Fall 1998


Number 1

Volume 26


Cameron Wybrow
Robert D. Sacks

The Significance The Book




in Genesis 1-11


Job: Translation




Chapters 39-42 65
Andrew Reece

Drama, Narrative,


Socratic Eros in Plato's


Mark Kremer



Revolution in Burke's Letter to the

Sheriffs of Bristol





the Twofold Presentation of the


Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke


Review Essays


Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard





National Socialism


Whose Pluralism?


Hilail Gildin, Dept.


Philosophy, Queens College

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Fall 1998

Volume 26

Number 1

Cameron Wybrow
Robert D. Sacks

The Significance The Book




in Genesis 1-11


Job: Translation


Chapters 39-42
Andrew Reece


Drama, Narrative,


Socratic Eros in Plato's 65

Mark Kremer



Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77

Sheriffs of Bristol Steven



the Twofold Presentation of the Will

to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke


Review Essays

Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard





National Socialism


Whose Pluralism?

Copyright 1998



ISSN 0020-9635

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The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. Fall 1998. Traditional exegesis of these stories. man.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. that of the nomadic Third. the Lord God. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. 1 . The thing I wish to argue excuses. herds Nimrod. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. Nimrod. with superfluous and which arts. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. or even defy. 26. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. divine or conventional. although intent. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. those who are supposed to be First. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. Jewish and Christian. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. Second. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. antitechnical. No. the Babel-builders. and in Genesis 1 1. and the which Babel-builders. Finally. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. in Genesis 10. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. associated with and antipolitical. second or at least reasonable those characters. I is wish not to argue that. the city is connected with land ownership. as argue. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. in light the Babel project. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. interpretation. Vol.

Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. Cain. antipolitical atmosphere. Fi by nally.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. Augustine's these City of God. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. Cain. his religious performance is faulty. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. 1. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain. Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth.2 kills the son truly in God's image. often little basis in the text. . has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. the refuse. fices to the most Thus. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. Out of antiurban. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. When he sacri Lord (Gen. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. the first city. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. that is. according to some of the rabbis. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character.3 or. 4. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. In fus ing (they own. legion. First. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. A. of the Next.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner.3-5). and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. if the quality is acceptable. Cain's very birth is suspect. have all been impugned. the an which founding of the city. I have used tateuch. and I have consulted Specifically. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes).

2. such as Augustine and Calvin. vol. vol. p. God intended with us. another choice.5. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart.2). The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. 1. XV. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. Jacob. some rabbis say that he. and David. however. are supplied by the . Noah. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. Augustine says nothing negative. 192). and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. 21). Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. Mehujael. says Abravanel. p." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. One became a murderer. Augustine. 21). Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. his city and people. 256).5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. 1. 1. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. 5. 153). and Cain Lamech Metusael. Augustine. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. but with his hy pocrisy. (City of God. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. says bluntly "Cain. another a drunkard. Isaac. 255). life into a sophisticated. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. p. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. 29). Calvin on the other. and Lamech are all said vol. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. Moses. 8. to will return later. 8. absent from the Biblical text. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. "wicked" "house" building of a city. XV. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. Cain's tion: p. The names of Irad. 17. career. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. Those interpreters. p.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. and them. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham.

violence and In a more analytical vein. In general. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. In sum. Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp. with political life) fall under a dark shadow.). 2. and 159). his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. of p. and because of this. with human law making. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. XV. far as we can tell from Genesis 4. if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . like beasts. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. the he founded. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. pp. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. the latter who lived more virtuously.) (which. 217-22). went about stark naked. acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. the former being. 238). 160-62). Like the rabbis. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. Calvin. Naamah. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). 237-40). They eyes. flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield.).22).22. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). and all its connections (with the arts. Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. however. view. His birth is suspect. 160). either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth.). sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. duced Seth's line into waywardness. the op for him the arts are goods. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. God" at least more carnal in their interests. did not yet exist). Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. and gifts from God (Calvin. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid.6 Interpretation (ibid. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. superfluous sin.

as the-verb "to (halal).). tried to kill Abraham he was young. to degenerating calling "rebelling. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. Genesis 10. being a mighty hunter. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. "beginning" is is verb. he Abraham. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. Nimrod the city-builder evil. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. There is other evidence that Nimrod. 175). mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. he a 10. Finally. in Genesis Rabbah. so negatively." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. p. Esau. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. who 4. First. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. and. deriving all wicked things. that is. In this attempt. was obviously a furious Nimrod. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. is bad for two reasons. 260). and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. 3). it is p. p. 2." earth. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. be evil. Second. tyranny (Calvin. 317). Nimrod. And. 420-21. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. his claim to might." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. .26 are said.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). Since Nimrod is a slave. "began" 2. pp. like all hunters. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. oppressor." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. Thus.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. Esau. they supply other examples of wicked people things. too. XVI. ants same Obviously. p. From the sense "pro fane. 60-61). although it is not mentioned in Scripture. is a deceiver. 2. but mention rather. 174). which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. de Rabbi Eliezer. of course. he Genesis Rabbah.4). and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. however. p. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. vol. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. here found in the hiphil form. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. man. pp. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. who. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. XVI. the ancestor of Israel. which is what persuaded people to let him them. 38).

The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. a city. In any case. and vol. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. could hardly him have Urban life. and Jacob. p. according to Genesis 10. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. like Nimrod. in an summary. with the upper part. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. . 2. 3. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. which p. In p. vol. therefore." but are on the 50).4. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. vol. God's people do not rest con move. right motives. "Settling" is moti vol." "and this they begin to which. the the Ham line. 51). the Babel-builders are reminiscent . "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. 11. 1. pp. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. His city. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. being settling and building in "settled. for idol They filled the sin of pride. 49-50). heavens. The Babel-builders. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. XVI. Isaac. like Abraham. means. 2. probably vol. and. do. p. want 2. for they p. do" translated into rabbinic.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. was the area of his king dom. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. the lower part of the world. to displace him.8 Interpretation Nimrod. at signifies also that they made an on 261. 260). sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires." are "rebels. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens.4). as I will point later. needless to say. the Lord. as in the case of Cain. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. Second. First. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. They they being given the earth. which. (Genesis Rabbah. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. Calvin Calvin. 2. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. bad scent. as one might expect. for two reasons. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. again. 324). too (Genesis Rabbah.

the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. which. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. rejection of God. More generally. and the rule of with human beings by others. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. political which go with cooperation. only God can do these things. B. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. who defined man as a political animal. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. hunting. is inferior to the way of the Politics. being Esau's way." us make "let build city"). and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. is grounded in folly. heir of a slave. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. 4. but to conspire against and a God. the arts. They are from the wrong lines. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. are proud. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. God's do not need the political life of the city. in criticizing the Babel-builders. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text. and tyranny over others. They story. without God's help by They purely human means. or rebels against God. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. Ruling comes from Nimrod. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. The city. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. then of Seth. in order to establish the stated. Abravanel thus. The the city. if the materials they supplied were . they God's murderers. then. The city cannot provide for security against death.3-4 ("let brick. says Abravanel. sinners. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. is ated. Nimrod. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. Abravanel argues.

the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. far beyond this. and would maintain this even reasons. but some of fetched. and so on. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil. There are Nonetheless." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. and enough reading. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. For example. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. Some of the claims are errors. they are merely the justifications. believe. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. all interpretive control is lost. for two First. when they assert without philological "idol. Shinar." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. point." they ask us to accept too much on faith. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. and Babel. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. Nimrod. however. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. Sec that there is ond. again might not be bad in itself. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. even without the extraneous material. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. they in the Biblical text. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. more relevant interest. however. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. since Lamech fathers sons who are . to the fact that by Nimrod. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. Augustine's most claim that translators.

Babel but not in the case Cain. or that he ordered the people him. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. text with uncharitable motives. out of the desire for a name. the rabbis rage against Cain for is." The interpretation same such is. Further. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. since not Ham but facts that do not fit.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. which makes "children men. They they are by the farmer. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. How. Augustine all lifestyle. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. If Israel is not wicked . these are nity. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city." Again. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. in a parallel manner. is feeble. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. if God will then. And settled farmers (like Cain. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. that Cain had a says justify God. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. tilling it. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. The hunter is the loner. further. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. In fact." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. and that the city to protect him. the city falling to his arrows. too their sheep. undertook the Babel project on his own. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. rather. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. the entire race. he infers it in infers. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. Ham's son. Further. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. Abravanel. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. Nimrod. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. the hunter is less violent. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. hardly closer the model of the political man. execution. is cursed to in Genesis 9.



for wanting land exactly
of the what



to till,

the pre-Flood men are said to


why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is


were commanded

do in Genesis 1.

Why is

their attempt at



out at as a rebellion? as motivated

forge interpreted

Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
the vengeful


Certainly, his father


Lamech, but

one cannot

simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.

One has to say, then, that the

antiurban trend of thought
without textual


though not
a close

clearly justified


of the city-builders and

completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather

among the tradi foundation, is not


evidence that

Cain is frightened, slighted,

than evil.

Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays

no wicked motives or


evil actions.


Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
There is

a negative




would not reflect upon



work, then, to be done if
about the

we are

to articulate a coherent

logico-political teaching


as presented

in Genesis 1-11.


essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this



speaking, human


effort, in

a much more positive

light than the

tradition sometimes suggests.

The line




body am building

of traditional

interpretation, but in its

I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I

upon the work of

themselves are

Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
one sees

In the Midrashic writings,

hints here



of a a


account of

by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can


be brought to light



What I


strive to establish






which, against






of the

sees the and





legitimate human


to the problem



response which

God is willing
Cain. The

to work with and, under certain

circumstances, is
so well

I begin
with classification of






established that


in Genesis




impious to




to gaze



trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no

it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.

He has


hard to


his grain, probably

harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the

to raise his sheep.

Further, he,



apparent commandments. and


God tell Adam to


(Gen. 1),

to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
would work

upon expulsion

from Eden he
Cain felt


land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
like the

can see


He is, in

a way,

more qualified applicant who

why loses

the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which

injustice, his




This does



the murder

follows, but it
so perverse as









nearly Cain's



make out. another nonmalicious account








that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that

of vegetation.

Might he




that the sacrifice of a human




better (Genesis Rabbah,



248-49)? One does

not need

to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or


one might argue that

he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin

a misguided attempt to please

rabbinic speculation

is discounted, it is

not so clear that

Cain is





ever give



does God

it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In

fact, God


Genesis 9. That
can rule

nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if



Flood, in

man can rule

himself. If

race will not


his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
given will



that no one else is

is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,

any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and

and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera

described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that



not proved

to be the





Cain does

sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this

bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his




and procreating. who





his descendant Lamech,

proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too

to be forgiven and expects that everyone

kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears



be hidden from God's face, and,




to protect Cain


the assaults of other men,


never reassures



his continuing


Perhaps God thinks his

protective sign

ence, but Cain clearly does


it that


implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to


from his

go out



dwell in the land


Nod ("wandering").


that he



mark, is it any


interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course

sive arrangement of a



men who

believe they



the state of nature, with no law

but that


the strong to protect them?

Similarly, it is hard

to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means

does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad





in Hebrew,


Isaac Friedman has

shown against

in fact, it has rather the first city is an be

good ones

of a new



pp. of



Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to

It begins


the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in

something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was

hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts

of of

the arts described in Genesis 4. The


can yield weapons



in general; for the text does

not even mention and mu



the other arts which arise at the same time





clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
who seems





to have understood God's

his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
not punish

most perverse possible manner

(i.e., God does


therefore we

have to do I

unto others

omen of the violence to come story. would

before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,

insist, however,

though a genuine theme of
conclusion remains

that urban

life, in any

ambiguous as a

Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the

judges it.

This is

in Genesis 6. When "all


corrupt upon the

earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but






nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism


who are not associated with



Cain's line. The
or political

as such.



general, and



fact, it



contended that

absence of political structures and of would seem



it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This

by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),

to be confirmed



9. We

that in Genesis 1 God ordered

Adam to be


the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of

fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given

cities a son of Shem. Thus. Abimelech in Genesis 20).The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1. which had no such structure discernible. the "nations. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. amicably dividing the world themselves. is. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. among Japheth separate violence. for the laws of God (Gen. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. The first cities are or comes to rule. The new begin ning. the goodness. This time. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. the city arises.1-7) to be enforced. which relied too much on we are innate human told. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. (9. the between Cain nation. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. Ham." earth becomes peoples of common nations. whenever the tribal or them. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. In this new creation. Since. must not conclude. 9. families (mishpahoth) Shem. Abel. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. which are life. Ham. suggests in which one will rule over many." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. the migrating offspring of Shem. will have a legal dimension absent from the old. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. the new creation as it were. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. and since they too are related. One wicked one." Asshur. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation.1-7). if we are watching a new creation. however. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . therefore. 13). without Thus. built by Asshur. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. Recall that in Genesis 9. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. The next a region called in Shinar. There is another interpretation. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. in the east. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. something is added: God gives the first laws. in this overspreading. they occupy it as they were meant to.19).

17).9). but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. one must conclude that cannot as such. by God's . Finally. and so did his empire. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. from the above discussion. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. unlike Lamech's. Nimrod. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. in fact. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. kings are one possible source of law. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. we must ing was Lamech's.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. city building. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. vulnerability to random killing). but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. In important respects. Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus. In this context.8) and before the Lord (10. For these reasons. basis to nor of an adjective alone. Kings may (I Samuel 8). at overspread the earth at least potentially. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. may not be pretty. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. Nimrod does not boast about himself. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. good. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. I represents a political would argue. Nimrod became famous. first hunter. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old.4). of a any more. I would suggest. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. then. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. how to be a "hunter. and as did Lamech (4. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. did the mighty men of old (6.23-24). Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. strained passion.4) or the Babel (1 1. men ruling men). but human for up as prey beings. Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. least some of the nations which legitimately source. the order of creation. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. as did Cain (4. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. condemn be evil." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is.

instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. The with sin of the Babel-builders. His proj may be ambiguous. and enjoying the earth. to obey God. Further. They want live. God at the end of purpose. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. in a its top in the heavens.5). it to be a certain un populating. aim spreading master to many spots. is. something. is by Calvin. and Augustine. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text." of perhaps educated obey God. the language of mutual entreaty. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. process. among these Combs and Post point out. scattered. as of (11. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. of super-city with together. It "scattered. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. the descendants of Flood. I certain turn to the Babel story." is only fitting. if it and was a sin. I think. too. be was afraid of safe. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. close even antiurban exegesis.4). The 11. p. They "scattered. like Cain's. in one place. He. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. and he. case of Babel is not exactly typical city. They heavenward (11. in the Babel there features grant. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. Finally. that is. The their cautiousness. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam. too. God wants them to move outward. speaking one language. No one people (which is why I would con- .4). Regarding this story.28). Rather. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. united brotherly love. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. Babel-builders is. The "sons men" Noah. 428). wants them to the earth (1. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. They one spot. then.

they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. will and to give it. wanting as is fact. become corrupt. a permanent essence which. They do not wish to God. The or reputation earn. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. unified world-state. speaking. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. be for . Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. were tribal and monarchical. and the only people." of that is. In Genesis nized 10. and themselves. and powerful cities. The forms of govern men" ment. however. they do not even mention him. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. are not malicious. In fact. would God. noble it may be. good which so I think is the one correct one. Cain may have been proud of his city. then. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. the nation sired by Abraham. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. however thinking. In Genesis not allow of 11. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. "name" necessarily an improper desire. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. they dream. the "sons of will founding "nations. only language that exists should If the only state. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. as it were. built.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). but he was not God in naming it after his son. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. no possibility of the living. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. It is true that they wish eternity. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. separate peoples. unified world-state. God. the situation be irreparable.7 overthrow "name. then. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. hold them together in Shinar forever. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God.

because Cain is not so commentators make out. Jacob Neusner. trans. NOTES 1. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. In societies other than Israel. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. Cain pp. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. (Title henceforth: City of 5. but for purity. as city of Enoch. then. Genesis Rabbah. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. Robert Sacks. it due to knowing God wanted. 4.: Penguin. but these motives were not wicked.) Lemer 1978). and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. Isaac Abravanel. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9. If these people strayed. Deut. 4. trans. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. 256. Cain's son. And in one case.3. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. in Genesis 10. 3. 196-98. p. 44-48. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. John Calvin. Ont. and not always the best. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). XV. if one wished to put the city in a better light. pp. was the Babelers were not being scattered. trans." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. 2 vols. eds. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. trans. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. vol.7.. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press.: McMaster University. 1985). in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. pp. to teach. 150 51. 12. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. Rev. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. argue that the evils of 1979). John trans. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. or for building great towers into the a heavens. 242.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. 1970). Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. God. Eng.6). arts. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. 2. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. 158. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. King (Edinburgh. . The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. law. 1972). p. 1. 1847). Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Augustine. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching.

Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. 6. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully.20 Interpretation 6. which who essay was seminal for them. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. hence. . except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. C. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. 1990). Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. Eugene Combs. In a general way. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. Craigie (Sheffield. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. Due to space limitations. Robert Sacks. I add that.. and to Leo Strauss. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. MA: JSOT Press. S. 1988). I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis." Memory of Peter C. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. 1987). The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. 1-5.

15 She has forgotten that hers. in Volume 25 of Interpretation.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. 3 when to give birth to their young. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. Vol. 26. Sacks St. You see. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. Fall 1998. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. interpretation. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny. Num 3. as if they were not even in all vain. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. and who dwells city. No. horse'3 her to forget wisdom.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. Her toils caused foot can crush them. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength.14 wings as if on high. 1 . 16 She treats her were all children roughly. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. meet armed combat. John's College. or that a wild beast might trample them down. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out.

"18 Comments 1. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names." Hos. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal." . building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. 2Sam. although almost as side. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. "I and father's house." a very will complex word. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word.17 pinnacle. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. The and single Hebrew word hul. Oh. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. making it his stronghold. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. it originally meant "to whirl. he said. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. he is there. forever Ner. David heard of it. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. 25 but facing battle from afar. javelin.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. consume the of their gates. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical. Whenever death defiles. Indeed. and See notes to 26. 2. His swill it from afar. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. 3:28 are of Afterward.

foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. and often when first reading the word. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. saying. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. The Book rule. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. and watch. that book which begins see them dashed. Judg. too. Then. from the dancers to their and took their wives. only to the book Judges. and rebuilt the towns. the prophetess. Deut." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. And the to their number. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. Benjaminites did so. in her hand. Exod. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. and go to the land of Benjamin. trembles and writhes The land in pain. Grant them graciously to us. else you would now be guilty. 15:20 Then Miriam. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. 23:5 Jer. king. neither did you give them to them. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. then they went and returned inheritance. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. Exod. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. And to us. according whom they carried off. hands anger burned hot. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. it Psa. and dwelt in them. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. the sister of Aaron. for the Lord's purposes ." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air.

But. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. and ISam. I conceive me." and hence "to give Deu. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. their faces be aflame." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. tempest. and you forgot birth. 37:6 will bring was forth the light. brings forth rain. it can also mean "to be in labor. Isa. angry them. birth": as in our case. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). inhabitant. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. was revisiting the day of his own birth. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. out of his sight. Job. thy judgments puffs at them. brought forth in iniquity. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings." English-speaking in this also recognize . as for his foes. 51:5 Behold. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. They look another. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. pressed upon Saul. in visiting the day of birth. they aghast at looks." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. and sin did my mother Prov. your vindication as Ps. Ps. are on high. 31:3. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. There is Jer. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. For this reason. in and your right as the noonday. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times.

The question is. since. How different things Isa. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). dancing.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. This. She. But quite even Job. Here. the joys of our world could never come to be. has never known either burden or rein. an order for the first time. rhetorical. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. 8. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. 5. Yet we can all world. before her she was delivered of a son. are 3. 6. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. then. It is the whirling. 7. To word understand used this passage. fostering in each life to own its signet. speaks to Job. In using such a harsh word. of course. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. and are what they are. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. perhaps with beyond world. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. pain-ridden.

and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. gave no answer. children. that show his concern. Hebrew man. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. great riches. is sold to you. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. brought 9. to and the man who and will give Israel. but they were treated kindness: justly and . he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. sake. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. Small and great. he shall serve six years. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. he shall serve you six you. to oppressed go free. years. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. so that no one should enslave a Jew. and destroys it. and in the seventh he shall go out free." daughter. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. has served you six years. ears to me. to undo the thongs of the yoke. go out free. Jer. "servant. for nothing. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. my wife. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. When a man strikes the . It is true that. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant.26 Interpretation Exod. too. I will not male or eye's female. but he him for favor. 15:12 If your brother. female. his brother. male and . that was true. . along many others. or a Hebrew woman. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. eye of my his slave. And there are other passages. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. and like a hireling he waits for wages. and But if the slave plainly says. "I love my master. and the slave is free his lord. all are there. be your slaves." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job.

and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. as we shall see. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. giving it a The signets. the cedars of . both for moved for others. Even from was within the human sphere. There were always some men suffering it caused. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. I do God rose up? 10. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature." time. ance The farm. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself.. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. the . and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. the hoopoe. it requires something like the concept of a signet. is 12. that its us.. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. 104:16 LORD abundantly. of course have been out of the question. and them yet he did have ox. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly. the vulture." This is the only verse. they and be eaten. are watered bat.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. 11. Job but. the stork. "trust. each thing can be be what it is. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant." answer can do none of these things. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. the heron according to its kind. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. they are an abomination: the eagle. roaming the hills as his pasture. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. The trees of the Ps. the osprey. it may seem. not certain what bird is meant. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. what of those who dwell in house of clay. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. The an furrow. It is generations. five hundred of them. it will be a long journey. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man.

In them the birds build trees. and the turtledove. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. too. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. their nests. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. two women wind was in their wings. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. 8:7 Even the swallow. ears his looking upon his hands. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. character that each 17. he will dwell on the heights. people crane keep the time of their coming. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. at least it is the can most write about. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far." 13. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. and in the heavens knows her times. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. insofar as been domesticated. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. but my know Zech. had been domesticated. when if only in part. and eyes and saw. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. silly beast. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. his place of defense who shakes . Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. then. The hawk. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. 16. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. lest they hold a bribe. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. 15. who despises the gain of stops oppression. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. must 14. and behold.

pride of your whose says the LORD. 18. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. How my hand upon my mouth. Look upon every man of him.4 even would praise you. The cold and more grotesque. and Jer. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. has been defeated. 5 I have spoken once. high and the pride of your heart. Bind their faces in would obscurity. 1:3 heart has deceived you. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. for your own right have saved . The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. you though your nest says the among the stars. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. bring clefts will down from there. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. you inspire has deceived you. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. and you must let me know. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. however. 13 Bury them all in the dust. 14 Then you. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. is high. 48:28 Jer. me dwelling set say in heart. 10 "Go ahead. sixth as beast. is in the not Job. but I have no answer. twice. the hawk. 49:16 Leave the cities. did for its children all that the charm to do. his bread will be given him. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. in returning to flow off into death. who hold the height I will of hill. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. thence I bring down. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. you who your Obad. The ostrich." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. LORD. his of water be sure.

Again it says. God's argument is.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. and his teaching is not a but an 3. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. He eats fodder just like the cattle. and if by court of law. here is whom I made along with you. Indeed. I believe. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was." again "asking. confident that the Jordan will mouth. hiding in the reeds and the fen. who would plead my case? .6 of brass. had been what God had wanted. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish." 2. beyond man is no place for a man.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. convinced him that Elihu was right. or his head with fishing his head. He is the mighty one. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. If Job's this not point." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. or with you to be your eternal his nose. but he did not. under and all the beasts of the field play. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. But the Tempest will go. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. 18 His bones iron. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. his warning was just.8 21 He lies down the lotuses.9 brook in him. "Have you an arm like God's. and you will remember war no Comments no answer. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage.

. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. . his wisdom. of It is. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. being lous nor mythical. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. These do cosmos." in the made masculine singular. of The LORD acts of old. "laugh" or . and I find knowledge of and discretion. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. with you . fools despise and whatever you instruction. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. iron. are all who teaches us more The verbs. 8:12 . the first 8. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. Man is 7." "His bones are ducts brass. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. however 6. God is joking. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. than the beasts of the earth. His praise endures for Prov. clearly are of mythic proportion. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. Prov. Compare Ps. behemoth 5. of wisdom Prov. Appropriately enough. dwell in prudence. 4:7 The get. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. I. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. get beginning insight. however. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. is this: Get wisdom. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. . not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. created me at the beginning his work. however. "Behemoth cattle.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox.

19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. however. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. a and said to himself. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. "Why did Sarah laugh. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. "No. tyrannizing river. is usually translated "oppress. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. 17:18 is ninety years old. that she had laughed." looking at each usage. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. for the pounding. making it his drinking foun tain. The half-mythic. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. There is. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. But from the Gen. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. I fear. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. "After I have my husband is old. He finds Thus. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . now that and say. saying. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. child. 10." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. and you shall call his name Isaac. Gen.32 9. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play." Joy and happiness are another matter.

every one hears will laugh me. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings." a But Sarah denied. but certainly the betrayed him. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. for she was afraid. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. and I cried out with a loud voice. came "See. "Up. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. Next . place. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. have corrupted themselves. son whom she had borne Abraham. saying. for land of Egypt." the But he seemed to be jesting. Then came the golden calf: Exod. came have brought among us. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. and the people sat down to eat and drink. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. in to me to insult me. he with me. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. whom you brought up out of the Moses. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. 21:6 city. his marry his daughters. playing her Isaac. "I did laugh. "The Hebrew servant." and Sarah shall have son. in the saying. "Go down. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. you laugh". 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. And Sarah said. "No." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. He said. 26:8 also was actually doing. up to play.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. and rose your And the LORD said to people. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. Gen.

for the oxen stumbled. and he made sport before them. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. so down together. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. the abased and above all people of the his house. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. And in his each caught arise. but by the maids of whom you have spoken." has slain his thousands. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. who chose father." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron.34 Interpretation Judg. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. by them I shall be held in honor. 2:14 And Abner us. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. David. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. "Saul thousands. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. 2Sam. they said. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. but they laughed them to scorn. Israel. at Gibeon." pillars. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. and mocked them. They made him stand between the us. twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great. "Call Samson. and he died there beside the God." said to Joab. "It was before the LORD. . 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. before the LORD. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh.

He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . is vanity. closer to what we finds another strain. "What use is Eccles. the fool only rages and laughs. O LORD. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. "It is mad. I will mock when panic strikes I. and a time to laugh. rejoicing before him always. Strength and dignity her clothing. 3:4 to a time to weep. and fear. . 8:12 . 1:26 Prov. 8:31 Prov. dost laugh nations in derision. . 10:23 beside him. 2:4 Ps. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. I you. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. laughs at the time to come. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever." and of pleasure. a time to mourn. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. Sorrow is better than laughter. 7:3 Eccles. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. for he sees that his day is Ps. at them. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. and a time dance. and money answers everything. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. wicked. Prov. also will laugh at your calamity. 31:10 . 14:13 Prov. dwell in prudence. and I find knowledge and discretion. wisdom. it?" Eccles. like a master workman. and wine gladdens life. Selah.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. he will snatch and tear you tent. Prov. however. 2:2 I said of laughter. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. and shall laugh your from of the at living. and I was daily his delight. saying. and death. for Eccles. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. 59:8 But thou. the LORD has them in derision. "I am only joking!" Prov. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. Eccles. Ps. Prov. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. at the but the LORD laughs coming. all the him. Jeremiah is not quite the same. Prov. arrows. there is no quiet. firebrands. so is the laughter of fools.

nor did I rejoice. every one mocks me. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. thou art than I. I will make them honored. I and the palace shall stand used to be. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. and they be be few. 126:1 A Song of Ascents.36 Interpretation Jer. shall not small. Jer. I have become a laughingstock the day. But he also has another notion of laughter. 48:26 "Make him drunk. and your wounds Jer. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. however. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. Zech. him and he too shall be held in derision. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. thou hast deceived me. and have compassion on his dwellings." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. Jer. I sat because thy hand was upon me. I will heal. and I was deceived. "The LORD has done things for them. Was thieves. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. the we were like those and our dream. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. and thou hast prevailed. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. When her . 20:7 stronger all O LORD. Then our mouth was with laughter. says LORD. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. and the voices of those who make merry. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. I did alone. multiply them. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. then they among nations.

Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. and there was her. The much subject was and bound to come up. laughter in the Book of 8:53. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. 3:14 Ezek. for they like the wind and go they make sport. the a side which had always been a part Job and. made him all his trouble. Mark 5:40. guilty men. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. Luke 6:21. 1:10 contains much. . but hills as his pasture. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. Job the outcast. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. James 4:9).The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. whose it. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. if to judge by different from the others. a simple. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. and of rulers At kings they scoff. Mat. and does not even hear the drivers shout. But there of was another side of we are laughter. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. 9:24. none to help her. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. every fortress. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. the burden of their day says long. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. Lam. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. 25. and every green thing is his to search out. mocking at her downfall. for it Hab. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes.

At one first. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. To that extent. and one of the things he learned. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. and over every of the . as we put have from the ostrich. of nature. their iden tity. Some English translations 12. ." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. but not to it. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. Job has come to learn from nature. With Job. and even their sex. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. this relation is seems to Dane. Yet it is Lear shadow". . and over all the earth. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. after our likeness. Eliphaz once had he has seen. Job has come.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. "Let us make man in our image. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. "It is I. wings on high. and over the birds air. 1 :26 and Then God said. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. 3:8 and 13. Hamlet. the brother. mountains yield him produce. continually changing their clothing. at fear and is not dismayed. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. On this question. and over the cattle.

the and all the nations shall flow to it. He judge between the beat nations. in the image of God he created them. you may make brethren the another. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. and their spears into pruning hooks." It should be noted that both words. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. the land lay before them. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. "subdue" In addition. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. to the house God Jacob. sword against nation. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free. and and shall be raised above the hills. . In many Isa. it is only a in which he learn about play. is not a world and 14. many of the peoples shall come. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. but the he must perform now." 39 So God created man in his created him. people of sons after you. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. to slaves of inherit as a them. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play. "subdue" "dominate. We cannot divide it up and as we will. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. ways 15. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. and subdued them as slaves. Josh. let of us go LORD. but the beyond is not ours. Jer. and God said to them. with harshness. But it is not the same. earth. and they shall into plowshares. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. not as a thing for us. and say: of "Come.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. male and female he fruitful and multiply." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. and over the And God blessed them. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

rises up. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. the gods are in dread. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. for he was made to dread. 17 "When he sion. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . 14 His strength resides his neck. and bronze as rotton wood.13 cast as a nether millstone.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. up by a breath between them. fused all together. 11 fire escape. word mean but along it a sense of dread. 12 From his cauldron. and terror dances before him. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. wait. or exploits or the grace of his frame. "to or so I believe. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). could. nor lance. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation." times. He is king over all the sons of pride. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. It too. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. quaver. 9 Each closed8 seal. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next.'"9 Comments 1. stand. nor They spear. 15 Festoons of flesh. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn.18 26 He sees every towering thing.2 Do up. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. and not a his shields7. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron.

He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. We have heard those Isa. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. on a with. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. which deals with our relation to the world of man. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. falling silent to hear counsel. but there came only a murk. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. The first has replaced the second. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. loose my his hand and cut me off! . I rain. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. apart from their being for us. till they stood longer 2. till they had finished speaking. That is to say. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. I have no higher expectations. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. for something to say. YaChaL. the Ps. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves.

and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. The comes the root of this word." From it Hebrew So for "peace. The word. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. away. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. knew it. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. So. mangled never overpowered man. like the in the wilderness. One of them reads: give the Lam. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. Job has nonhuman. occurs which I have translated "brutal. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. Then the within fifty-two days. and in which he for itself. The "brutal" word seems. word 'akf'zar. and with the might of fact. and he has and sent him off. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. but he and His body surrounds him pain. But that knowledge rouse may admire. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. then. means "to be whole or word complete." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": ." Neh." 4. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. You have resigned. They with were in disgrace. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. in already begun. shlm. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness.

mean normally In either of means "to shield. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. it means that the spoke Leviathan." importance winnowing kind. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. in the however. God sets the wicked to close in men. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . defend. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. It leaves always room restitution. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. 8. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. cannot by No one can touch him. "Go. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. sell the live on the lift. meganim. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. case. If He should pass by and separate or close up. In that sense. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. know him from the Here it is taken outside only. of. It might help. is to "make whole. then. unlike Job. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. he pay ox for ox." 7. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others." oil rest. and its owner has not kept it in. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself." by all to his the scales." debt. however. dead beast shall be his. If. and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. The again. from the root mgn.

For the world beyond man. and the face of the deep Again. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. from the way. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. for the Leviathan. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. of murk and confusion. 9. Job has seen the Leviathan. shameful. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. For us it is ugly. the list is . "tight. become that which seals it hotam for Job. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed." away from all other beings. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. my heart gone after my eyes. tight itself. in the world beyond man." his completion and perfection. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. At best. off. But. the Leviathan does Job's skin. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. as stone. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. fused (dbq) all together. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. complete. dabhaq. ness." all others. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. 12. "signet. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal." sar. has.44 Interpretation One cannot up. flesh. closed entranceway. or constrictive: "stick. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No.

The Book of Job
13. Not
Job 6:12



who once said:

Do I have flesh







made of

flesh is to be

able to



Job 19:22



you pursue me

like God, taking

satisfaction out of


Not to feel
Job 10:4




to understand pain;

Have You

eyes of


For Job, it is through the
notion of which


of pain that we come

to understand the

importance, by seeing


willing to

risk pain and

death for that

is important:

Job 13:14

what reason

do I take my flesh between my teeth


my life in

my hands?

flower 14.

The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but

forever in itself.



be for him


it is for itself. Difference for him
His total
unawareness and

makes no

difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around


indifference he

him is


The lights






to see



by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the

to read

and yet we are arrested and can see

world of man


a world unstifled



need and

let to be itself. But in

that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could

learn to let things be.


then could he return with a

fuller understanding



need. an old

15. Once


asked a

anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be

young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a


a mud


or a


or a

house? And

we all

stand upon the earth with never a thought of

asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
16. Or



Exod. 30:25




and you shall make of these a sacred as



the perfumer; a


anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.





ISam. 8:13 He bakers.

outsider shall


cut off

any like it or whoever from his people.





on an

take your daughters to be

perfumers and cooks and



Sol. 5:13


cheeks are

like beds

of spices,

yielding fragrance. His



lilies, distilling


first it burst




up the


behind the double door


out of

the womb

The sea,




tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,


always threatened to engulf

all, has become a simple utensil,


ment of

his innocent

18. The

word which

I have translated







word, and

in fact


in only

one other passage

in the

whole of

Biblical literature.

Gen. 9:2

the passage reads:



and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.


But the Leviathan "was
and perhaps





without correction

Thus, Job 41:25


so, as a


Genesis 9:2. If the


understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
sphere of

19. in



one other verse

exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:




It only


Job 28:7-9


eye of the

falcon has it

never caught sight of



have the

sons of pride ever trampled


The lion


bear it

no witness, mountains





his hand to the flint

and overturned



the root.

In Aramaic, the







in Ethiopian the


"to be


root comes

the word

In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky

root means

"to be






man of






is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a

it is

not so clear

distinction is

the Leviathan himself. It


not even clear

of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though


indeed he surely is.



above and


all malice or

ambition, oblivious to all,

The Book of Job
rules all and



the mere weight of his

being. In him

we recognize our



see our



1 Then Job
that no


the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You



all and counsel



from You. 3 Who is this I had

one that


knowledge? I have

spoken though

not understood.

There is


beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I

have both

contempt and compassion









so, that


the LORD had spoken these words unto



the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as





friends: for



not spoken of me the



is right,

has my


Job. 8 Therefore,
and offer

get yourselves seven


and seven

Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant

up for

yourselves a

burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the



is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite



Bildad the





went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his



the LORD returned all that Job
all of


twice over.

11 Then his house

his brothers
with which



and all of

his friends

came over to







and showed





the evils

the LORD

had brought



one gave a of


and each a golden ring;

and the

LORD blessed the last days

his 13


even more

than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six

thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she




seven sons and three


14 The first he



name of


the second to be


and the third


15 In

the land there

could not

knew his

and their

found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside


than Job's


16 And Job lived

another one


years after

these events, and

sons and



sons, and


an old man contented with

theirs, four his days.


17 And



Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener




one should

ally speaking it usually implies

evil or wicked



Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2

Oh, I know
devised In

what you are

thinking, the

machination you


against me.

arrogance the wicked


pursue the poor;

let them be



the schemes which

they have devised.
often means

In the Book


Proverbs, however, it



like "dis

Prov. 8:12


wisdom, dwell

in prudence,


I find knowledge




the other



it to describe God's




Jer. 30:24

The fierce

anger of

the LORD

will not




he has

executed and accomplished the you will understand this.





In the latter days


in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:


in the



one other pas

Gen. 1 1 :6

all one and

And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;




propose to







The verb, then,
sense one

would seem or

to preclude

finds in Proverbs

taking the in Jeremiah, since in

word mzmh either

in the

neither case

is anything
Perhaps Job


spoken of which one would want to prevent.

This leaves the first meaning, but that is

difficult to



that that too can


accepted as



it is known to be

without malice or

intent. beyond me,
a world

2. "There is

a world




literally, "[There



3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.



James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does


myself, and repent





about the


except that




puts the word

"myself in

italics, indicating

that there

is nothing


sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
as the


after the second verb rather than the




would require.


The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had



The the root m 's fundamentally Again. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. Also see Gen." or is. in itself. however. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption." and 5. of course. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. require as Greenberg does. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. there seems "to feel deep compassion. that the book was conceived of as a whole.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. He is value. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. means "to despise" "reject. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both. have expected but it would not be so . I who am but dust ashes." wenihamti." but. one feels remorse." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant." sorrow or Like the English word. The root nhm means understood in the text.epher we'phar. if one feels sorrow guilt. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. . back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination." to be behind their understanding of the verse." These passages. by the way." meaning to them. Linguistically speaking. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. for instance. 18:27 the Abraham answered." and is." where it "to It is found in Ps. one more reason for believing tion. and repentance." one assumes ashes. normally as 'el. "Behold. we have returned to Chapter One. can establish in the world of the small. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. "upon. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is. as ." 'al. 58:8. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not. But to others for something that one has done.

living in a nutshell. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. 10. Rahab: my father them." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. destruction. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. and save alive and mother. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. death's first born his members. yet his soul. sisters each one on a different with day. will consume His be away. . Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. my brothers and sisters. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. 9. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. Remember Aaron. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. 11. them over. 8. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple.50 Interpretation 1. . that wonderful woman of the night. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. Gone is the vocabulary. that the moths eaten. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. and Joshua 2:13 . Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . but . but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them.

It fell down . The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. but look at the loins. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. it became Joseph. Shechem's father. Bildad show Shuhite. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. What was not possible before has now become actual. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. three thousand camels. 13. inheritance of the descendants 14. fodder just like the cattle. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. were another one came in and said. Gen. and Zophar the Naamatite. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. His might is in the muscles of his belly. ten thousand of cattle.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. at the end of the book. not snuffed out the life of its owners. 12. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. eating joyous unity. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. strength in his Now.

They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. all sorts of precious stones. of silver. including the being his 16. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. keren happuli1: the first two ful." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him." are. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. in the prophets. this name? second word. came to Jezreel. and marble. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. also called pukf1." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. The Book rection. "day. Job himself becomes word yom. Job 3:1 Then. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. "cassia. O desolate one. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. Jezebel heard of it. too. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. the iron for the things iron. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. antimony. It is from the words It is a new Job. We remember to his friends: his his day. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. qesi'a. They are dead. or all the things that a self.52 Interpretation the young people. and she painted her head. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. the silver of of my God. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . 18. And you. Then. and wood and stones wood. so far for the things as I was able. stones. in English. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. As such it became. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. and looked out of the window. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility.

" 53 us look at the first word. said. until in to speak with him. His bull has majesty. Then they blew the trumpet. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. tent. And Samuel priest took the rose up. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. 33:17 ox. flashed from his hand. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. for I sons. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. rays Hab. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. and went to Ramah. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. hence. "My exalted in the LORD. and they were afraid to come near him. have Samuel. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. to begin at the beginning." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. because I ISam. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. Moses' his face shone. that the skin of skin of face shone. my derides my enemies. he anointed. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. behold. It "horn. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. and he veiled his power. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. against he thunder in heaven. My mouth rejoice in thy . qeren. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. will give strength his king. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. all of them. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. salvation. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. to the ends of the earth.

148:14 lamp for my anointed. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. to the sound the hom." not and to the wicked. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. I have driven my horns into dust. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. "Do glory boast. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. 75:4 up Ps. Often the Psalmist Ps. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. my me from violence. art the of their strength. in whom I take refuge. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. 89:17 I say your to the horn. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. thou . the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. cymbals. Linguistically. "Do not lift For thou exalted. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. my rock. trumpets. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. of course." boastful. and the IChron. and made loud music on harps and lyres. too. praise all his saints. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it.54 Interpretation Ps. 22:3 of My God. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. my savior. 27:2 be Exod. stronghold and my refuge. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. And. for Israel who are near to him. I have for prepared a Ps.

Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. "I the will see you. Gen. they praised her to Pharaoh. Jacob loved Rachel. man's wife. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. Leah's soft. and when . 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. cluded however. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. And Leah conceived and bore a son. saw Gen. Rachel. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. you are a a dead man. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. 19. so he said." "Lord. Abram's And ultimately. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. "Behold. for your younger and he said. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. though perhaps somewhat naive man. and his house because of Sarai. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. to Sarai. 'This is his wife'. then they kill but they let you live. We have not. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. will they will say. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. and said to him. he opened her womb. wife. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. and she . As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. he said to Sarai his behold. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. so as to not mislead ourselves. we shall have to consider the full list. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. But God sister. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. barren. because of the woman whom you have taken. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. in have to be Song its of Songs. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. there is also good.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply.

" "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. and two maidservants. but did not find the household gods. and into the tent of the not find them. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. voice and given me a has also heard my son". Laban felt . in her hard labor. and take know that Rachel had stolen them." She my affliction. "God has judged me. but his father buried Benjamin. and sat upon all about the tent. the have son. and have prevailed". So Rachel died. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben." them. saying. for she said. but at a very heavy price: Gen. and she called Simon.' and she had hard labor. she envied or her and she said to Jacob. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. she called his name Benoni. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. he has given me this son also". but did not find them. "Fear called not. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. And he went out of Leah's tent. but with a demand for Gen. "Give children. but he did into Leah's tent. And she her father. and said. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. Rachel travailed. and entered Rachel's. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). Bethlehem). 30:1 Gen. 31:32 it. for the way of women is upon So he searched. 30:6 When Rachel sister. said to me. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. And midwife said to as her. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. she reacts not with gratitude. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. "Because the LORD has looked me. Then Rachel said. therefore she called his name Dan. so she called his name Naphtali.

" Then come the pointless cows: Gen. David. the [beautification] in it. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. they first seven fat cows. And the LORD said. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. "Lie with master's me. a youth. was Joseph himself beautiful. Gen. him. Joseph. but all that again it led to grave problems. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. he disdained appearance. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. and said. . . for it. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. and saw and him. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. Deut. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. and had and was handsome. anoint and was ruddy. Nonetheless. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. 41:2 and fat. "Arise. David was beautiful: brought him in. for blood be made pollutes the land. . except can for him the land. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. Abigail: ISam. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. beautiful eyes. but the ill-behaved. he was a Calebite. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. for when this is ISam. Now he he. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. behold. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. the . 16:12 And he sent. and the name of his wife Abigail. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass." ISam. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful.

and pretended to be ill. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. with listen to her. Joab's armor-bearers. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. and left hanging between heaven earth. while the mule that was under him went on. loved her. and told hanging in an oak. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom." of her. whose name So Tamar. But he would not he forced her. "I king). nurse and ministered to him. . and when the king came to see him. and brought her to the maiden was king. Amnon lay down. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. his head and fast in the oak. born to Absalom three sons.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. and found Abishag the Shunammite. oak. the and she became the king's not. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. and she was a beautiful woman. had a beautiful sister. The very beautiful. I saw Absalom hand. 2Sam. "Come. Amnon said to the king. but king knew her . then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. On the other Joab. and being stronger to me. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. lie with her. if I had dealt the will aloof. 13:1 Absalom. he it). "Behold. David's son." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. and after a time Amnon. he weighed weight. 14:27 There were name was Tamar. and killed him. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. he took hold sister. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. hair his head. when was heavy meet on him. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. his foot to the . "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight." with And he took three darts in his of hand." hand. my than she. Absalom he riding his mule. her. David's son. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. from the sole of . that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. Absalom and struck him.

grace you poured upon your lips. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. in let her Prov. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. 33:17 Jer. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. for fair to behold. Eccles. her eyelashes. they seek your life. 3:24 Instead girdle. for themselves: is Ps. shame. also he has put eternity into man's mind. And you. Jer. Men beautify so that gold. when she has done vile . 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. but a woman who fears the praised. therefore God has blessed for ever. baldness. as and when her father and her mother died. A tree from the forest is cut down. a there will be rottenness. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. 10:3 lovers despise you. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. and instead Isa. that is Esther. Mount Zion. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. of perfume Isa. and He had brought up Hadassah. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. is the joy of all the earth. LORD is to be beauty is vain. the maiden was beautiful lovely. 4:30 hair. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. they will behold a land rope. and and do not capture you with Prov. 6:25 far north. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. for of a this is his lot. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. scarlet. Jer. the city of the great King. a girding of sackcloth. and instead of a rich robe. Ps. Esther 2:7 uncle. Esther's beauty saved her people. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. Eccles. instead of beauty. 5:18 Behold. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. for the customs of the peoples are false. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. O desolate one.

beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. I have cast it out. 9:15 that thirst. renown. 27:4 any passer-by. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. cast you to the ground. and its heart was its height. they perfect your beauty. you then exult? The LORD once called you. "Is beauty. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. but they will not do it. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. high Eden envied it. 33:32 And. and your cloth. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. your builders beauty.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. and say to him. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. And silk. Son of man. you ate raiment was of fine linen. offering made harlotry. made they hung Ezek. . and played the harlot because of your . full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . . "But trusted in beauty. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. says the Lord GOD. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. that were in the garden of God. they shall devour and ." I Ezek. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. 31:7 exposed you before kings." Ezek. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. lo. you. and its branches will be consumed. You to regal estate. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. in the length of its branches. iniquity was found in you. 2:15 with goodly fruit". they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. for down to abundant waters. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. . towered proud of Ezek. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. and were in your towers. for they hear young and men shall say. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil.

the next phrase Num. at the door of the tent of meeting. Hoglah. for like the jewels of a Yea. And they stood before Moses. Milcah. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. And are the LORD said to Moses. Milcah. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. Thus. but only a dowry. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. and Tirzah. son of Manasseh. and before Eleazar the priest. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. 20. the daughters have received an inheritance. Noah. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. Machir. 27:4a Why family. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. you shall give them . Num. The names of his daughters Mahlah.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. Had there been a son. Noah. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. and before the leaders and all the congregation. and new wine the maidens. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. and he had no sons. The text continues: Num. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. but died for his sin. Our father died in the wilderness. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. corners of be full like bowl. Zelophehad Mahlah. son of Hoglah. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. saying. of Gilead. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. "The daughters Zelophelad right. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will.

Milcah. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. and Noah.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . then his inheritance to his brothers. they said. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. it inheritance." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. The only. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. And if he has daughter. for Mahlah. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. were married to sons of their father's are brothers.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. saying. however. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. tribe to another. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. tribe. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. Tirzah. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. came near son of Manasseh. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. 'If dies. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. In the case of Zelophehad. daughters of Zelophehad. Hoglah. and has no son. son of Joseph.

This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. in turn. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see. and it is the children who must learn them. This insight. The inheritance is outright and absolute. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. ways must be taught they must be learned. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. be and of the ways. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. nothing is said dowries. Without whole. "just" by the For Job. Of what do they speak? Of the com. the way to bake bread. by the fathers and some by the mothers. as we have seen. beauty." Without these would must be no life. there would be no bread. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. led. however.The Book of Job Job's daughters." clashing for human One said while friendship. They be taught. the way to go out on the hunt. the two refused to mesh. the and all way to These some bury the dead. . Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. men are empty and life is without taste. there and us. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. A small change in a last will and testament was the result." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. of his daughters. there would no way to live as "one of com. and a need of clarity.


Drama, Narrative,
Plato's Charmides
Andrew Reece
Earlham College


Socratic Eros in

Plato's Charmides is
reader multiple

an evocative and



dialogue, offering
of possible




consideration and a



pretative approaches.

Three formal factors





corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates


his interlocutors
term, in this


but fail to formulate


satisfactory definition
posed at

of a



case sophrosyne

or "self-


By leaving

the question "What is



unanswered at

the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed

definitions (as Socrates

does, 175a-c)


to scrutinize the processes of argu


which the

investigation has derailed in


the Charmides


a narrated

dialogue, featuring Socrates


as a participant

in the discus
on the next


but In

also as a reporter of

the proceedings to

an unnamed



casting his dialogue Plato



the opportunity to as

sume the role of

and to evaluate










the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a

dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused

the definitions of

sophrosyne presented within

the text and the complex and

175a). I


of the concept of a approach





here to

the dialogue the


the second and third routes,

responding to
cratic eros.


narrative and


dramatic frame, in



consider a theme not

usually discussed

with reference to

Charmides, So
Socrates tell the

Plato story

prefaces the elenctic core of the


by having

his introduction to Charmides, Socrates


story that


conspicuous elements of and at

an erotic encounter.

says that when




Critias the

before, he had just


back from battle


stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this

and was




able return to


in Athens. He

subject, he turned the


toward the latest

happenings in the
interpretation, Fall


community, asking

whether there were


1998, Vol. 26, No. 1


men who



proven themselves exceptional


their wisdom or



(153a-d). It is

breath both

"what's going

noting that Socrates (peri on in








ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
anticipated this

Plato has



of themes



males would

setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel


lectually by
Lysis, in

one another's presence.


are reminded of the


of the





Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our




established a

link between eros, the desire for beauty,

and philoso

phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not




had he

asked about the

young men,
all of



of them

began to fill the room,


Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin

lovers (erastai)



Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture


common consent the soon


in his

age group. of all




entered, to the

present, in

cluding Socrates,
this youth:

who confides

to his anonymous


his impression

My friend,


am no good at measuring.






ruler when me.


comes to

beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall

age seem

beautiful to

But still,







effect on all the men

present, from the
were a

to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon

him "as if he



154c). Plato's

use of words and

images here is


What I have
a white

translated as "I am


simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
regard to.
. .


. .




eimi pros

was colloquial

for "I

make no extended make

distinctions in


the expression

derived this

meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,

white chalk could not


it is

an appropriate

image here

Socrates is


at a man who seems to


an agalma,

perhaps of stone.


then says that

his friend


who was also

present, remarked upon
was so


and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman

handsome face


whose admirers

temporarily forgot
and a

ual with a

distinctive face



that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the

Drama, Narrative,
metrically inept


Eros in Plato 's Charmides



even while

in the him.

that beautiful youths

admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much

the same to



not convinced that

needed to see




he had


assurance that


possessed, besides his specifically, "a
soul was



stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that



kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to


that part of the young man




guardian, to

any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this



politesse older man

explicit, Plato


heightens the





a palaistra

suspected of sexual motives often

(and it



paidagogoi attend

their sons

approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from

possible seduction.

See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.

At the



by having



up the issue Socrates

of wres

tling-school protocol,



reader aware

that this meeting does at

least have the

appearance of a seductive approach. enough




terms that


could collaborate




to draw

for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.



that Socrates knew a




than a removal of the garments



soul and


McAvoy 1996,




In any event, it worked,




his narrative, telling his among the

proach caused a great ruckus man


pushing his

neighbor aside opted

ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next



to himself. He eventually

to sit between Socrates and




sudden nearness threw

Socrates into


At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who

knew the cure, he looked


right in the

eyes with an

indescribable look

and was on the verge of


me a question.

Everyone in the

palaistra gathered round us



circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
cloak. caught


that I saw what was

inside his

fire, I

was no


myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the

wisest counselor with respect

to matters



of a

beautiful boy, he fawn before

gave the a


advice to someone:


care not to go as a




up like

a piece of

these virtues were often considered a rare combination. "oddness. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. 306b). from sex been Since self-control. if ally exclusive (North 1966. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). at Symp. Charmides. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. an elenctic investigation begun. (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). and it can of that drives a consideration of course. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. Still." p. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. 714). I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache.5 Furthermore. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. with some effort to answer that I did. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. not mutu Pit.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. 507a-c. After tality seek marriage and family. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. 97). important texts on the theme of eros. particularly restraint indulgence. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. 221d).

inward say. pregnant If this is the case. despite body. 210a-212a). then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. and good. Indeed. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. eternal rates beauty (Symp. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. Narrative. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. and gifted soul. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). just as a fawn . have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. like his describes." he says. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). face. to quotation of return Cydias. is. distinguished. but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. someone who is both kotos and. For the second. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. rather than ugly ones. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. at least potentially.Drama. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. certainly will he would never anything ugly. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. least if self-control might presence. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. Like children. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. try to teach the other.

The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done. of citation of the line from Cydias. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers. I caught a fawn in my claws. 81-91. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. For of example. In both cases. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. First. just so do lovers love 165).70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. an pp. Halperin 1985. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. fond of lambs. the aporia has a beneficial element. inversion the expected im age. p. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. in singing. 1978. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. Socrates' (241d). reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. Sim sus ilarly. of which three come immediately to mind.6 Third. Socrates. right out from under hind. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . him to finally renewed reflection. but did not drink its blood. 241e). the perception of their own lack knowledge. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. hunting (Dover. 58. or as a hunter tracking game. with trust in my strength. has not always been recognized as such.

Drama. pursue. when. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. which as a manifestation of anteros. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. a lover might approach his beloved. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. pursuer. perceiving his craving for Charmides. to speak. also reads the text in this way). and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. I thought how fair youth. and devour (McAvoy 1996. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. in which Charmides. or . only if a with the power to momentarily. p." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion." he most likely means Charmides became. he must mean us to go along with the game. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986." you resist me Socrates answers. "don't (176a-d). "So Charmides. Socrates to replies in kind then. who. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. lion. 90. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will. p. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. catch. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. If Charmides' either. When Socrates says. Critias." no one will be able to resist him. also interprets the quotation in this sense). respectively. Narrative.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. If we do. we can see that dialogue. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him." realization of his desire to be Socrates. Another reading. he devoured appetite. 92.

The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. and actually help nurture the Symp.). bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). Soc speak. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. or the entire body charm and the soul as well. philosophos (154e-155a). Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. If is . on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. Socrates' Halperin 1986. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. 155e). This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course.72 Interpretation merged. his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. which cf. will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. someone suitable body. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. but he does not condemn the desires of either party. came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. step. even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. 210a. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself.

the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. 457b).g. and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). and. 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). expands his logos nomoi. From that on on. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. like walking and talking with deliberate. the element of to doing (163e-164d). their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). see Larson 1951). level again. however. he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). Narrative. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. e. showing modesty generally.Drama. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. own" every member of a city. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. (161b-163d). Charmides. In other dialogues. Phil. Rep. possibility. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next.g. (17 le) Socrates. (160d-161b). What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. and goodness (to agathon. "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. as would a so governed. and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. penulti rung (episteme). Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e.

he shows that the notion of the knowl- . itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). especially the Symposium. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. as it turned out.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. Rather. 541-49). If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. As an example. Phaedo. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. 1988. Kahn 1996. ostensibly. here eros. and Republic. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. pp. to topic. Laches. Sadly for Socrates. would not had. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. 56-70. Lysis. pp. vision. 148291. any case. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues.

) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. 154). NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. principles 542-46). like in advising fawn in front of a lion. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. p.Drama. thing. puts 6. that thought the experience. 3. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. pp. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. Alcibiades. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. in the Laches. Cf. 1988. McAvoy (1996. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. p. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. 102. [Cydias] said. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. the Symposium. for example. he "[Cydias] for the beast. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom." someone. in Kahn's work 203-9. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. 82). since he can speak 4. as here. pp. pp. 25. p. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. . but in those works he does not. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. handsome boy. p. p. Plutarch. This recently. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. 54-55. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues." "dates" with conversations. Narrative." this . has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. 2. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. Hyland (1981.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996." measuring-line about such a person. For the 5. not opposing view. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. together with his irresistible passion . 187-88). (1977. Donald Watt's translation (1987. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. 7. so to speak. he also thought. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. by Mahoney (1996. more 184). in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. concern " for p. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. I to resist what had been an this." observation has been p. 73 n. and Kahn (1996. 'Take care not to go as a meat. Jowett 1961. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. (For an pp. 146). 27) and.

1996. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. 1962.. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. 1951. L. "self-control. 1996. Nussbaum. D. 1981.. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Charmides. K. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. T. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. Pp. Hyland.. 1986. 1985. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. 1978. Greek Homosexuality. 1987. In E." 161-204. trans. C. Page. "Socratic Politics Charmides. ed.4). D. 163-209. MA: Harvard University Press. 1988. C. North. J. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. Pp. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. Sophrosyne. H. D.76 Interpretation 9. 1966. 1986. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eng: Penguin. B. Kahn (1996. 1977. 99-122. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. Hanmondsworth. Cairnes. eds. In T. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin." Mahoney. 63-103. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Cambridge. University Larson. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. Plato. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. Pp. 1988. C. It is with Menexenus. p.. trans. Watt. . Oxford: Oxford University Press. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. Griswold. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. 1996. Charmides. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. Ithaca." Dialogues of Plato." REFERENCES Bruell. Saunders. The Collected Dialogues. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. Hamilton H. and Jowett. M. M." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. D. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. Benitez. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. Athens: The Ohio University Press. Kahn. C. McAvoy. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. NY: Cornell University Press." Dover. E. Potae Melici Graeci. 1961. Ed." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203.

He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. was an out-and-out bourgeois. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. was becoming of a tyranny. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. 1 . 26. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. and on prudential about grounds.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. Vol. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. Fall 1998. Like Marx. No. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge. and his himself. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality.

the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. Its force . but treasonous criminals. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. Justice has two different aspects. The law from corrupting one another. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. fight the to rebels using the an law. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. It is. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. there is a strong of as the part of the British. but punishment. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. love of country is a defense foreign domination. rebels. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. Yet. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. A disobeyed be effectual. and foreigners. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. while partiality to whom one's own country. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. the on account of the war being a civil one. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. see his thought and his peculiar genius. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government.78 Interpretation privilege. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. rather than law. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. however. In doing so. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. also the nature of law to be just. who are gland. On temptation.

they dissolve alto of the common idea good. devoid of hope. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. for pursuing peace. public spirited reasons. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. but they have not lost their humanity. (P. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. necessity Although law the common good. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. bringing generality with hate. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. because and piety. they wish for peace (p. In order to maintain the integrity of law. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. a hostile light. Their cynicism and 177). They vitiate their politics. they corrupt their morals. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. Of most all wars. They have lost confidence in justice. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. or rather confusion.5 melancholy are not. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. however. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. when the communion of our country is dissolved. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . Britain's combination. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. proposing a policy.

inconsistently. than law. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. 178). by treating fourth. 179). image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. second. is behaving like who appear tyrant.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. blurs the difference be (p. they take the confiscated cargo. but. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. In fact. by treating innocent citizens inequitably. rather giving it to treasury (p. 178). to enable administration to confine. and then distribute a war themselves. because. It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. The determination infamous action. . Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. 179). because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. the British themselves. proper. Hatred determines the crime. defeat. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. . The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. contrary. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). the guilty justice in four different ways: first. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. in fact. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. The determination a it. to infamy to punishment. as long as it shall think . traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. therewith. third. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. and.

The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. far from making the British godlike. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. both. 181-82). the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. taking their goods. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. After strength not is American should defeats. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. object of their own insults.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. Parliament its proper time and place. that they will become savage. them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. but not according to justice. . tying half dead in England). it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. the absence of justice. 180). it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. 180). It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. therefore. peace. because it is blinded by its own indignation. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. should the ment English be victorious. The accused is. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. tried ac cording to form. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. therefore. rather than the the crime. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. VIII (p. (pp.

by breaking draws the first principle of law. But. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. far from being the opposed to manners. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. 182). because it between citizens. far as he tell. . it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. Burke says general venoms equity. however. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. like the deter pirates. But the British punitive. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. therefore. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. liberty principle. At the end of the war. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. as a life was given in return for a life. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. never mind possible. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. naval men as they were allowed to go free. 184). the worst aspects of the partial suspension. This offense to threat to political liberty. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. this action.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. but its to the corruption of manners. It hardly seems just. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. the limiting qualification. 186). 188). justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. parliament is incapable of such prudence. instead of of taking out the sting. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. to punish the exchanged prisoners. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law.

In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. the attachment to country. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. made the reminds them British feel invincible). might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. he says unknown a reality. The British must doubt themselves. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. of concern But. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. He even speaks as courage justice. He speaks to the consciences. 191). Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. 189-90). The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. Burke raises the the unknown. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. . it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. have with doses of fear. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. dark. despite American defeats.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. be can fore they be enlightened. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. if only through fear. in love of country.

and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. calling for battles which but his servility to it. far from being manly. Far from man's of being cowards. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. pair facing the Brit ish. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. Those in favor of the war. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. show little are content to real magnanimity. rather than to punish and to subjugate. is in the eyes of God and man. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. With the awakening of their interests. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. pride of a coward. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. that it is directed by insolent passion. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. 199). the taxes. states to the . being that crawls on the earth. when in triumph. contending for a violent (P.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. dominion in which he cannot exercise. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. Burke has for his plan. helpless creature. manliness and cowardice judgement. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. actually the hypocritical others. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. any without civil wisdom or military skill. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. they their country. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. order to render others contemptible and wretched. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America.

This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. 195).Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. themselves. therewith. Just a short time . both addresses popular and parliamentary. and be trusted. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. therefore. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. rather than certain tyranny. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. to risk with defeat their own arms. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. the Americans must trust in themselves. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. the Americans are virtually alone. (1774). remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. He is the people doubt Parliament and. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. He is cautious in his blame. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. to be the for the the war in England. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. they must earn that trust. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. cynicism. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. above the voices of many. and Burke shows As things stand. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy.

therefore. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. He is thereby domestic politics. but people. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. The people are. be governed. Par liament must. waves of chance and. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. even though right of they have no representation. (P. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. 207) omnipotence. so as to offend the people. rather than oppress it. beg leave to observe. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. Parliament to tax the Americans. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. he can accuse aggrandizement. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. that it is not will be resisted. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. because the British had suffered defeats. therefore. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. having recently tasted victory. 205). Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. 210-11). The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. I must attend to public opinion.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. when public . The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. granted social rights (pp. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. Now. at best. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. it may be the mind.

politics. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. Compromise If the in the the and reform. however. doing what one wills. and. In light freedom. from. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. like authority. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. as a defense of freedom in general. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace).Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. parliament can no longer legislate religion. 211). and even independence. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. freedom others. . Burke is quick to point out that. through pressures placed on. Freedom is not an abstract principle. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. to be mistaken. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. they embody than parlia ment. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. It requires compromise. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. ment. Parliament must be heard. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. not because of a perverse humor. as it was by the New Whigs. Freedom. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. just in they are needed (p. They practicing (the god of this lower world). then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. religion more the monarchy. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. any more than is sover of eignty. 208). of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. rather theory require tions for injustice.

One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. The British Parliament the authority of a god. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. General theories passions. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance.88 thus. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. Moments authority lived. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. collective are bom from disappointed trust. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. rather than acknowledges the hate. they affection. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. rather than cod ified. the aristocracy. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. Abstract ideas . In abstract theory. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. of man and the absolute hand. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. thus denying claimed the church. and savage cruelty. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. they claimed to embody mankind. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. because it is a principle of compromise.6 ire of an atheist. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one.

8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. malice. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. horror. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. The Reflections. though in theory. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. greed. guilt. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. the aristoc and monarchy. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. The legislator must whole. In this. broke faith. and especially to science. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. in particular. their persecutors. and the tence. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. They destroy . he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. and executions. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. In not fact. confiscations. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution.

it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. that they ." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. because moderation they are defi must in love. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. . . yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. Like the of the good seamstress. is at their horizon like their horizon. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. humanity (Pp. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. offices.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. philosopher. Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. ranks. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. united them as a people. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. but things. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. God. they from love men too little. they of any interest. . he teaches limits of both. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. nor fanatic visionary. The legislator have of in his soul. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. Their them. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- .90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. though it may paradoxical. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. but in general. It is who are undoubtedly true. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire.

Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry.12 chemistry. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. unique character of Geometry. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . therefore. At best. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. possibility (Reflections. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. like promises proportion. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. cannot recognize the politics.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. the uniqueness of human beings 301). and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. 524). rats. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. however. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. Legislation is deliberative p. in fact. a mathematical order. atomism except by a principle of order. In formative act. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. to have the power of ordering. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. an un geometry differentiated mass. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. and exist in much greater clearness. which of it. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. creating Burke does. Its rebel to be used against them. however. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. they to represent and to secure those interests.

Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. for America had. To the contrary. The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. Burke opposed abstract was against began. then there must be moral . Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. 222). about the parts are at (p. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. 215). inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. developed its own Ideological differences. (P. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. of government. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. If there are to be compromise and freedom. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. By having right to everything they want everything. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. 221). theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. or to an equal share in government. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. to tax in order to restore American trust. such. give repealing the tax.

who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. they are too strong to oppose. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. an Perhaps most important. therefore. however. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. but trust that is called to account and office. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. but. should the people rule. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. rather than connections of its sovereign. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. and a brutality of accepting of political men. satisfy those grievances. liberty. avarice. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. The as are though people dis must. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. The people are the product of the constitution. natural Burke thought the rulers. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. in which it depends. therewith. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations.

history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. It is something to be Although He respected. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. because he never believed is not Hegel's state. rather. force. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. He economics. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. .94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. and beneficence. . for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. however. Burke believed that rational.15 The hidden hand is not. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. mind. Burke never thought reality. The origins are inferior to the end product. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. brings a degree of the common good. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. Contending for an imaginary power. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. . To the contrary.

although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. he is in his self-right eous wrath. 1954) p. Karl Marx. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. 260. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. Capital I (Moscow. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. espe cially in the great. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. so or a misanthropist. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. Unlike Parliament. only because they have elected him. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. The partial suspension. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. His Yet one cannot of visionary. which which he lends credence. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. to foster the love of Furthermore. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. but they can trust him. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. a God. So.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. contains its abuses within it. to be grown in disrepute. he and sought indignant fanaticism. on hand. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. B. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. (P. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. C. Prudence makes the former feasible. the latter necessarily corrupts. disheartened and disgusted.

vol. although ment. CA: Sage. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. vol. 9. 2. 1994]) argument. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. Phaleas'. 164. 1960).: Penguin. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. many other cities. 6. 520. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. pp. tyranny (Thomas Paine. 431-32. 282-83. Works. and three kinds of legal suits. Furthermore. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. his regime on the number 12. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. p. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. 15-16. 1. remind one of the old man ed. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. and the 2. Edmund Burke. jurors and . they both ideas. 1854-89). p. three sections of the city. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. 358. Eng. wore by cheap whole.96 else. Old Whigs. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. 431. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. 4. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. There are three classes of citizens. a more participatory form vol. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. 350-52. 3. 31. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. he denied and the artisans arms. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. page number alone are 3. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. Jackson Bate (Westport. 282-83. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. 7. and to Burke. and by looking at the man. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. 439. attempt 8. 8. The Complete Writ 1945]. pp. 5. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. 279. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. But he did give the any property. vol. 533. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. 10. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. portrait. farmers. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. CT: Greenwood Press. 101. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. 94. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. 382-84. p. in whose 6. vol. Politics. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. 2. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. vol. ultimate differences. In from looking to the number three for order. Glorious 1984). pp. pp. In desire to know nature as a whole. was cited within the text as Reflections. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. pp. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. but according to his fancy. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. W. and the 7. p. of govern 3. Works. Hippodamus models three. pp. vol.

of Chicago Press. trans. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. vol. 470. is taken from Montesquieu. 1993]. thus making an who improved the law. susceptible of of infinite improvement. . Like Burke. because he thought it made prudence impossible. 1. rather than action. 432. as opposed to natural rights. as in the French Revolution. pp. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. p. vol. 1984]. 1987]. for men of action are often. pp. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. 1954). case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. 6. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. that its authority depends habits of obedience. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. pp. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. p. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. 294-95. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. 1991]. 1. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. Reappraisal. Works. 1949). Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. pp. In the Spirit of the Laws. 348. of Chicago Press. 1965]. p. vol." the ruling majority and 14. Science. vol.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. Canavan. 77). 406-7. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat.237). Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. not simply its evident usefulness. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. 431. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. NJ: Transaction Publishers. Thomas Aquinas. 15. who lives according to the actual. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. rather than the presumptive. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. 13. He honors for those individual judgement. Works. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. 331-33. sanship. pp. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. the man of actual virtue. Canavan is for Burke life. and even expected. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. When questioned. 2.9-10).149-52). Thus. 29. against abstract doctrine. (Harvey Mansfield. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory.


In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. The first crests at the end of Song. but to those whom he "the wisest. therefore. 26. In the second. 5. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. Vol. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra." In interpretation. it is incoherent.1 As readers of the book. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves." Preface. 1 . is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. Beyond Good Evil. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. to interpret this drama. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. 289). as it stands. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. "deepest.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. No. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. but are inseparably It is joined. argument and action. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. . . Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. Fall 1998. the truth observation surface.

like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions." But this his means "to be again.4 If Zarathustra is human. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. however. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue. Overburdened by its superfluity. This under persuading live. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core.. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. but as such to be more than human." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. he is met with incredulity. therefore. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense.g. the superman. however. however. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue." this account. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. then the distribution. ridicule and hatred.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest." however. the will to power proves to doctrine. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. he and wishes to "go down" to again. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return. e. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. therefore. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise." 8). he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer. It. of accordingly. Appealing directly to the multitude.

calls "praiseworthy." holy. since. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. all of of good and them. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. the apparent: he believes that he is in being." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. its things. root cause of all the will to power is the things. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. according to Zarathustra's understanding. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. em but rather what good and evil. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. That is to say. . which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. one Afterworldsmen. including his soul and mind. as Zarathustra calls him. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching." 9). agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. therefore. Persians. speaks to man only being. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. the Still. The first of this wisdom will to power. acting in the light of its truth. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. activity stands the legislator or. however. the people. Behind the creator. he insists. in the Aristotelian phrase. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. according to Zara thustra. law. despite their variety. the first." "will to for the first time. But being." Here he that if be made to speak. in accordance with its law.

law that is. to creating creators. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends. Zarathustra. therefore. longer disciples. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. overarching then. a law that is. It is this than human. therefore. it were. nite laws. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist.102 We Interpretation see that. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. that he cities of men. That the related political and aspects of claim. as it were. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. but rather fellow creators. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. divine. At the close of Part One. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . indicates. according in what to Zarathustra. is Zarathustra's goal. the coming to be of the superman. in Zarathustra's own words. perhaps. the to power.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. however. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. to a Virtue. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. believes. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. but identity between them. To create great endeavor. however. human beings seems necessarily is.

reveal himself to a his career. a natural law. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. Zarathustra will. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. At this culminating moment hind his veil. "the Great stand Noon. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. while bringing humanity first time." 3). as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. as it were. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. will creators. create dom and. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it." 3). but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. but animal gods are and superman. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one." 1). saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. It almost goes without fails is the question. it and as well." things. therefore. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. Accordingly.

but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. This interpretation. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will.104 Interpretation so ing The that. of latter. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. What and grotesque of a devil. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. however."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. to be absurd. appears independent inquiries. In "The Child which a child his disciples." in other words." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. his venom. Nonetheless. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. as Zarathustra has argued. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. rushes his teaching. of course. the distribution of his author." of first half his of Part Two. however. Neverthless. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. of course. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth.

this condition with another. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. to establish a community of and reciprocity. therefore. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. disciples and. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. consequently. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. that is. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. Moreover. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. that is. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. made clear through stands following reflection. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). Creation. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. as through such distribution cre like himself. On the other hand. therefore. On the one hand. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. therefore. the com incoherent in its own terms. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. It . Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. and this is men. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other.

how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. with his wisdom. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. and the desire for revenge within his soul.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will. revenge. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. but by self-mockery. As he puts giving. spite. As "The Night Song" predicts. ("On the Giving Vir 1). self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame. compatible with the moral law insofar tue. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law." Consequently pedantry. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. wisdom. he is in useful a state of aporia. the punishment or desire for soul. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. consequently.

elaborating of the beautiful. and the good. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. He cannot painful beyond endurance. since. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. Accordingly. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. that false horizon now of the is. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. the just as final political order. and that. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. all human community established upon the basis of the law. therefore. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. 381). ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. therefore. That is to say. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. in which the just is included as false appearance. that understood need on is. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. of the rational good. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. Thus if in Part .

" it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. Nevertheless. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead. Zarathustra blames his failures position. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation.. That is love were to say. the longing for revenge. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. As is his habit. consequently. envy. Zarathustra's primary opponents. fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble").108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. happy. In other words. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). "enemies" however." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. e. that is. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. and however. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. however. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]).g.

Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. manifests itself in an infinite becoming.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. For the will. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. spite. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. he realizes. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. The greatest good. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. he says is. in expressing its or unlimited character. As a conse good and evil quence." again and soon and. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. however. Without himself being aware of it. in the infinite power of the will. "the good. Be that it may. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism." Life. he also concludes that any particular vice. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. therefore.

for. in clinging to his its freedom. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. himself to purchasing his its first principle. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. naively (The Gay Science. good untouchable. as the highest good. destruction of values as its Accordingly."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. necessarily the greatest evil." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. ." as a form of artful play. the creation of values. It is. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom." he describes himself depths. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. . he . If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. But the "values. of course. wisdom and will and And." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. law or or as he it there. from opposites. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition." 2). to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. will's "sublime" character good. the false perspective of the moral law. Ecce with all that was Homo. his desire for happiness as he understands it. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. the destruction of values. the possession of wisdom.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. 382. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good.

Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. its fundamental incoherence. Zarathustra In other gives dren. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. This fellow thinker is name within the work. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. As we have already observed." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education.207a)." as he calls it. think through. but ultimately to the generation. of another like himself. Zarathustra himself has done. He listens carefully to these speeches.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. in new doing so. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. help lower level than his The reason for this . As in the case of sexual intercourse. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. however. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. in some indefinite future." "now I love only my children's land. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. Plato. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer. Symposium reproduction of his own good. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. to the end of reproduc words." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. and.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. his old moral teaching. comes to understand the implications self. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. with caution and of subtlety. therefore. and create engendered." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. he values the admittedly political community. truth. demolish it.

his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. everything That is to say. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. everything is one. In his dream Zarathustra has . but rather a all efforts of creation and was. Zarathustra the Third. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. as it were."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. Nevertheless. In words. just the prophet had predicted. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. but in terms of knowledge as well. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will.. therefore." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. despite the in some to this region of the dead. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. therefore. the future continues way . bursts open.. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. Consequently. Thus. become the "night-watchman death.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. however.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot.

Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. the peoples must of Yet. . at least at this point. of therefore. not to willing all of the past. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. however. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. then.2). Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. the Machiavelli. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer. From this low point. 1. namely. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. Zarathustra. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. This insight is cause. If. but to willing this willing. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. Dis courses on Livy. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples.

according the Zarathustra's current understanding. in which it may be willed. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . therefore. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. must past and Accordingly. . . Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. however. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. namely.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. "O Zarathustra high. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. saying. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. being is an Accordingly.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. Thus. The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. . but every stone that is thrown . its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. however. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. eternal return of . In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally.

This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return. nothing be profitable." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. paradoxically.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. . despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it. of It is. that was my disgust at all creation" existence. the life but is in creative great effect of in. .16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. the of the ." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . into my throat. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man . that is. as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. knowledge would Thus. the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. "foreseeing" longer man."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. 21). all would be one. as Zarathustra now describes it.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. freedom will at its peak. but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. of sickness" therefore. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it. the that has crawled his throat. The presence of the low not only persists human life. choked me and crept . At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of ." Moreover. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away.

21 need. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. of "justice" "freedom. but. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. Finally.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return." revenge. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. its law and sway of the rabble." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. in Part Three.e. is in accord with reason. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . the will and its desire for and i. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant. the thought of the eternal return developed. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being. on the one hand. and that genu knowing will. however. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. however.. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. of not be given. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. love and. Far from having escaped the its justice. namely.

" Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. however. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. Tablets. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. Preface. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. It points to the Seth Benardete. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. parodies "wisdom. 4. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. 7. 10. and therefore of being. 8. 23). On the simplest level." 3. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. Behind the 6." 5. also see Ecce Homo. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. appears to offer a 11. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. Writing"). stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. University of Chicago Press). 202. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. Beyond Good and Evil. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. in that irrational. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. 4. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption"). 153. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. Of course. 1888. In Part Three. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. p.22 upon in his wanderings. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. 9. See "On Cf. Zarathustra. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. Cf. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1.

" 360-425 and Bacon. ed. therefore. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds." 1 1. 15. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. Odyssey. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197)." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. IV. Row. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil.'' Great Events. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. 14. 1935]. what 53-54. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. trans. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. 1988). that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. 17. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. Vol." "The Truthsayer. as man. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. . Matter. namely. lacking . 28-31. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. It should come as no surprise. Cf. 13. 1984). The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. . II. Homer. XIII." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. "The speech Self-Overcoming. The Wisdom of the Ancients. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. 23. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm. 12. overcoming of need." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. pp. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and. or Zarathustra. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. as god. Unfortunately. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. Zarathustra's p. "Proteus. it would require "something double. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press." 16. but only on that of philosophical writing. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well.

" Having pears by chance. namely. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. therefore. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. . she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. (Speech of 7 June. "Fame and Second Sailing. 152 and 192. 29. for the smallest just. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp." merely by looking into each other's faces. 283-85. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. "All Song. She power. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence.'' for every is an afterworld. therefore. 3. on account of his 227). sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. p. bridge. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. 36 and 87. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. 289. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. vertu' 20. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. Preface. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. p. 40. Robespierre. 1990). 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. 30. If both Zarathustra and." and 22. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. Sunrise. 1794)": Daybreak." also Dancing 4. Unfortunately. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. pp. above all. To every soul belongs another world. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. Song. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return. Zarathustra Socrates' 3." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. the ill-constituted. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. however. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully." 21. and The Gay Science. Seth Benardete. 264). characterizes world following that terms. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. 27.


x + 285 pp.95 paper.. Michael E. greater notoriety. No. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. Leslie Paul Thiele.. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press.95.50 paper. Caputo. Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press. $49. 1993). 26.50 Hans Sluga.. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). In this essay. Fall 1998. Philosophy. xv + 232 pp. NY: Cornell University Press. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. this century comes to a close.50 cloth. Politics. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. $19.95. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. University the Polity. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. $33. even to the point of at "apologetics. $15. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. xii + 129 pp.. Tom Rockmore. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. 1992). 1 . xii + 263 pp. Julian Young. Heidegger. MA: Harvard University Press. $19.Review Essays Heidegger. + 306 pp. $47. $49.95 paper.. Berel Lang. Zimmerman. Indeed. 1993)." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision. Vol.. xi + 234 pp. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation.50 cloth. 1995). $15.95 paper. xi + 382 pp. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press.. 1996). Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. 1997). $14. 1990).

we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. Unlike Zimmerman. In order to discern this tendency.g. is . they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. daeo-Christianity. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. Although Farias champions this position. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. e. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. however. Given this historical archaeology.. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. As bridge between reject discover. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. Rockmore implements criticism. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. politics. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust." in Heidegger's Crisis. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. In the process. of and Derrida. for example. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. namely. Lyotard. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. One point example. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. which also exemplifies historical. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence.

the Polity. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. e. Being and Time (1927). inquiry. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. already the publication of his magnum opus. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. Philosophy. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. As Zimmerman. Nazism. II. Caputo. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. As poignant as revelations were. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany.g. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. Even been prior to Farias' book. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. This work.Heidegger. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . ethics. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. indeed. In this work. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. then practical concerns. of ethics and politics.. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. hence. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. The Farias' effect of revelations. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. however. raises.

" the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. xxiii-ix) Jews. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. is of political which things. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. On the surface." nature. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. Interpretation . The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. i. but the of technology. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion.. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism.e.' he did not mean rational calculation. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. of "enframing. By 'thinking. and the end of metaphysics. pp. 84). were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. . As Zimmerman emphasizes. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. That is. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. Heideg instruments of technology. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy.124 '.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. the which unique forgetting of being. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. As Zimmerman states: . spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. the our need to day. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology.

But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought.Heidegger. Consider Heidegger's . it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. conflict and resolution. but instead blood and instinct. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. . Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. Not surprisingly. 127). translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. Unfortunately. harmony from strife. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. philosophy and politics. As reactionary modernists. p. recast Going forward. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. (P. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. . that is. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. 84) In the end. what the Polity. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. On the one hand. domination humanity and nature. frenzy and violence. Holderlin. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes.

Only by possible a shepherd. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas)." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. the scandalous comparison culture . Caputo. . The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). and temporality. thinker. love otherwise absent facticity. . The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. 207). self-affirmation. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. (Lowith. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. in must emerge "singular. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. and heroism. As Caputo indicates. including care.g. love. . charity. the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. in his stark concept of Dasein. e. . The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. According to Caputo. the dissident (Derrida)." community. Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. 73). Ironically. baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. . truth. 72). in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. the categories of tenderness. In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. become 68).

than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity.Heidegger. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. Rockmore. This distinction becomes important. 74). 54)." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states. National or no important. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. there is no. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. In Heidegger. namely. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. Philosophy. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. and that. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought.. the Polity. Because Rockmore way. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. for Rockmore "hero.g. 54). as Nazism. roughly speaking. stance. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. III. "What I call the 'official' view students." Heidegger's philosophy (e." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. . Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. however. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. link (p. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought.

the professional and the thesis (p. Ironically. . philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. of illumination and blindness. philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. the public and occasional" the private. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. Lang ger history (pp. Of course. In Heidegger's Crisis. 5-8). the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. but the intellectual others. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. freedom and necessity. The "tragic question then becomes. insofar as the and then. 100-101). 5). but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. In Heidegger's Silence. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger.

But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties." forged through the will. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). Arendt that he quali Marcuse. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong..g. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. 245-48). the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. but what extent a political crises of of the political. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. setting institutions the decline. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. and the possibility of law. IV. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. Mill and Kant. for most critics construe these . Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. action. a process occurs. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. an opportunism "timely. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. 22). Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. in the 1930's. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. be translated into any specific may For example. And ger's while one may try vision. community. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. 19). Indeed. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. a voluntaristic sense of prevails.Heidegger.

The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. factic plane. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). in order that one to the dilemma in question. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting.). his commitment to National Socialism. vious. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. however. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. a Heideggerian politics must confront." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. alien to all reduction to the uniform. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary..130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. In many respects. As our discussion of the previous . Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin. While this most problematic.g. it would a type of action irrecon (p. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. e. 35 ff. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit).

Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. 38-41). but Wolin. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. books the Polity. Moreover. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. which claims In ogy. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. Farias. 104). Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. 41). Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. instead. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. in regime. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. if it does their objections. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. When joined Young's solicitude. 50). Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. 125). a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p.Heidegger. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. Rockmore. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. Philosophy. Young. In Heidegger. provides According to Dallmayr. is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. 79). not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. Young argues that Heideg for the other.

that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. 48-49). they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. that is. 198). simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. that moral emphasis on can (pp. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. of light the opera Thus.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. is that the power which permits political participation. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. however. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . if government as fully we articulated. facets as as Thiele indi cates." Correlatively.g. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. In words. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. "tolerance" namely. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. the between logos and community. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. As Arendt suggests. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. language. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. What Heidegger recognizes. Western democracy. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. e.. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. the nexus of politics. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. namely. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. p. namely. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it. 81-83). In this way a community develops. As Thiele emphasizes. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him.

another the Polity.Heidegger. While Yet. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. controversial. . 86-100. 128). p. and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. The arbitrary. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. censorship. politics. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. even solicitous of.) is iconoclastic. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. Literally. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. 60-63). means or "place in on such opposition. it Sluga. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. . 167). Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. . thrives within a polis the greatest importance. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. philosophy flourish only it is . Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. 16). will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. 292). 5-12. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations.

GA 24. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Jean T. GA 31. Hannah. no. Blitz. 1989." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. University Press. 1958. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. New York: Paragon Press. Trans. Truth. Trans. Trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. de Beistegui. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. Heidegger the Trans. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?.' Assertion of the German University. Bourdieu. London: Routledge. and Gunther Neske.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. Ithaca. Peter Collier. Political. . Palo Alto." Gary Steiner. no. Trans. 1958. Jean-Francois. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. Dallmayr. Lisa Harries. Kettering. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. Kovacs. when such a pp. 1 (1995): 111-86. on the words responds to this contrary. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. The Other Heidegger." Time Journal 14. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. Martin. Silence. CA: Stanford University Press. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. Andre Michel. no. and Farias. Karl. 15. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1990. Victor.. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. Heidegger. 33. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. New York: World Publishing. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. 1981. 2. Emil. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. Pascal. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. The Human Condition. In this spirit. Heidegger and University Press. "jews. and 1995. but. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.). philosophy of its task. New Haven: University Press. "On Heidegger's Lowith. Wilde William Kluback. Mark. 1975. Pierre. 1982. Ed. 1991. NY: Cornell David." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. 1990. George. 1 (1991): 1-611. John." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. 1993. 1962. " Lyotard. Heidegger. Miguel. Marcus (ed. Johannes. Phil Temple University Press. 1998. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. Richard Wolin. 35). Fred. Perhaps this time think.

Frank. Socialism. 1992). no. 24.. and Alan Rosenberg. and Ethics Schalow. Freedom. eds. Trans. 1. Petzet. Bloom University Press. Alan. 1993. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. "A Normal pp." University of Chicago H. Chicago: Politics. Zimmerman. ed. Schurmann. Safranski. Trans. 11-24. 2 (1993): 121-39. Thomas. Richardson. Reiner. Heidegger Jaspers. 1994. Common Good. Albany: SUNY Press. "Heidegger's Truth eds. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. Alan M. Trans.Heidegger. and the January 14. New York: Columbia University Press. Ewald Osers. and and Philosophical Forum 25. 1996. Rumor of the Hidden King." 1996. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy." . 4 (1989): 340-55. no. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. William J. Christine-Marie Gros. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. London: Fontana. no. Heinrich Wiegand. 1992. Charles. Blunden. "Resoluteness Ambiguity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. The New York Review of Books. Intro. Sherover. Richard. and Danger. 1994. Hugo. no. Thought. 1990. Pp. Time. The Politics of Being. NJ: Humanities Press International. Van Buren." Holocaust. Sheehan. 1987. and In A. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. no." Philosophical Writings. Quarterly Ott. On ington: Indiana 30-35. by and Kenneth Maly. "Heidegger 27-38. the Polity. 4 (1997): 554-62. 1990. on Free Speech. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. 1998. Nazi. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. Press. Michael E. Charles E. Heidegger and lands. Trans." Scott. Riidiger. John. Origins. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. Olson. C. A. Dallery." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. 2 (1995): 137-53. Scott. 1989. Encounters Parvis Emad." "A Question Socialism. no. Roberts. Albany: SUNY Press. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41.


The Pluralist Game: Pluralism.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. Fall second book. Liberalism and (Lanham. $24. University Press. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. On the other hand. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. indeed could not. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. possess. inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes.. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios..95. Public $22. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. but what it excludes.50. 1995). why it excludes. 1997). Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. No. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. + 126 pp. Vol. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. 26.. The Pluralist Game. 1996). Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp.95. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. 1 . Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Francis Canavan. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. Sandel. Like other pluralisms. Three recent works do both. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism. $16. Rawls's Political Liberalism). Michael Walzer. MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. indeed impossi ble. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . In Canavan's account. Naturally. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. Law society. Earlier American pluralism. In Canavan's account. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. 76). whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. The categories overlap. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. and the relations between economy and polity. As Canavan clearly perceives. pluralism and toleration. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. lost unity of shared. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. however conflictual. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. but or not limited to. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does.

Sandel's alone offers a sustained . The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. but without developing the point at any length. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. hospi tals and social services were injured. schools. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. Understood in individualist terms. These institutions. Yet of the three volumes. A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. Canavan particular. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. to public Canavan notes. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. had helped to flesh out religious community life. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). liberalism. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. individ liberty. it displaced institutions. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. their best. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights.

On the other hand. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. to join in the struggle. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. the state should reduce its direct etc. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. always reflects some moral vision. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. to flourish. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. Groups with spiritual. If anything. Protestants and devout Jews. on pain of contradiction. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account.. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. social services. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. things look neutrality. cultural. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. to make room for such groups in education.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). so vision ought Canavan argues.

As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. of citizens In the liberal conception. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. religious duties. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. the freedom tive. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. When they tion. with others about what is true any or good. People are born for citizenship. others' based have chosen them. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . They natu common affairs. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. this asocial render human good is misleading. ing of Again. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. since these all require description of the self. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. Consequently. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. As Sandel notes. to a solution to these problems. or even citizen obligation. and this goal has American public policy. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. for Sandel and the republican tradition. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. community. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. for instance.

judg Using the legal example of abortion. So Sandel pluralism. In principle. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. a contradiction. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. moral. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. they express. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. respect not follow. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. regarding toleration. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. As Sandel correctly argues. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. and His alternative version the self. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. 20). Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. and promoting. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. not their simple capacity to choose something .142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. prochoice their views for public purposes. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. In both cases." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. Or we could relativize the value of respect. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. community. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism.

Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. Presumably. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. Indeed. or even malicious. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. Arguably. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. That is. be Canavan suggests. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. the same could be said about his ily law. Sandel's order. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. in the nature of (p. With Sandel. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. in general. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. Sandel replies. 90).

since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. Naturally. ought to be barred from running in elections. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. Maclntyre. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. is right say) tradition. (p. this is an omission which pluralism. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. together with leaves intact the current crisis. as an harbor republican hopes. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). To his credit. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. With Sandel. so he opposes a voucher system. Religious parties. . . Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. according to Walzer. Walzer here in the secondary associations. for example. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. 70). of and others. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants.144 Interpretation societies. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. Canavan. and social Where then. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. with early roots in Protestant and English history. 77). In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children .) Nor can we repair to . (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question.

But reading Sandel. .Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus. Altogether then. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces.

The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. 434 pp. Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. French. . Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. Gershom Scholem. Testament Spinozas (1932). in the original languages (German English).. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. and Lowith. marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937)..i VERLAG J. Jacobis (1929). Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996.-). Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). (1921). numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. among Wissenschaft writings. XIV. cloth with dust jacket. H. DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. 1933-1935). Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca.-). B. 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. cloth with English) many important. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). Gerhard Kriiger. Jacob In addition. previously unknown writings and letters. and others published here for the first time. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). XXXIV. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German.

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