. for your younger and he said. "I the will see you. Rachel. wife. he said to Sarai his behold. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. 19. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. because of the woman whom you have taken. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. Jacob loved Rachel. barren. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. And Leah conceived and bore a son. in have to be Song its of Songs. and said to him. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. there is also good. man's wife. cluded however. so as to not mislead ourselves." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. Gen. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. and when . you are a a dead man. Abram's And ultimately. he opened her womb. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. 'This is his wife'." "Lord. But God sister. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. and she . but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. Leah's soft. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. we shall have to consider the full list. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. and his house because of Sarai. so he said.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. then they kill but they let you live. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. will they will say. saw Gen. "Behold. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. though perhaps somewhat naive man. We have not. to Sarai.
Bethlehem). said to me. for she said. 30:1 Gen." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. Laban felt . when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. and take know that Rachel had stolen them. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. she reacts not with gratitude.' and she had hard labor. And midwife said to as her. Rachel travailed. So Rachel died. and have prevailed"." She my affliction. but with a demand for Gen.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. and said. and into the tent of the not find them. Then Rachel said. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. "Fear called not. and entered Rachel's. but did not find the household gods. voice and given me a has also heard my son". the have son. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. but at a very heavy price: Gen. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. so she called his name Naphtali. but he did into Leah's tent. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. for the way of women is upon So he searched. and two maidservants. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. "Give children. 30:6 When Rachel sister. but did not find them. in her hard labor. "God has judged me. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). she called his name Benoni. but his father buried Benjamin. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. and sat upon all about the tent. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. And he went out of Leah's tent. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. "Because the LORD has looked me. saying. she envied or her and she said to Jacob. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is." them. therefore she called his name Dan. and she called Simon. he has given me this son also". "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. And she her father. 31:32 it.
and saw and him. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. he disdained appearance. Joseph. Deut. behold. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. . Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. a youth. "Arise. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. was Joseph himself beautiful. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. And the LORD said.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. . and the name of his wife Abigail." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. but all that again it led to grave problems. 16:12 And he sent. and had and was handsome. Gen. the . him. except can for him the land. Now he he. Nonetheless. for when this is ISam. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. he was a Calebite. 41:2 and fat. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. . 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. but the ill-behaved. the [beautification] in it. David was beautiful: brought him in. for blood be made pollutes the land. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. David. beautiful eyes. and said. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal." ISam. for it. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. anoint and was ruddy. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. Abigail: ISam. they first seven fat cows. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. "Lie with master's me.
whose name So Tamar." of her. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. But he would not he forced her. and after a time Amnon. 2Sam. "Come. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. and pretended to be ill. and left hanging between heaven earth. and brought her to the maiden was king. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. and being stronger to me. if I had dealt the will aloof. . hair his head. and killed him.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. his foot to the . he took hold sister. and when the king came to see him. I saw Absalom hand. lie with her. Amnon lay down. The very beautiful. Absalom and struck him." hand. from the sole of . with listen to her. born to Absalom three sons. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. David's son. had a beautiful sister. he weighed weight. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. nurse and ministered to him. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. while the mule that was under him went on. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it." with And he took three darts in his of hand. but king knew her . "I king). 14:27 There were name was Tamar. his head and fast in the oak. Absalom he riding his mule. Joab's armor-bearers. Amnon said to the king. my than she. oak. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. when was heavy meet on him. and found Abishag the Shunammite. her. and told hanging in an oak. loved her. he it). two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. "Behold. the and she became the king's not. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. 13:1 Absalom. On the other Joab. and she was a beautiful woman. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. David's son.
they seek your life. Men beautify so that gold. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. Ps. when she has done vile . as and when her father and her mother died. Jer. and instead of a rich robe. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. the maiden was beautiful lovely. for fair to behold. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. a there will be rottenness. and He had brought up Hadassah. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. scarlet. for themselves: is Ps. Esther 2:7 uncle. also he has put eternity into man's mind. LORD is to be beauty is vain. Eccles. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. A tree from the forest is cut down. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. that is Esther. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. Jer. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. but a woman who fears the praised. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. And you. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. Esther's beauty saved her people. instead of beauty. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. grace you poured upon your lips. a girding of sackcloth. they will behold a land rope. 33:17 Jer. 3:24 Instead girdle. and and do not capture you with Prov. O desolate one. 4:30 hair. 6:25 far north. of perfume Isa. the city of the great King. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. shame. for the customs of the peoples are false. therefore God has blessed for ever. baldness. 5:18 Behold.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. her eyelashes. is the joy of all the earth. Mount Zion. in let her Prov. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. for of a this is his lot. and instead Isa. 10:3 lovers despise you. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. Eccles.
no tree in the God was like it in beauty. and say to him. high Eden envied it. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. Son of man.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. for they hear young and men shall say. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. you. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. iniquity was found in you. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches." I Ezek. renown. in the length of its branches. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. offering made harlotry. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. and its branches will be consumed. that were in the garden of God. you ate raiment was of fine linen. And silk. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. your builders beauty. . Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. . says the Lord GOD. for down to abundant waters. cast you to the ground. and were in your towers. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. You to regal estate. 27:4 any passer-by. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . 33:32 And. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. towered proud of Ezek. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. you then exult? The LORD once called you. I have cast it out. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas." Ezek. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. they perfect your beauty. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. 31:7 exposed you before kings. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. 2:15 with goodly fruit". to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. and played the harlot because of your . of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. but they will not do it. and its heart was its height. "But trusted in beauty. 9:15 that thirst. they shall devour and . . lo. and your cloth. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. "Is beauty. made they hung Ezek.
given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. saying. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. at the door of the tent of meeting. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. Machir. And they stood before Moses. the daughters have received an inheritance. you shall give them . The names of his daughters Mahlah. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. Milcah. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. son of Hoglah. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. Had there been a son. And are the LORD said to Moses. Num. Hoglah. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. and before Eleazar the priest. Our father died in the wilderness. corners of be full like bowl. 20. and before the leaders and all the congregation. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. but died for his sin. Noah. son of Manasseh. but only a dowry. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. and new wine the maidens. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. Thus. Zelophehad Mahlah. 27:4a Why family. The text continues: Num. and Tirzah. Milcah. for like the jewels of a Yea. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. of Gilead. and he had no sons. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. Noah. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. the next phrase Num. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. "The daughters Zelophelad right.
they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. In the case of Zelophehad. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. tribe to another." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. And if he has daughter. they said. Tirzah. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. son of Joseph. saying. came near son of Manasseh. daughters of Zelophehad. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. 'If dies. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. and has no son. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. for Mahlah. Milcah. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. and Noah.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. Hoglah. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. then his inheritance to his brothers. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. tribe. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. it inheritance. The only. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. however.
Without whole. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. in turn. . the two refused to mesh. and a need of clarity. beauty. there and us. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. the and all way to These some bury the dead. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. Of what do they speak? Of the com. They be taught. there would no way to live as "one of com." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. as we have seen. there would be no bread. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. of his daughters. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. be and of the ways. the way to go out on the hunt. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. This insight. ways must be taught they must be learned. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see.The Book of Job Job's daughters. and it is the children who must learn them. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. however. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. The inheritance is outright and absolute. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. nothing is said dowries." clashing for human One said while friendship. by the fathers and some by the mothers. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. the way to bake bread. "just" by the For Job. led." Without these would must be no life. men are empty and life is without taste.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. 97). Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. particularly restraint indulgence. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . with some effort to answer that I did. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. "oddness. (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. 507a-c. important texts on the theme of eros. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. Still. if ally exclusive (North 1966. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). 221d). was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. not mutu Pit. After tality seek marriage and family. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides." p. from sex been Since self-control. 306b). We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue.5 Furthermore. 714). The second leads us back into Socratic eros. Charmides. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). an elenctic investigation begun. at Symp.
hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. For the second. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. someone who is both kotos and. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. at least potentially. like his describes. distinguished. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. Narrative. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a).Drama. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. Indeed. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. and good. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). try to teach the other. certainly will he would never anything ugly. despite body. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. Like children. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. and gifted soul. inward say. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. rather than ugly ones. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra." he says. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). pregnant If this is the case. is. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. 210a-212a). the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. eternal rates beauty (Symp. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. face. least if self-control might presence. just as a fawn . the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. to quotation of return Cydias. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth.
there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. 58. of citation of the line from Cydias. just so do lovers love 165). the aporia has a beneficial element. For of example.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. Socrates' (241d). The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. in singing. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes.6 Third. inversion the expected im age. Socrates.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. of which three come immediately to mind. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. 81-91. fond of lambs. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. hunting (Dover. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. Sim sus ilarly. In both cases. right out from under hind. has not always been recognized as such. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. 241e). potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. with trust in my strength. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. or as a hunter tracking game. him to finally renewed reflection. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . an pp. First. Halperin 1985. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. I caught a fawn in my claws. 1978. the perception of their own lack knowledge. but did not drink its blood. p. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting.
Another reading. who. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. also reads the text in this way). also interprets the quotation in this sense). 92. or . and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. I thought how fair youth." you resist me Socrates answers. when." realization of his desire to be Socrates. pursuer. If Charmides' either. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. p. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that.Drama. Critias." no one will be able to resist him. to speak. When Socrates says. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. Socrates to replies in kind then. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. we can see that dialogue. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. and devour (McAvoy 1996. catch. Narrative. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. in which Charmides. which as a manifestation of anteros. If we do. only if a with the power to momentarily. a lover might approach his beloved." he most likely means Charmides became. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. he devoured appetite. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. he must mean us to go along with the game. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. 90. lion. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will. perceiving his craving for Charmides. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. "So Charmides. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. "don't (176a-d). respectively. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. pursue. p.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love.
which cf. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. philosophos (154e-155a). as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. 155e). With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. but he does not condemn the desires of either party. His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. 210a. The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). step. came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. someone suitable body. This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium.). relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. Soc speak. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. If is .72 Interpretation merged. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. Socrates' Halperin 1986. or the entire body charm and the soul as well. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. and actually help nurture the Symp. Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3).
that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. own" every member of a city.Drama. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. level again. is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. however. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). Charmides. (161b-163d). he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). e. possibility. "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein).g. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. see Larson 1951). In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. Narrative. Phil. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning.g. penulti rung (episteme). 457b). In other dialogues. and goodness (to agathon. (17 le) Socrates. expands his logos nomoi. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. showing modesty generally. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. Rep. From that on on. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . the element of to doing (163e-164d). They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. as would a so governed. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. (160d-161b). keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. and. like walking and talking with deliberate. and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c).
Rather.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. to topic.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. ostensibly. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. would not had. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. 56-70. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. 148291. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. especially the Symposium. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). 541-49). discussion before the topic of episteme came up. Laches. Kahn 1996. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). Lysis. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. Sadly for Socrates. Phaedo. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. vision. As an example. here eros. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. pp. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. 1988. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. any case. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. as it turned out. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . pp. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. and Republic.
187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. by Mahoney (1996. since he can speak 4. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. Cf. p. 102. he also thought. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. in the Laches. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. (For an pp. p. 187-88).' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. for example. 'Take care not to go as a meat. 73 n. together with his irresistible passion . but in those works he does not. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. 154). that thought the experience. p. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. so to speak.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. Donald Watt's translation (1987. Jowett 1961.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. principles 542-46). makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. (1977. For the 5." observation has been p. he "[Cydias] for the beast. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. 25. [Cydias] said. 27) and. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. pp. 82). pp. p. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. puts 6. I to resist what had been an this. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. This recently. handsome boy. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. more 184). as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996." "dates" with conversations. 3. the Symposium. as here. Hyland (1981. 2. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. p. 7. pp. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. 1988. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. Plutarch. like in advising fawn in front of a lion. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. 146)." someone. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor." this . 54-55. Narrative. not opposing view. . in Kahn's work 203-9." measuring-line about such a person. McAvoy (1996. Alcibiades. thing. concern " for p. and Kahn (1996.Drama.
" South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. 1986. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. 1985. Hyland. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. McAvoy. Charmides. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. 1981. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. University Larson. 1951. 1962. Hamilton H. C. Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. Watt. 1966. Kahn. 1988. It is with Menexenus. 1986. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1996. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. C. 99-122. 1988. Pp. Princeton: Princeton University Press." REFERENCES Bruell. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51." Mahoney. D. p. In T. Ithaca. The Collected Dialogues. In E.. . C." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. Cambridge. Charmides. T. Potae Melici Graeci. and Jowett. D. 1978.. 163-209. eds. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. M. 1996. Pp. Cairnes." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides. 1996. D. 1961. Pp. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. Greek Homosexuality. D. ed." 161-204. B. Nussbaum. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides." Dialogues of Plato.. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414.76 Interpretation 9. "self-control. 63-103. Eng: Penguin. H. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. Saunders. trans." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. NY: Cornell University Press. K. Sophrosyne. Kahn (1996." Dover.4). 1987. C. M. trans. "Socratic Politics Charmides. Page. Benitez. J. Athens: The Ohio University Press.. North. Plato. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. MA: Harvard University Press. E. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Hanmondsworth. 1977. L. Griswold.
No. and on prudential about grounds. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. Vol. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. and his himself. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. was an out-and-out bourgeois. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. Fall 1998.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. was becoming of a tyranny. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. 1 . He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. Like Marx. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. 26. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine.
A disobeyed be effectual. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. but punishment. the on account of the war being a civil one. rebels. but treasonous criminals. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. In doing so. Justice has two different aspects. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. also the nature of law to be just. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. while partiality to whom one's own country. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. It is. however. there is a strong of as the part of the British.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. love of country is a defense foreign domination. fight the to rebels using the an law. see his thought and his peculiar genius. On temptation. and foreigners. Its force . than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. The law from corrupting one another.78 Interpretation privilege. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. rather than law. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. Yet. who are gland. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government.
Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. proposing a policy. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. public spirited reasons. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. devoid of hope. bringing generality with hate. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . because and piety. for pursuing peace. they wish for peace (p. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. necessity Although law the common good. In order to maintain the integrity of law. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. they corrupt their morals. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. Of most all wars.5 melancholy are not. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. (P. They have lost confidence in justice. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. a hostile light. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. or rather confusion. however. but they have not lost their humanity. They vitiate their politics. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. Their cynicism and 177). The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. Britain's combination. when the communion of our country is dissolved.
. 179). and. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. rather giving it to treasury (p. The determination a it. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. because. but. proper. The determination infamous action. to infamy to punishment. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. 178). by treating innocent citizens inequitably. than law. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. In fact. contrary. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. as long as it shall think . 179). to enable administration to confine. inconsistently. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). and then distribute a war themselves. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. third. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. the British themselves. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. they take the confiscated cargo. second. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. defeat. . rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. by treating fourth. in fact. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. is behaving like who appear tyrant. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. 178). by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. Hatred determines the crime. therewith. blurs the difference be (p. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes.
What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. peace. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. (pp. tried ac cording to form. 181-82). both. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. therefore. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. tying half dead in England). because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. rather than the the crime. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. that they will become savage. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. far from making the British godlike. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. object of their own insults. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. After strength not is American should defeats. taking their goods. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. 180). The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. should the ment English be victorious. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. therefore. because it is blinded by its own indignation. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. the absence of justice. 180). . This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. The accused is. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. but not according to justice. Parliament its proper time and place.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. VIII (p.
. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. however. It hardly seems just. far from being the opposed to manners. At the end of the war. Burke says general venoms equity. never mind possible. instead of of taking out the sting. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. parliament is incapable of such prudence. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. 184). 182). openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. 186). liberty principle. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. like the deter pirates. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. therefore. because it between citizens. the limiting qualification. as a life was given in return for a life. naval men as they were allowed to go free. to punish the exchanged prisoners. by breaking draws the first principle of law. 188). How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. but its to the corruption of manners. far as he tell. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. But the British punitive. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. But. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. this action. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. This offense to threat to political liberty. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated.
The British must doubt themselves. if only through fear. the attachment to country. He speaks to the consciences. despite American defeats. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. 191). as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. be can fore they be enlightened. in love of country. made the reminds them British feel invincible). public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. of concern But. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. Burke raises the the unknown. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. dark. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. 189-90). He even speaks as courage justice. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. . Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. he says unknown a reality. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. have with doses of fear. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent.
He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. being that crawls on the earth. when in triumph. With the awakening of their interests. pair facing the Brit ish. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. states to the . 199). without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. pride of a coward. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. is in the eyes of God and man. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. they their country. helpless creature. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. dominion in which he cannot exercise. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. Burke has for his plan. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. calling for battles which but his servility to it. Those in favor of the war. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. order to render others contemptible and wretched. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. show little are content to real magnanimity. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. manliness and cowardice judgement. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. the taxes. far from being manly. Far from man's of being cowards. any without civil wisdom or military skill.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. actually the hypocritical others. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. that it is directed by insolent passion. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. rather than to punish and to subjugate. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. contending for a violent (P.
the Americans must trust in themselves. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. therefore. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. He is cautious in his blame. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. above the voices of many. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. they must earn that trust. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. rather than certain tyranny. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. to risk with defeat their own arms. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. to be the for the the war in England. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. cynicism. and be trusted. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. themselves. therewith. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. Just a short time . He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. (1774). the Americans are virtually alone. and Burke shows As things stand. He is the people doubt Parliament and. both addresses popular and parliamentary. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. 195).
legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. I must attend to public opinion. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. therefore. granted social rights (pp. rather than oppress it. but people. 210-11). Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. when public . having recently tasted victory. Parliament to tax the Americans. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. at best.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. waves of chance and. Par liament must. therefore. The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. because the British had suffered defeats. 205). so as to offend the people. even though right of they have no representation. that it is not will be resisted. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. it may be the mind. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. Now. (P. 207) omnipotence. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. beg leave to observe. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. He is thereby domestic politics. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. The people are. he can accuse aggrandizement. be governed. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success.
doing what one wills. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. religion more the monarchy. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. as it was by the New Whigs. . In light freedom. Compromise If the in the the and reform. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. not because of a perverse humor.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. rather theory require tions for injustice. politics. to be mistaken. Burke is quick to point out that. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. parliament can no longer legislate religion. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. Parliament must be heard. however. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. through pressures placed on. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. 211). which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. any more than is sover of eignty. ment. freedom others. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. and. as a defense of freedom in general. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. Freedom is not an abstract principle. and even independence. they embody than parlia ment. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. 208). it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. It requires compromise. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. like authority. They practicing (the god of this lower world). just in they are needed (p. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. Freedom. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. from. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament.
idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. General theories passions. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. they claimed to embody mankind. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. because it is a principle of compromise. thus denying claimed the church. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. Abstract ideas .6 ire of an atheist. the aristocracy. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. they affection. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. and savage cruelty. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. The British Parliament the authority of a god. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. Moments authority lived. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. In abstract theory. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence.88 thus. rather than acknowledges the hate. collective are bom from disappointed trust. rather than cod ified. of man and the absolute hand.
is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. their persecutors. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. The Reflections. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. malice. greed. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. and the tence. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. horror. The legislator must whole. guilt. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. in particular. broke faith. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. confiscations. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. In not fact.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. and especially to science. In this. the aristoc and monarchy. though in theory. and executions. They destroy .7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties.
nor fanatic visionary. . philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. but things. philosopher." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. they from love men too little. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. united them as a people. It is who are undoubtedly true. because moderation they are defi must in love. but in general. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. that they . Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. . they of any interest. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. God. humanity (Pp. he teaches limits of both. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. is at their horizon like their horizon. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. offices. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- .9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. Their them. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. . though it may paradoxical. ranks. Like the of the good seamstress.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. The legislator have of in his soul. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings.
its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. Its rebel to be used against them. a mathematical order. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. At best. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . to have the power of ordering. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. which of it. possibility (Reflections. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights.12 chemistry.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. they to represent and to secure those interests. Legislation is deliberative p. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. like promises proportion. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. In formative act. however. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. therefore. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. and exist in much greater clearness. creating Burke does. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. 524). cannot recognize the politics. in fact. however. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. an un geometry differentiated mass. unique character of Geometry. rats. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. atomism except by a principle of order. the uniqueness of human beings 301). up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution.
inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. of government. or to an equal share in government. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. If there are to be compromise and freedom. for America had. By having right to everything they want everything. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. such. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. give repealing the tax. (P. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. To the contrary. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. developed its own Ideological differences. The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. then there must be moral . not political because he temper ment the idea of right. to tax in order to restore American trust. 222). asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. 221). The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. Burke opposed abstract was against began. 215). since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. about the parts are at (p.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints.
liberty.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. satisfy those grievances. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. but. therefore. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. should the people rule. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. rather than connections of its sovereign. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. but trust that is called to account and office. and a brutality of accepting of political men. however. in which it depends. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. avarice. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. they are too strong to oppose. The as are though people dis must. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. The people are the product of the constitution. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. an Perhaps most important. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. therewith. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. natural Burke thought the rulers.
mind. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. rather. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. It is something to be Although He respected. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. brings a degree of the common good. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. force. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. and beneficence. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen.15 The hidden hand is not. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. Burke believed that rational. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. however. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. Contending for an imaginary power. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. Burke never thought reality. . Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. He economics. because he never believed is not Hegel's state. The origins are inferior to the end product. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. . . To the contrary. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution.
He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. disheartened and disgusted. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. Unlike Parliament. espe cially in the great. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. on hand. (P. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. the latter necessarily corrupts. C. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. Capital I (Moscow. to be grown in disrepute. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. The partial suspension. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. a God. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. only because they have elected him. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . Prudence makes the former feasible. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. which which he lends credence. he and sought indignant fanaticism. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. so or a misanthropist. contains its abuses within it. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. 260. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. His Yet one cannot of visionary. to foster the love of Furthermore. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. but they can trust him. B. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. So. he is in his self-right eous wrath. Karl Marx. 1954) p.
: Penguin. 15-16. Works. The Complete Writ 1945]. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. Eng. Old Whigs. In from looking to the number three for order. p. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. and three kinds of legal suits. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. Edmund Burke. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. 101. Politics. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. Glorious 1984). rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. although ment. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. portrait. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. 279. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. pp. 4. pp. 1. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. 2. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. 6. was cited within the text as Reflections. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. p. 350-52. There are three classes of citizens. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. 282-83. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. vol. 8. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. pp. but according to his fancy. wore by cheap whole. farmers. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. vol. 5. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. But he did give the any property. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. and to Burke. pp. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. 431-32. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. three sections of the city. pp. 533. ultimate differences. 1960). 7. vol. attempt 8. In desire to know nature as a whole. pp. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. 3. 31. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. they both ideas. a more participatory form vol. Hippodamus models three. vol. 439. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. CA: Sage. Jackson Bate (Westport. CT: Greenwood Press. W. 1994]) argument. 431. 10. remind one of the old man ed. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. tyranny (Thomas Paine. he denied and the artisans arms. and the 2. 164. vol. p. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. vol. many other cities. p. Phaleas'. Furthermore. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. and the 7. jurors and . was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest.96 else. and by looking at the man. 9. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. 2. 1854-89). He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. of govern 3. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. 382-84. Works. 358. in whose 6. 94. page number alone are 3. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. his regime on the number 12. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. 282-83. 520. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer.
uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. as opposed to natural rights. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. 2. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence." the ruling majority and 14. rather than action. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. Canavan. 1984]. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. Canavan is for Burke life. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. and even expected. 1987]. sanship. He honors for those individual judgement. 294-95. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. 1991]. Thus. p. is taken from Montesquieu. 1965]. of Chicago Press. 1993]. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. 1949). Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. 77). Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. NJ: Transaction Publishers. When questioned. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. 1954). pp. the man of actual virtue.149-52).9-10). 6. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. vol. 406-7. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. 331-33. that its authority depends habits of obedience. p. p. . according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. susceptible of of infinite improvement. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 29. 1. vol. (Harvey Mansfield. not simply its evident usefulness. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. 13.237). and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. against abstract doctrine. Reappraisal. Thomas Aquinas. Works. 15. Science. thus making an who improved the law. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. vol. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. 348. 470. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. who lives according to the actual. of Chicago Press. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. 431. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. trans. pp. pp. Works. 1. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. as in the French Revolution. rather than the presumptive. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. pp. pp. Like Burke. vol. because he thought it made prudence impossible. 432. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. for men of action are often. In the Spirit of the Laws.
26. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. argument and action. 289). "deepest." Preface.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. the truth observation surface. but to those whom he "the wisest. as it stands. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. No.1 As readers of the book. Vol. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. In the second. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves." In interpretation. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. therefore. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . The first crests at the end of Song. . ." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. 5. but are inseparably It is joined. Fall 1998. 1 . to interpret this drama. Beyond Good Evil. it is incoherent. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent.
of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions.g." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance.4 If Zarathustra is human. Overburdened by its superfluity. the superman." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise. then the distribution. ridicule and hatred. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure.. Appealing directly to the multitude. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. therefore. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. It. e. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. This under persuading live. therefore.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. but as such to be more than human." 8)." this account. of accordingly. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . however. he is met with incredulity. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. however. the will to power proves to doctrine." But this his means "to be again. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. he and wishes to "go down" to again. however. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue." however.
Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. The first of this wisdom will to power. em but rather what good and evil." holy. according to Zara thustra. despite their variety. in the Aristotelian phrase." 9). since. all of of good and them. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. its things. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who." Here he that if be made to speak. in accordance with its law. as Zarathustra calls him." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. however. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. . the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power." "will to for the first time. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. he insists. the people. the first. Persians. That is to say. root cause of all the will to power is the things. speaks to man only being." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. activity stands the legislator or. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. according to Zarathustra's understanding. law. one Afterworldsmen. calls "praiseworthy. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. the Still. including his soul and mind. But being. Behind the creator. acting in the light of its truth. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. therefore.
is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. but identity between them. human beings seems necessarily is. That the related political and aspects of claim. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). Zarathustra. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. the coming to be of the superman. a law that is. according in what to Zarathustra. as it were. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends. therefore. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. It is this than human. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. it were. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws.102 We Interpretation see that. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. to creating creators. the to power. divine. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . to a Virtue. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. is Zarathustra's goal. longer disciples. law that is. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. At the close of Part One. that he cities of men. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. therefore. nite laws. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. overarching then. but rather fellow creators. believes. however. perhaps. however. indicates. To create great endeavor. in Zarathustra's own words.
This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. while bringing humanity first time." 3). friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. will creators. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it. At this culminating moment hind his veil. a natural law. but animal gods are and superman." 3). therefore. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. reveal himself to a his career. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue." things. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. create dom and. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. it and as well. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down. "the Great stand Noon. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. Accordingly. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. as it were. Zarathustra will. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. It almost goes without fails is the question." 1). humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor.
but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. of course. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. Neverthless. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. however. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. of course. his venom."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. as Zarathustra has argued. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. In "The Child which a child his disciples. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. Nonetheless. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting." of first half his of Part Two. the distribution of his author. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. What and grotesque of a devil. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will. to be absurd." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which.104 Interpretation so ing The that. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. This interpretation. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. of latter. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. rushes his teaching. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators." in other words." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. appears independent inquiries. however.
In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. and this is men. made clear through stands following reflection. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. On the one hand. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. therefore. Creation. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. consequently. to establish a community of and reciprocity. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. the com incoherent in its own terms. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. It . is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. disciples and. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. therefore. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. as through such distribution cre like himself. On the other hand. Moreover. therefore. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. this condition with another. that is. that is. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations.
compatible with the moral law insofar tue. revenge. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. As he puts giving. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. wisdom." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. with his wisdom. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . consequently.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. but by self-mockery. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. the punishment or desire for soul. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently. ("On the Giving Vir 1).106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. and the desire for revenge within his soul. he is in useful a state of aporia. spite. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. As "The Night Song" predicts. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp." Consequently pedantry.
in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. the just as final political order. Accordingly." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. therefore.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. and that. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. in which the just is included as false appearance. elaborating of the beautiful. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. That is to say. since. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. that false horizon now of the is. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. of the rational good. all human community established upon the basis of the law. therefore. and the good. that understood need on is. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. He cannot painful beyond endurance. Thus if in Part . 381). As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning.
Zarathustra blames his failures position. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. that is. That is love were to say." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and.." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love.g. consequently. e. however. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. "enemies" however. envy.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. Nevertheless. As is his habit. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). and however. happy. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). In other words. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. Zarathustra's primary opponents. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. the longing for revenge. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense.
destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. The greatest good. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. in expressing its or unlimited character. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. he realizes." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. Be that it may." again and soon and. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. therefore. in the infinite power of the will. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. Without himself being aware of it. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. he says is." Life. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. "the good. he also concludes that any particular vice. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. spite. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. For the will. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. however. manifests itself in an infinite becoming. As a conse good and evil quence. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good.
virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. his desire for happiness as he understands it. necessarily the greatest evil. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. But the "values. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. law or or as he it there. It is. "Thus Spake Zarathustra." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. the destruction of values." as a form of artful play. from opposites. for. wisdom and will and And. the possession of wisdom. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. will's "sublime" character good. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. Ecce with all that was Homo. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. as the highest good. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. naively (The Gay Science." 2). 382. he .110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. . good untouchable. himself to purchasing his its first principle. the creation of values. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. of course. destruction of values as its Accordingly. in clinging to his its freedom. the false perspective of the moral law."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . ." he describes himself depths. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful.
" as he calls it.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. therefore. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. however. but ultimately to the generation. with caution and of subtlety. Symposium reproduction of his own good. in some indefinite future. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. As in the case of sexual intercourse. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. its fundamental incoherence. As we have already observed." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. and create engendered. truth. demolish it. and. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. of another like himself." "now I love only my children's land.207a). It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. Plato. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. he values the admittedly political community. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. help lower level than his The reason for this . never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer. think through. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. Zarathustra In other gives dren." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. He listens carefully to these speeches. his old moral teaching. to the end of reproduc words. Zarathustra himself has done. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. in new doing so. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). This fellow thinker is name within the work. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. comes to understand the implications self. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator.
in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. Nevertheless. In words. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. everything is one. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. Consequently.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. just the prophet had predicted. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. the future continues way . his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. In his dream Zarathustra has . become the "night-watchman death. however. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows. despite the in some to this region of the dead. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up. but in terms of knowledge as well. Zarathustra the Third. bursts open. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy.. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. therefore. therefore. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble.. as it were. everything That is to say. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. Thus. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life.
namely." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. the peoples must of Yet. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. . From this low point. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. however. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. of therefore. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. Zarathustra. then. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). but to willing this willing. at least at this point. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. 1." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. If. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. not to willing all of the past. the Machiavelli. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course.2). Dis courses on Livy. This insight is cause. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began.
time itself is sees a Zarathustra. .' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. . therefore. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. "O Zarathustra high. . the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. according the Zarathustra's current understanding. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. Thus. however. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . in which it may be willed. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. eternal return of . must past and Accordingly. namely. he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. however. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . being is an Accordingly. but every stone that is thrown . saying. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will.
When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. "foreseeing" longer man." Moreover. into my throat.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. knowledge would Thus. of sickness" therefore. Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return. of It is. but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. as Zarathustra now describes it. The presence of the low not only persists human life. choked me and crept . paradoxically. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. all would be one. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . freedom will at its peak. . Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man ." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. . that is. that was my disgust at all creation" existence."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. the life but is in creative great effect of in. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. nothing be profitable. the that has crawled his throat. as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it. the of the ." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . 21). the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it.
but. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. is in accord with reason. however." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words.21 need. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom.e." revenge. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. in Part Three. on the one hand. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible. Finally. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. love and. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . the thought of the eternal return developed. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. Far from having escaped the its justice. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. the will and its desire for and i. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. and that genu knowing will. however. namely. of "justice" "freedom. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will.. its law and sway of the rabble. of not be given.
It points to the Seth Benardete. Cf. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. appears to offer a 11. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. 4. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. 23). He explicitly Zarathustra as a . if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. University of Chicago Press). but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession." 5.22 upon in his wanderings. however. 8. 4. p. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. See "On Cf. Beyond Good and Evil. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. in that irrational. Tablets. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. also see Ecce Homo. 153. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. In Part Three. and therefore of being. As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption")." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. parodies "wisdom. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. 7. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. Writing")." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. Preface. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes." 3. Zarathustra. On the simplest level. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. Behind the 6. 10. 9. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. Of course. but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. 202. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. 1888.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts.
In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. It should come as no surprise. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. 1988). His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds. 28-31. as god." 1 1. therefore. trans. the realm of ignorance and falsehood." 360-425 and Bacon. Cf. XIII. Unfortunately. it would require "something double. lacking . turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets. overcoming of need. 14. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power." 16. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. Matter. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. IV. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. . namely. 13. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. pp." "The Truthsayer. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. Row. 12. 15.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. what 53-54. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. "Proteus. Vol. Odyssey. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well. as man. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. 17. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. 1984)." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. The Wisdom of the Ancients. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. but only on that of philosophical writing. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. . Zarathustra's p. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. 23. "The speech Self-Overcoming. II. ed. Homer.'' Great Events. or Zarathustra. 1935].
3. p. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. "All Song. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds." Having pears by chance. (Speech of 7 June. above all. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. Seth Benardete. however. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return. "Fame and Second Sailing. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. 1794)": Daybreak. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. by "convictions" ("Antichrist.'' for every is an afterworld. bridge. on account of his 227). ." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. 1990). Preface." and 22. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. characterizes world following that terms. pp. 36 and 87." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. the ill-constituted. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. 40. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. and The Gay Science. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. 264). This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. 30. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. therefore. To every soul belongs another world. therefore." merely by looking into each other's faces. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. 289. Song. If both Zarathustra and. namely. Sunrise. 152 and 192. She power. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. vertu' 20. 27. p. Unfortunately. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. 283-85. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. Robespierre." also Dancing 4. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. for the smallest just. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. 29. Dithyrambs of Dionysus." 21.
50 cloth.. Heidegger. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. Politics. $15. 26. 1995). $15. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision.95 paper..95. University the Polity. xii + 263 pp. Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press.. Fall 1998. $19. $47.95 paper. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press.Review Essays Heidegger..50 paper. xii + 129 pp... Indeed. $19. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. 1993).50 Hans Sluga. In this essay. $49. $14. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. Julian Young. 1997). Vol. 1992). Caputo. 1990). Michael E. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). Leslie Paul Thiele.. x + 285 pp. $33. + 306 pp. xi + 234 pp. even to the point of at "apologetics. 1993). Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. greater notoriety. Tom Rockmore. xv + 232 pp. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. $49. No. MA: Harvard University Press.50 cloth. xi + 382 pp. 1996). Philosophy. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation.95.95 paper. this century comes to a close. NY: Cornell University Press. Berel Lang. 1 . Zimmerman. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought.
including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. In the process. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. however. of and Derrida. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. is . "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. Given this historical archaeology. Unlike Zimmerman. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism." in Heidegger's Crisis. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. In order to discern this tendency. Lyotard. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions.g. e. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. One point example. politics. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. namely. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. Although Farias champions this position. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics.. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. As bridge between reject discover. which also exemplifies historical. daeo-Christianity. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. for example. Rockmore implements criticism. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views.
philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being.g. Philosophy. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. then practical concerns. raises. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. Being and Time (1927). The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. As poignant as revelations were. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. In this work. Even been prior to Farias' book. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings.Heidegger. hence. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. already the publication of his magnum opus. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . The Farias' effect of revelations. indeed. This work. ethics.. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. inquiry. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. As Zimmerman. Caputo. Nazism. II. e. of ethics and politics. the Polity. however.
the which unique forgetting of being. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism. As Zimmerman emphasizes. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. By 'thinking. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves.124 '. pp. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. . A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. 84).e. and the end of metaphysics. Interpretation .. xxiii-ix) Jews. the our need to day.' he did not mean rational calculation. That is. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. is of political which things. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power. On the surface. of "enframing. Heideg instruments of technology." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. but the of technology. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. As Zimmerman states: . "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis." nature. i. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology.
recast Going forward. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. what the Polity. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. . The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. Not surprisingly. frenzy and violence. As reactionary modernists. 84) In the end. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy.Heidegger. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. Consider Heidegger's . According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. Holderlin. philosophy and politics. (P. p. conflict and resolution. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. that is. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. . Unfortunately. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. but instead blood and instinct. On the one hand. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. 127). 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. domination humanity and nature. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. harmony from strife.
72). and heroism. Only by possible a shepherd. thinker. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. the scandalous comparison culture . . love otherwise absent facticity.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. including care. truth. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). (Lowith. and temporality. baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. in his stark concept of Dasein. As Caputo indicates. Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. in must emerge "singular. . there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. Ironically. e. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. Caputo. The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology.g. . the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. 207). 73)." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. love. self-affirmation. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. According to Caputo. charity. the dissident (Derrida). The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. become 68). in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. the categories of tenderness. . Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. . Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p." community.
III. Philosophy.. namely. as Nazism. stance. link (p. however. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. the Polity. there is no. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p. for Rockmore "hero. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. 54). ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. National or no important. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. Rockmore. and that. Because Rockmore way." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that.g. 54). In Heidegger. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought. 74). "What I call the 'official' view students. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p. roughly speaking. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness." Heidegger's philosophy (e. . the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history.Heidegger. This distinction becomes important. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966.
Lang ger history (pp. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. Of course. In Heidegger's Silence. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. but the intellectual others. 5-8). insofar as the and then. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. 5). freedom and necessity. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. In Heidegger's Crisis. . which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect. The "tragic question then becomes. the professional and the thesis (p. Ironically.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. of illumination and blindness. Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . the public and occasional" the private. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . 100-101). gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum.
22). which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. And ger's while one may try vision. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act." forged through the will. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. and the possibility of law. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. 245-48).g. be translated into any specific may For example. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). but what extent a political crises of of the political. IV. community. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. action. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. setting institutions the decline. for most critics construe these . this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. a process occurs. Indeed. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p.. 19). an opportunism "timely. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. Mill and Kant.Heidegger. in the 1930's. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy.
anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. As our discussion of the previous . his commitment to National Socialism. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. 35 ff. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. it would a type of action irrecon (p. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. vious. however. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. factic plane. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). alien to all reduction to the uniform.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. a Heideggerian politics must confront..g. e. in order that one to the dilemma in question. In many respects. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought.). Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. While this most problematic.
Farias. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. if it does their objections. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. instead. 41). Young argues that Heideg for the other. Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. 79). Philosophy. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. in regime. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. In Heidegger. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. Rockmore. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. which claims In ogy. Young. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. When joined Young's solicitude. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents.Heidegger. 125). 50). 38-41). But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. books the Polity. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. but Wolin. provides According to Dallmayr. 104). By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. Moreover. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p.
" Correlatively. facets as as Thiele indi cates. the between logos and community. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. of light the opera Thus. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. In this way a community develops. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. e. p. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. "tolerance" namely. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. 48-49). Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. however. namely. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. namely. As Arendt suggests. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it. is that the power which permits political participation. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. that moral emphasis on can (pp. 198).132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations.. As Thiele emphasizes. the nexus of politics." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . language. if government as fully we articulated. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. In words. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. 81-83).g. What Heidegger recognizes. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. Western democracy. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. that is. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp.
p. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. 5-12. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. . Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. even solicitous of. 60-63). will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. 128). As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. 16). Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. another the Polity. politics." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. means or "place in on such opposition. philosophy flourish only it is . but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. censorship. Literally. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom.) is iconoclastic. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. 167). challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. 292). thrives within a polis the greatest importance. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. While Yet. controversial. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. it Sluga. . The arbitrary. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. . 86-100.Heidegger.
Martin. " Lyotard." Time Journal 14. 33. 1962. Victor. Palo Alto. and Farias. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. and 1995. New York: World Publishing. In this spirit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Perhaps this time think. CA: Stanford University Press. "jews. Trans. Heidegger. GA 24. Marcus (ed. Karl. 1981. Richard Wolin. NY: Cornell David. 1 (1995): 111-86. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. Heidegger. Andre Michel. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. Miguel. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. New Haven: University Press..134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. on the words responds to this contrary. John. no. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. Wilde William Kluback. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. Hannah. Pierre. Peter Collier. The Other Heidegger. Jean-Francois. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. University Press. 35). will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. "On Heidegger's Lowith. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. and Gunther Neske. 1990. 1 (1991): 1-611. 15. Ed.' Assertion of the German University." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. Dallmayr. philosophy of its task. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. de Beistegui. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. no. 1982. 1989. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. but. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Blitz. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. Emil. Trans. Mark. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. GA 31. Heidegger the Trans. George. 1958. no. Ithaca. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. Johannes. 1975. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. Kettering. 1991. Trans. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18.). Truth. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1990." Gary Steiner. Jean T. Phil Temple University Press. Lisa Harries. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. Political." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. New York: Paragon Press. London: Routledge. Heidegger and University Press. Trans. . philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. Bourdieu. 2. Fred. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. The Human Condition. Silence. 1998. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. 1958. Pascal. when such a pp. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. Kovacs. 1993.
1990. Albany: SUNY Press. by and Kenneth Maly." University of Chicago H. 2 (1995): 137-53. Socialism. Origins. Alan. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. NJ: Humanities Press International. Richardson. on Free Speech. 1989. Common Good. Hugo. Heidegger Jaspers. Trans. and the January 14. Olson. Freedom. Thought. Safranski. 1992. "Heidegger's Truth eds. Petzet. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. 11-24. 1990. Rumor of the Hidden King. Riidiger. Heidegger and lands. New York: Columbia University Press. 1996. "A Normal pp. Zimmerman. Heinrich Wiegand. Cambridge: Harvard University Press." . Sheehan. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. 1993. "Heidegger 27-38. Roberts. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. 1992). Quarterly Ott. The New York Review of Books. Time.. 1994.Heidegger. 1987. Dallery. Albany: SUNY Press. "Resoluteness Ambiguity. no. London: Fontana. Sherover. Schurmann. The Politics of Being. Van Buren. Trans. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. Blunden. and In A. Thomas. Scott. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. 24. no. and and Philosophical Forum 25. Trans. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. Press. and Alan Rosenberg. Encounters Parvis Emad. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Reiner. Nazi. no. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. Christine-Marie Gros. Alan M. On ington: Indiana 30-35. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. C. 4 (1989): 340-55. 2 (1993): 121-39. Charles E." 1996. Bloom University Press. 4 (1997): 554-62. A." Holocaust. ed. Chicago: Politics. John. Frank. 1994. no. no. Richard. the Polity." Scott. Trans." "A Question Socialism. no. Pp. and Ethics Schalow. and Danger. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Ewald Osers. 1998. Michael E. Intro." Philosophical Writings. Charles. 1. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. eds. William J.
On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. why it excludes. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification.. possess.95. 26. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. Like other pluralisms. Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. 1996)..Whose Pluralism? Bruce W.50. 1997).. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. No. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. Michael Walzer. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. 1995). $16. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. Rawls's Political Liberalism). penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. The Pluralist Game. The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. 1 . inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. $24. Liberalism and (Lanham. Public $22. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. + 126 pp. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan.95. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. but what it excludes. Fall second book. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. Sandel. On the other hand. Francis Canavan. Vol. indeed could not. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Three recent works do both. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. University Press.
Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. Naturally. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. The categories overlap. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. As Canavan clearly perceives. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. 76). In Canavan's account. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. Earlier American pluralism. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. but or not limited to. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. lost unity of shared. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. pluralism and toleration. however conflictual. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. Law society. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. indeed impossi ble. and the relations between economy and polity. In Canavan's account.
Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. liberalism. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. to public Canavan notes. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. These institutions. schools. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. Yet of the three volumes. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. but without developing the point at any length. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. their best. Canavan particular. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. it displaced institutions. Understood in individualist terms. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. had helped to flesh out religious community life. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. individ liberty. hospi tals and social services were injured. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market.
to join in the struggle.. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. Groups with spiritual. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. cultural. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. the state should reduce its direct etc. If anything. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . On the other hand. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. to make room for such groups in education. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. so vision ought Canavan argues. Protestants and devout Jews. to flourish. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. social services. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. always reflects some moral vision. things look neutrality. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. on pain of contradiction.
As Sandel notes. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. for Sandel and the republican tradition. or even citizen obligation. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. for instance. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. religious duties. and this goal has American public policy. to a solution to these problems. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. People are born for citizenship.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. When they tion. of citizens In the liberal conception. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. community. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. the freedom tive. ing of Again. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. They natu common affairs. since these all require description of the self. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. others' based have chosen them. with others about what is true any or good. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. Consequently. this asocial render human good is misleading.
Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. respect not follow. a contradiction. not their simple capacity to choose something . thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. moral. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. prochoice their views for public purposes. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. So Sandel pluralism.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. regarding toleration. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. 20). beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. and promoting. and His alternative version the self. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. In both cases. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. they express. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. As Sandel correctly argues. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. In principle. judg Using the legal example of abortion. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. community. Or we could relativize the value of respect. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism.
in the nature of (p. With Sandel. Arguably. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. That is. Indeed. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. the same could be said about his ily law.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. Sandel's order. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. be Canavan suggests. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. Presumably. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. or even malicious. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. in general. Sandel replies. 90). To with a return Sandel's abortion example.
Maclntyre. 77).) Nor can we repair to . for example. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . of and others. so he opposes a voucher system. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. according to Walzer. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. With Sandel. Naturally. as an harbor republican hopes. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. . Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. with early roots in Protestant and English history. Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. 70). ought to be barred from running in elections. is right say) tradition. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. this is an omission which pluralism. To his credit. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. together with leaves intact the current crisis. ." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. Canavan. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. Walzer here in the secondary associations. Religious parties. and social Where then. (p.144 Interpretation societies. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education.
since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces. Altogether then. But reading Sandel.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. ." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus.
Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. . previously unknown writings and letters. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). (1921). H. among Wissenschaft writings. The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. Jacob In addition. and others published here for the first time. more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). Jacobis (1929).. DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. Gershom Scholem. politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. B. cloth with dust jacket. Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). French. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937). DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. 434 pp. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). in the original languages (German English). 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. XXXIV. Gerhard Kriiger. XIV. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca.-). cloth with English) many important. 1933-1935).i VERLAG J. Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. Testament Spinozas (1932). and Lowith.-). It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future.. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket.
? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss. The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings. (approx. $53.00 each). volumes should (approx.Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations. $10. $5300). The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes. Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ. The prices of the 2. The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined. . Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996. Each volume may be purchased separately.metzler. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss. The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy. DM 16. ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. current list price. Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns. Name .00). subscribe by your university 1.80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1).B. Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library.80 (approx.00). Dept.de . published here for the first time in its entirety in this form. $46. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price. edition are approx.. Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English). ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx. the be sent as they appear. 66 pp.
The Journal ofAmerican History 'hf-UitlKllS Natural Rights and the New Republicanism Michael P. historical of "This exemplary work of reconstruction dramati our understand cally transforms ing the genealogy of early American political thought.. No one who deals with the eigh teenth-century Anglo-American political avoid tradition will be able to the unsettling challenge of original and painstak Zuckert's ingly documented tion.95 ISBN 0-691-05970-5 Princeton AT FINE BOOKSTORES OR CALL 800-777-4726 University Press HTTP: //PUP. that forces all of us back to the boards..'' Richard Vernier. paperback scholarship Zuckert and vast a work of careful lican ideas recounts came to By illustrating be blended. how Lockean and repub forcefully the origins of the American republic. and William Mary Quarterly Paper $18. .New in "This is erudition.PRINCETON. Zuckert Here Michael Zuckert philosophy that propos es a new view of the political lay behind the founding of the United States. for this is reinterpreta one of those rare at once scholarly achievements.EDU ." drawing Thomas L. capacious and meticulous. Pangle.
All conference sessions will please call be held The New School. Paul Rozin. and important way foods have emerged. the joy of plenty. Aristide Zolberg (Moderator) 2: Case Histories: ways Barbara a symbol in most religions and as a marker of identity and difference Maurice Bloch. Per Pinstrup- Andersen. Marion Nestle. Raymond Sokolov. Wendy Doniger. its of importance. Marc Shell. Theodore Zeldin. Kenneth Prewitt (Moderator) This conference is organized by Arien Mack. the ceremonies surrounding mythic and symbolic and it. how food for marks our sameness differences. Anne Murcott. of diet and food to and security the history. at editor of Social Research. Steven Heller. or e-mail For more information and reservations. 1998 What and we eat.NATURE AND CULTURE A Social Research Conference November 5-7.edu/socres/food. Sidney Mintz. problems created by scarcity 1: Everyday Life: Food life as a major 4: Food not as Symbol or Sign: Food is as component of only what we eat but figures Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. Leonard Barkan. Barbara Examining the Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Moderator) 5: Food in Art/ Food as Art: Food is both an object of art and a medium in which migrated. This conference a brings together scholars and scientists as well as about policy in linking discourse the significant hunger. Robert Adams (Moderator) for artistic expression Betty Fussell. Keep checking for a link at .edu Further details coming to the World Wide Web soon! http://www. been assimilated is an of understanding our histories William McNeill. the fear famine makers with deprivation forum all are occasions reflections on the human condition. Robert Herdt (Moderator) 7: The Future: Prospects for the global availability of food and ways to increase it Gordon Conway. David Pimental. (21 2) 229-2488 socres@newschool. culture and political economy food in an effort elicit new perspectives on abundance.newschool. John Hollander (Moderator) 6: Abundance and 3: Key Note Addresses Scarcity: equal Sustainable Agriculture: Ismail Serageldin Food and Access to food is far from Culture: Margaret Visser Richard Goldman.
Queens College Rushing N.ISSN 0020-9635 Interpretation. 11367-1597 U.Y.S.A. -a o PC fo a -a o CO 2 o 3 "I 3 o 3 O < CO a r 21 rra *> o m c3 CO . Inc.