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OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
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Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
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herds Nimrod. second or at least reasonable those characters. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. Jewish and Christian. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. Traditional exegesis of these stories. Second. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. associated with and antipolitical. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. Vol. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. interpretation. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. divine or conventional. Finally. and in Genesis 1 1. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. those who are supposed to be First. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. and the which Babel-builders. The thing I wish to argue excuses. Fall 1998. that of the nomadic Third. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. I is wish not to argue that. although intent.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. the Babel-builders. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. in Genesis 10. with superfluous and which arts. antitechnical. 26. the city is connected with land ownership. 1 . the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. the Lord God. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. Nimrod. or even defy. as argue. No. man. in light the Babel project. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases.
I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain. the an which founding of the city. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. legion. the refuse. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. When he sacri Lord (Gen. Cain's very birth is suspect. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. Cain. A. that is. Cain.3-5). Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. according to some of the rabbis. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. 1. In fus ing (they own. 4. his religious performance is faulty. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. I have used tateuch. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. .4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. have all been impugned. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. Augustine's these City of God.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. and I have consulted Specifically. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. First. if the quality is acceptable. fices to the most Thus. Out of antiurban. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. antipolitical atmosphere. Fi by nally.3 or.2 kills the son truly in God's image. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. of the Next. often little basis in the text. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. the first city.
who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. XV. 1. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. and David. Isaac.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. life into a sophisticated. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. Mehujael. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. another a drunkard. says bluntly "Cain.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. (City of God. such as Augustine and Calvin. and them. 255). Those interpreters. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. 1. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. and Lamech are all said vol. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. 29).2). 1. career. God intended with us. and Cain Lamech Metusael. vol. Moses. 2.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. Augustine. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. Noah. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. p. Augustine. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. 8. Calvin on the other. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. Cain's tion: p. 256). The names of Irad. his city and people. says Abravanel. absent from the Biblical text. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. to will return later. p. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. 21). Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. 17. however. Jacob. are supplied by the . Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man.5. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. 8. p. vol. XV. "wicked" "house" building of a city. 192). his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. another choice. One became a murderer. Augustine says nothing negative. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. 153). Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. some rabbis say that he. p. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. 5. but with his hy pocrisy. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. 21).
They eyes. acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. 160). God" at least more carnal in their interests. Like the rabbis. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. XV. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. 237-40). the latter who lived more virtuously. violence and In a more analytical vein. In sum. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Calvin. went about stark naked. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp.). Naamah. superfluous sin. and gifts from God (Calvin. the he founded. of p. pp. 238). Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise.) (which. 2. Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield.). did not yet exist). 217-22).22. his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world.). far as we can tell from Genesis 4. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid.6 Interpretation (ibid. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). and all its connections (with the arts. with political life) fall under a dark shadow. Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. and because of this. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. the op for him the arts are goods. sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. His birth is suspect. like beasts. and 159). Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. duced Seth's line into waywardness. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). 160-62).22). however. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. the former being. In general. with human law making. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. view. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp.
"beginning" is is verb. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. pp. in Genesis Rabbah. p. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. 317). In this attempt.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. here found in the hiphil form. 260). Second. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. XVI. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. 3).26 are said. From the sense "pro fane. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. who 4. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. Esau. . is bad for two reasons. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. 175). 2. they supply other examples of wicked people things. oppressor. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. it is p. too. Nimrod the city-builder evil. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. tried to kill Abraham he was young. which is what persuaded people to let him them. is a deceiver. but mention rather. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. Esau. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. XVI. vol." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. be evil. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. deriving all wicked things.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. he a 10. 60-61). Since Nimrod is a slave. First. so negatively. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. pp. de Rabbi Eliezer. as the-verb "to (halal). p. Genesis 10. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. of course. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer." earth. There is other evidence that Nimrod. mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. p. Thus. to degenerating calling "rebelling. who. that is. 2. 420-21. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. p. he Abraham.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). tyranny (Calvin." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. however. Finally.). his claim to might. ants same Obviously. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. Nimrod.4). he Genesis Rabbah." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. being a mighty hunter. and. 38). man. like all hunters. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. was obviously a furious Nimrod. 174). And. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. the ancestor of Israel. "began" 2.
the lower part of the world. 3." are "rebels. which p. as I will point later. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. The Babel-builders. probably vol. like Abraham. like Nimrod. in an summary. again. and vol. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. 11. (Genesis Rabbah. means. In p. God's people do not rest con move. a city. for idol They filled the sin of pride.8 Interpretation Nimrod. 51). His city. p. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. 2. They they being given the earth. First. In any case. therefore. and Jacob. Calvin Calvin.4). sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. Second. 324). with the upper part. for two reasons. XVI. at signifies also that they made an on 261. the Lord. which. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. bad scent. pp. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. 260). as one might expect." "and this they begin to which. 1. vol. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. according to Genesis 10. for they p. to displace him. do" translated into rabbinic. being settling and building in "settled. right motives. "Settling" is moti vol. was the area of his king dom. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. p. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens." but are on the 50).4. vol. Isaac. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. do. and. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. want 2. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. 2. . There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. as in the case of Cain. 2. could hardly him have Urban life. needless to say. heavens. too (Genesis Rabbah. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. the the Ham line. 49-50).
they God's murderers. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. which. the arts. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. More generally. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. rejection of God. The city cannot provide for security against death. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. Ruling comes from Nimrod. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. and the rule of with human beings by others. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. They story. is grounded in folly. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. without God's help by They purely human means. in order to establish the stated. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life." us make "let build city"). and tyranny over others. then of Seth. B. in criticizing the Babel-builders. is inferior to the way of the Politics.3-4 ("let brick. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. but to conspire against and a God. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. Nimrod. being Esau's way. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. The the city. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. says Abravanel. Abravanel thus. is ated. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. The city. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. They are from the wrong lines. or rebels against God. are proud.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. heir of a slave. political which go with cooperation. then. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. who defined man as a political animal. 4. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. God's do not need the political life of the city. if the materials they supplied were . sinners. hunting. only God can do these things. Abravanel argues. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text.
the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. believe. Shinar. and so on. even without the extraneous material. and would maintain this even reasons. and Babel. again might not be bad in itself." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. There are Nonetheless. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. Sec that there is ond. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. since Lamech fathers sons who are . When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. for two First. they in the Biblical text. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. Nimrod. when they assert without philological "idol. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. however. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. The interpreters have already decided that Cain." they ask us to accept too much on faith. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. far beyond this. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. all interpretive control is lost." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. they are merely the justifications. however. and enough reading. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. more relevant interest. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. to the fact that by Nimrod. but some of fetched. Augustine's most claim that translators. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. Some of the claims are errors. point. For example.
is feeble. he infers it in infers. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. undertook the Babel project on his own. Ham's son. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. hardly closer the model of the political man. And settled farmers (like Cain. text with uncharitable motives." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. and that the city to protect him. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. Further. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated." Again. execution. that Cain had a says justify God. in a parallel manner. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice." The interpretation same such is. Nimrod. The hunter is the loner. the city falling to his arrows. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. since not Ham but facts that do not fit. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. if God will then. further. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. rather. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. the entire race. They they are by the farmer. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. which makes "children men.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. the hunter is less violent. Babel but not in the case Cain. If Israel is not wicked . because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. or that he ordered the people him. too their sheep. Abravanel. Augustine all lifestyle. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. out of the desire for a name. How. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. is cursed to in Genesis 9. these are nity. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. In fact. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. Further. tilling it. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1. (9. Ham. Abel. the "nations. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. 13). without Thus. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. among Japheth separate violence. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. There is another interpretation. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. is. In this new creation. if we are watching a new creation. Ham." earth becomes peoples of common nations." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. cities a son of Shem. the between Cain nation. in the east. amicably dividing the world themselves.1-7). suggests in which one will rule over many. the goodness. in this overspreading. One wicked one. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. which are life. families (mishpahoth) Shem. for the laws of God (Gen. which relied too much on we are innate human told. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. the city arises. whenever the tribal or them. the migrating offspring of Shem. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. The next a region called in Shinar. the new creation as it were. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. Abimelech in Genesis 20). whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. Thus. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. 9. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. The first cities are or comes to rule. This time. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. must not conclude. built by Asshur. which had no such structure discernible. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. something is added: God gives the first laws. and since they too are related. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. however. they occupy it as they were meant to. therefore.1-7) to be enforced." Asshur. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood.19). will have a legal dimension absent from the old. The new begin ning. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. Recall that in Genesis 9. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. Since.
the order of creation. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world.8) and before the Lord (10. in fact. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. may not be pretty. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. least some of the nations which legitimately source. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. did the mighty men of old (6. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. I would suggest. first hunter. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. good. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. by God's . men ruling men). At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus.23-24). Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. of a any more. as did Cain (4. Nimrod became famous. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. Nimrod. then. basis to nor of an adjective alone.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. Finally. one must conclude that cannot as such. at overspread the earth at least potentially. from the above discussion." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. kings are one possible source of law. unlike Lamech's. Kings may (I Samuel 8). but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate.4) or the Babel (1 1. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. strained passion. For these reasons. how to be a "hunter. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod.4). but human for up as prey beings. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. city building. condemn be evil. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. vulnerability to random killing). Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. we must ing was Lamech's. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. and so did his empire.9). I represents a political would argue.17). In this context. Nimrod does not boast about himself. In important respects. and as did Lamech (4.
settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth. The 11. aim spreading master to many spots. He. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. They want live. in the Babel there features grant. among these Combs and Post point out." of perhaps educated obey God.4). too. united brotherly love.28). and he. to obey God. They one spot. if it and was a sin. God at the end of purpose. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. be was afraid of safe. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. is. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. in a its top in the heavens. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. that is. They "scattered. The "sons men" Noah. It "scattered. Regarding this story. I think. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. 428). in one place. speaking one language. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. The with sin of the Babel-builders. something." is only fitting. and enjoying the earth. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. They heavenward (11. Further. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. Rather. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. then. of super-city with together. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. wants them to the earth (1. scattered. I certain turn to the Babel story.5). built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. as of (11. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. and Augustine. the descendants of Flood. close even antiurban exegesis. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. the language of mutual entreaty. process. case of Babel is not exactly typical city. Finally. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam.4). like Cain's. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. too. Babel-builders is. is by Calvin. The their cautiousness. No one people (which is why I would con- . His proj may be ambiguous. it to be a certain un populating. God wants them to move outward. p.
only language that exists should If the only state. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. the situation be irreparable. would God." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. they do not even mention him. a permanent essence which. and themselves. In Genesis not allow of 11. then.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). as it were. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. The forms of govern men" ment. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. and powerful cities. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. good which so I think is the one correct one. God. the "sons of will founding "nations. The or reputation earn. were tribal and monarchical. no possibility of the living. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. unified world-state. hold them together in Shinar forever. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. It is true that they wish eternity. They do not wish to God. wanting as is fact. "name" necessarily an improper desire. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. are not malicious. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. built. In Genesis nized 10. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation." a and that this may indicate worldly pride.7 overthrow "name. unified world-state. speaking. however. become corrupt. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves." of that is. the nation sired by Abraham. Cain may have been proud of his city. then. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. In fact. be for . separate peoples. and the only people. they dream. but he was not God in naming it after his son. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. will and to give it. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. however thinking. noble it may be.
arts. 2 vols. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. Rev. Isaac Abravanel. if one wished to put the city in a better light. 1847). The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. In societies other than Israel. 1. NOTES 1. 44-48. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. but these motives were not wicked.6). Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed.. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. . And in one case. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. 150 51. then. vol. Cain's son. was the Babelers were not being scattered. to teach. Cain pp. 158. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. law. 1972). or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. 3. 4. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. Jacob Neusner. XV. p.: Penguin. King (Edinburgh. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. argue that the evils of 1979). and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. trans.) Lemer 1978). as city of Enoch. pp. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. Augustine. (Title henceforth: City of 5. trans. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 2. 196-98. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. 12. or for building great towers into the a heavens. 4. eds. p. and not always the best.: McMaster University. If these people strayed.7. it due to knowing God wanted. 1970). Deut. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. trans. Eng.3. 1985). 256.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. John trans." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. 242. in Genesis 10. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. Robert Sacks. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. John Calvin. trans. because Cain is not so commentators make out. Ont. God. Genesis Rabbah. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. but for purity. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. pp. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections).
I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. S. and to Leo Strauss.20 Interpretation 6. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. which who essay was seminal for them. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. 1988). I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. In a general way. Robert Sacks.. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss." Memory of Peter C. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. 1990). I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. 1987). 1-5. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Eugene Combs. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. Craigie (Sheffield. C. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. MA: JSOT Press. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. . it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. I add that. Due to space limitations. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. 6. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. hence. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years.
hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. 15 She has forgotten that hers. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. interpretation. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. You see. 26. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. Fall 1998. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. John's College. and who dwells city. as if they were not even in all vain. Sacks St. Her toils caused foot can crush them. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out.5 thrive and flourish in the wild.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. Num 3. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. 3 when to give birth to their young. or that a wild beast might trample them down. 1 . They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny.14 wings as if on high. 16 She treats her were all children roughly.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. Vol. meet armed combat. No.
guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. 2Sam. he is there. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. David heard of it. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. javelin. His swill it from afar. Indeed. and See notes to 26. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. although almost as side. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey." a very will complex word." . There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical. 25 but facing battle from afar. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. forever Ner. he said.17 pinnacle. The and single Hebrew word hul. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word."18 Comments 1. making it his stronghold. "I and father's house. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. 3:28 are of Afterward. consume the of their gates. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. it originally meant "to whirl. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. Oh. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. Whenever death defiles. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command." Hos. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. 2. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword.
foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. that book which begins see them dashed. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. Benjaminites did so. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. king. The Book rule. hands anger burned hot. else you would now be guilty. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. neither did you give them to them. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. And to us. Judg. saying." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. Exod. according whom they carried off. and go to the land of Benjamin. and rebuilt the towns. Then. and watch. for the Lord's purposes . Deut. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. the prophetess. And the to their number. too. trembles and writhes The land in pain. and often when first reading the word. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. it Psa. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. and dwelt in them. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. then they went and returned inheritance. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. 15:20 Then Miriam. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. only to the book Judges. from the dancers to their and took their wives. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. the sister of Aaron. in her hand. 23:5 Jer. Exod. Grant them graciously to us.
thy judgments puffs at them. are on high. brings forth rain. your vindication as Ps. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. in visiting the day of birth. But. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. 31:3." English-speaking in this also recognize . They look another. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. 37:6 will bring was forth the light. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. pressed upon Saul. was revisiting the day of his own birth. their faces be aflame. Isa. and ISam. and sin did my mother Prov. as for his foes. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. Ps. it can also mean "to be in labor. in and your right as the noonday. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. I conceive me. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. There is Jer." and hence "to give Deu. For this reason. 51:5 Behold. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. to make the land of Babylon a desolation." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. tempest. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. out of his sight. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. brought forth in iniquity. and you forgot birth. they aghast at looks. birth": as in our case. Job. inhabitant. angry them.
number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. She. This. Here. has never known either burden or rein. perhaps with beyond world. Yet we can all world. and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. before her she was delivered of a son. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. The question is. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. an order for the first time. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. 7. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. rhetorical. 5. the joys of our world could never come to be. dancing. In using such a harsh word. then. fostering in each life to own its signet. It is the whirling. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. of course. 8. 6. pain-ridden. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. To word understand used this passage. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. and are what they are. But quite even Job. speaks to Job. since. How different things Isa. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. are 3. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth.
Small and great. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. female. or a Hebrew woman. is sold to you. And there are other passages. has served you six years. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. great riches. "I love my master. gave no answer. he shall serve six years. but he him for favor. my wife. I will not male or eye's female. he shall serve you six you. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. brought 9. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. too. 15:12 If your brother. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. for nothing. be your slaves. eye of my his slave. . to and the man who and will give Israel. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. to undo the thongs of the yoke. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. his brother. to oppressed go free." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. and the slave is free his lord. ears to me. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. "servant. children. Jer. It is true that. but they were treated kindness: justly and .26 Interpretation Exod. and But if the slave plainly says. male and . all are there. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. that show his concern. so that no one should enslave a Jew." daughter. and like a hireling he waits for wages. years. go out free. and in the seventh he shall go out free. Hebrew man. When a man strikes the . along many others. and destroys it. sake. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. that was true. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam.
both for moved for others. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. are watered bat. The trees of the Ps. I do God rose up? 10. 11. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. the stork. the heron according to its kind. giving it a The signets. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly. the osprey. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. it may seem. each thing can be be what it is. 104:16 LORD abundantly. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. the vulture. Job but. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. The an furrow. the cedars of . Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. is 12..The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. as we shall see. There were always some men suffering it caused. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched." This is the only verse. the . in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. that its us. they and be eaten. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. it requires something like the concept of a signet. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. what of those who dwell in house of clay. of course have been out of the question. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. Even from was within the human sphere.. and them yet he did have ox. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. the hoopoe. it will be a long journey." time. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. ance The farm. not certain what bird is meant. they are an abomination: the eagle. It is generations. "trust. roaming the hills as his pasture." answer can do none of these things. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. five hundred of them.
28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. people crane keep the time of their coming. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. and eyes and saw. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. lest they hold a bribe. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. In them the birds build trees. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. 8:7 Even the swallow. 15. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. ears his looking upon his hands. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. at least it is the can most write about." 13. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. two women wind was in their wings. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. and in the heavens knows her times. character that each 17. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. silly beast. their nests. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. 16. must 14. his place of defense who shakes . and the turtledove. The hawk. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. then. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. but my know Zech. and behold. had been domesticated. who despises the gain of stops oppression. insofar as been domesticated. too. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. he will dwell on the heights. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. when if only in part. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt.
who hold the height I will of hill. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. however. 18. sixth as beast. Look upon every man of him. The cold and more grotesque. 48:28 Jer. 1:3 heart has deceived you. his of water be sure. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. has been defeated. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. 49:16 Leave the cities. and Jer. 13 Bury them all in the dust. in returning to flow off into death. is high. twice. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. but I have no answer. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. the hawk. did for its children all that the charm to do. 14 Then you. for your own right have saved . bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. LORD. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. Bind their faces in would obscurity. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated.4 even would praise you. his bread will be given him. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. you inspire has deceived you. and you must let me know. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. The ostrich. you who your Obad. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. 10 "Go ahead. pride of your whose says the LORD. 5 I have spoken once. me dwelling set say in heart." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. high and the pride of your heart. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. is in the not Job."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. thence I bring down. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. you though your nest says the among the stars. How my hand upon my mouth. bring clefts will down from there. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity.
convinced him that Elihu was right. here is whom I made along with you. "Have you an arm like God's. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. who would plead my case? . his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways. beyond man is no place for a man.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. but he did not." 2. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. or with you to be your eternal his nose. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish. and you will remember war no Comments no answer. God's argument is.9 brook in him. 18 His bones iron." again "asking. and if by court of law.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. hiding in the reeds and the fen. had been what God had wanted. his warning was just.8 21 He lies down the lotuses. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. under and all the beasts of the field play. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". If Job's this not point." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. He eats fodder just like the cattle. confident that the Jordan will mouth.6 of brass. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. and his teaching is not a but an 3. or his head with fishing his head. Indeed. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. He is the mighty one. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. Again it says. I believe. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. But the Tempest will go.
of wisdom Prov. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. . 4:7 The get. his wisdom. . Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. of The LORD acts of old. created me at the beginning his work.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. His praise endures for Prov. however 6. the first 8. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice." in the made masculine singular. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action." "His bones are ducts brass. Man is 7. with you . it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. than the beasts of the earth. dwell in prudence. These do cosmos. behemoth 5. iron. clearly are of mythic proportion. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. . I. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. fools despise and whatever you instruction. is this: Get wisdom. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. however. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. are all who teaches us more The verbs. of It is. being lous nor mythical. Prov. however. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. "Behemoth cattle. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. get beginning insight. "laugh" or . Compare Ps. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. God is joking. Appropriately enough. and I find knowledge of and discretion. 8:12 .
way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. But from the Gen. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. The half-mythic. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. "After I have my husband is old. a and said to himself. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. saying. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. now that and say. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said." Joy and happiness are another matter. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. He finds Thus. There is. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . Gen. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. I fear. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress.32 9. "No. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. is usually translated "oppress. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. 10. 17:18 is ninety years old. child. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. tyrannizing river. making it his drinking foun tain. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. and you shall call his name Isaac. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen." looking at each usage. however. that she had laughed. "Why did Sarah laugh. for the pounding. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play.
not 33 appointed time I will return to you. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. Then came the golden calf: Exod. up to play. for she was afraid. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us." a But Sarah denied. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. and rose your And the LORD said to people." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. 21:6 city. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. playing her Isaac. have corrupted themselves. and the people sat down to eat and drink. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. "I did laugh. every one hears will laugh me. "Up. his marry his daughters. he with me. "The Hebrew servant. but certainly the betrayed him. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. saying." the But he seemed to be jesting. "Go down." and Sarah shall have son. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. whom you brought up out of the Moses. "No. son whom she had borne Abraham. in the saying. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. came "See. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. And Sarah said. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. Gen.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. in to me to insult me. you laugh". came have brought among us. for land of Egypt. place. and I cried out with a loud voice. 26:8 also was actually doing. Next . He said.
"Call Samson. They made him stand between the us. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. so down together. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. 2Sam. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. David. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. who chose father." pillars. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. at Gibeon. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. but they laughed them to scorn. 2:14 And Abner us. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh.34 Interpretation Judg." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. and he made sport before them. and he died there beside the God." said to Joab. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great. by them I shall be held in honor." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. Israel." has slain his thousands. "It was before the LORD. for the oxen stumbled. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. "Saul thousands. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. before the LORD. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. And in his each caught arise. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. the abased and above all people of the his house. and mocked them. they said. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. . "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said.
so is the laughter of fools. a time to mourn. "I am only joking!" Prov. Sorrow is better than laughter. and wine gladdens life. there is no quiet. 3:4 to a time to weep. wisdom. and death. is vanity. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. however. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. 7:3 Eccles. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. 1:26 Prov. Prov. Ps. 10:23 beside him. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. like a master workman. firebrands. for he sees that his day is Ps. all the him. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. the LORD has them in derision. I will mock when panic strikes I. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. and money answers everything. Prov. Selah. . Prov. Eccles. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. Prov. Strength and dignity her clothing." and of pleasure. dwell in prudence. 2:4 Ps. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. rejoicing before him always. and shall laugh your from of the at living. and a time dance. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . for Eccles. closer to what we finds another strain. arrows. the fool only rages and laughs. wicked. saying. 59:8 But thou. at them. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. "What use is Eccles. 14:13 Prov. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. at the but the LORD laughs coming. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. and I find knowledge and discretion. it?" Eccles. Jeremiah is not quite the same. also will laugh at your calamity. and I was daily his delight. dost laugh nations in derision. 8:31 Prov. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. he will snatch and tear you tent. and a time to laugh.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. "It is mad. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. O LORD. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. 2:2 I said of laughter. and fear. 8:12 . 31:10 . Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. laughs at the time to come. I you. .
I will heal. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. I have become a laughingstock the day. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. Jer. I will make them honored. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. multiply them. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. Zech. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. When her . because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. and have compassion on his dwellings. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. and your wounds Jer.36 Interpretation Jer. the we were like those and our dream. and they be be few. says LORD. Then our mouth was with laughter." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. nor did I rejoice. thou art than I. 48:26 "Make him drunk. and I was deceived. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. thou hast deceived me. and thou hast prevailed. Was thieves. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. I and the palace shall stand used to be. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. however. Jer. shall not small. I sat because thy hand was upon me. But he also has another notion of laughter. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. and the voices of those who make merry. then they among nations. every one mocks me. him and he too shall be held in derision. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. "The LORD has done things for them. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. I did alone.
innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. for it Hab. made him all his trouble. every fortress. whose it. guilty men. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. Mark 5:40. 3:14 Ezek. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. for they like the wind and go they make sport. if to judge by different from the others. and every green thing is his to search out. but hills as his pasture.The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. and there was her. the a side which had always been a part Job and. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. But there of was another side of we are laughter. Luke 6:21. The much subject was and bound to come up. and of rulers At kings they scoff. none to help her. Job the outcast. mocking at her downfall. 1:10 contains much. 9:24. a simple. Lam. Mat. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. 25. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. James 4:9). laughter in the Book of 8:53. and does not even hear the drivers shout. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. . and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. the burden of their day says long. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace.
continually changing their clothing. "It is I. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. On this question. the brother. their iden tity. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. 1 :26 and Then God said. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. Eliphaz once had he has seen. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. At one first. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. . Yet it is Lear shadow"." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. and over every of the . To that extent. as we put have from the ostrich. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. . and one of the things he learned. of nature. 3:8 and 13.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. this relation is seems to Dane. and over the birds air. Hamlet. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. Job has come to learn from nature. With Job. and even their sex. Some English translations 12. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. "Let us make man in our image. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. and over all the earth. mountains yield him produce. wings on high. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . and over the cattle. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. after our likeness. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. at fear and is not dismayed." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. Job has come. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. but not to it.
earth. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. But it is not the same. is not a world and 14. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh." It should be noted that both words. to the house God Jacob. In many Isa. and they shall into plowshares." 39 So God created man in his created him. He judge between the beat nations. sword against nation. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play. "subdue" In addition. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. not as a thing for us. in the image of God he created them. Jer. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. and their spears into pruning hooks. "subdue" "dominate. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. and say: of "Come. but the he must perform now. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. . with harshness. let of us go LORD. to slaves of inherit as a them. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. the and all the nations shall flow to it. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. you may make brethren the another. We cannot divide it up and as we will. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. and God said to them. and over the And God blessed them. "Be fill the earth and subdue it." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. and and shall be raised above the hills. people of sons after you. and subdued them as slaves. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. ways 15.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. the land lay before them. male and female he fruitful and multiply. many of the peoples shall come. but the beyond is not ours. it is only a in which he learn about play. Josh. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev.
nor lance.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. "to or so I believe.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. 14 His strength resides his neck. He is king over all the sons of pride. 11 fire escape. It too. 9 Each closed8 seal. rises up. wait." times. and not a his shields7. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. and terror dances before him. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. or exploits or the grace of his frame. and bronze as rotton wood. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. 17 "When he sion. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. up by a breath between them. quaver. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. 12 From his cauldron. nor They spear. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. could. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. 15 Festoons of flesh. the gods are in dread. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn.'"9 Comments 1. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. stand.2 Do up. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1.13 cast as a nether millstone. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. word mean but along it a sense of dread.18 26 He sees every towering thing. for he was made to dread. fused all together.
which deals with our relation to the world of man. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. apart from their being for us. YaChaL. He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. till they had finished speaking. I rain. We have heard those Isa. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. The first has replaced the second. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. falling silent to hear counsel. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. loose my his hand and cut me off! . that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. on a with. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. I have no higher expectations. till they stood longer 2. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. the Ps. but there came only a murk. That is to say. for something to say. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it.
The comes the root of this word. word 'akf'zar. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. away. But that knowledge rouse may admire. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. in already begun." From it Hebrew So for "peace. and in which he for itself. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. So.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. shlm." 4. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . His his sons were was honored but he unaware. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. One of them reads: give the Lam. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. knew it. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. means "to be whole or word complete. Then the within fifty-two days. occurs which I have translated "brutal. They with were in disgrace. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. You have resigned." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. The "brutal" word seems. Job has nonhuman. like the in the wilderness. mangled never overpowered man. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. The word." Neh. and he has and sent him off. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. and with the might of fact. then. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. but he and His body surrounds him pain. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion.
for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. is to "make whole." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. sell the live on the lift. God sets the wicked to close in men.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. in the however. case. cannot by No one can touch him. it means that the spoke Leviathan." by all to his the scales. and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. "Go. know him from the Here it is taken outside only. If He should pass by and separate or close up." oil rest. then." debt. mean normally In either of means "to shield. unlike Job. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. meganim. The again. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. In that sense. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. dead beast shall be his. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. of. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. however. from the root mgn. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. he pay ox for ox. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. If." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is." 7." importance winnowing kind. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. and its owner has not kept it in. defend." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. It leaves always room restitution. 8. It might help. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod.
dabhaq. ness." away from all other beings. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. 12. But." his completion and perfection. Job has seen the Leviathan. closed entranceway. For the world beyond man. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. has. "signet. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. or constrictive: "stick. from the way. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. and the face of the deep Again. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. For us it is ugly. for the Leviathan." sar. shameful.44 Interpretation One cannot up. At best. flesh. 9. fused (dbq) all together. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. "tight. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. the Leviathan does Job's skin. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. become that which seals it hotam for Job. the list is . but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. complete. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10." all others. in the world beyond man. off. my heart gone after my eyes. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. of murk and confusion." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. as stone. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. tight itself.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
of course. He is value. one more reason for believing tion. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. in itself. 18:27 the Abraham answered. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes." sorrow or Like the English word. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. if one feels sorrow guilt. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not. The root nhm means understood in the text.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. "upon. Also see Gen." to be behind their understanding of the verse." or is. for instance. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord." wenihamti. require as Greenberg does. there seems "to feel deep compassion." but. one feels remorse." one assumes ashes. and repentance." where it "to It is found in Ps. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. 58:8." These passages. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now." and is. however. as . together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is. . "Behold. by the way." and 5. I who am but dust ashes.epher we'phar. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . can establish in the world of the small." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. means "to despise" "reject. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination." meaning to them. Linguistically speaking. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. But to others for something that one has done. have expected but it would not be so . normally as 'el." 'al. that the book was conceived of as a whole. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both. we have returned to Chapter One. "Dust meaning mankind ashes.
yet his soul. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. my brothers and sisters. Gone is the vocabulary. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. Remember Aaron. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. 8. 11. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. living in a nutshell. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. destruction. will consume His be away. .50 Interpretation 1. but . but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. death's first born his members. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. sisters each one on a different with day. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. 10. . Rahab: my father them. 9. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. and Joshua 2:13 . that wonderful woman of the night. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. The world of out to seeing turned has returned." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. and save alive and mother. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. that the moths eaten. them over. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust.
they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. 12. Shechem's father. fodder just like the cattle. not snuffed out the life of its owners. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. three thousand camels. and Zophar the Naamatite. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. Bildad show Shuhite. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. It fell down . We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. but look at the loins. ten thousand of cattle. were another one came in and said. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. it became Joseph.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. strength in his Now. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. What was not possible before has now become actual. inheritance of the descendants 14. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. at the end of the book. His might is in the muscles of his belly. eating joyous unity. Gen. 13. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him.
Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. 18. It is from the words It is a new Job. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking. qesi'a.52 Interpretation the young people." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. keren happuli1: the first two ful. in English. Jezebel heard of it. stones. antimony. of silver. and looked out of the window. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. also called pukf1. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. including the being his 16. came to Jezreel. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. And you. and wood and stones wood. the iron for the things iron. Job himself becomes word yom. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? ." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. Then. and marble. all sorts of precious stones. "cassia. the silver of of my God. too. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. "day. this name? second word. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. Job 3:1 Then. and she painted her head. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. We remember to his friends: his his day. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. O desolate one." are. They are dead. The Book rection. so far for the things as I was able. As such it became. or all the things that a self. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. in the prophets.
And Samuel priest took the rose up. 33:17 ox. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. behold. he anointed. His bull has majesty. for I sons. have Samuel. my derides my enemies. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. salvation. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. hence. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. Then they blew the trumpet." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. It "horn. qeren. Moses' his face shone. and he veiled his power. until in to speak with him. "My exalted in the LORD. My mouth rejoice in thy . said. will give strength his king. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. because I ISam. rays Hab. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. and they were afraid to come near him. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. against he thunder in heaven. tent. and went to Ramah. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. all of them. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul." 53 us look at the first word. to begin at the beginning. flashed from his hand." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. to the ends of the earth. that the skin of skin of face shone. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward.
my rock. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. and the IChron. 89:17 I say your to the horn. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. thou . its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. trumpets. And. 22:3 of My God. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. cymbals. 27:2 be Exod. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. in whom I take refuge. to the sound the hom. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze.54 Interpretation Ps. too. art the of their strength. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. praise all his saints." boastful. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. I have driven my horns into dust. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. stronghold and my refuge. I have for prepared a Ps. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. "Do not lift For thou exalted. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. my savior. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. for Israel who are near to him. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. Often the Psalmist Ps. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people." not and to the wicked. my me from violence. 75:4 up Ps. of course. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. Linguistically. and made loud music on harps and lyres. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. "Do glory boast. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting.
in have to be Song its of Songs. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. so he said. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. so as to not mislead ourselves. And Leah conceived and bore a son. 'This is his wife'. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. we shall have to consider the full list. and his house because of Sarai. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. you are a a dead man. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. "Behold. cluded however. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. because of the woman whom you have taken." "Lord. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. But God sister. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. he opened her womb. he said to Sarai his behold. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. Jacob loved Rachel. man's wife. barren. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. though perhaps somewhat naive man. has a child: Leah knows only Gen." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. saw Gen. Rachel. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. and said to him. "I the will see you. there is also good. to Sarai. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. then they kill but they let you live. 19. will they will say. Leah's soft. for your younger and he said. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. wife. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. Abram's And ultimately. they praised her to Pharaoh. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. We have not. and she . And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. and when . 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. Gen. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah.
and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. And she her father. she called his name Benoni. And he went out of Leah's tent. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. 31:32 it. the have son. and two maidservants. 30:6 When Rachel sister. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. but did not find the household gods. and sat upon all about the tent." She my affliction. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. And midwife said to as her. voice and given me a has also heard my son". But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. but with a demand for Gen. for the way of women is upon So he searched. said to me. but at a very heavy price: Gen. for she said. "Fear called not." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. and have prevailed". Laban felt . and take know that Rachel had stolen them. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. "God has judged me. he has given me this son also". in her hard labor. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). but did not find them. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. saying. and entered Rachel's.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. Rachel travailed. "Give children. So Rachel died. "Because the LORD has looked me. and she called Simon. 30:1 Gen. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. Bethlehem). when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath." them. and said. Then Rachel said. and into the tent of the not find them. she reacts not with gratitude. but he did into Leah's tent. so she called his name Naphtali. therefore she called his name Dan. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. but his father buried Benjamin.' and she had hard labor. she envied or her and she said to Jacob.
the [beautification] in it. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. Nonetheless. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. was Joseph himself beautiful. he disdained appearance. Abigail: ISam. 16:12 And he sent. Deut. Now he he. a youth. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. David." ISam. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. beautiful eyes. for blood be made pollutes the land. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. anoint and was ruddy. . Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. Gen. and the name of his wife Abigail. for it. David was beautiful: brought him in. but the ill-behaved. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. but all that again it led to grave problems. and had and was handsome. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. And the LORD said. for when this is ISam. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. . 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. and saw and him. him. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. 41:2 and fat. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. Joseph. "Arise. except can for him the land. he was a Calebite. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. . and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. and said. the . behold. "Lie with master's me. they first seven fat cows.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician.
"Behold. born to Absalom three sons. and found Abishag the Shunammite." with And he took three darts in his of hand. he weighed weight. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. he it). 18:10 And a certain man saw it. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. Amnon lay down. while the mule that was under him went on. loved her. when was heavy meet on him. "Come. On the other Joab. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. oak. But he would not he forced her. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. Absalom and struck him. "I king)." hand. the and she became the king's not. nurse and ministered to him. if I had dealt the will aloof.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. and being stronger to me. The very beautiful. my than she. 13:1 Absalom. I saw Absalom hand. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. his head and fast in the oak. lie with her. but king knew her ." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. and pretended to be ill. hair his head. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. had a beautiful sister. Amnon said to the king. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. whose name So Tamar. and brought her to the maiden was king." of her. David's son. and when the king came to see him. 2Sam. . he took hold sister. Joab's armor-bearers. her. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. and she was a beautiful woman. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. from the sole of . For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. and killed him. 14:27 There were name was Tamar. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. Absalom he riding his mule. his foot to the . and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. and left hanging between heaven earth. David's son. and after a time Amnon. and told hanging in an oak. with listen to her.
but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. 5:18 Behold. the city of the great King. scarlet. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. therefore God has blessed for ever. and and do not capture you with Prov. 33:17 Jer. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. for the customs of the peoples are false. in let her Prov. but a woman who fears the praised. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. for fair to behold. baldness. 3:24 Instead girdle. LORD is to be beauty is vain. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. Mount Zion. they will behold a land rope. Men beautify so that gold. when she has done vile . 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. And you. Ps. Jer. her eyelashes. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. the maiden was beautiful lovely. 4:30 hair. that is Esther. A tree from the forest is cut down. a girding of sackcloth. they seek your life. instead of beauty. Esther 2:7 uncle. shame. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. Esther's beauty saved her people.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. of perfume Isa. and instead of a rich robe. also he has put eternity into man's mind. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. is the joy of all the earth. 10:3 lovers despise you. a there will be rottenness. for themselves: is Ps. Eccles. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. Eccles. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. 6:25 far north. O desolate one. as and when her father and her mother died. grace you poured upon your lips. and instead Isa. Jer. for of a this is his lot. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. and He had brought up Hadassah.
of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. your builders beauty. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. "Is beauty. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. but they will not do it. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. offering made harlotry. 33:32 And. and your cloth. and say to him. for down to abundant waters. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. "But trusted in beauty." Ezek. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. iniquity was found in you. you ate raiment was of fine linen. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. and were in your towers. And silk. in the length of its branches. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. 9:15 that thirst. towered proud of Ezek. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. that were in the garden of God. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. high Eden envied it. lo. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. for they hear young and men shall say. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. and played the harlot because of your . renown. and its branches will be consumed. . they shall devour and . you then exult? The LORD once called you. You to regal estate. . 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. 27:4 any passer-by. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. you. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. . Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. they perfect your beauty." I Ezek. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. 2:15 with goodly fruit". The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. says the Lord GOD. cast you to the ground. made they hung Ezek. Son of man. and its heart was its height. 31:7 exposed you before kings. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. I have cast it out.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds.
The names of his daughters Mahlah. Noah. son of Manasseh. the next phrase Num. for like the jewels of a Yea. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. and before Eleazar the priest. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. "The daughters Zelophelad right. but only a dowry. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. at the door of the tent of meeting. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. And they stood before Moses. The text continues: Num. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. Machir. corners of be full like bowl. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. Milcah. and new wine the maidens. 20. Num. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. Milcah. Hoglah. 27:4a Why family. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. and he had no sons. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. the daughters have received an inheritance.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. and before the leaders and all the congregation. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. Had there been a son. And are the LORD said to Moses. Thus. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. Noah. you shall give them . of Gilead. but died for his sin. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. saying. son of Hoglah. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. Zelophehad Mahlah. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. Our father died in the wilderness. and Tirzah.
And if he has daughter. son of Joseph. tribe to another. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. however. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. Hoglah. came near son of Manasseh. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. and has no son. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. and Noah. Milcah. In the case of Zelophehad. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. it inheritance. for Mahlah. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. tribe. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. 'If dies. then his inheritance to his brothers." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. daughters of Zelophehad. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. saying. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. Tirzah. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . they said. The only.
The inheritance is outright and absolute. of his daughters. there and us. men are empty and life is without taste. there would be no bread. Without whole. beauty. . that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. Of what do they speak? Of the com. and a need of clarity. and it is the children who must learn them. the two refused to mesh." clashing for human One said while friendship. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. nothing is said dowries. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. by the fathers and some by the mothers. there would no way to live as "one of com. the way to bake bread. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust.The Book of Job Job's daughters. ways must be taught they must be learned. This insight. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. led. however." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets." Without these would must be no life. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. in turn. as we have seen. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see. the and all way to These some bury the dead. "just" by the For Job. the way to go out on the hunt. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. be and of the ways. They be taught.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
97). Still. with some effort to answer that I did. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. if ally exclusive (North 1966. Charmides. The second leads us back into Socratic eros.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. 507a-c. We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle.5 Furthermore. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one." p. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. 221d). an elenctic investigation begun. 306b). from sex been Since self-control. 714). "oddness. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. not mutu Pit. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). important texts on the theme of eros. at Symp. particularly restraint indulgence. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. After tality seek marriage and family.
pregnant If this is the case. eternal rates beauty (Symp. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. inward say. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. For the second. and good. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). at least potentially. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. is. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. distinguished. Indeed. like his describes. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). 210a-212a). face. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. Like children." he says. and gifted soul. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. least if self-control might presence. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. to quotation of return Cydias. certainly will he would never anything ugly. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. rather than ugly ones. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). despite body. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. just as a fawn . Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne.Drama. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. try to teach the other. someone who is both kotos and. Narrative. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra.
81-91.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done. has not always been recognized as such. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. Halperin 1985. the aporia has a beneficial element. hunting (Dover. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. I caught a fawn in my claws. In both cases. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. First. Socrates. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. inversion the expected im age. but did not drink its blood. or as a hunter tracking game. of citation of the line from Cydias. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . fond of lambs. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. an pp. him to finally renewed reflection. 1978. there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. p. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. Sim sus ilarly. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. just so do lovers love 165). does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. 241e). right out from under hind. For of example. 58. with trust in my strength.6 Third. the perception of their own lack knowledge. Socrates' (241d). The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. in singing. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. of which three come immediately to mind. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons.
I thought how fair youth. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias." no one will be able to resist him. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. p." realization of his desire to be Socrates. who. which as a manifestation of anteros. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. Critias." he most likely means Charmides became. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. perceiving his craving for Charmides. he must mean us to go along with the game. also interprets the quotation in this sense). also reads the text in this way). catch. when. "So Charmides. or . "don't (176a-d). "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. a lover might approach his beloved. only if a with the power to momentarily.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. pursue. 92. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. lion. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. and devour (McAvoy 1996.Drama. respectively. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. 90. Narrative. If we do. Socrates to replies in kind then. to speak. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. If Charmides' either. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will." you resist me Socrates answers. we can see that dialogue. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. he devoured appetite. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. When Socrates says. pursuer." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. p. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. in which Charmides. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. Another reading. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion.
someone suitable body. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). which cf. came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus.). step. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. 155e).72 Interpretation merged. but he does not condemn the desires of either party. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. philosophos (154e-155a). relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. If is . 210a. bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). and actually help nurture the Symp. Soc speak. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. or the entire body charm and the soul as well. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. Socrates' Halperin 1986. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi).
e. and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. 457b). Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne.g. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). level again. own" every member of a city. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. showing modesty generally. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e.Drama. Narrative. Rep. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. Phil. keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). expands his logos nomoi. In other dialogues. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. penulti rung (episteme). is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). as would a so governed. and goodness (to agathon. (160d-161b). and. 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton.g. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. (161b-163d). seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). see Larson 1951). From that on on. and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). like walking and talking with deliberate. possibility. the element of to doing (163e-164d). however. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. (17 le) Socrates. Charmides.
56-70. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. 148291. Sadly for Socrates. ostensibly. As an example. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). Kahn 1996. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. Phaedo. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. and Republic. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. 541-49). Laches. as it turned out. to topic. pp. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. Lysis. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. 1988. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. Rather. would not had. vision. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. pp. here eros. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). any case. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. especially the Symposium.
2. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. [Cydias] said. he also thought. p. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1.Drama. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. in Kahn's work 203-9.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. 'Take care not to go as a meat. that thought the experience. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. 25. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. For the 5. Cf. more 184). possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. This recently. pp." measuring-line about such a person. 102. in the Laches. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. 154). 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. 7. 187-88)." someone. concern " for p.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996." "dates" with conversations. since he can speak 4. together with his irresistible passion . p. (For an pp. like in advising fawn in front of a lion. I to resist what had been an this. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. 82). principles 542-46)." observation has been p. McAvoy (1996. so to speak. as here. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. 73 n. . but in those works he does not. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. pp. pp. Hyland (1981. Jowett 1961. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. by Mahoney (1996. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. p. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. Donald Watt's translation (1987. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. he "[Cydias] for the beast. handsome boy. Plutarch. p. Narrative. 27) and. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. thing. (1977. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. for example." this . 1988. not opposing view. p. 3. 54-55. the Symposium. Alcibiades. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. and Kahn (1996. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. 146). well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. puts 6.
Hyland. p. It is with Menexenus. 1996. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. Griswold. 1977. L. Potae Melici Graeci. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. Page. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature." Mahoney. MA: Harvard University Press. E. Charmides." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides. J. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. D. 1988. . Princeton: Princeton University Press.76 Interpretation 9. D. ed. Plato. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. 99-122." REFERENCES Bruell." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. 1985. 1996. C. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. 1981. 1961. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. M. Kahn (1996." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. 1966. K. 1987.. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. D. University Larson. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. Pp. In E. McAvoy. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. 1996. Pp. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. 1951. "self-control. T. North. Nussbaum. 1978. C. 63-103. Ithaca. 1986.4). Pp. C. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. Cambridge. Athens: The Ohio University Press. Eng: Penguin. 163-209. Saunders. eds. The Collected Dialogues.. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue.. In T. H. trans. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. Watt. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. D. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51. "Socratic Politics Charmides. 1986. Greek Homosexuality. 1962. trans. Charmides." 161-204. C. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49." Dover. Kahn. and Jowett.. B. Hanmondsworth. NY: Cornell University Press." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. Benitez. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sophrosyne. Hamilton H. 1988. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ed. M. Cairnes." Dialogues of Plato.
Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. was an out-and-out bourgeois. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. No. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge. Fall 1998.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. and on prudential about grounds. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. Like Marx. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. Vol. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. 26. and his himself. was becoming of a tyranny. 1 . in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life.
It is. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. Yet. however. who are gland. Its force . The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. Justice has two different aspects. fight the to rebels using the an law. see his thought and his peculiar genius. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. there is a strong of as the part of the British. On temptation. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. The law from corrupting one another. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. rather than law. A disobeyed be effectual. but treasonous criminals. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. while partiality to whom one's own country. rebels.78 Interpretation privilege. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. but punishment. also the nature of law to be just. love of country is a defense foreign domination. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. In doing so. and foreigners.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. the on account of the war being a civil one. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art.
because and piety. however. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. (P. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. bringing generality with hate. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. they wish for peace (p. proposing a policy. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. for pursuing peace. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. Their cynicism and 177). The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. public spirited reasons. necessity Although law the common good. a hostile light.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. they corrupt their morals. They vitiate their politics. They have lost confidence in justice. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. but they have not lost their humanity. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . In order to maintain the integrity of law. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. devoid of hope. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. Britain's combination. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. or rather confusion. when the communion of our country is dissolved. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. Of most all wars.5 melancholy are not. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation.
It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. than law. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. 179). The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. rather giving it to treasury (p. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. proper. The determination infamous action. defeat. 178). as long as it shall think . Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. is behaving like who appear tyrant. to enable administration to confine. blurs the difference be (p. but. Hatred determines the crime. inconsistently. In fact.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. therewith. because. third. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. . by treating fourth. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. 178). to the they rejoice at quality of the action. and then distribute a war themselves. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. The determination a it. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. the British themselves. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. by treating innocent citizens inequitably. to infamy to punishment. in fact. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. and. 179). the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. contrary. they take the confiscated cargo. second. . put to death the the cargo amongst American men.
Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. peace. them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. far from making the British godlike. tying half dead in England). makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. but not according to justice. 180). The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. that they will become savage. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. therefore. therefore. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. rather than the the crime. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. 181-82). 180). and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. both. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. (pp. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. should the ment English be victorious. taking their goods. the absence of justice. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. tried ac cording to form. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. After strength not is American should defeats. . VIII (p. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. The accused is. Parliament its proper time and place. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. object of their own insults. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. because it is blinded by its own indignation.
to punish the exchanged prisoners. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. therefore. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. however. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. instead of of taking out the sting. This offense to threat to political liberty. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. But the British punitive. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. Burke says general venoms equity. naval men as they were allowed to go free. It hardly seems just. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. as a life was given in return for a life. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. like the deter pirates. . the worst aspects of the partial suspension. this action. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. liberty principle. But. the limiting qualification. but its to the corruption of manners. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. 182). by breaking draws the first principle of law. 186). en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. 184). 188). because it between citizens. far from being the opposed to manners. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. far as he tell. At the end of the war. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. parliament is incapable of such prudence. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. never mind possible. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated.
have with doses of fear. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. dark. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. The British must doubt themselves. despite American defeats. of concern But. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. He speaks to the consciences. in love of country. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. 189-90). he says unknown a reality. the attachment to country. . made the reminds them British feel invincible). They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. 191). British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. if only through fear. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. He even speaks as courage justice. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. Burke raises the the unknown. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. be can fore they be enlightened.
191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. pride of a coward. when in triumph. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. the taxes. 199). being that crawls on the earth. With the awakening of their interests. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. far from being manly. they their country. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. dominion in which he cannot exercise. any without civil wisdom or military skill. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. Burke has for his plan. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. rather than to punish and to subjugate. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. Those in favor of the war. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. helpless creature. states to the . He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. pair facing the Brit ish. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. manliness and cowardice judgement.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. that it is directed by insolent passion. order to render others contemptible and wretched. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. Far from man's of being cowards. show little are content to real magnanimity. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. actually the hypocritical others. is in the eyes of God and man. calling for battles which but his servility to it. contending for a violent (P. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly.
remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. to be the for the the war in England. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. He is the people doubt Parliament and. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. both addresses popular and parliamentary.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. (1774). But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. and be trusted. above the voices of many. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. Just a short time . themselves. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. He is cautious in his blame. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. 195). the Americans must trust in themselves. to risk with defeat their own arms. rather than certain tyranny. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. they must earn that trust. therewith. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. and Burke shows As things stand. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. therefore. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. the Americans are virtually alone. cynicism. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason.
Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. 210-11). Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. 207) omnipotence. it may be the mind. even though right of they have no representation. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. that it is not will be resisted. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. having recently tasted victory. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. I must attend to public opinion. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. The people are. He is thereby domestic politics. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. Parliament to tax the Americans. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. Now.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. rather than oppress it. (P. so as to offend the people. therefore. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. but people. he can accuse aggrandizement. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. beg leave to observe. be governed. Par liament must. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. therefore. 205). granted social rights (pp. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. waves of chance and. at best. because the British had suffered defeats. when public .
one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. In light freedom. parliament can no longer legislate religion. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. like authority. Freedom is not an abstract principle. as a defense of freedom in general. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. 208). just in they are needed (p. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. through pressures placed on. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. 211). The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). they embody than parlia ment. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. religion more the monarchy. not because of a perverse humor. any more than is sover of eignty. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. . as it was by the New Whigs. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. It requires compromise. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. and even independence. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. and. to be mistaken. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. Parliament must be heard. freedom others. politics. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. doing what one wills. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. from. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. rather theory require tions for injustice. Freedom. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. They practicing (the god of this lower world). Burke is quick to point out that. however. ment. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. Compromise If the in the the and reform.
Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. they claimed to embody mankind. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. collective are bom from disappointed trust. of man and the absolute hand. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. rather than acknowledges the hate. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good.88 thus. Moments authority lived. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. and savage cruelty. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. rather than cod ified. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance.6 ire of an atheist. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. because it is a principle of compromise. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. thus denying claimed the church. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. they affection. General theories passions. Abstract ideas . The British Parliament the authority of a god. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. the aristocracy. In abstract theory.
In this. The legislator must whole. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. though in theory. greed. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. broke faith. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives. the aristoc and monarchy. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. malice. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. In not fact. and the tence. their persecutors. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. horror. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. confiscations. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. in particular. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. They destroy . order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. and executions. and especially to science. The Reflections. guilt. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction.
God. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. . humanity (Pp. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. The legislator have of in his soul. they of any interest. Their them. philosopher. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. . ranks. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. he teaches limits of both." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. but in general. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. united them as a people. they from love men too little. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- . It is who are undoubtedly true. offices. but things. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. is at their horizon like their horizon. because moderation they are defi must in love. nor fanatic visionary. Like the of the good seamstress. Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. that they . who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. . yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. though it may paradoxical. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics.
creating Burke does. atomism except by a principle of order. a mathematical order. therefore. cannot recognize the politics. however. they to represent and to secure those interests. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. Its rebel to be used against them. like promises proportion. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. an un geometry differentiated mass. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. Legislation is deliberative p. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. however. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. unique character of Geometry. to have the power of ordering. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. in fact. the uniqueness of human beings 301). while geometry reduces them to number and shape. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. At best. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. and exist in much greater clearness. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not.12 chemistry. which of it. rats. possibility (Reflections.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. In formative act. 524).
13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. To the contrary. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. give repealing the tax. for America had. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. 222). of government. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. about the parts are at (p. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. (P. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. 215). not political because he temper ment the idea of right. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. developed its own Ideological differences. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. then there must be moral . The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. Burke opposed abstract was against began. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. such. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. By having right to everything they want everything. 221). 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. or to an equal share in government. If there are to be compromise and freedom. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. to tax in order to restore American trust. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests.
The people are the product of the constitution. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. liberty. they are too strong to oppose. but trust that is called to account and office. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. The as are though people dis must. and a brutality of accepting of political men. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. should the people rule. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. satisfy those grievances. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. avarice.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. an Perhaps most important. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. rather than connections of its sovereign. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. in which it depends. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. therewith. therefore. natural Burke thought the rulers.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . but. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. however. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man.
. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. Burke believed that rational. He economics. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. and beneficence. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. brings a degree of the common good. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. The origins are inferior to the end product. because he never believed is not Hegel's state. however. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. . To the contrary.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. force. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice.15 The hidden hand is not. mind. rather. Burke never thought reality. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. . CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. Contending for an imaginary power. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. It is something to be Although He respected.
Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. which which he lends credence. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. he is in his self-right eous wrath. a God. His Yet one cannot of visionary. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. espe cially in the great. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. the latter necessarily corrupts. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. Prudence makes the former feasible. only because they have elected him. Karl Marx. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. 1954) p. so or a misanthropist. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. on hand. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. The partial suspension. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. he and sought indignant fanaticism. to be grown in disrepute. to foster the love of Furthermore. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. disheartened and disgusted. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. So. contains its abuses within it. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. (P. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. C. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. B. Capital I (Moscow. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. 260. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. but they can trust him. Unlike Parliament.
6. 279. ultimate differences. pp. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. W. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. portrait.: Penguin. vol. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. 431. pp. Old Whigs. 1960).96 else. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. a more participatory form vol. 350-52. he denied and the artisans arms. 282-83. vol. and the 2. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. CA: Sage. The Complete Writ 1945]. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. his regime on the number 12. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. although ment. 164. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. tyranny (Thomas Paine. jurors and . was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. Furthermore. p. Works. Politics. 10. and to Burke. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. 382-84. 358. In desire to know nature as a whole. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. CT: Greenwood Press. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. There are three classes of citizens. and by looking at the man. 7. pp. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. and the 7. pp. was cited within the text as Reflections. Edmund Burke. p. 2. 1. but according to his fancy. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. 520. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. 15-16. 1854-89). vol. Eng. Phaleas'. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. remind one of the old man ed. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. But he did give the any property. many other cities. wore by cheap whole. pp. 431-32. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. Glorious 1984). 439. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. Jackson Bate (Westport. vol. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. p. 2. 9. 3. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. farmers. Works. of govern 3. 94. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. and three kinds of legal suits. 533. 1994]) argument. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. 282-83. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. they both ideas. Hippodamus models three. in whose 6. In from looking to the number three for order. 31. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. 5. three sections of the city. attempt 8. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. p. 4. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. 101. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. vol. vol. pp. page number alone are 3. 8.
1949). of Chicago Press. vol. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. vol. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts.9-10). Thomas Aquinas. pp. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. 1965]. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. 1987]. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. 29. 1991]. 1. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. 15. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. . He honors for those individual judgement. 1984]. the man of actual virtue. as in the French Revolution. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. is taken from Montesquieu. Reappraisal. 294-95. that its authority depends habits of obedience. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. 470. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. 1. 331-33. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. rather than action. against abstract doctrine. Canavan. Science. NJ: Transaction Publishers. Works. 432. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. of Chicago Press. vol. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. p. pp. rather than the presumptive. thus making an who improved the law. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. 348. sanship. 6. for men of action are often. susceptible of of infinite improvement. as opposed to natural rights. pp. 77). and even expected. Works. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. pp.237). Like Burke. p.149-52). 431. 406-7. 13. p. (Harvey Mansfield. vol. In the Spirit of the Laws. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. 2. trans. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. not simply its evident usefulness. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. because he thought it made prudence impossible. When questioned." the ruling majority and 14. Canavan is for Burke life. pp. 1954). Thus. 1993]. who lives according to the actual.
Beyond Good Evil." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. Vol. "deepest. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. 1 . It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. 26. the truth observation surface. therefore. but are inseparably It is joined. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . . it is incoherent. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. The first crests at the end of Song." In interpretation. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. as it stands. Fall 1998. argument and action. No.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. 289). 5. but to those whom he "the wisest. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. . In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent.1 As readers of the book. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples." Preface. is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. to interpret this drama. In the second. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel.
It. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. Overburdened by its superfluity. of accordingly. however." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. he and wishes to "go down" to again. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom." 8). Appealing directly to the multitude. however. then the distribution. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest. e. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue.4 If Zarathustra is human.g. he is met with incredulity. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. but as such to be more than human." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return." however.. the superman. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue. therefore. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. ridicule and hatred. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. however.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. the will to power proves to doctrine." this account. therefore. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense. This under persuading live. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer." But this his means "to be again. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens .
which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being." "will to for the first time. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power." Here he that if be made to speak. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks." 9). despite their variety. But being. Persians. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. Behind the creator. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. the Still. That is to say.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. since. its things. according to Zara thustra. he insists. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. however. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. in accordance with its law. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. including his soul and mind. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. acting in the light of its truth. one Afterworldsmen. the first. . The first of this wisdom will to power. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. as Zarathustra calls him. activity stands the legislator or. law. speaks to man only being. according to Zarathustra's understanding. in the Aristotelian phrase. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. therefore. root cause of all the will to power is the things. the people. calls "praiseworthy. all of of good and them." holy." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. em but rather what good and evil.
divine. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . but identity between them. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. the coming to be of the superman. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. indicates. it were. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. a law that is. nite laws. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). however. but rather fellow creators. Zarathustra. to creating creators.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. That the related political and aspects of claim. therefore. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. that he cities of men. human beings seems necessarily is. is Zarathustra's goal.102 We Interpretation see that. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. according in what to Zarathustra." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. At the close of Part One. longer disciples. believes. To create great endeavor. law that is. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. as it were. It is this than human. however. the to power. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. to a Virtue. perhaps. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. therefore. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. overarching then. in Zarathustra's own words. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and.
a natural law. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue." 1)." 3). and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. while bringing humanity first time. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god." things. "the Great stand Noon. reveal himself to a his career. It almost goes without fails is the question. create dom and. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that ." 3).The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. but animal gods are and superman. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. Accordingly. as it were. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. Zarathustra will. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. At this culminating moment hind his veil. therefore. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. it and as well. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. will creators. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition.
opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. the distribution of his author. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. What and grotesque of a devil. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will. as Zarathustra has argued. of latter."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. rushes his teaching. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. his venom." in other words. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators. of course. of course. however." of first half his of Part Two. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. In "The Child which a child his disciples.104 Interpretation so ing The that." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. This interpretation. Nonetheless. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. appears independent inquiries. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. however. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. to be absurd. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). Neverthless." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching.
and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. and this is men. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. It . On the one hand. On the other hand. Moreover. to establish a community of and reciprocity. Creation. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. the com incoherent in its own terms. this condition with another. disciples and. consequently. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). that is. therefore. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. as through such distribution cre like himself. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. therefore. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. made clear through stands following reflection.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. that is. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. therefore. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching.
As "The Night Song" predicts. with his wisdom. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame. spite. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. revenge. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. and the desire for revenge within his soul. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. compatible with the moral law insofar tue. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. he is in useful a state of aporia. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. wisdom. consequently." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of ." Consequently pedantry.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. As he puts giving. but by self-mockery. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. ("On the Giving Vir 1). the punishment or desire for soul. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will.
" he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. Accordingly.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. That is to say. therefore. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. and the good. of the rational good. therefore. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. in which the just is included as false appearance. the just as final political order. and that. He cannot painful beyond endurance. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. all human community established upon the basis of the law. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. elaborating of the beautiful. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. since. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. 381).The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. that understood need on is. Thus if in Part . that false horizon now of the is.
control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. Zarathustra blames his failures position. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense..g. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead. fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. Zarathustra's primary opponents. the longing for revenge. e. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. Nevertheless. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). That is love were to say. however. happy. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). that is. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. envy. and however. consequently. In other words. "enemies" however. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. As is his habit.
manifests itself in an infinite becoming." Life. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. As a conse good and evil quence. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. he realizes. The greatest good. "the good. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. Be that it may. he also concludes that any particular vice. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. in expressing its or unlimited character. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . Without himself being aware of it. however. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. therefore. spite. in the infinite power of the will. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. For the will. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. he says is. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge." again and soon and.
or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. destruction of values as its Accordingly. for. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. the creation of values. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. wisdom and will and And." as a form of artful play. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. good untouchable."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . It is. as the highest good. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy." 2). Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. 382. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. himself to purchasing his its first principle. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. his desire for happiness as he understands it. he . will's "sublime" character good. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. . law or or as he it there. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. from opposites. in clinging to his its freedom. Ecce with all that was Homo. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. necessarily the greatest evil. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. But the "values." he describes himself depths. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. the false perspective of the moral law. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. the possession of wisdom. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. of course. . naively (The Gay Science. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. the destruction of values.
This fellow thinker is name within the work. and. Symposium reproduction of his own good. As we have already observed. and create engendered. to the end of reproduc words. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. with caution and of subtlety. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer.207a). is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. help lower level than his The reason for this . his old moral teaching. Zarathustra himself has done. he values the admittedly political community. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. comes to understand the implications self. He listens carefully to these speeches. As in the case of sexual intercourse. truth. in new doing so. its fundamental incoherence. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. however.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail." as he calls it. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. but ultimately to the generation." "now I love only my children's land. of another like himself. Zarathustra In other gives dren. demolish it. therefore. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. think through. in some indefinite future. Plato. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created.
everything That is to say. therefore. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. the future continues way . his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. therefore. Consequently. bursts open. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. but in terms of knowledge as well.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows. Nevertheless. as it were.. however. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. In words. become the "night-watchman death.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer.. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. just the prophet had predicted. despite the in some to this region of the dead. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. Zarathustra the Third. everything is one. In his dream Zarathustra has . Thus. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble.
1. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). however. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal.2). then. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. not to willing all of the past. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. at least at this point. From this low point. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. Zarathustra. the Machiavelli. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. but to willing this willing. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. If. of therefore. This insight is cause. . more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. namely. Dis courses on Livy. the peoples must of Yet. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery.
since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. namely. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. must past and Accordingly. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. eternal return of . that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. however. but every stone that is thrown . . then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. . its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. in which it may be willed. saying. however. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. . Thus. "O Zarathustra high. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. according the Zarathustra's current understanding. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . being is an Accordingly. therefore.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of .
that is. the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. as Zarathustra now describes it. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it. but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. nothing be profitable. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. knowledge would Thus. choked me and crept . . into my throat. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. all would be one. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it. paradoxically. Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. the that has crawled his throat. the life but is in creative great effect of in. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. that was my disgust at all creation" existence. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. freedom will at its peak. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . of sickness" therefore. of It is." Moreover. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. . the of the . that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. "foreseeing" longer man. 21). Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man .The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. The presence of the low not only persists human life.
In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. in Part Three. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. its law and sway of the rabble. however. Far from having escaped the its justice. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. the will and its desire for and i. of not be given. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant.e." revenge. the thought of the eternal return developed. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand.21 need. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. Finally.." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. on the one hand. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . but.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. is in accord with reason.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being. of "justice" "freedom. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. however. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. and that genu knowing will. love and. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. namely. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm.
are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. Beyond Good and Evil. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . University of Chicago Press). rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. however. but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. 8." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. In Part Three. On the simplest level.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. and therefore of being. Writing"). is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption")." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. 7. 1888." 3. 153. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. in that irrational. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime.22 upon in his wanderings. 9. also see Ecce Homo. 202. 4.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). Zarathustra. See "On Cf. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom." 5. It points to the Seth Benardete. 4. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. 10. parodies "wisdom. Tablets. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. p. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. Cf. appears to offer a 11. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. Preface. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. 23). Behind the 6. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. Of course. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables.
" renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds. Cf. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. 1984). . XIII. as god. namely. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and." 360-425 and Bacon. as man.'' Great Events. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. 1935]. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). what 53-54. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. Matter. it would require "something double." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. Odyssey. lacking . 12. 14. trans." 16. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. pp. but only on that of philosophical writing." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. therefore. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. 17. It should come as no surprise." "The Truthsayer. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. ed. 28-31. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. Row. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. Unfortunately. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. II. Zarathustra's p. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets. overcoming of need. "The speech Self-Overcoming." 1 1. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. Vol. 23. The Wisdom of the Ancients. or Zarathustra. 13. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. . David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. Homer. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press. IV. 15. 1988). "Proteus.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science.
and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. for the smallest just. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. (Speech of 7 June. 36 and 87. therefore. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. pp. If both Zarathustra and.'' for every is an afterworld. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. 40. namely." merely by looking into each other's faces. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. Unfortunately. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. . Song. "All Song. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. the ill-constituted. Robespierre. 264)." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. Seth Benardete. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. 30. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need." 21. 289. bridge. Sunrise. above all. 1990). 283-85. p. "Fame and Second Sailing. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. therefore. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. characterizes world following that terms. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. vertu' 20." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity." and 22. and The Gay Science. She power. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. 152 and 192. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. on account of his 227). Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19." also Dancing 4. p. 1794)": Daybreak. To every soul belongs another world. 29. 27. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. Preface. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. however. 3." Having pears by chance. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is.
Review Essays Heidegger. Caputo. Vol. $49. Leslie Paul Thiele.95 paper. Politics. $47.50 cloth.50 paper. $19. + 306 pp. $15.. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press. $49. Michael E. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. Zimmerman. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. Tom Rockmore. 1997). MA: Harvard University Press.95 paper.50 cloth. $33. 1993). the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. Fall 1998. $19.. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press.95.95. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. xii + 129 pp. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. 1995). Heidegger. xv + 232 pp. Julian Young. 1993). No. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. 1990). x + 285 pp.. even to the point of at "apologetics. $14. University the Polity.. xi + 382 pp. 1996). xi + 234 pp. 1 . a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation. Philosophy." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision. greater notoriety. 26. $15.50 Hans Sluga. Indeed. Berel Lang. xii + 263 pp.. 1992). this century comes to a close. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy.95 paper. NY: Cornell University Press. In this essay...
along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. daeo-Christianity. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. As bridge between reject discover. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. Unlike Zimmerman. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. Lyotard. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. Although Farias champions this position.. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. In the process. One point example. of and Derrida. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. e. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example.g. politics." in Heidegger's Crisis. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. Given this historical archaeology. however. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. namely. Rockmore implements criticism. In order to discern this tendency. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. is . for example. which also exemplifies historical.
of ethics and politics. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. however. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. This work. Nazism. As Zimmerman. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. e. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence.g. II. raises. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. Even been prior to Farias' book. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. Being and Time (1927). hence. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. ethics. indeed. The Farias' effect of revelations. inquiry. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. Philosophy.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. then practical concerns. Caputo. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history.Heidegger. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: .. the Polity. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. As poignant as revelations were. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. In this work. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. already the publication of his magnum opus. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being.
." nature. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. but the of technology. Interpretation . us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. 84). A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. of "enframing.e. is of political which things. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves. the our need to day. As Zimmerman states: . and the end of metaphysics." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course.124 '." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p.. pp. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. Heideg instruments of technology. By 'thinking. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. the which unique forgetting of being. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. xxiii-ix) Jews. That is. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties. i. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. As Zimmerman emphasizes. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. On the surface.' he did not mean rational calculation. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity.
gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. what the Polity. As reactionary modernists. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. (P. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. 84) In the end. Holderlin. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. harmony from strife.Heidegger. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. Unfortunately. p. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. 127). it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. frenzy and violence. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. philosophy and politics. . But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. Consider Heidegger's . For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. conflict and resolution. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. but instead blood and instinct. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. that is. . On the one hand. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. domination humanity and nature. recast Going forward. Not surprisingly.
g. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. As Caputo indicates. Only by possible a shepherd. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. in his stark concept of Dasein. and heroism. charity. who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. 73). there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. self-affirmation. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. 207). and temporality. . In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. 72). In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. (Lowith. Caputo. e. the dissident (Derrida). The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. the scandalous comparison culture . the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. the categories of tenderness. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. love otherwise absent facticity. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). in must emerge "singular. . John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. According to Caputo. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. including care. love. The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology." community. thinker. truth. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. . become 68). . . Ironically.
III. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. "What I call the 'official' view students. National or no important. Because Rockmore way. 54). This distinction becomes important. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. 74).g. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. for Rockmore "hero. In Heidegger." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. however. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. namely. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. Rockmore. 54).Heidegger. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. Philosophy. stance. link (p." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p. the Polity. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. . and that." Heidegger's philosophy (e." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states. roughly speaking. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. as Nazism. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism.. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought. there is no. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism.
never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect. In Heidegger's Silence. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. 5). gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. the professional and the thesis (p. In Heidegger's Crisis. of illumination and blindness. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. The "tragic question then becomes. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. . Ironically. the public and occasional" the private. but the intellectual others.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. freedom and necessity. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. Lang ger history (pp. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. 5-8). philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. insofar as the and then. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. Of course. 100-101). In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests.
We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. Mill and Kant. in the 1930's." forged through the will. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. community. but what extent a political crises of of the political. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel.g. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. and the possibility of law. action. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. be translated into any specific may For example. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers.Heidegger. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. an opportunism "timely. setting institutions the decline. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e.. 245-48). 19). a process occurs. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. And ger's while one may try vision. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. for most critics construe these . IV. Indeed. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. 22).
In many respects. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. alien to all reduction to the uniform. factic plane. While this most problematic..). Thus Wolin concept of resolve." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. in order that one to the dilemma in question. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. his commitment to National Socialism. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. 35 ff. vious. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). however.g. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. it would a type of action irrecon (p. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. a Heideggerian politics must confront. As our discussion of the previous . e. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip.
On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Moreover. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. 79). Young argues that Heideg for the other. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. 104). is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. 125). But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. instead. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. 41). Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. In Heidegger. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. Rockmore. if it does their objections. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. provides According to Dallmayr. Philosophy. 38-41). The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. 50). Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. in regime. books the Polity. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. Farias. but Wolin.Heidegger. Young. When joined Young's solicitude. which claims In ogy. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p.
" rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. facets as as Thiele indi cates. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. namely. namely. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it. 198). p. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against .132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. however. 81-83). the between logos and community. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling." Correlatively. of light the opera Thus. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. e. that moral emphasis on can (pp. if government as fully we articulated. language. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. In words. is that the power which permits political participation. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. In this way a community develops.g. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. "tolerance" namely.. that is. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. As Arendt suggests. What Heidegger recognizes. Western democracy. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. 48-49). If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. As Thiele emphasizes. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. the nexus of politics. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp.
democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. Literally. p. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. 16). thrives within a polis the greatest importance. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. another the Polity. 86-100. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. even solicitous of.) is iconoclastic. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. it Sluga. While Yet. and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. The arbitrary. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. censorship. . is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. 60-63). Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. 128). While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. 5-12. challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. means or "place in on such opposition. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. . 292). philosophy flourish only it is .Heidegger. controversial. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. politics. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. . As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. 167). philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely.
Johannes. Victor.). Palo Alto. 1975. Silence." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. Ed. 1991. 1958. London: Routledge.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. 1 (1991): 1-611. no. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. on the words responds to this contrary. no. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. Miguel. Heidegger the Trans." Time Journal 14. Karl. Martin. 1993. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. Truth. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. Blitz. The Other Heidegger. In this spirit. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. 2. 33. " Lyotard. Bourdieu. Trans. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. Wilde William Kluback. 1962. 1982. Heidegger and University Press. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. Phil Temple University Press." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. 1990. Andre Michel. no. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. Lisa Harries. John. 1998. Ithaca. Pascal. and Gunther Neske. "On Heidegger's Lowith. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. Political. philosophy of its task. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. Heidegger. Trans. Fred. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. Heidegger. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. George. Mark." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. de Beistegui. and Farias. Emil. Jean T. Trans. Jean-Francois. when such a pp. but. Hannah. 1990. and 1995. Kettering. Perhaps this time think. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. Kovacs.. Peter Collier. Pierre. Marcus (ed. The Origins of Totalitarianism. . New York: Paragon Press. 15. The Human Condition. 1958. University Press. Dallmayr. NY: Cornell David.' Assertion of the German University. Trans. GA 31. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1981. GA 24. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. Richard Wolin. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CA: Stanford University Press. 1989. "jews. New York: World Publishing. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. New Haven: University Press. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger." Gary Steiner. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. 1 (1995): 111-86. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. 35).
Richardson. Rumor of the Hidden King. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. Origins. Dallery. Safranski. Nazi. the Polity. no. Reiner. Freedom. 1994. A. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. 4 (1997): 554-62. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. no. Charles. 2 (1993): 121-39. ed. "A Normal pp. no." University of Chicago H. Trans. 24. On ington: Indiana 30-35. 1992. by and Kenneth Maly. Blunden. William J. and Ethics Schalow. and Alan Rosenberg. Hugo. Thomas. 1990. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1992). Pp. Heinrich Wiegand. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil." Scott. 1987. Heidegger Jaspers.. C. 2 (1995): 137-53. Zimmerman. The Politics of Being. 1993. on Free Speech. Trans. Scott. Christine-Marie Gros. Albany: SUNY Press. Thought. Ewald Osers. Schurmann. eds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Encounters Parvis Emad. 11-24. Sheehan. Van Buren." Philosophical Writings. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. John. and and Philosophical Forum 25. no. Alan. no. Charles E. "Heidegger 27-38. and the January 14. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. Heidegger and lands. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. Roberts.Heidegger. Bloom University Press. New York: Columbia University Press. Press." "A Question Socialism. Olson. no. Chicago: Politics. Michael E. Trans. Petzet. 1996." 1996. Trans. Riidiger. 4 (1989): 340-55. "Heidegger's Catholic 69." . Socialism. 1994." Holocaust. Alan M. Sherover. Common Good. "Resoluteness Ambiguity. Intro. 1998. Richard. Quarterly Ott. 1989." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. 1. "Heidegger's Truth eds. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. The New York Review of Books. Albany: SUNY Press. and Danger. NJ: Humanities Press International. Time. Frank. and In A. 1990. London: Fontana.
Liberalism and (Lanham. Rawls's Political Liberalism). No. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. 1997). possess. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. Michael Walzer. The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. Vol. $16. Within sketches larger pictures the good society.. + 126 pp. Three recent works do both. $24. Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. On the other hand.95. 1995).. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. why it excludes. Sandel. 26. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. indeed could not. Francis Canavan. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. 1 . Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation..50. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. University Press. 1996). liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. The Pluralist Game. Fall second book.95. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. Public $22. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism. but what it excludes. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Like other pluralisms. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources.
so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. 76). surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. indeed impossi ble. Earlier American pluralism. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. and the relations between economy and polity. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. pluralism and toleration. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . but or not limited to. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. In Canavan's account. In Canavan's account. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. however conflictual. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. The categories overlap. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. Naturally. lost unity of shared. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. As Canavan clearly perceives. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. Law society.
to public Canavan notes. liberalism. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66)." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. schools. individ liberty. Understood in individualist terms. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. These institutions. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. had helped to flesh out religious community life. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. it displaced institutions. their best. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. but without developing the point at any length. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. Canavan particular. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. Yet of the three volumes. hospi tals and social services were injured.
to join in the struggle. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. to flourish. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. always reflects some moral vision. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. so vision ought Canavan argues. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. Groups with spiritual. On the other hand. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. the state should reduce its direct etc. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. social services. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. If anything. cultural. to make room for such groups in education. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . on pain of contradiction. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. Protestants and devout Jews. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. things look neutrality. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state..
Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. ing of Again. religious duties. and this goal has American public policy. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. They natu common affairs. community.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. others' based have chosen them. People are born for citizenship. Consequently. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. with others about what is true any or good. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. When they tion. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. of citizens In the liberal conception. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. As Sandel notes. for instance. since these all require description of the self. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. for Sandel and the republican tradition. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. or even citizen obligation. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. this asocial render human good is misleading. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . to a solution to these problems. the freedom tive.
As Sandel correctly argues. respect not follow. regarding toleration. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. community. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. judg Using the legal example of abortion. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. Or we could relativize the value of respect. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. prochoice their views for public purposes. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. So Sandel pluralism. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. they express. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. not their simple capacity to choose something . In principle. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. 20). and promoting. moral. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. and His alternative version the self. a contradiction. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. In both cases.
in the nature of (p. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. the same could be said about his ily law. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. Indeed. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. With Sandel. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. 90). in general. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. or even malicious. Sandel's order. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. be Canavan suggests. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. Arguably. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. That is. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. Sandel replies. Presumably. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression.
Religious parties. since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes.) Nor can we repair to . 77). together with leaves intact the current crisis. Naturally. Walzer here in the secondary associations. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . With Sandel. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. ought to be barred from running in elections. so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. To his credit. so he opposes a voucher system. 70). and social Where then. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. according to Walzer. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. for example. is right say) tradition. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. Maclntyre. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). of and others. . Canavan. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own.144 Interpretation societies. as an harbor republican hopes. this is an omission which pluralism. with early roots in Protestant and English history. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. (p. . seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population.
rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus. Altogether then. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces. But reading Sandel.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. .
Testament Spinozas (1932).i VERLAG J. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). (1921). Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). Gerhard Kriiger. Gershom Scholem. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. Jacob In addition. 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. . und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time... and Lowith. previously unknown writings and letters. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. cloth with English) many important. 434 pp.-). with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. among Wissenschaft writings. XXXIV. XIV. in the original languages (German English). B. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937). DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. H.-). Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). French. Jacobis (1929). and others published here for the first time. cloth with dust jacket. Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. 1933-1935).
volumes should (approx. Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns..80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1). The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined. (approx. Dept. $10. Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library. Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English).Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations. . $53. $5300).de .80 (approx. the be sent as they appear. The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings.B. DM 16. The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes. ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx.00). The prices of the 2. ? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss. Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996. ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. published here for the first time in its entirety in this form. subscribe by your university 1. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss.00 each). 66 pp. Each volume may be purchased separately. $46. The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy. Name . edition are approx. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price. Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ.00).metzler. current list price.
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NATURE AND CULTURE A Social Research Conference November 5-7. This conference a brings together scholars and scientists as well as about policy in linking discourse the significant hunger. (21 2) 229-2488 socres@newschool. Per Pinstrup- Andersen. Paul Rozin. Robert Herdt (Moderator) 7: The Future: Prospects for the global availability of food and ways to increase it Gordon Conway. at editor of Social Research. culture and political economy food in an effort elicit new perspectives on abundance. Wendy Doniger. 1998 What and we eat. been assimilated is an of understanding our histories William McNeill. Keep checking for a link at . or e-mail For more information and reservations. Barbara Examining the Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Moderator) 5: Food in Art/ Food as Art: Food is both an object of art and a medium in which migrated. Leonard Barkan.edu Further details coming to the World Wide Web soon! http://www. how food for marks our sameness differences. Robert Adams (Moderator) for artistic expression Betty Fussell. John Hollander (Moderator) 6: Abundance and 3: Key Note Addresses Scarcity: equal Sustainable Agriculture: Ismail Serageldin Food and Access to food is far from Culture: Margaret Visser Richard Goldman. the fear famine makers with deprivation forum all are occasions reflections on the human condition. problems created by scarcity 1: Everyday Life: Food life as a major 4: Food not as Symbol or Sign: Food is as component of only what we eat but figures Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. Aristide Zolberg (Moderator) 2: Case Histories: ways Barbara a symbol in most religions and as a marker of identity and difference Maurice Bloch. Sidney Mintz. David Pimental.newschool. Kenneth Prewitt (Moderator) This conference is organized by Arien Mack. and important way foods have emerged. Marion Nestle.edu/socres/food. Marc Shell. Anne Murcott. of diet and food to and security the history. the ceremonies surrounding mythic and symbolic and it. Theodore Zeldin. its of importance. Steven Heller. the joy of plenty. All conference sessions will please call be held The New School. Raymond Sokolov.
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