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OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
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Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
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No. herds Nimrod. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. those who are supposed to be First. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. divine or conventional. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. The thing I wish to argue excuses. Nimrod. Second. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. the Babel-builders. I is wish not to argue that. Finally. man. Vol. although intent. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. and the which Babel-builders. in Genesis 10. with superfluous and which arts. Jewish and Christian. second or at least reasonable those characters. Traditional exegesis of these stories. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. associated with and antipolitical. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. interpretation. Fall 1998. as argue. the Lord God.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. and in Genesis 1 1. or even defy. in light the Babel project. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. that of the nomadic Third. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. 26. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. antitechnical. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. 1 . the city is connected with land ownership. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with.
is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. that is. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban.3-5). according to some of the rabbis. Cain's very birth is suspect. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. if the quality is acceptable. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. the refuse. . THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. Out of antiurban. 4. antipolitical atmosphere. 1. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. the an which founding of the city.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. his religious performance is faulty.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. often little basis in the text. Cain. and I have consulted Specifically. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. A. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. Fi by nally. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. of the Next. First. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. I have used tateuch. fices to the most Thus. have all been impugned. In fus ing (they own. When he sacri Lord (Gen. Cain.2 kills the son truly in God's image. Augustine's these City of God. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. the first city. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. legion.3 or. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical.
One became a murderer. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. p. some rabbis say that he. and David. but with his hy pocrisy. 1. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. God intended with us. another a drunkard. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. Noah. 21). supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. (City of God. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. XV. 255). his city and people. The names of Irad. Augustine. Those interpreters. Jacob. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. p. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. 17.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. 256). 1. and them. however. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. says Abravanel. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. vol. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. 2. p. such as Augustine and Calvin. Moses. 153).5. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably.2). another choice. "wicked" "house" building of a city. to will return later. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. Cain's tion: p. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. XV. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. career. are supplied by the . and Cain Lamech Metusael. p. and Lamech are all said vol. Augustine. 5. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. 192). and Uzziah lusted after the ground. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. 1. life into a sophisticated. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 8. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. Augustine says nothing negative. absent from the Biblical text. Calvin on the other. 21). says bluntly "Cain. 8. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. Isaac. Mehujael. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. 29)." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. vol. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is.
His birth is suspect. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. violence and In a more analytical vein.). did not yet exist). it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. of p.). They eyes. pp. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid. Naamah. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp. In sum. Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God.) (which. Calvin. far as we can tell from Genesis 4. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis).6 Interpretation (ibid. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. 160-62). the latter who lived more virtuously. 237-40). if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. and because of this. 2. sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. like beasts. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. the op for him the arts are goods. XV. with human law making.). and 159). Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. and gifts from God (Calvin. the former being. Like the rabbis. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. however. superfluous sin. his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. 238). went about stark naked. 217-22). duced Seth's line into waywardness. God" at least more carnal in their interests. 160). acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. and all its connections (with the arts. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his .22. Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall.22). In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. view. the he founded. flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. In general. with political life) fall under a dark shadow.
). who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. too. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. tyranny (Calvin. tried to kill Abraham he was young. Esau. in Genesis Rabbah. Nimrod the city-builder evil. Genesis 10. to degenerating calling "rebelling. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. . vol.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. "began" 2. ants same Obviously. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. 2. 175). 317). pp. There is other evidence that Nimrod. p. p. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol.4). 420-21. In this attempt. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. here found in the hiphil form. they supply other examples of wicked people things.26 are said. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. so negatively. p. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. however. Second. man. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. as the-verb "to (halal). 3). is bad for two reasons. that is. 260). deriving all wicked things.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. p. Since Nimrod is a slave. be evil. of course. pp. he Abraham. Finally. is a deceiver." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. "beginning" is is verb. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. he a 10. Thus. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. XVI. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. XVI. it is p. de Rabbi Eliezer. he Genesis Rabbah. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. which is what persuaded people to let him them.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). 60-61). oppressor. 174). being a mighty hunter. was obviously a furious Nimrod. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. like all hunters. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. his claim to might. First. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. who 4. Esau. the ancestor of Israel. 2. Nimrod. And. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. From the sense "pro fane. who. 38). mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah." earth. and. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. but mention rather.
for they p. the the Ham line. 11. therefore. In any case. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. First. 1. and. to displace him. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. The Babel-builders. p. right motives. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. in an summary. 49-50). like Nimrod. do" translated into rabbinic. too (Genesis Rabbah. being settling and building in "settled. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. XVI. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. 3. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. 2." "and this they begin to which. the Lord.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. as I will point later." are "rebels. vol. In p. 324). (Genesis Rabbah. could hardly him have Urban life. Calvin Calvin. for idol They filled the sin of pride. and vol. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. was the area of his king dom. means.4). they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. and Jacob. like Abraham. the lower part of the world. bad scent. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. They they being given the earth. His city. heavens. which p. do. vol.8 Interpretation Nimrod. p." but are on the 50). There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. with the upper part. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. as one might expect. 2. 260). as in the case of Cain. which. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . "Settling" is moti vol. needless to say. 51). and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. . the two intertwined in traditional commentary. pp. for two reasons. a city. want 2. God's people do not rest con move. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. at signifies also that they made an on 261. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. probably vol. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. again. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. Isaac. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. Second. 2. according to Genesis 10.4.
" us make "let build city"). Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. Ruling comes from Nimrod.3-4 ("let brick. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. then of Seth. The the city. heir of a slave. rejection of God. and tyranny over others. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. B. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. Nimrod. is grounded in folly. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. in criticizing the Babel-builders. The city cannot provide for security against death. then. only God can do these things. is inferior to the way of the Politics. 4. says Abravanel. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. being Esau's way. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. are proud.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. or rebels against God. Abravanel thus. They are from the wrong lines. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. sinners. They story. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. they God's murderers. The city. More generally. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. if the materials they supplied were . CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. is ated. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. hunting. God's do not need the political life of the city. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. and the rule of with human beings by others. political which go with cooperation. who defined man as a political animal. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. but to conspire against and a God. without God's help by They purely human means. which. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. the arts. in order to establish the stated. Abravanel argues. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure.
for two First. and Babel. and enough reading. when they assert without philological "idol." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. since Lamech fathers sons who are . again might not be bad in itself. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. far beyond this. and so on. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. they are merely the justifications. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. however. Sec that there is ond. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. Some of the claims are errors." they ask us to accept too much on faith. believe. Shinar.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. Augustine's most claim that translators. all interpretive control is lost. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. Nimrod. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. and would maintain this even reasons. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. more relevant interest. There are Nonetheless. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. they in the Biblical text. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. to the fact that by Nimrod. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. point. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. but some of fetched. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. For example. even without the extraneous material. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. however.
or that he ordered the people him. the entire race. execution. undertook the Babel project on his own. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. They they are by the farmer. How. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. he infers it in infers. too their sheep. Augustine all lifestyle. which makes "children men. these are nity. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. hardly closer the model of the political man. is cursed to in Genesis 9. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. that Cain had a says justify God. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. Nimrod. Abravanel. Babel but not in the case Cain. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. tilling it. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. further. Further. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. the city falling to his arrows." The interpretation same such is. Ham's son. Further. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. The hunter is the loner. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. text with uncharitable motives. rather. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. out of the desire for a name. And settled farmers (like Cain. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face." Again. if God will then. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. is feeble. in a parallel manner. the hunter is less violent. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. In fact. and that the city to protect him. If Israel is not wicked ." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. since not Ham but facts that do not fit.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
for the laws of God (Gen. the city arises. It also helps maintain concord between stay together.1-7). people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. Ham. whenever the tribal or them. cities a son of Shem. Abimelech in Genesis 20). in this overspreading. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. something is added: God gives the first laws. 13). must not conclude. Abel. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. 9. amicably dividing the world themselves. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. Ham. This time. (9. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. In this new creation. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. built by Asshur. Since. which are life. without Thus. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. which relied too much on we are innate human told. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. they occupy it as they were meant to. if we are watching a new creation. however. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit." earth becomes peoples of common nations.19). which had no such structure discernible. Thus. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. is. the between Cain nation. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. the new creation as it were." Asshur. will have a legal dimension absent from the old. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. There is another interpretation. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. among Japheth separate violence. the goodness. Recall that in Genesis 9. the migrating offspring of Shem. families (mishpahoth) Shem. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. The new begin ning. in the east. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. The first cities are or comes to rule. The next a region called in Shinar. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. therefore. the "nations. suggests in which one will rule over many. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. One wicked one. and since they too are related. Genesis 10 documents this family by family.1-7) to be enforced.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1.
Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. Nimrod became famous. I represents a political would argue. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. In important respects. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. I would suggest. but human for up as prey beings. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. how to be a "hunter.4) or the Babel (1 1. For these reasons. basis to nor of an adjective alone. Nimrod does not boast about himself. of a any more. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. and so did his empire. from the above discussion. city building. Finally.23-24). one must conclude that cannot as such. strained passion. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. unlike Lamech's. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. at overspread the earth at least potentially. Kings may (I Samuel 8). not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals.17). good. least some of the nations which legitimately source.4). but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. may not be pretty. condemn be evil. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. then. kings are one possible source of law. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. Nimrod. by God's . "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter.9). The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. In this context.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. first hunter. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. and as did Lamech (4. the order of creation.8) and before the Lord (10. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. vulnerability to random killing). as did Cain (4. Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. in fact. we must ing was Lamech's. did the mighty men of old (6. men ruling men). but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting.
" is only fitting. close even antiurban exegesis. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. in the Babel there features grant. I certain turn to the Babel story. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. It "scattered. and Augustine.5). the descendants of Flood. that is. Finally. too. No one people (which is why I would con- . and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. in a its top in the heavens. He. The 11. as of (11. They heavenward (11. The with sin of the Babel-builders.4). in one place. God at the end of purpose. are there is a a justification for the traditional however.4). At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. to obey God. The "sons men" Noah. it to be a certain un populating. Further. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. His proj may be ambiguous. wants them to the earth (1. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. 428). case of Babel is not exactly typical city. The their cautiousness. God wants them to move outward. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. then." of perhaps educated obey God. Regarding this story. is by Calvin. They one spot. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. is. the language of mutual entreaty. among these Combs and Post point out. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. too. Babel-builders is. process. p.28). and he. be was afraid of safe. Rather.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. I think. united brotherly love. if it and was a sin. They want live. something. like Cain's. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. and enjoying the earth. scattered. They "scattered. speaking one language. of super-city with together. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth. aim spreading master to many spots.
its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation." of that is. Cain may have been proud of his city. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. as it were. no possibility of the living. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. unified world-state.7 overthrow "name." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. The or reputation earn. The forms of govern men" ment. the situation be irreparable. a permanent essence which. They do not wish to God. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. God. noble it may be. speaking. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. In Genesis not allow of 11. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. they do not even mention him. separate peoples. built. good which so I think is the one correct one. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. the nation sired by Abraham. but he was not God in naming it after his son. and powerful cities. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. hold them together in Shinar forever. unified world-state. and the only people. however thinking. It is true that they wish eternity. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. then.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). then. In fact. however. become corrupt. will and to give it. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. only language that exists should If the only state." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. they dream. "name" necessarily an improper desire. and themselves. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. wanting as is fact. be for . God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. the "sons of will founding "nations. were tribal and monarchical. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. would God. are not malicious. In Genesis nized 10. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way.
he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. was the Babelers were not being scattered. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. Cain's son. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. 242. Cain pp. Genesis Rabbah. or for building great towers into the a heavens. Ont. and not always the best. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil.3. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. 4. argue that the evils of 1979). Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. arts. 150 51. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. trans. Isaac Abravanel. 1847). law. as city of Enoch. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi.: Penguin. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. 3. Jacob Neusner. Deut. pp. 1. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. trans. (Title henceforth: City of 5. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press.6). vol. 1970). If these people strayed. if one wished to put the city in a better light. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. And in one case. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. In societies other than Israel. NOTES 1. because Cain is not so commentators make out. trans.) Lemer 1978). Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. p. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Augustine.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9. 158. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. but these motives were not wicked. but for purity. 196-98.. 256. John Calvin. XV. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. p. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. pp. trans. it due to knowing God wanted. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. 44-48. 1972).7." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. to teach.: McMaster University. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. in Genesis 10. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. John trans. . 4. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. 12. then. 2 vols. Robert Sacks. Eng. 1985). Rev. 2. God. King (Edinburgh. eds. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes.
S. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. I add that. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor.20 Interpretation 6. Craigie (Sheffield. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. and to Leo Strauss. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. Eugene Combs. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis." Memory of Peter C. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. 1-5. C. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. MA: JSOT Press. I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. In a general way. which who essay was seminal for them. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. 6. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. Due to space limitations. hence. 1987). I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. . 1988). 1990).. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Robert Sacks.
appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. John's College. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. 1 . and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. Vol.14 wings as if on high. interpretation. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. Sacks St. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. 15 She has forgotten that hers. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. No. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny. as if they were not even in all vain. Her toils caused foot can crush them. Fall 1998. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. 26. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. and who dwells city. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. meet armed combat.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. You see. 16 She treats her were all children roughly. or that a wild beast might trample them down. Num 3. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. 3 when to give birth to their young.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember.
consume the of their gates. "I and father's house. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. Indeed." a very will complex word. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame."18 Comments 1. The and single Hebrew word hul. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. David heard of it. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. although almost as side. it originally meant "to whirl. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. 3:28 are of Afterward. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. he said. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical. javelin. making it his stronghold. forever Ner.17 pinnacle. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command." Hos. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. 2Sam. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities." .22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. he is there. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. Whenever death defiles. Oh. and See notes to 26. 25 but facing battle from afar. His swill it from afar. 2. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast.
Exod. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. 15:20 Then Miriam. king. trembles and writhes The land in pain. the sister of Aaron. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. Then. and rebuilt the towns. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. And to us. Grant them graciously to us. And the to their number. Benjaminites did so. only to the book Judges. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. for the Lord's purposes ." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. The Book rule. in her hand. the prophetess. neither did you give them to them. from the dancers to their and took their wives. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. that book which begins see them dashed. it Psa. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. saying. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. and often when first reading the word. hands anger burned hot. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. then they went and returned inheritance. and go to the land of Benjamin. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. Judg. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. Deut. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. and dwelt in them. 23:5 Jer. Exod. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. too. according whom they carried off. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. and watch. else you would now be guilty.
thy judgments puffs at them. as for his foes." English-speaking in this also recognize . 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. and you forgot birth. their faces be aflame. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings." and hence "to give Deu. inhabitant. Ps. I conceive me. They look another. birth": as in our case. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). it can also mean "to be in labor. Isa. pressed upon Saul. angry them. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. brings forth rain. brought forth in iniquity. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. and ISam." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. in visiting the day of birth. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. they aghast at looks. 31:3. But. your vindication as Ps. 51:5 Behold. in and your right as the noonday. 37:6 will bring was forth the light. tempest. Job. was revisiting the day of his own birth. There is Jer. and sin did my mother Prov. For this reason. out of his sight.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. are on high. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue.
Yet we can all world. before her she was delivered of a son. 6. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. 5. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. But quite even Job. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. dancing. It is the whirling. perhaps with beyond world.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. pain-ridden. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. rhetorical. and are what they are. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. To word understand used this passage. Here. 8. an order for the first time. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. of course. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. In using such a harsh word. since. 7. speaks to Job. How different things Isa. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. fostering in each life to own its signet. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. then. are 3. This. She. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. The question is. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. the joys of our world could never come to be. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. has never known either burden or rein.
and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. brought 9. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. too. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. and But if the slave plainly says. all are there. years. for nothing. male and . When a man strikes the . so that no one should enslave a Jew. has served you six years. that was true. be your slaves. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. to and the man who and will give Israel. but he him for favor. children. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. And there are other passages. It is true that. . sake. he shall serve six years. Hebrew man. and destroys it." daughter. but they were treated kindness: justly and . my wife. I will not male or eye's female." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. and like a hireling he waits for wages. female. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. "servant. go out free. 15:12 If your brother. ears to me. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. to undo the thongs of the yoke. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. eye of my his slave. that show his concern.26 Interpretation Exod. he shall serve you six you. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. great riches. is sold to you. Jer. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. Small and great. and in the seventh he shall go out free. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. or a Hebrew woman. his brother. to oppressed go free. along many others. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. gave no answer. and the slave is free his lord. "I love my master. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him.
five hundred of them. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. the cedars of .. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. Even from was within the human sphere. the . the osprey. each thing can be be what it is. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. Job but. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. it will be a long journey. There were always some men suffering it caused. The an furrow. and them yet he did have ox." answer can do none of these things. not certain what bird is meant. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. of course have been out of the question. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly. it requires something like the concept of a signet.. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would." time. The trees of the Ps. are watered bat. roaming the hills as his pasture. they and be eaten. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24." This is the only verse. they are an abomination: the eagle. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. is 12. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. It is generations. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. "trust. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. both for moved for others. as we shall see. it may seem. the stork. the vulture. 11. the hoopoe. the heron according to its kind. ance The farm. giving it a The signets. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. what of those who dwell in house of clay. 104:16 LORD abundantly. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. that its us. I do God rose up? 10.
at least it is the can most write about. he will dwell on the heights. The hawk. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. his place of defense who shakes . had been domesticated. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. their nests. who despises the gain of stops oppression. insofar as been domesticated. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. two women wind was in their wings. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. character that each 17. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD." 13. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. people crane keep the time of their coming. 8:7 Even the swallow. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. and in the heavens knows her times. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. lest they hold a bribe. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. In them the birds build trees. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. and the turtledove. then.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. but my know Zech. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. when if only in part. too. and behold. must 14. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. 15. 16. ears his looking upon his hands. silly beast. and eyes and saw.
"1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. 49:16 Leave the cities. me dwelling set say in heart. 13 Bury them all in the dust. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. is in the not Job. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. his bread will be given him. twice. for your own right have saved ." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. sixth as beast. 5 I have spoken once. Bind their faces in would obscurity. has been defeated. The ostrich. you though your nest says the among the stars.4 even would praise you. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. Look upon every man of him.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. is high. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. and you must let me know. you who your Obad. the hawk. high and the pride of your heart. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. 10 "Go ahead. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. How my hand upon my mouth. did for its children all that the charm to do. 1:3 heart has deceived you. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. 48:28 Jer. 14 Then you. you inspire has deceived you. however. in returning to flow off into death. The cold and more grotesque. LORD. and Jer. but I have no answer. thence I bring down. bring clefts will down from there. 18. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. pride of your whose says the LORD. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. who hold the height I will of hill. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. his of water be sure. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's.
somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. If Job's this not point. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)"." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. beyond man is no place for a man. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows.6 of brass. 18 His bones iron. But the Tempest will go.8 21 He lies down the lotuses. had been what God had wanted.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. but he did not. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. "Have you an arm like God's. He is the mighty one.9 brook in him. I believe. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. convinced him that Elihu was right. Indeed. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish. He eats fodder just like the cattle. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways. his warning was just. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. Again it says. hiding in the reeds and the fen. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. or his head with fishing his head. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. and you will remember war no Comments no answer. here is whom I made along with you. who would plead my case? . or with you to be your eternal his nose. under and all the beasts of the field play." again "asking. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. and if by court of law. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. God's argument is." 2. and his teaching is not a but an 3. confident that the Jordan will mouth. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce.
. "Behemoth cattle. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. iron. 8:12 . These do cosmos. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. Prov. . Appropriately enough. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. being lous nor mythical. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. behemoth 5. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. Man is 7. get beginning insight. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. are all who teaches us more The verbs. dwell in prudence. God is joking. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. fools despise and whatever you instruction. . than the beasts of the earth. is this: Get wisdom. with you . 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. of wisdom Prov. and I find knowledge of and discretion. created me at the beginning his work. Compare Ps. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. 4:7 The get. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom." "His bones are ducts brass. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . however. of It is. I. his wisdom. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. the first 8. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. however 6.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. His praise endures for Prov. clearly are of mythic proportion. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. however. "laugh" or ." in the made masculine singular. of The LORD acts of old. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge.
Gen. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play." looking at each usage. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. now that and say. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. 10. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. He finds Thus. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. a and said to himself.32 9. is usually translated "oppress. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. tyrannizing river. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. saying. "No. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. There is. for the pounding. "Why did Sarah laugh. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. "After I have my husband is old. I fear. that she had laughed. 17:18 is ninety years old. child. however. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son." Joy and happiness are another matter. But from the Gen. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen. making it his drinking foun tain. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. and you shall call his name Isaac. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. The half-mythic.
came have brought among us. Next . but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. he with me. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. 26:8 also was actually doing. "No. Then came the golden calf: Exod. and rose your And the LORD said to people. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. whom you brought up out of the Moses. And Sarah said. son whom she had borne Abraham. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. 21:6 city. for land of Egypt. and the people sat down to eat and drink. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. and I cried out with a loud voice. in to me to insult me. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. you laugh". 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. "The Hebrew servant. for she was afraid." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. He said. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. came "See. up to play. have corrupted themselves." and Sarah shall have son. playing her Isaac." the But he seemed to be jesting. place. "Up. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. but certainly the betrayed him. "Go down. in the saying. Gen. "I did laugh. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law." a But Sarah denied. every one hears will laugh me. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. his marry his daughters. saying.
is and thrust his sword opponent's side. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. and mocked them." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great. for the oxen stumbled." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. David. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. and he made sport before them. 2Sam. "Saul thousands." said to Joab.34 Interpretation Judg. "It was before the LORD. before the LORD. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said." pillars. 2:14 And Abner us. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. "Call Samson. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. . the abased and above all people of the his house. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. so down together. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. and he died there beside the God." has slain his thousands. And in his each caught arise. but they laughed them to scorn. twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. Israel. they said. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh. They made him stand between the us. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. at Gibeon. who chose father. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. by them I shall be held in honor.
and money answers everything. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. "It is mad. he will snatch and tear you tent. firebrands.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. "I am only joking!" Prov. wisdom. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. there is no quiet. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. Ps. at them. 10:23 beside him. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. and a time to laugh. Prov. Sorrow is better than laughter. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. 8:31 Prov. rejoicing before him always. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. 14:13 Prov. the fool only rages and laughs. closer to what we finds another strain. for Eccles. and shall laugh your from of the at living. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . Prov. Prov. it?" Eccles. . . dwell in prudence. Eccles. 8:12 . and I find knowledge and discretion. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. laughs at the time to come. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. a time to mourn. and fear. I you. 2:4 Ps. so is the laughter of fools. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. arrows. like a master workman. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. the LORD has them in derision. Jeremiah is not quite the same. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. and I was daily his delight. all the him. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. 2:2 I said of laughter. is vanity. I will mock when panic strikes I." and of pleasure. also will laugh at your calamity. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. at the but the LORD laughs coming. 3:4 to a time to weep. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. wicked. and wine gladdens life. for he sees that his day is Ps. 31:10 . Prov. 1:26 Prov. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. however. saying. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. Selah. Strength and dignity her clothing. dost laugh nations in derision. 7:3 Eccles. 59:8 But thou. and death. and a time dance. "What use is Eccles. O LORD.
shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. But he also has another notion of laughter. then they among nations. every one mocks me. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. Jer. I and the palace shall stand used to be. I did alone.36 Interpretation Jer. and thou hast prevailed. and I was deceived. shall not small. When her . for thou hadst filled me with indignation. thou art than I. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. I sat because thy hand was upon me. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. multiply them. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. I will make them honored. says LORD. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. the we were like those and our dream. and the voices of those who make merry. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. and have compassion on his dwellings. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. "The LORD has done things for them. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. thou hast deceived me. I will heal. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. I have become a laughingstock the day. him and he too shall be held in derision. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. Was thieves. and your wounds Jer. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. 48:26 "Make him drunk. Then our mouth was with laughter. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. Zech. and they be be few. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. however. nor did I rejoice. Jer. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound.
for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. The much subject was and bound to come up. the burden of their day says long. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. if to judge by different from the others. every fortress. but hills as his pasture. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. laughter in the Book of 8:53. for it Hab. mocking at her downfall. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. none to help her. made him all his trouble. Mark 5:40. 9:24. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. Job the outcast. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. and every green thing is his to search out. guilty men. Lam. 3:14 Ezek. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. Mat. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. and there was her. 1:10 contains much. the a side which had always been a part Job and. for they like the wind and go they make sport. and of rulers At kings they scoff. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. Luke 6:21. 25. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. a simple. . because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. But there of was another side of we are laughter. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. and does not even hear the drivers shout. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. whose it. James 4:9). Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf.The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe.
and one of the things he learned. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. mountains yield him produce. With Job. 1 :26 and Then God said. at fear and is not dismayed. and over all the earth. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. At one first. "Let us make man in our image. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. and over the cattle. and over every of the . and even their sex. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . but not to it. the brother. Yet it is Lear shadow". but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. of nature. To that extent. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. as we put have from the ostrich. "It is I. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. Some English translations 12.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. this relation is seems to Dane. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. wings on high. Hamlet. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. their iden tity. after our likeness. and over the birds air. On this question. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. Job has come. . bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. 3:8 and 13. continually changing their clothing. . but at violence and starvation you will laugh. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. Eliphaz once had he has seen. Job has come to learn from nature. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11.
We cannot divide it up and as we will. ways 15. "subdue" In addition. . and subdued them as slaves. let of us go LORD. many of the peoples shall come. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. but the he must perform now. and God said to them. to the house God Jacob. earth." 39 So God created man in his created him. sword against nation. people of sons after you. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. He judge between the beat nations. and and shall be raised above the hills. "subdue" "dominate. the and all the nations shall flow to it. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. in the image of God he created them. and over the And God blessed them. to slaves of inherit as a them. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. is not a world and 14. Jer." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. and say: of "Come. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. it is only a in which he learn about play. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. But it is not the same. with harshness. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. not as a thing for us. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free." It should be noted that both words. male and female he fruitful and multiply. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. and their spears into pruning hooks. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. but the beyond is not ours." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. and they shall into plowshares. you may make brethren the another. Josh. the land lay before them. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. In many Isa.
word mean but along it a sense of dread. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. 9 Each closed8 seal. and bronze as rotton wood. fused all together. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now." times. for he was made to dread. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. and terror dances before him. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . wait. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). It too.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. up by a breath between them. or exploits or the grace of his frame. "to or so I believe. 14 His strength resides his neck. the gods are in dread. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. He is king over all the sons of pride. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. 11 fire escape. 15 Festoons of flesh. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. stand. nor lance. nor They spear. 17 "When he sion.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus.18 26 He sees every towering thing. and not a his shields7.'"9 Comments 1. quaver. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him.2 Do up. could. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. 12 From his cauldron. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin.13 cast as a nether millstone. rises up.
I have no higher expectations. on a with. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. I rain. The first has replaced the second. We have heard those Isa. till they stood longer 2. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. till they had finished speaking. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. YaChaL. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. loose my his hand and cut me off! . you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. for something to say. He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. which deals with our relation to the world of man. That is to say. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. apart from their being for us. the Ps. but there came only a murk. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. falling silent to hear counsel. interplay between hwl and denying us the second.
mangled never overpowered man. One of them reads: give the Lam. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. The "brutal" word seems." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. means "to be whole or word complete. then. Then the within fifty-two days. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had." From it Hebrew So for "peace. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. You have resigned.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. like the in the wilderness. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. shlm. but he and His body surrounds him pain." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. Job has nonhuman. and in which he for itself. The comes the root of this word. away. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. The word. They with were in disgrace. knew it." 4. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . and he has and sent him off." Neh. So. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. word 'akf'zar. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. But that knowledge rouse may admire. occurs which I have translated "brutal. in already begun. and with the might of fact.
"Go." debt. If He should pass by and separate or close up." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. and its owner has not kept it in. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. it means that the spoke Leviathan. he pay ox for ox. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. mean normally In either of means "to shield. God sets the wicked to close in men. in the however. cannot by No one can touch him. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. dead beast shall be his. It might help." 7. unlike Job. In that sense. case. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door. The again. of. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. It leaves always room restitution." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself." importance winnowing kind. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. from the root mgn. however.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. know him from the Here it is taken outside only." oil rest. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. 8. is to "make whole. sell the live on the lift. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. meganim. then. defend." by all to his the scales. and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt. If." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened.
it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. the Leviathan does Job's skin." away from all other beings. 12. ness. At best. For the world beyond man. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. as stone. Job has seen the Leviathan. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. closed entranceway. has. tight itself. from the way." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish." all others. dabhaq. and the face of the deep Again." sar. the list is ." his completion and perfection. "signet. shameful. 9. "tight. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. For us it is ugly. flesh. or constrictive: "stick. But. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. of murk and confusion. become that which seals it hotam for Job. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. off. my heart gone after my eyes. in the world beyond man. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. for the Leviathan.44 Interpretation One cannot up. fused (dbq) all together. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. complete.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. ." but. and repentance. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes.epher we'phar. normally as 'el. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. can establish in the world of the small. The root nhm means understood in the text. I who am but dust ashes. "Behold. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. 58:8. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is." meaning to them." to be behind their understanding of the verse. He is value. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes. one feels remorse. of course." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6. for instance. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. have expected but it would not be so . however." or is. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten ." wenihamti. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. Linguistically speaking. we have returned to Chapter One. as . require as Greenberg does. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both." 'al. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not. there seems "to feel deep compassion. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. 18:27 the Abraham answered. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. that the book was conceived of as a whole." and 5. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. Also see Gen. in itself." sorrow or Like the English word. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now." one assumes ashes. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. But to others for something that one has done." These passages. by the way. one more reason for believing tion. if one feels sorrow guilt. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant." and is." where it "to It is found in Ps. means "to despise" "reject. "upon.
All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. Gone is the vocabulary. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. my brothers and sisters. 9. sisters each one on a different with day. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. will consume His be away. Remember Aaron. living in a nutshell. 11. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. 10. that wonderful woman of the night. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. but . interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. and Joshua 2:13 . . Rahab: my father them. . "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. that the moths eaten. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. death's first born his members. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death.50 Interpretation 1. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. 8. and save alive and mother. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. destruction. yet his soul. them over. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies.
"Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. Gen. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. 12. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. and Zophar the Naamatite. fodder just like the cattle. Shechem's father. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. Bildad show Shuhite. at the end of the book. What was not possible before has now become actual. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. not snuffed out the life of its owners. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. but look at the loins. ten thousand of cattle. three thousand camels. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. His might is in the muscles of his belly. inheritance of the descendants 14. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. strength in his Now. it became Joseph. 13. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. eating joyous unity. It fell down . or even eat a crust of when bread alone. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. were another one came in and said. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth.
also called pukf1. qesi'a. Job himself becomes word yom. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. including the being his 16. O desolate one. "day. Job 3:1 Then. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. in English." are. The Book rection. the silver of of my God. And you. They are dead. came to Jezreel. As such it became. and wood and stones wood. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? ." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. all sorts of precious stones. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. this name? second word. of silver. keren happuli1: the first two ful. and she painted her head. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking.52 Interpretation the young people. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. 18. It is from the words It is a new Job. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. so far for the things as I was able. We remember to his friends: his his day. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. Jezebel heard of it. the iron for the things iron. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. or all the things that a self. "cassia. Then. and marble. antimony. and looked out of the window. stones. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. too. in the prophets. Job opened mouth and spurned 17.
But the root also means "to shine": Exod. His bull has majesty. "My exalted in the LORD. my derides my enemies. My mouth rejoice in thy . flashed from his hand. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. and he veiled his power. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. and they were afraid to come near him. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. qeren. And Samuel priest took the rose up. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. until in to speak with him. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. hence. will give strength his king. he anointed. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. It "horn.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. that the skin of skin of face shone. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. against he thunder in heaven. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. 33:17 ox. salvation. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. Then they blew the trumpet. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. have Samuel. to the ends of the earth. rays Hab. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. tent." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. all of them. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. to begin at the beginning. behold." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. said. Moses' his face shone." 53 us look at the first word. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. for I sons. and went to Ramah. because I ISam.
"Do glory boast. my me from violence. stronghold and my refuge. Linguistically. And. too. to the sound the hom. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. trumpets. "Do not lift For thou exalted. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. art the of their strength. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. for Israel who are near to him. 22:3 of My God. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. my rock. 27:2 be Exod. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. thou . in whom I take refuge. 75:4 up Ps." not and to the wicked. my savior. and the IChron. Often the Psalmist Ps. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam.54 Interpretation Ps. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. 89:17 I say your to the horn. I have driven my horns into dust. cymbals. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. of course. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. I have for prepared a Ps." boastful. praise all his saints. and made loud music on harps and lyres. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well.
Jacob loved Rachel. for your younger and he said. Abram's And ultimately. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. we shall have to consider the full list. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. he opened her womb. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. he said to Sarai his behold. We have not. they praised her to Pharaoh. wife. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. And Leah conceived and bore a son. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. so he said. Gen. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. and said to him. will they will say. "Behold. cluded however. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. so as to not mislead ourselves. and when . for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. because of the woman whom you have taken. and she . 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. man's wife. Leah's soft. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. though perhaps somewhat naive man. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. But God sister. 19. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. you are a a dead man. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. there is also good. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. to Sarai. barren. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. in have to be Song its of Songs. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. then they kill but they let you live. Rachel.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. "I the will see you. and his house because of Sarai. saw Gen. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house." But it is not clear what the reader is to think." "Lord. 'This is his wife'.
30:6 When Rachel sister." them. the have son. she envied or her and she said to Jacob. And midwife said to as her.' and she had hard labor. And he went out of Leah's tent. and entered Rachel's. but did not find the household gods. but he did into Leah's tent. said to me. voice and given me a has also heard my son". "Because the LORD has looked me. and she called Simon. she reacts not with gratitude. "Give children. but with a demand for Gen. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). saying. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. 31:32 it. therefore she called his name Dan. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. she called his name Benoni. but at a very heavy price: Gen. and into the tent of the not find them. but his father buried Benjamin. "Fear called not. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. Laban felt . and said. he has given me this son also". but did not find them. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. Then Rachel said. And she her father. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. for she said. in her hard labor. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister." She my affliction. and sat upon all about the tent. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. So Rachel died. 30:1 Gen. and two maidservants. Bethlehem). and take know that Rachel had stolen them." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. so she called his name Naphtali. and have prevailed". "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. Rachel travailed. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. "God has judged me. for the way of women is upon So he searched.
Deut." ISam. David. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. Abigail: ISam. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. Now he he. he disdained appearance. And the LORD said. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. and said. for blood be made pollutes the land. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. Gen. the . Joseph. "Lie with master's me. except can for him the land. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. they first seven fat cows. the [beautification] in it. 41:2 and fat. him. behold. but all that again it led to grave problems. . beautiful eyes. and had and was handsome. he was a Calebite. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. was Joseph himself beautiful. David was beautiful: brought him in. 16:12 And he sent. but the ill-behaved. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. . "Arise.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. . and the name of his wife Abigail. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. anoint and was ruddy. for when this is ISam. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. and saw and him. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. a youth. for it. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. Nonetheless.
" treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. had a beautiful sister. Amnon lay down. the and she became the king's not. The very beautiful." with And he took three darts in his of hand. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. my than she. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. hair his head. But he would not he forced her. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. "Come. David's son. and killed him. he it). 2Sam. "I king). Joab's armor-bearers. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. and after a time Amnon. and brought her to the maiden was king." of her. 13:1 Absalom. and found Abishag the Shunammite. Absalom he riding his mule. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. and she was a beautiful woman. and left hanging between heaven earth. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. and pretended to be ill. David's son. but king knew her . 18:10 And a certain man saw it. On the other Joab. Absalom and struck him. born to Absalom three sons. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. 14:27 There were name was Tamar. when was heavy meet on him. whose name So Tamar. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. he took hold sister.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. his foot to the . and being stronger to me. if I had dealt the will aloof. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. "Behold. loved her. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. and when the king came to see him. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David." hand. nurse and ministered to him. from the sole of . her. with listen to her. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. . his head and fast in the oak. while the mule that was under him went on. Amnon said to the king. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. I saw Absalom hand. and told hanging in an oak. he weighed weight. lie with her. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. oak.
Esther's beauty saved her people. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. and and do not capture you with Prov. LORD is to be beauty is vain. that is Esther. scarlet. instead of beauty. a girding of sackcloth. baldness. 6:25 far north. they will behold a land rope. 10:3 lovers despise you. Ps. her eyelashes.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. And you. 3:24 Instead girdle. for fair to behold. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. Eccles. the maiden was beautiful lovely. Jer. for themselves: is Ps. and He had brought up Hadassah. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. in let her Prov. a there will be rottenness. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. is the joy of all the earth. O desolate one. for of a this is his lot. Esther 2:7 uncle. Eccles. and instead of a rich robe. Men beautify so that gold. also he has put eternity into man's mind. shame. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. therefore God has blessed for ever. 4:30 hair. they seek your life. as and when her father and her mother died. for the customs of the peoples are false. but a woman who fears the praised. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. and instead Isa. Mount Zion. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. grace you poured upon your lips. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. 33:17 Jer. Jer. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. of perfume Isa. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. when she has done vile . and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. the city of the great King. A tree from the forest is cut down. 5:18 Behold.
31:7 exposed you before kings." I Ezek. and its branches will be consumed. towered proud of Ezek. and were in your towers. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. you then exult? The LORD once called you. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. and say to him. but they will not do it. lo. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. for they hear young and men shall say. "Is beauty. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. "But trusted in beauty. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. And silk. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. your builders beauty. . the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. 33:32 And. You to regal estate. cast you to the ground. made they hung Ezek. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. 9:15 that thirst. 2:15 with goodly fruit". raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. for down to abundant waters. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. high Eden envied it. iniquity was found in you. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. and played the harlot because of your . . and your cloth. renown." Ezek. offering made harlotry. you.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. you ate raiment was of fine linen. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. and its heart was its height. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. Son of man. 27:4 any passer-by. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . that were in the garden of God. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. they perfect your beauty. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. in the length of its branches. says the Lord GOD. . they shall devour and . I have cast it out. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves.
26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. Noah. Num. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. you shall give them . saying. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. and Tirzah. 20. and before the leaders and all the congregation. 27:4a Why family. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. son of Manasseh. but only a dowry. The names of his daughters Mahlah. Thus. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. the next phrase Num. and he had no sons. Milcah. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. of Gilead. Hoglah. son of Hoglah. and before Eleazar the priest. corners of be full like bowl. Machir. And they stood before Moses. And are the LORD said to Moses. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. The text continues: Num.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. Milcah. "The daughters Zelophelad right. Had there been a son. Noah. for like the jewels of a Yea. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. but died for his sin. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. at the door of the tent of meeting. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. the daughters have received an inheritance. Zelophehad Mahlah. and new wine the maidens. Our father died in the wilderness.
And if he has daughter. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. however. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . it inheritance. daughters of Zelophehad. tribe. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. tribe to another. came near son of Manasseh. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. saying. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. and has no son. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. In the case of Zelophehad. Tirzah. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. for Mahlah. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. The only. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. they said. and Noah. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. 'If dies. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. son of Joseph. then his inheritance to his brothers.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. Hoglah. Milcah. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers.
the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. be and of the ways. the way to go out on the hunt. The inheritance is outright and absolute. Of what do they speak? Of the com. "just" by the For Job. the and all way to These some bury the dead. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see. by the fathers and some by the mothers. This insight. ways must be taught they must be learned.The Book of Job Job's daughters. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. there would be no bread. Without whole. there and us. as we have seen. the two refused to mesh. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. the way to bake bread. beauty. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. men are empty and life is without taste. there would no way to live as "one of com. however. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets." Without these would must be no life. . and a need of clarity. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. in turn. and it is the children who must learn them. of his daughters." clashing for human One said while friendship. nothing is said dowries. led. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. They be taught.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
with some effort to answer that I did." p. not mutu Pit. these virtues were often considered a rare combination.5 Furthermore. 507a-c. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). Still. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. After tality seek marriage and family. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. from sex been Since self-control. 714). one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). "oddness. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache. particularly restraint indulgence. 221d). entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). important texts on the theme of eros. if ally exclusive (North 1966. Charmides. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. an elenctic investigation begun. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. at Symp. but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. 97). 306b). We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue.
distinguished." he says. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. inward say. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. eternal rates beauty (Symp. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. like his describes. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. try to teach the other. just as a fawn . least if self-control might presence. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). to quotation of return Cydias. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. and good. 210a-212a). and gifted soul. at least potentially. Indeed. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. Like children. certainly will he would never anything ugly. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. Narrative. For the second. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. face. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. pregnant If this is the case. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. rather than ugly ones. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. someone who is both kotos and. despite body. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. is. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal.Drama. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra.
I caught a fawn in my claws. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. 1978. First. inversion the expected im age. Sim sus ilarly. For of example. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. hunting (Dover. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . just so do lovers love 165). The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness.6 Third. 81-91. with trust in my strength. Halperin 1985. of citation of the line from Cydias. Socrates' (241d). consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. has not always been recognized as such. p. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done. 58. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. or as a hunter tracking game. but did not drink its blood. an pp.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. Socrates. the perception of their own lack knowledge. In both cases. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. him to finally renewed reflection.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. of which three come immediately to mind. there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. right out from under hind. in singing. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. fond of lambs. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. 241e). the aporia has a beneficial element.
a lover might approach his beloved. only if a with the power to momentarily. respectively. When Socrates says. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. he devoured appetite. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. perceiving his craving for Charmides. who. we can see that dialogue." realization of his desire to be Socrates. or . Another reading. catch. "So Charmides.Drama. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. 90. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. I thought how fair youth. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. which as a manifestation of anteros. If Charmides' either. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. p. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. "don't (176a-d). perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. If we do. also reads the text in this way). Narrative. he must mean us to go along with the game. Critias. 92. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire." you resist me Socrates answers. lion. when. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. pursue. and devour (McAvoy 1996. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. in which Charmides. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him." no one will be able to resist him. pursuer. p. to speak. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. also interprets the quotation in this sense). He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986." he most likely means Charmides became. Socrates to replies in kind then.
even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. but he does not condemn the desires of either party. If is . which cf. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. Socrates' Halperin 1986. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. someone suitable body. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. philosophos (154e-155a). or the entire body charm and the soul as well. relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. 210a. step.72 Interpretation merged. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. 155e). met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. Soc speak. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b).). and actually help nurture the Symp. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi).
What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. however. Narrative. Charmides. (17 le) Socrates. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. and. In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates.g. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d).Drama. (161b-163d). 457b). own" every member of a city. like walking and talking with deliberate. that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. see Larson 1951). showing modesty generally. e. possibility. and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. level again. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. From that on on. expands his logos nomoi. (160d-161b). and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. the element of to doing (163e-164d). as would a so governed. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon.g. penulti rung (episteme). Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. In other dialogues. Rep. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). Phil. 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). and goodness (to agathon. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning.
pp. 56-70. especially the Symposium. 1988. Laches. 541-49). he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. vision. any case. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. ostensibly. discussion before the topic of episteme came up.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. Sadly for Socrates. As an example. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. here eros. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. Phaedo. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. Kahn 1996. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. 148291. and Republic. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. pp. Rather. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). Lysis. would not had. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . as it turned out. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. to topic.
' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. and Kahn (1996. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. 'Take care not to go as a meat. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. p. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. p.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. (For an pp. This recently. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. pp. Cf." this . 187-88). One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. pp. the Symposium. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. since he can speak 4. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. . Narrative. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. pp. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. p. 154). (1977. 2. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. For the 5. thing. in Kahn's work 203-9. more 184). by Mahoney (1996. 1988. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. in the Laches. so to speak. Plutarch. that thought the experience. 54-55. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. Hyland (1981. [Cydias] said. 7. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. I to resist what had been an this. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil." "dates" with conversations. p. for example. Alcibiades. 73 n. 27) and. McAvoy (1996." observation has been p. like in advising fawn in front of a lion. but in those works he does not. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. p." someone. Donald Watt's translation (1987. 102. 3. together with his irresistible passion . theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. as here. principles 542-46)." measuring-line about such a person. he also thought.Drama. he "[Cydias] for the beast. Jowett 1961. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. concern " for p. not opposing view. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. 146). handsome boy. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. puts 6. 82). 25.
Benitez. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. 1987. 1996." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides. D.4). C. University Larson. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. North. Pp. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. H. Nussbaum. 1962.. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. Hamilton H. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. Kahn (1996. trans. K. T. In T. D.. 1986. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. McAvoy. Greek Homosexuality. 1988. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. 1985. "self-control. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. 1977. "Socratic Politics Charmides. p. 1951. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. Sophrosyne. Hanmondsworth.76 Interpretation 9. 63-103. 1988. Eng: Penguin. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. 1961. Athens: The Ohio University Press. Plato. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Pp. Ithaca." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29." 161-204. Griswold. . 1981. D. Page. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. Oxford: Oxford University Press." Dialogues of Plato. C. The Collected Dialogues." REFERENCES Bruell." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. J. Hyland. Ed. 99-122. Saunders. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Watt. C. Cambridge. 1986. 1966." Dover. 1996. E. Cairnes. 163-209. MA: Harvard University Press. Charmides.. NY: Cornell University Press. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. 1978. L. 1996." Mahoney. M. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. Kahn.. M. Charmides. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51. and Jowett. B. Potae Melici Graeci. In E. It is with Menexenus. trans. ed. Pp. eds. D. C. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. Cambridge: Cambridge Press.
No. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge. was an out-and-out bourgeois. 26. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. was becoming of a tyranny. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. Vol. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. and on prudential about grounds. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. Fall 1998. and his himself. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. Like Marx. 1 . Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions.
The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. Its force . He did not write a theoretical work on politics. fight the to rebels using the an law. love of country is a defense foreign domination. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. rebels. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America.78 Interpretation privilege. It is. but punishment. Yet. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. the on account of the war being a civil one. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. rather than law. A disobeyed be effectual. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. there is a strong of as the part of the British. Justice has two different aspects. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. however. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. who are gland. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. The law from corrupting one another. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. also the nature of law to be just. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. In doing so. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. but treasonous criminals. see his thought and his peculiar genius. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. On temptation. while partiality to whom one's own country. and foreigners.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts.
they corrupt their morals. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. Their cynicism and 177). they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. for pursuing peace. when the communion of our country is dissolved. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. They have lost confidence in justice. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. proposing a policy. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. Of most all wars. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. devoid of hope. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. a hostile light. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. or rather confusion. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. Britain's combination. bringing generality with hate. necessity Although law the common good. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. because and piety. (P. they wish for peace (p. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. public spirited reasons. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. In order to maintain the integrity of law. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed.5 melancholy are not. They vitiate their politics. however. but they have not lost their humanity. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny.
178). third. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. than law. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. therewith. rather giving it to treasury (p. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. Hatred determines the crime. inconsistently. 179). the guilty justice in four different ways: first. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. In fact. second. proper. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). . the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. they take the confiscated cargo. in fact. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. by treating fourth. contrary. is behaving like who appear tyrant. to infamy to punishment. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. and then distribute a war themselves. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. the British themselves. as long as it shall think . The determination infamous action. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. and. 179). 178). defeat. blurs the difference be (p. The determination a it. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. but. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. to enable administration to confine. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. . by treating innocent citizens inequitably. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. because.
The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. therefore. because it is blinded by its own indignation. therefore. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. 180). it be the imprisonment killing enemies. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. taking their goods. . The accused is.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. should the ment English be victorious. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. rather than the the crime. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. tying half dead in England). they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. tried ac cording to form. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. (pp. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. After strength not is American should defeats. both. object of their own insults. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. 180). them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. Parliament its proper time and place. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. 181-82). What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. the absence of justice. far from making the British godlike. peace. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. that they will become savage. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. but not according to justice. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. VIII (p. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority.
respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. Burke says general venoms equity. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. the limiting qualification. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. by breaking draws the first principle of law.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. . parliament is incapable of such prudence. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. liberty principle. because it between citizens. this action. as a life was given in return for a life. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. But. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. far as he tell. to punish the exchanged prisoners. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. But the British punitive. 186). therefore. instead of of taking out the sting. 182). but its to the corruption of manners. far from being the opposed to manners. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. never mind possible. 184). The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. naval men as they were allowed to go free. It hardly seems just. however. like the deter pirates. justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. 188). At the end of the war. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. This offense to threat to political liberty.
British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. he says unknown a reality. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. . and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. be can fore they be enlightened. dark. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. of concern But. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. Burke raises the the unknown. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. He even speaks as courage justice. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. have with doses of fear. despite American defeats. in love of country.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. 189-90). 191). Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. He speaks to the consciences. The British must doubt themselves. might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. the attachment to country. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. made the reminds them British feel invincible). He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. if only through fear. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them.
any without civil wisdom or military skill. Burke has for his plan. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. pride of a coward. order to render others contemptible and wretched. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. Far from man's of being cowards. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. states to the . the taxes. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. contending for a violent (P. helpless creature. pair facing the Brit ish. manliness and cowardice judgement. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. being that crawls on the earth. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. Those in favor of the war. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. calling for battles which but his servility to it. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. far from being manly. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. dominion in which he cannot exercise. show little are content to real magnanimity. actually the hypocritical others. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. when in triumph. rather than to punish and to subjugate. is in the eyes of God and man. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. that it is directed by insolent passion. they their country. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. 199). the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. With the awakening of their interests. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them.
195). to be the for the the war in England. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. the Americans are virtually alone. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. therefore. the Americans must trust in themselves. rather than certain tyranny. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. He is cautious in his blame. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. themselves. both addresses popular and parliamentary. cynicism. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. Just a short time . The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. (1774). and Burke shows As things stand. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. and be trusted. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. to risk with defeat their own arms. He is the people doubt Parliament and. they must earn that trust. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. therewith. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. above the voices of many.
The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. having recently tasted victory. He is thereby domestic politics. when public . Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. he can accuse aggrandizement. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. that it is not will be resisted. at best. (P. I must attend to public opinion. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. it may be the mind. 210-11). legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. Now. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. Parliament to tax the Americans. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. 207) omnipotence. so as to offend the people.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. granted social rights (pp. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. Par liament must. be governed. The people are. therefore. but people. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. because the British had suffered defeats. rather than oppress it. even though right of they have no representation. beg leave to observe. therefore. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. waves of chance and. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. 205).
then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. It requires compromise. just in they are needed (p. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. as a defense of freedom in general. religion more the monarchy. Compromise If the in the the and reform. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. not because of a perverse humor. parliament can no longer legislate religion. doing what one wills. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. however. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. like authority. Burke is quick to point out that. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. They practicing (the god of this lower world). as it was by the New Whigs. and. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. . Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. 211). through pressures placed on. from. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. freedom others. Freedom. any more than is sover of eignty. In light freedom. rather theory require tions for injustice. Freedom is not an abstract principle. politics. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. and even independence. ment. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. to be mistaken. Parliament must be heard. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. they embody than parlia ment. 208).
as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. they claimed to embody mankind. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. Moments authority lived. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. they affection. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. thus denying claimed the church. of man and the absolute hand. In abstract theory. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. General theories passions. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. rather than acknowledges the hate. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government.6 ire of an atheist.88 thus. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. Abstract ideas . and savage cruelty. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. collective are bom from disappointed trust. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. the aristocracy. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. because it is a principle of compromise. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. The British Parliament the authority of a god. rather than cod ified. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war.
In not fact. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. The Reflections. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. malice. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. In this. in particular.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. horror. though in theory. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. confiscations. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. and especially to science. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. their persecutors. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. guilt. and executions. The legislator must whole. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. broke faith. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. greed. the aristoc and monarchy. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives. and the tence. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. They destroy . Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution.
philosopher. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. offices. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. Like the of the good seamstress. is at their horizon like their horizon. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. ranks. though it may paradoxical. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. ." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. but things. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. It is who are undoubtedly true.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. Their them. nor fanatic visionary. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. God. but in general. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. united them as a people. . . he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. The legislator have of in his soul. he teaches limits of both. that they . Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- . they of any interest. they from love men too little. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. humanity (Pp. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. because moderation they are defi must in love.
like promises proportion. 524). His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants.12 chemistry. cannot recognize the politics. an un geometry differentiated mass.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. however. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. in fact. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. unique character of Geometry. they to represent and to secure those interests. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. Its rebel to be used against them. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. the uniqueness of human beings 301). while geometry reduces them to number and shape. creating Burke does. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. to have the power of ordering. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. atomism except by a principle of order. possibility (Reflections. At best. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. Legislation is deliberative p. which of it. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . a mathematical order. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. however. and exist in much greater clearness. rats. In formative act. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. therefore. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire.
to tax in order to restore American trust. 221). Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. 222). (P. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. of government. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. To the contrary. give repealing the tax. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. for America had. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. developed its own Ideological differences. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. then there must be moral . By having right to everything they want everything. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. Burke opposed abstract was against began. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. If there are to be compromise and freedom. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. 215). about the parts are at (p. or to an equal share in government. such. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation.
they are too strong to oppose. rather than connections of its sovereign. should the people rule. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. and a brutality of accepting of political men.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. avarice. but trust that is called to account and office. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. natural Burke thought the rulers. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. satisfy those grievances. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. The as are though people dis must. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. therewith. an Perhaps most important. however.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. in which it depends. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. The people are the product of the constitution. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. liberty. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. but. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). therefore. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak.
he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. . never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. . because he never believed is not Hegel's state. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. The origins are inferior to the end product. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. however. rather. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. and beneficence. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. It is something to be Although He respected. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. Burke believed that rational. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. mind. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. Burke never thought reality. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen.15 The hidden hand is not. brings a degree of the common good. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. Contending for an imaginary power. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. He economics. To the contrary. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. force. . He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own.
Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. (P. His Yet one cannot of visionary. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. contains its abuses within it. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. espe cially in the great. on hand. the latter necessarily corrupts. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. 260. which which he lends credence. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. B. Karl Marx. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. a God. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. So. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. disheartened and disgusted. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. Capital I (Moscow. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. he and sought indignant fanaticism. C. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. Unlike Parliament. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. he is in his self-right eous wrath. to be grown in disrepute. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. to foster the love of Furthermore. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. The partial suspension. so or a misanthropist. Prudence makes the former feasible. 1954) p. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. but they can trust him. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. only because they have elected him.
tyranny (Thomas Paine. 439. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. 520. 15-16. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. pp. vol. three sections of the city. p. and the 7. 101. attempt 8. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. Works. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. 1960). Works. 6. and three kinds of legal suits. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. 8. In from looking to the number three for order. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. he denied and the artisans arms. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. ultimate differences. of govern 3. 279. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. they both ideas. 94. vol. a more participatory form vol. Eng. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. his regime on the number 12. Edmund Burke. and to Burke. wore by cheap whole. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. 358. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. p. 2. 431-32. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. p. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. 282-83. although ment. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. Jackson Bate (Westport. 31. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. p.96 else. CT: Greenwood Press. but according to his fancy. 3. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. Old Whigs. 10. vol. pp. portrait. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. page number alone are 3. Furthermore. farmers. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. 1854-89). But he did give the any property. vol. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. remind one of the old man ed. pp. Hippodamus models three. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. 533.: Penguin. Politics. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. Glorious 1984). 9. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. pp. 1994]) argument. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. 350-52. The Complete Writ 1945]. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. jurors and . and by looking at the man. 164. 2. many other cities. and the 2. pp. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. was cited within the text as Reflections. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. 5. 4. 431. 7. pp. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. in whose 6. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. CA: Sage. In desire to know nature as a whole. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. 382-84. W. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. Phaleas'. There are three classes of citizens. 1. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. vol. 282-83. vol. Phaleas for advocating equality of property.
takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. p. who lives according to the actual. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. as in the French Revolution. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. he opposed a universal understanding of justice.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. 29. p. vol. 432. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. rather than action. susceptible of of infinite improvement. p. 331-33. that its authority depends habits of obedience. not simply its evident usefulness. of Chicago Press. . and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. Thomas Aquinas. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. 13. is taken from Montesquieu. Works. pp. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. Like Burke. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. because he thought it made prudence impossible. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. 1. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. 470. vol. the man of actual virtue. 1984]. 1987]. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. pp. sanship. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p.149-52). 406-7. When questioned." the ruling majority and 14. thus making an who improved the law. 1965]. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. vol. 77). to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. 431. trans. against abstract doctrine. pp.9-10). 1993]. 15. 1954). Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. Canavan. In the Spirit of the Laws. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. 2. and even expected. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution.237). Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. Thus. pp. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. vol. 1. 294-95. (Harvey Mansfield. for men of action are often. of Chicago Press. as opposed to natural rights. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. Science. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. NJ: Transaction Publishers. 1991]. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. 1949). Canavan is for Burke life. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. rather than the presumptive. He honors for those individual judgement. pp. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. Works. 348. Reappraisal. 6.
1 As readers of the book. is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. 5. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. Fall 1998. . The first crests at the end of Song. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. 26. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. . the truth observation surface. but to those whom he "the wisest. therefore. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. 289)." In interpretation. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . No. Beyond Good Evil. as it stands. "deepest. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. 1 . New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. but are inseparably It is joined. In the second." Preface. argument and action. it is incoherent. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. to interpret this drama.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. Vol.
insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return.g.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. e. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens ." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue. therefore. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest. he and wishes to "go down" to again. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. then the distribution. of accordingly." 8). his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. This under persuading live. Overburdened by its superfluity. however. the will to power proves to doctrine.4 If Zarathustra is human. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it." however. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition.." this account." But this his means "to be again. however." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. Appealing directly to the multitude. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. but as such to be more than human. therefore. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue. the superman. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions. It. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. however. he is met with incredulity.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. ridicule and hatred.
its things. the people. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. according to Zara thustra. em but rather what good and evil. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. according to Zarathustra's understanding. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power." 9). Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. the Still." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. . he insists. law. Persians." "will to for the first time. however. root cause of all the will to power is the things. activity stands the legislator or. one Afterworldsmen. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. That is to say. all of of good and them. The first of this wisdom will to power. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. Behind the creator. in accordance with its law." Here he that if be made to speak. in the Aristotelian phrase. despite their variety. But being. acting in the light of its truth. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. therefore. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. speaks to man only being. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal." holy. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. including his soul and mind. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. as Zarathustra calls him. calls "praiseworthy. the first. since." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples.
as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. however. therefore. It is this than human. therefore. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. but identity between them. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . the to power. as it were. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. that he cities of men. a law that is. perhaps. according in what to Zarathustra. That the related political and aspects of claim. divine. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. human beings seems necessarily is. indicates. overarching then. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. in Zarathustra's own words. is Zarathustra's goal. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. to creating creators. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. longer disciples. the coming to be of the superman. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. believes. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. At the close of Part One. to a Virtue. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. Zarathustra. it were. To create great endeavor.102 We Interpretation see that. however. but rather fellow creators. nite laws. law that is.
How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. It almost goes without fails is the question. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. "the Great stand Noon. create dom and. it and as well. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. Zarathustra will. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching." things. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down. reveal himself to a his career. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. but animal gods are and superman." 3). since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation." 1). friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. a natural law. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being." 3). therefore. will creators. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. as it were. Accordingly. while bringing humanity first time. At this culminating moment hind his veil. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor.
on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators." in other words. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. however. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. What and grotesque of a devil. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. This interpretation. of course. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). appears independent inquiries. his venom. the distribution of his author. of latter. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. Neverthless. Nonetheless. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. of course. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. however. to be absurd. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it.104 Interpretation so ing The that. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. rushes his teaching. In "The Child which a child his disciples." of first half his of Part Two. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. as Zarathustra has argued.
fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. this condition with another. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. Creation. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. as through such distribution cre like himself. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. therefore. therefore. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. It . prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. Moreover. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. On the one hand. consequently. to establish a community of and reciprocity. the com incoherent in its own terms. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. that is. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. disciples and. made clear through stands following reflection. therefore. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. On the other hand. that is. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. and this is men. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator").The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality.
As he puts giving. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. but by self-mockery. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. with his wisdom. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. spite. revenge. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom." Consequently pedantry. As "The Night Song" predicts. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. consequently. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. ("On the Giving Vir 1). Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. and the desire for revenge within his soul. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will. wisdom. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. compatible with the moral law insofar tue.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. the punishment or desire for soul. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. he is in useful a state of aporia.
in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. That is to say. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. elaborating of the beautiful. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. in which the just is included as false appearance. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. that understood need on is.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. since. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. that false horizon now of the is. all human community established upon the basis of the law." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. the just as final political order. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. Accordingly. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. He cannot painful beyond endurance. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. therefore. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. and the good. of the rational good. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. and that. 381). Thus if in Part . therefore. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good.
As is his habit. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. happy. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). that is. Zarathustra blames his failures position. It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. however. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation.g. That is love were to say. envy. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. In other words. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. Nevertheless. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. e. Zarathustra's primary opponents. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. "enemies" however.. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . and however. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. the longing for revenge. consequently.
Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. in expressing its or unlimited character. spite. he says is. Without himself being aware of it. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. he realizes. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. Be that it may. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. manifests itself in an infinite becoming." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. For the will. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create." again and soon and." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. however. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity." Life. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. therefore. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. The greatest good. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine. he also concludes that any particular vice. "the good. As a conse good and evil quence. in the infinite power of the will.
382. his desire for happiness as he understands it. the false perspective of the moral law. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood." as a form of artful play. he . that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. naively (The Gay Science. the destruction of values. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. from opposites. But the "values. destruction of values as its Accordingly. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. wisdom and will and And." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. in clinging to his its freedom. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. the possession of wisdom." he describes himself depths. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. . the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. law or or as he it there. necessarily the greatest evil." 2). Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. will's "sublime" character good. of course. the creation of values. "Thus Spake Zarathustra.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. as the highest good. It is. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. for. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. Ecce with all that was Homo. himself to purchasing his its first principle. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. . good untouchable. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . as a whole through the transmission of Consequently.
with caution and of subtlety. truth." "now I love only my children's land. As in the case of sexual intercourse. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer")." as he calls it. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. Zarathustra In other gives dren. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. demolish it. and. his old moral teaching.207a). therefore. and create engendered.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. comes to understand the implications self. As we have already observed. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. This fellow thinker is name within the work. to the end of reproduc words." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. Plato. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. Zarathustra himself has done. help lower level than his The reason for this . however. its fundamental incoherence. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. think through. in new doing so. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. of another like himself. he values the admittedly political community. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. but ultimately to the generation. in some indefinite future. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer. Symposium reproduction of his own good. He listens carefully to these speeches. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a.
This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up. In his dream Zarathustra has . then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. Consequently. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. bursts open."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. however. despite the in some to this region of the dead." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him.. the future continues way . will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation.. but in terms of knowledge as well. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble. In words.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. Zarathustra the Third. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. just the prophet had predicted. therefore. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. become the "night-watchman death. everything is one. therefore. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life. Thus. everything That is to say. as it were. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. Nevertheless." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and.
Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. but to willing this willing. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. the peoples must of Yet. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. however. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer. namely. the Machiavelli. If. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. From this low point.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. Dis courses on Livy. 1. . if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. not to willing all of the past. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. of therefore. then. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples.2). at least at this point. This insight is cause. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. Zarathustra. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared.
Thus. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. . however. he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. according the Zarathustra's current understanding. but every stone that is thrown . therefore. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. namely. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. however. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. saying. in which it may be willed.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . eternal return of . then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. must past and Accordingly. . . cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. being is an Accordingly. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. "O Zarathustra high. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole.
but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. freedom will at its peak." Moreover." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . The presence of the low not only persists human life. .18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. choked me and crept . the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. paradoxically. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. of It is. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man . At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it. as Zarathustra now describes it. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. that was my disgust at all creation" existence. the that has crawled his throat. as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. that is. 21). When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. ." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. "foreseeing" longer man.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. knowledge would Thus. nothing be profitable. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. the life but is in creative great effect of in. into my throat. the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. of sickness" therefore. the of the . that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. all would be one. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil.
on the one hand. love and. Far from having escaped the its justice. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. however. and that genu knowing will. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible. of "justice" "freedom. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant. the thought of the eternal return developed. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm. of not be given. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community.. namely. in Part Three. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. the will and its desire for and i. is in accord with reason. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. however.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm.e. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . its law and sway of the rabble. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. but." revenge. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law.21 need. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. Finally.
Tablets. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. p. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. and therefore of being. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. 9. See "On Cf. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good. examination of This discovery human the or political a things." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. parodies "wisdom. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. Beyond Good and Evil. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. 23). but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. Zarathustra.22 upon in his wanderings. It points to the Seth Benardete. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). He explicitly Zarathustra as a . 7. Of course. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. 4. 153. 202. 8. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption"). Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. 4. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. 10. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. On the simplest level. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. in that irrational. Behind the 6. however. Preface." 3. appears to offer a 11." 5. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. In Part Three. Cf. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. University of Chicago Press). As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. 1888. also see Ecce Homo. Writing").
that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds." 360-425 and Bacon. therefore. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. 23." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. but only on that of philosophical writing. what 53-54. Homer. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. Odyssey. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. 1988). ed. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. pp. 1984).'' Great Events. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. Zarathustra's p. "Proteus. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. Unfortunately. XIII. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. 28-31. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. as god. 13. Vol. Cf. trans. namely." "The Truthsayer. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197)." 16. lacking . is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. 1935]. or Zarathustra. . it would require "something double. "The speech Self-Overcoming. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. .118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. IV. 17. as man. It should come as no surprise. 15. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear." 1 1. The Wisdom of the Ancients. Matter. Row. 12. overcoming of need. II. 14.
Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. on account of his 227). 27. p." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it.'' for every is an afterworld. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. 1794)": Daybreak. Unfortunately. 264). Song." and 22. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. 3. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. . the ill-constituted. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. 36 and 87. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. Preface. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. above all. therefore. "All Song. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. 29. namely. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. pp. 283-85. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. She power. p. "Fame and Second Sailing. bridge. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 30. vertu' 20. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition." Having pears by chance. for the smallest just." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. and The Gay Science. therefore. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. however. If both Zarathustra and. Robespierre. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is." merely by looking into each other's faces. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. characterizes world following that terms. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. 1990). and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. Sunrise." also Dancing 4. Seth Benardete. 152 and 192. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. 40. 289. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. (Speech of 7 June." 21. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. To every soul belongs another world.
Indeed. $19. greater notoriety. Leslie Paul Thiele. 1993). Fall 1998. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. xii + 129 pp.. $19.95 paper. xi + 234 pp. 1992). and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. Philosophy.50 cloth. Vol. 1990). 1993)..95 paper. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. $15.. even to the point of at "apologetics. 1995).50 Hans Sluga. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press.. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. xii + 263 pp." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision. $14. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. 26. Zimmerman. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press.50 cloth. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). Berel Lang. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. $33. Politics. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. University the Polity.50 paper. NY: Cornell University Press.. this century comes to a close. 1996). x + 285 pp. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. xi + 382 pp. 1997). In this essay. $15.95. + 306 pp.Review Essays Heidegger. $47.95 paper. xv + 232 pp. $49. Heidegger. MA: Harvard University Press.95. Tom Rockmore... 1 . I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation. No. Michael E. $49. Caputo. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. Julian Young.
which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. for example. however.. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. As bridge between reject discover. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence." in Heidegger's Crisis. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. In the process. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. politics. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. Unlike Zimmerman. namely. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. which also exemplifies historical. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. of and Derrida. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. Rockmore implements criticism. Given this historical archaeology. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. Although Farias champions this position. daeo-Christianity. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. Lyotard. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. is . several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. One point example. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. In order to discern this tendency. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear.g. e.
already the publication of his magnum opus. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. As poignant as revelations were. In this work. the Polity. however. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. ethics..g. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. raises. This work. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. hence. Being and Time (1927). e. Caputo. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. The Farias' effect of revelations. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. Philosophy. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. of ethics and politics. indeed. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. then practical concerns. As Zimmerman.Heidegger.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. II. Nazism. inquiry. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. Even been prior to Farias' book.
' he did not mean rational calculation. Heideg instruments of technology.. of "enframing. As Zimmerman emphasizes. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism. the our need to day. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. pp. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity.124 '.e. is of political which things. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. 84). Interpretation . is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. By 'thinking. the which unique forgetting of being. xxiii-ix) Jews. On the surface. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. and the end of metaphysics. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. but the of technology. That is." nature. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. ." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. i. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. As Zimmerman states: . were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties.
. .Heidegger. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. conflict and resolution. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. 127). elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. frenzy and violence. that is. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. domination humanity and nature. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. 84) In the end. what the Polity. (P. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. Unfortunately. philosophy and politics. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. p. recast Going forward. As reactionary modernists. Holderlin. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. harmony from strife. Consider Heidegger's . but instead blood and instinct. Not surprisingly. On the one hand. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin.
the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. charity. . In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. . The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. As Caputo indicates. including care. Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. Ironically. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). . 72).g. love. baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. truth. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. Only by possible a shepherd. in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. (Lowith.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. . "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p." community. In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. the scandalous comparison culture . a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). . and heroism. The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. According to Caputo. To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. the categories of tenderness. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). thinker. e. who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. in must emerge "singular. self-affirmation. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. the dissident (Derrida). The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. and temporality. in his stark concept of Dasein. Caputo. 73). become 68). love otherwise absent facticity. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. 207).
Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p. Rockmore. Because Rockmore way. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. 54). 74). the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. . however. there is no. "What I call the 'official' view students. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. for Rockmore "hero. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. Philosophy.g. link (p." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states.. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. and that. stance.Heidegger. roughly speaking. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. the Polity. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. as Nazism. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought." Heidegger's philosophy (e." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. In Heidegger. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. III. This distinction becomes important. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. 54). National or no important. namely. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p.
the professional and the thesis (p. Lang ger history (pp. In Heidegger's Crisis. but the intellectual others.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. . philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. In Heidegger's Silence. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. 5). The "tragic question then becomes. 5-8). What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. the public and occasional" the private. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. Ironically. insofar as the and then. freedom and necessity. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. 100-101). of illumination and blindness. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect. Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. Of course. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger.
setting institutions the decline.g. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. 19). it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. for most critics construe these . Indeed. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. action. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. and the possibility of law. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. Mill and Kant. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. be translated into any specific may For example. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds.Heidegger. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. IV. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. in the 1930's. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis." forged through the will. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. but what extent a political crises of of the political. which philosophy prefigures cumbed.. a process occurs. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. 22). Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. And ger's while one may try vision. community. an opportunism "timely. 245-48). it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism.
alien to all reduction to the uniform. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them.). action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. in order that one to the dilemma in question. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip.g. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. e. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. factic plane. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. While this most problematic. a Heideggerian politics must confront. In many respects. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin.. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. As our discussion of the previous . however. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). it would a type of action irrecon (p. vious. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. 35 ff. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. his commitment to National Socialism. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14).
a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. 104). but Wolin. Moreover. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. Young argues that Heideg for the other. which claims In ogy. Rockmore. But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. 41). Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. 79). provides According to Dallmayr. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. 50). in regime. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Philosophy. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. if it does their objections. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. 38-41). philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. instead. Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. Farias. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. books the Polity.Heidegger. When joined Young's solicitude. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. In Heidegger. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. Young. 125).
simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. namely. As Thiele emphasizes.. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against ." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. is that the power which permits political participation. What Heidegger recognizes. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. namely. that is. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. "tolerance" namely. In words. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. facets as as Thiele indi cates.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. Western democracy. the between logos and community. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth.g. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. if government as fully we articulated. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it." Correlatively. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. p. 48-49). however. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. that moral emphasis on can (pp. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. e. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. the nexus of politics. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. of light the opera Thus. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. 198). the self's unique way of dwelling with others. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. 81-83). we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. As Arendt suggests. language. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. In this way a community develops. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making.
86-100. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. p. philosophy flourish only it is . it Sluga. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations.Heidegger. means or "place in on such opposition. Literally. . Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. controversial. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. 292). Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. 60-63). The arbitrary. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. another the Polity. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. While Yet. 16). inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. 5-12. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. censorship.) is iconoclastic. . 128). even solicitous of. . 167). While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. thrives within a polis the greatest importance. politics.
is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. 15. Ithaca. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1981. Jean T. "jews. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. Kovacs. Political. Ed. no. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1 (1991): 1-611. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. Andre Michel. Hannah. on the words responds to this contrary. when such a pp. 33." Gary Steiner. GA 31. Bourdieu. George. 1993. . 2. Silence.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. Martin. Pierre. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. Wilde William Kluback. 1982. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. Phil Temple University Press. Lisa Harries. Kettering. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. London: Routledge. 1989. NY: Cornell David. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. 1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. "On Heidegger's Lowith. 1991." Time Journal 14. Richard Wolin. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. Miguel. 1958.. Dallmayr. Jean-Francois. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. Heidegger and University Press. University Press. Marcus (ed. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. de Beistegui." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. The Other Heidegger. Truth. In this spirit. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted.). Trans. Johannes. and 1995. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. Karl. New York: Paragon Press. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. Trans. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. Heidegger. The Human Condition. 1998. Mark. no. Palo Alto. Peter Collier. GA 24. Trans. Victor. Trans. New York: World Publishing.' Assertion of the German University. CA: Stanford University Press. 35). but. 1 (1995): 111-86. Blitz. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. Heidegger. 1990. Emil. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. Pascal. Heidegger the Trans." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. Perhaps this time think. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and Gunther Neske. and Farias. Fred. no. philosophy of its task. 1958. 1990. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. 1962. John. New Haven: University Press. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. " Lyotard.
The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. Chicago: Politics. Sheehan. A. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. Trans. 24. Dallery. Scott. Encounters Parvis Emad. no." Philosophical Writings. 1998. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. 2 (1993): 121-39. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 1994. New York: Columbia University Press. 1996. 1992). "Resoluteness Ambiguity." University of Chicago H. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. Socialism. ed. 1994. and the January 14. Hugo. C. Safranski. no. Heinrich Wiegand. Heidegger and lands." Holocaust. and Ethics Schalow. Schurmann. London: Fontana. Zimmerman. Common Good. eds. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. and and Philosophical Forum 25. Press. "Heidegger 27-38. 11-24. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. and Danger. The New York Review of Books. Origins. Christine-Marie Gros. 1989. The Politics of Being.. no. 4 (1997): 554-62. Quarterly Ott. Petzet. Time. 1992. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1987. by and Kenneth Maly." . Ewald Osers. Albany: SUNY Press. Albany: SUNY Press. Richard." "A Question Socialism. John. no." 1996. the Polity. Pp. and In A." Scott. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. William J. Bloom University Press. "A Normal pp. Sherover. Thomas. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. 4 (1989): 340-55." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. Blunden. NJ: Humanities Press International. no. on Free Speech. 1. Richardson. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. Charles E. and Alan Rosenberg. Charles. Nazi. Alan M. Freedom. Trans. Thought. 1990. Van Buren. Roberts. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. Intro.Heidegger. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. Olson. Heidegger Jaspers. 1993. Rumor of the Hidden King. 2 (1995): 137-53. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. Trans. Alan. Trans. Frank. Reiner. "Heidegger's Truth eds. no. Riidiger. Michael E. 1990. On ington: Indiana 30-35.
1996). Vol. why it excludes. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. Rawls's Political Liberalism). The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments.95. possess.. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. + 126 pp. Michael Walzer. Like other pluralisms. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. 1995). Francis Canavan. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. University Press. Public $22. On the other hand. Liberalism and (Lanham.. Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. $16. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. but what it excludes. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. Sandel. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism..Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources.95. 26. indeed could not. $24.50. inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Three recent works do both. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. 1 . The Pluralist Game. No. 1997). Fall second book.
Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. Naturally. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. In Canavan's account. but or not limited to. lost unity of shared. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. As Canavan clearly perceives. 76). it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. indeed impossi ble. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. and the relations between economy and polity. Law society. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. The categories overlap. however conflictual. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. In Canavan's account. pluralism and toleration. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. Earlier American pluralism. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide.
but without developing the point at any length. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. it displaced institutions. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. had helped to flesh out religious community life. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. schools. These institutions.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). their best. to public Canavan notes. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. Canavan particular. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. Yet of the three volumes. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. liberalism. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. hospi tals and social services were injured." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. individ liberty. Understood in individualist terms. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment.
If anything. to make room for such groups in education. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. On the other hand. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. Groups with spiritual. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. social services. to flourish. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. on pain of contradiction. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. to join in the struggle. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy.. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. the state should reduce its direct etc. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. cultural. so vision ought Canavan argues. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. Protestants and devout Jews.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. things look neutrality. always reflects some moral vision. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism.
rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. others' based have chosen them. People are born for citizenship. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. or even citizen obligation. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. When they tion. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. since these all require description of the self. for instance. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. religious duties. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. Consequently. As Sandel notes. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. and this goal has American public policy. They natu common affairs. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. to a solution to these problems. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. community. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. of citizens In the liberal conception. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. for Sandel and the republican tradition. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. with others about what is true any or good. the freedom tive. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. this asocial render human good is misleading. ing of Again. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural.
virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. In principle. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. they express. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. judg Using the legal example of abortion. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. a contradiction. not their simple capacity to choose something . Or we could relativize the value of respect. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. As Sandel correctly argues. respect not follow. 20). and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. So Sandel pluralism. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. prochoice their views for public purposes. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. and His alternative version the self. regarding toleration. and promoting. In both cases. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. community. moral.
Indeed. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. the same could be said about his ily law. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. Presumably. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . in the nature of (p. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. Sandel replies. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. With Sandel. That is. Sandel's order. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. or even malicious. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. Arguably. in general. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. 90). while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. be Canavan suggests. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie.
and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. . Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. according to Walzer. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. together with leaves intact the current crisis. with early roots in Protestant and English history. for example. To his credit. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. is right say) tradition.144 Interpretation societies. as an harbor republican hopes. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. 77). Canavan. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. 70). Naturally. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. ought to be barred from running in elections. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. With Sandel. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. and social Where then. . Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. (p. so he opposes a voucher system. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. of and others. Walzer here in the secondary associations.) Nor can we repair to . this is an omission which pluralism. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. Religious parties. Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. Maclntyre.
have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. . and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense. But reading Sandel. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. Altogether then.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant.
Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935).-). The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). Jacobis (1929). Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). XXXIV.-). It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. 1933-1935). Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. Testament Spinozas (1932). French. previously unknown writings and letters. Jacob In addition. 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. cloth with dust jacket. among Wissenschaft writings. Gerhard Kriiger. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. in the original languages (German English). (1921). DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. 434 pp. marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. . Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). H. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937).. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936).i VERLAG J. XIV. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78.. and others published here for the first time. with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). Gershom Scholem. B. and Lowith. cloth with English) many important.
$53.de . Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ. your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library. .00). volumes should (approx. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss.B. Name . Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. published here for the first time in its entirety in this form. The prices of the 2. the be sent as they appear. $5300). edition are approx. Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English).00). subscribe by your university 1.80 (approx.80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1).Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price. The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings..00 each). DM 16. Dept. The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes. ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx. $46. 66 pp. Each volume may be purchased separately. The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined. $10. Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns. The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy. (approx.metzler. ? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss. Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996. current list price.
No one who deals with the eigh teenth-century Anglo-American political avoid tradition will be able to the unsettling challenge of original and painstak Zuckert's ingly documented tion.EDU .PRINCETON. that forces all of us back to the boards.95 ISBN 0-691-05970-5 Princeton AT FINE BOOKSTORES OR CALL 800-777-4726 University Press HTTP: //PUP. . Zuckert Here Michael Zuckert philosophy that propos es a new view of the political lay behind the founding of the United States. historical of "This exemplary work of reconstruction dramati our understand cally transforms ing the genealogy of early American political thought." drawing Thomas L.New in "This is erudition. The Journal ofAmerican History 'hf-UitlKllS Natural Rights and the New Republicanism Michael P. how Lockean and repub forcefully the origins of the American republic. paperback scholarship Zuckert and vast a work of careful lican ideas recounts came to By illustrating be blended.. Pangle. for this is reinterpreta one of those rare at once scholarly achievements. and William Mary Quarterly Paper $18. capacious and meticulous..'' Richard Vernier.
Marc Shell. the fear famine makers with deprivation forum all are occasions reflections on the human condition. This conference a brings together scholars and scientists as well as about policy in linking discourse the significant hunger. Per Pinstrup- Andersen. Anne Murcott. David Pimental.edu Further details coming to the World Wide Web soon! http://www.newschool. Marion Nestle. its of importance. All conference sessions will please call be held The New School. the ceremonies surrounding mythic and symbolic and it. culture and political economy food in an effort elicit new perspectives on abundance. John Hollander (Moderator) 6: Abundance and 3: Key Note Addresses Scarcity: equal Sustainable Agriculture: Ismail Serageldin Food and Access to food is far from Culture: Margaret Visser Richard Goldman. Kenneth Prewitt (Moderator) This conference is organized by Arien Mack. problems created by scarcity 1: Everyday Life: Food life as a major 4: Food not as Symbol or Sign: Food is as component of only what we eat but figures Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. Wendy Doniger. and important way foods have emerged. been assimilated is an of understanding our histories William McNeill. Steven Heller. Barbara Examining the Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Moderator) 5: Food in Art/ Food as Art: Food is both an object of art and a medium in which migrated. at editor of Social Research. how food for marks our sameness differences. Sidney Mintz. Aristide Zolberg (Moderator) 2: Case Histories: ways Barbara a symbol in most religions and as a marker of identity and difference Maurice Bloch. Theodore Zeldin. Leonard Barkan. or e-mail For more information and reservations. 1998 What and we eat. Robert Adams (Moderator) for artistic expression Betty Fussell. of diet and food to and security the history. Paul Rozin.edu/socres/food. Raymond Sokolov. the joy of plenty. Keep checking for a link at .NATURE AND CULTURE A Social Research Conference November 5-7. Robert Herdt (Moderator) 7: The Future: Prospects for the global availability of food and ways to increase it Gordon Conway. (21 2) 229-2488 socres@newschool.
ISSN 0020-9635 Interpretation. Inc.Y. -a o PC fo a -a o CO 2 o 3 "I 3 o 3 O < CO a r 21 rra *> o m c3 CO . Queens College Rushing N.S.A. 11367-1597 U.
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