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OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
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Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
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divine or conventional. although intent. 1 . and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. I is wish not to argue that. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. associated with and antipolitical. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. with superfluous and which arts. those who are supposed to be First. Vol. Finally. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. Traditional exegesis of these stories. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. antitechnical. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. man. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. interpretation. herds Nimrod. 26. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. or even defy. No. as argue. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. Fall 1998. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. the city is connected with land ownership. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. in light the Babel project. Jewish and Christian.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. in Genesis 10. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. Nimrod. that of the nomadic Third. and in Genesis 1 1. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. second or at least reasonable those characters. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. Second. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. the Lord God. and the which Babel-builders. The thing I wish to argue excuses. the Babel-builders.
Cain. the first city. of the Next. Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. 1. When he sacri Lord (Gen. and I have consulted Specifically. fices to the most Thus. his religious performance is faulty. antipolitical atmosphere. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. Cain's very birth is suspect. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. Cain. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 4.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. that is. I have used tateuch.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. First. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. often little basis in the text. have all been impugned. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia.3-5). . I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. Augustine's these City of God. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. In fus ing (they own. if the quality is acceptable. the refuse. A. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. according to some of the rabbis. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. Fi by nally. Out of antiurban. the an which founding of the city. legion.3 or. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical.2 kills the son truly in God's image. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions.
finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. his city and people. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. another a drunkard. 21). p. vol. Those interpreters. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. Isaac. 2. 21). This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. The names of Irad. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. 29). "wicked" "house" building of a city. 153).5. God intended with us. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. says bluntly "Cain. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. but with his hy pocrisy. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. 17. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple.2). Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. 8. and David. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. some rabbis say that he. Augustine. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. Noah. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. says Abravanel. however. and Cain Lamech Metusael. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. 192). absent from the Biblical text. to will return later. One became a murderer." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. such as Augustine and Calvin. and them. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. are supplied by the . another choice. 1. and Lamech are all said vol. vol. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. life into a sophisticated. p. 8. Augustine. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. 255). (City of God. Jacob. p. 5. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. Augustine says nothing negative. Cain's tion: p. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. XV. p. Mehujael. 1. 256). XV. Moses. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 1. Calvin on the other. career.
). however. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image.6 Interpretation (ibid. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). with human law making. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp. acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. did not yet exist). XV. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid. Naamah. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. and gifts from God (Calvin. Calvin. They eyes. In sum. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. of p. and all its connections (with the arts. pp. 160-62). 237-40). God" at least more carnal in their interests. the op for him the arts are goods. view. his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. 217-22). flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. superfluous sin. like beasts.). 238). with political life) fall under a dark shadow. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. the he founded. Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. His birth is suspect. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. duced Seth's line into waywardness. Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. In general.22. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. and 159). sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. violence and In a more analytical vein. the latter who lived more virtuously. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . and because of this. Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. the former being.). Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. went about stark naked. far as we can tell from Genesis 4. Like the rabbis.22). Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. 160).) (which. if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. 2. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line.
deriving all wicked things. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. however. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. he a 10. he Genesis Rabbah. tyranny (Calvin. and. like all hunters. 60-61)." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. be evil. 317). such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. Second." earth. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. XVI. the ancestor of Israel. p. Nimrod the city-builder evil. they supply other examples of wicked people things. p. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God.4)." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. ants same Obviously. Finally. too. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. in Genesis Rabbah. Genesis 10. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. pp. pp. "began" 2. it is p. 260). was obviously a furious Nimrod. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. man. which is what persuaded people to let him them. Esau. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. is bad for two reasons. as the-verb "to (halal). 175). to degenerating calling "rebelling. mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. 2. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. "beginning" is is verb. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. here found in the hiphil form. 38)." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner.26 are said. Esau. oppressor. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. p. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. being a mighty hunter.). tried to kill Abraham he was young. he Abraham. so negatively. 2. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. vol. And. . who 4. of course. Nimrod. First. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. de Rabbi Eliezer. but mention rather. Since Nimrod is a slave. 174). Augustine tells us that Nimrod. is a deceiver. Thus. In this attempt. 3). XVI. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. his claim to might. There is other evidence that Nimrod. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. that is. who. p.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). 420-21.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. From the sense "pro fane. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days.
takes on a associated with and his kingdom. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. XVI. Second. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. vol.4). and vol. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. bad scent. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. They they being given the earth. Calvin Calvin. God's people do not rest con move. the Lord. (Genesis Rabbah. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. for idol They filled the sin of pride. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. probably vol. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. at signifies also that they made an on 261." are "rebels. p. the the Ham line. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. right motives. The Babel-builders. for two reasons. means. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. therefore.4." but are on the 50). Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. do. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. "Settling" is moti vol. needless to say. 51). again. like Abraham. as in the case of Cain. as one might expect. 2. vol. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. want 2. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. which." "and this they begin to which. . First. like Nimrod. His city. too (Genesis Rabbah. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. with the upper part. for they p. heavens. and. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. as I will point later. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. to displace him. and Jacob. Isaac. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. 324). 2. a city. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. was the area of his king dom. 49-50).8 Interpretation Nimrod. 2.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . could hardly him have Urban life. being settling and building in "settled. the lower part of the world. in an summary. In any case. according to Genesis 10. 1. In p. 260). Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. 3. 11. pp. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. which p. do" translated into rabbinic. p.
manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. and the rule of with human beings by others. The city. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. is grounded in folly. rejection of God. only God can do these things. being Esau's way. then of Seth. God's do not need the political life of the city. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. sinners. or rebels against God. 4. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. is inferior to the way of the Politics. heir of a slave. then. without God's help by They purely human means.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. Abravanel argues. Abravanel thus. in order to establish the stated. The the city. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. is ated. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. the arts. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. which. political which go with cooperation. in criticizing the Babel-builders. desire of walking away from God rather than with him. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. The city cannot provide for security against death. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. They are from the wrong lines. says Abravanel. Ruling comes from Nimrod. and tyranny over others. Nimrod. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. B. but to conspire against and a God. hunting.3-4 ("let brick. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. who defined man as a political animal. are proud. they God's murderers." us make "let build city"). that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. if the materials they supplied were . CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. They story. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. More generally.
since Lamech fathers sons who are . all interpretive control is lost. Nimrod. to the fact that by Nimrod." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. Shinar. and enough reading. but some of fetched. There are Nonetheless. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. point. Augustine's most claim that translators. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. far beyond this. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded." they ask us to accept too much on faith. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. and Babel. for two First. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. they in the Biblical text. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil. however. they are merely the justifications. Some of the claims are errors. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. again might not be bad in itself.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. and would maintain this even reasons. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. Sec that there is ond. more relevant interest. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. For example. when they assert without philological "idol. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. even without the extraneous material. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. and so on. believe. however.
not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. further. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. execution. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. in a parallel manner. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. In fact. he infers it in infers. is cursed to in Genesis 9. undertook the Babel project on his own. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly." The interpretation same such is. Further. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. And settled farmers (like Cain. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. the city falling to his arrows. is feeble. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. rather. The hunter is the loner. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists." Again. tilling it. too their sheep. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. these are nity. the entire race. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. out of the desire for a name. hardly closer the model of the political man. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. or that he ordered the people him. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. Nimrod. Further. Ham's son. Abravanel. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. text with uncharitable motives. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. the hunter is less violent. if God will then. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. How. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. Augustine all lifestyle. which makes "children men. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. that Cain had a says justify God. If Israel is not wicked . because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. and that the city to protect him. since not Ham but facts that do not fit. Babel but not in the case Cain. They they are by the farmer.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
This time. in this overspreading. in the east. The new begin ning. Recall that in Genesis 9. the goodness. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. for the laws of God (Gen. the "nations. therefore. 9.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1.1-7). that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. is. There is another interpretation." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. which are life. One wicked one. the migrating offspring of Shem. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. the new creation as it were. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. Abimelech in Genesis 20). The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. the city arises. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. among Japheth separate violence. which relied too much on we are innate human told. Genesis 10 documents this family by family.1-7) to be enforced. Since. amicably dividing the world themselves. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. Ham. The next a region called in Shinar. families (mishpahoth) Shem. something is added: God gives the first laws. however. The first cities are or comes to rule. and since they too are related. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. will have a legal dimension absent from the old. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist.19). if we are watching a new creation. cities a son of Shem. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. the between Cain nation. which had no such structure discernible. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. Abel." earth becomes peoples of common nations. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . 13). (9. must not conclude. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. Ham. built by Asshur. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. suggests in which one will rule over many. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. without Thus. whenever the tribal or them. Thus. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that." Asshur. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. In this new creation. they occupy it as they were meant to. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood.
unlike Lamech's.17). by God's . the order of creation. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. condemn be evil. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. Nimrod does not boast about himself. least some of the nations which legitimately source. Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. and so did his empire. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. vulnerability to random killing).4). city building. and as did Lamech (4. Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus. one must conclude that cannot as such. first hunter. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given.4) or the Babel (1 1. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. strained passion. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. For these reasons. I represents a political would argue. we must ing was Lamech's. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. I would suggest. at overspread the earth at least potentially. then. Nimrod.9).16 Interpretation God does dread" made. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. may not be pretty. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. how to be a "hunter. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. In this context. as did Cain (4. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. of a any more. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. men ruling men). basis to nor of an adjective alone. kings are one possible source of law. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. Kings may (I Samuel 8). did the mighty men of old (6. Finally.8) and before the Lord (10. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. good. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. from the above discussion. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. In important respects. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city.23-24). Nimrod became famous. but human for up as prey beings. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. in fact. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod.
is. p. in one place.5). and he. Babel-builders is. They heavenward (11. 428). The with sin of the Babel-builders. Rather. close even antiurban exegesis. as of (11. too. something. the descendants of Flood.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. case of Babel is not exactly typical city." is only fitting. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. No one people (which is why I would con- . aim spreading master to many spots. I certain turn to the Babel story. wants them to the earth (1. the language of mutual entreaty. The "sons men" Noah.4). They one spot. Finally. It "scattered. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. speaking one language. like Cain's. among these Combs and Post point out. The 11. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. united brotherly love. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. God at the end of purpose. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. that is. Regarding this story. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. in the Babel there features grant. They want live. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. be was afraid of safe. too. is by Calvin. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. scattered. They "scattered. in a its top in the heavens." of perhaps educated obey God. and enjoying the earth. Further. if it and was a sin. of super-city with together. The their cautiousness. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. process. then. His proj may be ambiguous. to obey God. and Augustine. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. it to be a certain un populating.28). He.4). by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam. I think. God wants them to move outward. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth.
its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. God. In Genesis nized 10." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. speaking. good which so I think is the one correct one. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. Cain may have been proud of his city. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. unified world-state. would God. then. the "sons of will founding "nations. wanting as is fact. however thinking. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. but he was not God in naming it after his son. will and to give it." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God.7 overthrow "name. It is true that they wish eternity. In fact. "name" necessarily an improper desire. a permanent essence which. only language that exists should If the only state. become corrupt. They do not wish to God. hold them together in Shinar forever. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. were tribal and monarchical. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. then. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. built. In Genesis not allow of 11. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. and the only people. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. however. noble it may be.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). and themselves. are not malicious. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. The or reputation earn. they do not even mention him. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. as it were. they dream." of that is. be for . no possibility of the living. unified world-state. the nation sired by Abraham. The forms of govern men" ment. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. the situation be irreparable. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. separate peoples. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. and powerful cities.
Ont. 158. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9.3. Eng. because Cain is not so commentators make out. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. 4. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. 3. XV. or for building great towers into the a heavens. 4. Isaac Abravanel. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure.7. 196-98.. 242. trans.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. 44-48. p. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. Cain pp. Genesis Rabbah. If these people strayed. it due to knowing God wanted. 256. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. trans. 12. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. 1972). then. and not always the best. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. 1985). "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. was the Babelers were not being scattered.) Lemer 1978). Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. Augustine. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. Robert Sacks. In societies other than Israel. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. to teach. p. eds. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. trans. King (Edinburgh. 1847).: McMaster University. pp. (Title henceforth: City of 5. 2 vols. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. Rev. arts. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. And in one case.: Penguin. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Cain's son. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. in Genesis 10. but these motives were not wicked. pp. . argue that the evils of 1979). Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. 1970). Deut. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. trans. 150 51. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. law. vol. John trans. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans.6). as city of Enoch. John Calvin. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. God. but for purity. 1. NOTES 1. if one wished to put the city in a better light. Jacob Neusner. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. 2.
1988). I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs.20 Interpretation 6. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. In a general way.. 1-5. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. 6. Eugene Combs. Craigie (Sheffield. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. 1990). Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. Robert Sacks. MA: JSOT Press. hence. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. Due to space limitations. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post. which who essay was seminal for them. 1987). The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. C. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. I add that. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion." Memory of Peter C. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. and to Leo Strauss. . whose "Jerusalem and Strauss. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. S.
and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more. 26. Num 3.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. or that a wild beast might trample them down. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. 16 She treats her were all children roughly. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. interpretation. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. as if they were not even in all vain.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. Fall 1998. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. 1 . 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. No. 3 when to give birth to their young. You see. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. 15 She has forgotten that hers.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny.14 wings as if on high. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. Sacks St. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. and who dwells city. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. Vol. Her toils caused foot can crush them. meet armed combat. John's College.
The and single Hebrew word hul. forever Ner. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. Indeed. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. and See notes to 26. His swill it from afar. he said." .22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. 2. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab."18 Comments 1. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. it originally meant "to whirl." Hos. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command. "I and father's house. 2Sam. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. he is there. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. consume the of their gates. making it his stronghold. javelin. Whenever death defiles.17 pinnacle. David heard of it. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. 3:28 are of Afterward. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame." a very will complex word. Oh. although almost as side. 25 but facing battle from afar. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical.
the prophetess. 23:5 Jer. "Go and lie in in the vineyards. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. then they went and returned inheritance." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. and go to the land of Benjamin. and dwelt in them. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. too. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. Exod. it Psa. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. The Book rule. only to the book Judges. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. Deut. from the dancers to their and took their wives. Then. that book which begins see them dashed. neither did you give them to them. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. and watch. in her hand." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. according whom they carried off. Exod. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. for the Lord's purposes . And the to their number. and often when first reading the word. else you would now be guilty. and rebuilt the towns. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. Grant them graciously to us. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. Judg. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. 15:20 Then Miriam. Benjaminites did so. trembles and writhes The land in pain. And to us. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. saying. hands anger burned hot. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. the sister of Aaron. king.
10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. and you forgot birth. For this reason. I conceive me. There is Jer. in and your right as the noonday. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. But. it can also mean "to be in labor. they aghast at looks. 37:6 will bring was forth the light." and hence "to give Deu. Isa. Job. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. tempest. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. thy judgments puffs at them. They look another. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. 31:3. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. Ps. 51:5 Behold. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. out of his sight. brought forth in iniquity. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple." English-speaking in this also recognize .24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. pressed upon Saul. angry them. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. brings forth rain. birth": as in our case. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. and ISam. are on high. was revisiting the day of his own birth. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. and sin did my mother Prov. inhabitant. as for his foes. in visiting the day of birth. your vindication as Ps. their faces be aflame.
did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. an order for the first time. How different things Isa. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. of course. fostering in each life to own its signet. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. It is the whirling. 8.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. and are what they are. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. The question is. 7. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. rhetorical. In using such a harsh word. then. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. has never known either burden or rein. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. She. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. But quite even Job. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . the joys of our world could never come to be. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. To word understand used this passage. 5. 6. Yet we can all world. dancing. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). perhaps with beyond world. Here. speaks to Job. This. and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. since. are 3. pain-ridden. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. before her she was delivered of a son.
brought 9. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. ears to me. Hebrew man. and like a hireling he waits for wages. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. too. and in the seventh he shall go out free.26 Interpretation Exod. "I love my master. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. that was true. to and the man who and will give Israel. And there are other passages. I will not male or eye's female. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. but they were treated kindness: justly and ." daughter. eye of my his slave. When a man strikes the . you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. "servant. . children. or a Hebrew woman. sake. he shall serve you six you. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. his brother. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. be your slaves. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. my wife. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. and But if the slave plainly says. Small and great. so that no one should enslave a Jew. female. great riches. has served you six years. he shall serve six years. and the slave is free his lord. go out free. Jer. to oppressed go free. male and . but he him for favor. 15:12 If your brother. that show his concern. for nothing. is sold to you. It is true that. to undo the thongs of the yoke. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. along many others. gave no answer. all are there. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. years. and destroys it.
roaming the hills as his pasture. I do God rose up? 10. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. the osprey. ance The farm. five hundred of them. giving it a The signets. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. they and be eaten. 11. It is generations. that its us. it will be a long journey.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly. Job but. the cedars of . Even from was within the human sphere. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. is 12. The an furrow. both for moved for others. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. and them yet he did have ox. the . has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. are watered bat. There were always some men suffering it caused. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. as we shall see. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. the stork." This is the only verse. the vulture. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev." answer can do none of these things. of course have been out of the question. it requires something like the concept of a signet. The trees of the Ps.. 104:16 LORD abundantly. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass." time. what of those who dwell in house of clay. each thing can be be what it is.. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. not certain what bird is meant. the hoopoe. it may seem. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. "trust. they are an abomination: the eagle. the heron according to its kind.
insofar as been domesticated. but my know Zech. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. must 14. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. and the turtledove. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. then. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. when if only in part. lest they hold a bribe. his place of defense who shakes . had been domesticated. 8:7 Even the swallow. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. he will dwell on the heights. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. people crane keep the time of their coming. 15. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. In them the birds build trees. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. and in the heavens knows her times. who despises the gain of stops oppression. two women wind was in their wings." 13. and behold. too. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. at least it is the can most write about. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. ears his looking upon his hands. character that each 17. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. The hawk.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. their nests. and eyes and saw. 16. silly beast. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse.
to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. in returning to flow off into death. 1:3 heart has deceived you. The cold and more grotesque. pride of your whose says the LORD. 18. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. the hawk. and Jer. you who your Obad. however. did for its children all that the charm to do. is in the not Job. 49:16 Leave the cities. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. twice. but I have no answer. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. his of water be sure. you inspire has deceived you. me dwelling set say in heart. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. and you must let me know. for your own right have saved . the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. 10 "Go ahead. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. 48:28 Jer. high and the pride of your heart. bring clefts will down from there.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. 5 I have spoken once. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. How my hand upon my mouth. LORD. Bind their faces in would obscurity. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. sixth as beast. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. The ostrich.4 even would praise you. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. his bread will be given him."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. Look upon every man of him. thence I bring down. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. 13 Bury them all in the dust. has been defeated. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. you though your nest says the among the stars. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. who hold the height I will of hill. is high. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. 14 Then you.
who would plead my case? . God's argument is.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now." 2. under and all the beasts of the field play. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish." again "asking. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. Indeed. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . his warning was just. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. or his head with fishing his head. here is whom I made along with you. 18 His bones iron. and his teaching is not a but an 3. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. But the Tempest will go. and you will remember war no Comments no answer.9 brook in him. I believe. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways. but he did not. and if by court of law. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. He eats fodder just like the cattle. Again it says. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins.8 21 He lies down the lotuses. confident that the Jordan will mouth. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. If Job's this not point. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. or with you to be your eternal his nose.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. had been what God had wanted. hiding in the reeds and the fen. convinced him that Elihu was right. beyond man is no place for a man.6 of brass. "Have you an arm like God's. He is the mighty one.
clearly are of mythic proportion. being lous nor mythical. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. Prov. I. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. Man is 7. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. his wisdom. . . behemoth 5. His praise endures for Prov. Compare Ps. These do cosmos. "laugh" or . In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. God is joking. 4:7 The get. the first 8. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible." "His bones are ducts brass. however. We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. fools despise and whatever you instruction. get beginning insight. dwell in prudence. Appropriately enough. however. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. iron. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. of The LORD acts of old. and I find knowledge of and discretion. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . than the beasts of the earth. of It is. created me at the beginning his work. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. of wisdom Prov. 8:12 ." in the made masculine singular. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. with you . and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. . is this: Get wisdom. "Behemoth cattle. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. are all who teaches us more The verbs. however 6. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you.
I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. The half-mythic. is usually translated "oppress. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . I fear. "Why did Sarah laugh. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. tyrannizing river. and you shall call his name Isaac. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. 17:18 is ninety years old. that she had laughed. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. He finds Thus. however. making it his drinking foun tain. saying. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play. There is. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. for the pounding. now that and say. Gen. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. "After I have my husband is old. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. 10. "No. child.32 9. But from the Gen. a and said to himself. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son." looking at each usage. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God." Joy and happiness are another matter. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him.
21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. for land of Egypt. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. his marry his daughters. in the saying. And Sarah said. in to me to insult me. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. for she was afraid. "Up. up to play. son whom she had borne Abraham.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. "No. you laugh". It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. saying. have corrupted themselves. and I cried out with a loud voice. whom you brought up out of the Moses. and the people sat down to eat and drink. every one hears will laugh me. and rose your And the LORD said to people. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. he with me." the But he seemed to be jesting. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. playing her Isaac. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. "The Hebrew servant." and Sarah shall have son. Gen." a But Sarah denied. but certainly the betrayed him. Then came the golden calf: Exod. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. 21:6 city. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. came have brought among us. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. He said. "Go down. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. 26:8 also was actually doing. "I did laugh. Next . place. came "See.
twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal.34 Interpretation Judg. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. by them I shall be held in honor. they said. and mocked them. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam." pillars." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. and he made sport before them. And in his each caught arise. but they laughed them to scorn. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. the abased and above all people of the his house. so down together. Israel. "It was before the LORD. before the LORD. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. David. "Saul thousands." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. They made him stand between the us. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark." has slain his thousands. who chose father. 2:14 And Abner us. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry." said to Joab. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. "Call Samson. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great. and he died there beside the God. for the oxen stumbled. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. . that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. 2Sam. at Gibeon.
so is the laughter of fools. Prov. dost laugh nations in derision. . Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. dwell in prudence. at them. laughs at the time to come. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. 2:2 I said of laughter. and I was daily his delight. wicked. and wine gladdens life. 1:26 Prov. arrows. 10:23 beside him. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. Prov. "It is mad. Sorrow is better than laughter. Eccles. "I am only joking!" Prov. however. and death. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. and a time dance. I you. he will snatch and tear you tent. 3:4 to a time to weep. 14:13 Prov. Strength and dignity her clothing. and a time to laugh. Ps. for he sees that his day is Ps. I will mock when panic strikes I. Jeremiah is not quite the same. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. 8:12 . also will laugh at your calamity. and fear. like a master workman. at the but the LORD laughs coming. and shall laugh your from of the at living. 2:4 Ps. 31:10 . rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. wisdom. there is no quiet. 8:31 Prov. 59:8 But thou. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. rejoicing before him always. Prov. for Eccles. is vanity." and of pleasure. it?" Eccles. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. saying. and money answers everything. a time to mourn. . closer to what we finds another strain. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . 7:3 Eccles. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. all the him. Prov. Selah. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. O LORD. "What use is Eccles. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. firebrands. and I find knowledge and discretion.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. the fool only rages and laughs. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. the LORD has them in derision.
every one mocks me.36 Interpretation Jer. Then our mouth was with laughter. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. and I was deceived. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. Zech. "The LORD has done things for them. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. and your wounds Jer. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. Was thieves. 48:26 "Make him drunk. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. Jer. I sat because thy hand was upon me. I did alone. the we were like those and our dream. Jer. and thou hast prevailed. But he also has another notion of laughter. however. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. I and the palace shall stand used to be. him and he too shall be held in derision. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. I have become a laughingstock the day. then they among nations. When her . When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. and they be be few. multiply them. nor did I rejoice. I will heal. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. says LORD. and have compassion on his dwellings. thou hast deceived me. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. shall not small. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. and the voices of those who make merry. I will make them honored. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. thou art than I.
for it Hab. whose it. But there of was another side of we are laughter. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. made him all his trouble. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. Mat. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. and every green thing is his to search out. laughter in the Book of 8:53. . and there was her. 9:24. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. if to judge by different from the others. James 4:9). Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. Job the outcast. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. the a side which had always been a part Job and. The much subject was and bound to come up. guilty men. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. Lam. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes.The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. every fortress. 3:14 Ezek. and does not even hear the drivers shout. the burden of their day says long. but hills as his pasture. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. none to help her. and of rulers At kings they scoff. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. 1:10 contains much. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. 25. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. Mark 5:40. Luke 6:21. a simple. mocking at her downfall. for they like the wind and go they make sport.
. Eliphaz once had he has seen. Job has come. Some English translations 12. Hamlet. this relation is seems to Dane. and one of the things he learned. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. On this question." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. Job has come to learn from nature. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. and over every of the . but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . of nature. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. At one first. as we put have from the ostrich. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. . 3:8 and 13. at fear and is not dismayed. but not to it. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. and over all the earth. Yet it is Lear shadow". "It is I. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. mountains yield him produce. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. and over the cattle. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. To that extent. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. the brother. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. their iden tity. and even their sex. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. "Let us make man in our image. wings on high. 1 :26 and Then God said. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. after our likeness. continually changing their clothing.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. With Job. and over the birds air.
not as a thing for us. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself." 39 So God created man in his created him. In many Isa. in the image of God he created them. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. many of the peoples shall come. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. male and female he fruitful and multiply. "subdue" "dominate. with harshness. let of us go LORD." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. the land lay before them. . earth. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. ways 15. to slaves of inherit as a them. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. and say: of "Come. sword against nation. to the house God Jacob. and their spears into pruning hooks. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. He judge between the beat nations. and they shall into plowshares. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. Jer. and subdued them as slaves. "subdue" In addition. and over the And God blessed them. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. the and all the nations shall flow to it." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. people of sons after you. and and shall be raised above the hills. but the he must perform now. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. But it is not the same. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play. but the beyond is not ours. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free. Josh. you may make brethren the another. is not a world and 14. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. and God said to them." It should be noted that both words. We cannot divide it up and as we will. it is only a in which he learn about play.
He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. or exploits or the grace of his frame. rises up. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. up by a breath between them. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. It too. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. nor lance.'"9 Comments 1. and terror dances before him.18 26 He sees every towering thing. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. and bronze as rotton wood. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. could. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). and not a his shields7. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth.13 cast as a nether millstone. "to or so I believe. for he was made to dread. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. 15 Festoons of flesh.2 Do up." times. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. 12 From his cauldron. stand. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. 11 fire escape. nor They spear. the gods are in dread. 9 Each closed8 seal. wait. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. 14 His strength resides his neck. He is king over all the sons of pride. quaver. 17 "When he sion. fused all together. word mean but along it a sense of dread.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards.
He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. till they had finished speaking. I have no higher expectations. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. but there came only a murk. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. I rain. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. That is to say. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. loose my his hand and cut me off! . falling silent to hear counsel. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. for something to say. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. on a with. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. The first has replaced the second. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. apart from their being for us. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. which deals with our relation to the world of man. We have heard those Isa. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. the Ps. YaChaL. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. till they stood longer 2. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves.
word 'akf'zar. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. and he has and sent him off. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul." From it Hebrew So for "peace. and with the might of fact. but he and His body surrounds him pain. The "brutal" word seems. But that knowledge rouse may admire. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. They with were in disgrace. knew it. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. So." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. Job has nonhuman. The word. like the in the wilderness. You have resigned. and in which he for itself." 4. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. mangled never overpowered man. in already begun. Then the within fifty-two days. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human." Neh. means "to be whole or word complete. away. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . then. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. One of them reads: give the Lam. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. The comes the root of this word. occurs which I have translated "brutal. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. shlm.
It might help. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. unlike Job. then. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. of." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt. In that sense. he pay ox for ox. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. If He should pass by and separate or close up. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. The again. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. meganim. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. dead beast shall be his. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. case. It leaves always room restitution." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off." debt. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. is to "make whole. mean normally In either of means "to shield." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. If. defend. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. in the however." 7. know him from the Here it is taken outside only. from the root mgn. however." by all to his the scales. God sets the wicked to close in men.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. 8. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. and its owner has not kept it in. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself." importance winnowing kind." oil rest. sell the live on the lift. it means that the spoke Leviathan. "Go. cannot by No one can touch him.
also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. the list is . has. dabhaq." sar. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. closed entranceway. 9. "signet. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. shameful. complete. At best. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world." away from all other beings.44 Interpretation One cannot up. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. tight itself. "tight. the Leviathan does Job's skin. or constrictive: "stick. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. for the Leviathan. For the world beyond man. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. as stone. become that which seals it hotam for Job. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. my heart gone after my eyes." all others. fused (dbq) all together. flesh." his completion and perfection. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. off. For us it is ugly. from the way. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. of murk and confusion. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. and the face of the deep Again. in the world beyond man. ness. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. 12. But. Job has seen the Leviathan.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
" 'al. But to others for something that one has done. in itself." sorrow or Like the English word. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime." and 5. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. there seems "to feel deep compassion. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is. can establish in the world of the small. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. one feels remorse. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination. require as Greenberg does. "Behold. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not." to be behind their understanding of the verse. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6. "upon. I who am but dust ashes. we have returned to Chapter One. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. for instance. 58:8." and is.epher we'phar. that the book was conceived of as a whole. Linguistically speaking. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes. Also see Gen. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . of course. The root nhm means understood in the text.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. as . one more reason for believing tion. if one feels sorrow guilt." but. normally as 'el. have expected but it would not be so . however. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both. by the way." where it "to It is found in Ps." one assumes ashes. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant." wenihamti." or is. means "to despise" "reject. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. He is value. 18:27 the Abraham answered." meaning to them. and repentance." These passages. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. . back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze.
them over. death's first born his members. 11. All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. 9. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. will consume His be away. 8. my brothers and sisters. . living in a nutshell. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. sisters each one on a different with day. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. Remember Aaron. 10. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. yet his soul. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. and save alive and mother. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. . that wonderful woman of the night. destruction. Rahab: my father them. but . never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. Gone is the vocabulary. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes.50 Interpretation 1. that the moths eaten. and Joshua 2:13 .
The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. at the end of the book. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. it became Joseph. What was not possible before has now become actual. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. not snuffed out the life of its owners. It fell down .The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. three thousand camels. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. Bildad show Shuhite. Shechem's father. 12. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. eating joyous unity. 13. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. Gen. strength in his Now. and Zophar the Naamatite. His might is in the muscles of his belly. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. inheritance of the descendants 14. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. but look at the loins. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. fodder just like the cattle. were another one came in and said. ten thousand of cattle.
Jezebel heard of it. including the being his 16. Job himself becomes word yom. in the prophets. The Book rection. They are dead. antimony. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. the silver of of my God. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. "cassia. O desolate one. came to Jezreel. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. and looked out of the window. in English. too. We remember to his friends: his his day." are. It is from the words It is a new Job. And you.52 Interpretation the young people. so far for the things as I was able. the iron for the things iron. and marble. or all the things that a self." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. this name? second word. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. also called pukf1. and she painted her head. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. and wood and stones wood. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. As such it became. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. stones. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. 18. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. Then. qesi'a. all sorts of precious stones. "day. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . of silver. Job 3:1 Then. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. keren happuli1: the first two ful. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup.
The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. 33:17 ox. and they were afraid to come near him. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. "My exalted in the LORD. behold. And Samuel priest took the rose up. It "horn. for I sons. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. have Samuel. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. all of them." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. said. tent. My mouth rejoice in thy . qeren. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. against he thunder in heaven. Then they blew the trumpet. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". to begin at the beginning. Moses' his face shone. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. will give strength his king. flashed from his hand. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. and he veiled his power. and went to Ramah. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. until in to speak with him. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. to the ends of the earth. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense." 53 us look at the first word. rays Hab. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. hence. that the skin of skin of face shone. His bull has majesty." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. salvation. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. my derides my enemies. because I ISam. he anointed.
the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. "Do not lift For thou exalted. 27:2 be Exod. too. my rock. my savior. 75:4 up Ps." boastful. for Israel who are near to him.54 Interpretation Ps. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting. cymbals. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. praise all his saints. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. trumpets. in whom I take refuge." not and to the wicked. Often the Psalmist Ps. "Do glory boast. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. art the of their strength. thou . and made loud music on harps and lyres. stronghold and my refuge. And. my me from violence. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. 89:17 I say your to the horn. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. I have for prepared a Ps. 22:3 of My God. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. and the IChron. of course. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. Linguistically. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. to the sound the hom. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. I have driven my horns into dust.
" "Lord. We have not. "Behold. And Leah conceived and bore a son. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. for your younger and he said. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. he opened her womb. 19." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. we shall have to consider the full list. there is also good. though perhaps somewhat naive man. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. cluded however. so as to not mislead ourselves. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. Leah's soft. will they will say. "I the will see you. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. 'This is his wife'. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. wife. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. saw Gen. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. and his house because of Sarai. Abram's And ultimately. Jacob loved Rachel. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. in have to be Song its of Songs. they praised her to Pharaoh. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. because of the woman whom you have taken. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. so he said. you are a a dead man. But God sister. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. Rachel. barren. and when . then they kill but they let you live. man's wife. he said to Sarai his behold. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. Gen. and said to him. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. and she . with great plagues Pharaoh wife. to Sarai. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man.
so she called his name Naphtali. she reacts not with gratitude. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. "God has judged me." them." She my affliction. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. So Rachel died. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. voice and given me a has also heard my son". And she her father. and have prevailed". her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. 31:32 it. but did not find them. he has given me this son also". "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. for the way of women is upon So he searched.' and she had hard labor. "Give children. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. and entered Rachel's. Laban felt . saying. 30:6 When Rachel sister. And he went out of Leah's tent. "Fear called not. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. and two maidservants. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. for she said. "Because the LORD has looked me. therefore she called his name Dan. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. the have son. said to me. in her hard labor. and take know that Rachel had stolen them. and into the tent of the not find them. she envied or her and she said to Jacob. and sat upon all about the tent. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. but did not find the household gods. 30:1 Gen. but with a demand for Gen. and she called Simon. but he did into Leah's tent. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. but his father buried Benjamin." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. Then Rachel said. but at a very heavy price: Gen. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. Bethlehem). 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. and said. she called his name Benoni. Rachel travailed. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. And midwife said to as her.
him. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. except can for him the land. behold. Deut. and said. Gen. for blood be made pollutes the land. beautiful eyes. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. but all that again it led to grave problems. Nonetheless. and saw and him. for when this is ISam. "Arise. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. and the name of his wife Abigail. David was beautiful: brought him in. David. the [beautification] in it. he was a Calebite. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. Joseph. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. for it. Abigail: ISam. . . they first seven fat cows. anoint and was ruddy." ISam. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. and had and was handsome. . the . totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. Now he he. "Lie with master's me. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. And the LORD said. 17:42 And the Philistine looked." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. but the ill-behaved. a youth. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. 41:2 and fat.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. 16:12 And he sent. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. he disdained appearance. was Joseph himself beautiful.
one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. I saw Absalom hand. Absalom he riding his mule. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. . but king knew her . he took hold sister. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. David's son. and when the king came to see him. On the other Joab. from the sole of . whose name So Tamar. if I had dealt the will aloof. had a beautiful sister. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. and being stronger to me." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. 2Sam. hair his head. 14:27 There were name was Tamar. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. and told hanging in an oak. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. and killed him. "I king). born to Absalom three sons. while the mule that was under him went on. and found Abishag the Shunammite." hand. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. 13:1 Absalom. and after a time Amnon. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. "Behold. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. he it)." of her. Joab's armor-bearers. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. But he would not he forced her. and pretended to be ill. the and she became the king's not. with listen to her. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. my than she. and brought her to the maiden was king. loved her. The very beautiful.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. oak. David's son. his foot to the . when was heavy meet on him. and left hanging between heaven earth. he weighed weight. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. her. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. and she was a beautiful woman. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. Absalom and struck him. his head and fast in the oak. Amnon said to the king. Amnon lay down. nurse and ministered to him. lie with her. "Come." with And he took three darts in his of hand.
that is Esther. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. Men beautify so that gold. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. shame. a girding of sackcloth. for of a this is his lot. for the customs of the peoples are false. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. Ps. when she has done vile . Eccles. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. the maiden was beautiful lovely. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. they will behold a land rope. the city of the great King. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. for themselves: is Ps. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. baldness. also he has put eternity into man's mind. and He had brought up Hadassah. is the joy of all the earth. 5:18 Behold. for fair to behold. Mount Zion. 4:30 hair. instead of beauty. grace you poured upon your lips. Jer. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. O desolate one. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. and instead Isa. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. Esther's beauty saved her people. Esther 2:7 uncle. 3:24 Instead girdle. they seek your life. And you. scarlet. A tree from the forest is cut down. in let her Prov. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. 33:17 Jer. 10:3 lovers despise you. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. 6:25 far north. Jer. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. but a woman who fears the praised. her eyelashes. as and when her father and her mother died. and and do not capture you with Prov. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. LORD is to be beauty is vain. a there will be rottenness. and instead of a rich robe. therefore God has blessed for ever. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. Eccles. of perfume Isa.
I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. Son of man. they perfect your beauty. and played the harlot because of your . they shall devour and . and went forth among the nations you because beauty. 9:15 that thirst. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. 27:4 any passer-by. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. you then exult? The LORD once called you. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. . 2:15 with goodly fruit". full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. . you. for down to abundant waters. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. for they hear young and men shall say. in the length of its branches. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. high Eden envied it. renown. and its heart was its height. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches." I Ezek. towered proud of Ezek. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. that were in the garden of God. and were in your towers. and say to him. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. And silk. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. cast you to the ground. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. "Is beauty. iniquity was found in you. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. your builders beauty. . the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. You to regal estate. "But trusted in beauty. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. 31:7 exposed you before kings. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. and your cloth. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. I have cast it out. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. offering made harlotry. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it." Ezek. says the Lord GOD. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. made they hung Ezek. but they will not do it. you ate raiment was of fine linen. lo. 33:32 And. and its branches will be consumed.
Num. son of Hoglah. "The daughters Zelophelad right. and new wine the maidens. And are the LORD said to Moses. at the door of the tent of meeting. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. 27:4a Why family. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. son of Manasseh. but only a dowry. 20. Noah. Had there been a son. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. saying. the next phrase Num. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. Milcah. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. Noah. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. and before the leaders and all the congregation. corners of be full like bowl. the daughters have received an inheritance. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. but died for his sin. And they stood before Moses. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. Machir. you shall give them . Thus. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. Hoglah. and he had no sons. The names of his daughters Mahlah. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. Milcah. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. Zelophehad Mahlah.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. of Gilead. Our father died in the wilderness. and before Eleazar the priest. The text continues: Num. for like the jewels of a Yea. and Tirzah.
daughters of Zelophehad. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. Tirzah. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. Milcah. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. came near son of Manasseh. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. then his inheritance to his brothers. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. however. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. for Mahlah. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. saying. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. And if he has daughter. they said. 'If dies." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. Hoglah. tribe to another. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers. and Noah. son of Joseph. and has no son. The only. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. were married to sons of their father's are brothers.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. In the case of Zelophehad. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. tribe. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. it inheritance.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses.
the and all way to These some bury the dead. nothing is said dowries. ways must be taught they must be learned." clashing for human One said while friendship. They be taught. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. and a need of clarity.The Book of Job Job's daughters. the way to bake bread." Without these would must be no life. as we have seen. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. "just" by the For Job. there would be no bread. there and us. led. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. in turn. be and of the ways. . The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. The inheritance is outright and absolute. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. Of what do they speak? Of the com. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. the two refused to mesh. the way to go out on the hunt. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. by the fathers and some by the mothers. men are empty and life is without taste." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. and it is the children who must learn them. there would no way to live as "one of com. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. however. Without whole. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see. beauty. of his daughters. This insight.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
from sex been Since self-control. was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. 221d). not mutu Pit. those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. particularly restraint indulgence. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. if ally exclusive (North 1966. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. 97). at Symp.5 Furthermore. Still. Charmides. important texts on the theme of eros. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. 714). but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. After tality seek marriage and family. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). "oddness. 507a-c. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c)." p. an elenctic investigation begun. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. with some effort to answer that I did. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. 306b). In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically.
have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). try to teach the other.Drama. distinguished. Indeed. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. Narrative. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. 210a-212a). In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). pregnant If this is the case. For the second. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. face. and gifted soul. certainly will he would never anything ugly. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. at least potentially. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. least if self-control might presence. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. like his describes. he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful." he says. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. to quotation of return Cydias. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. Like children. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. inward say. despite body. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra. rather than ugly ones. eternal rates beauty (Symp. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. someone who is both kotos and. and good. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). is. just as a fawn . the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification.
Socrates. of which three come immediately to mind. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. inversion the expected im age. 241e). there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. Halperin 1985. right out from under hind. or as a hunter tracking game. I caught a fawn in my claws.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. hunting (Dover. 1978. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. with trust in my strength. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. For of example. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. just so do lovers love 165). by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers. 58.6 Third. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done. but did not drink its blood. First. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. the perception of their own lack knowledge. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. the aporia has a beneficial element. stretches the Charmides text enough For example. of citation of the line from Cydias. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . fond of lambs. p. The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. Socrates' (241d). 81-91. in singing. Sim sus ilarly. him to finally renewed reflection. In both cases. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. has not always been recognized as such. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. an pp.
If we do. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. we can see that dialogue. in which Charmides. Socrates to replies in kind then. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. he must mean us to go along with the game. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. perceiving his craving for Charmides. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. which as a manifestation of anteros. Critias." realization of his desire to be Socrates. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that.Drama. also interprets the quotation in this sense). interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles. pursue." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. Another reading. lion. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. p. also reads the text in this way). while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense." you resist me Socrates answers. he devoured appetite. 90. when. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. pursuer.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. Narrative. in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him." no one will be able to resist him. If Charmides' either." he most likely means Charmides became. "So Charmides. who. 92. to speak. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. respectively. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. I thought how fair youth. When Socrates says. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. p. only if a with the power to momentarily. "don't (176a-d). a lover might approach his beloved. catch. and devour (McAvoy 1996. or . Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides.
). If is . This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. 210a. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. and actually help nurture the Symp. or the entire body charm and the soul as well. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. Soc speak. even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. Socrates' Halperin 1986. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. step. bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. 155e). but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). but he does not condemn the desires of either party. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. which cf. philosophos (154e-155a). came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). someone suitable body. The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e.72 Interpretation merged. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others.
(17 le) Socrates. What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). Narrative. (160d-161b).g. penulti rung (episteme). and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. e. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. level again. (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. and. own" every member of a city.Drama. and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). In other dialogues. the element of to doing (163e-164d). however. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. like walking and talking with deliberate. showing modesty generally. expands his logos nomoi. as would a so governed.g. Rep. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. From that on on. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). possibility. 457b). and goodness (to agathon. see Larson 1951). They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). Phil. (161b-163d). "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). Charmides.
If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. Lysis. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b).10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). vision. any case. As an example. Phaedo. to topic. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. Kahn 1996.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. Laches. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. pp. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. here eros. would not had. as it turned out. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. ostensibly. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. 541-49). my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. 1988. and Republic. 148291. especially the Symposium. 56-70. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. Sadly for Socrates. pp. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. Rather. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy.
73 n. 146). If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. so to speak. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. he also thought. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. and Kahn (1996. for example. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. p." someone. Jowett 1961. p. 'Take care not to go as a meat. pp. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. [Cydias] said. 27) and. concern " for p. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. in Kahn's work 203-9. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. like in advising fawn in front of a lion. 82). theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. p. since he can speak 4. by Mahoney (1996. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. pp. he "[Cydias] for the beast. . the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. Cf. thing. that thought the experience. handsome boy. 154). McAvoy (1996. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. principles 542-46). the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. not opposing view.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. puts 6. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. Plutarch. but in those works he does not. p. together with his irresistible passion . 102. 54-55. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive." "dates" with conversations. Narrative. I to resist what had been an this. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. pp. the Symposium. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates." observation has been p. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. (For an pp. 7. as here. 1988. in the Laches. Donald Watt's translation (1987. more 184). p. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. For the 5. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. (1977.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. 25. 3." this . though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. Alcibiades." measuring-line about such a person.Drama. Hyland (1981. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. 2. This recently. 187-88). Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51.
Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1996. Charmides. 1986. M. McAvoy. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Ithaca. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. Cambridge. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. Hyland. E. 1977. B. Hamilton H. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. 1987. Potae Melici Graeci. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kahn." Dialogues of Plato.76 Interpretation 9. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge.. 1996. 1966. 1996. 1978. 1986. North. "self-control. D." 161-204. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. Watt. Princeton: Princeton University Press. . NY: Cornell University Press. C. In E. Athens: The Ohio University Press. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. University Larson. 1988. D. 1962." REFERENCES Bruell. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war.. Benitez." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides.. Hanmondsworth. The Collected Dialogues. D. In T. 1961. 63-103. Nussbaum. "Socratic Politics Charmides." Dover. and Jowett. M. trans. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. 1981. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. 1951. eds. T. It is with Menexenus. Saunders. Page. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. D. C. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. K. Pp. Pp. 99-122. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. C. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. ed. Sophrosyne. Eng: Penguin. 1988. 1985. L. H." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. Griswold. J. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99.. MA: Harvard University Press.4)." Mahoney. p. Charmides. Kahn (1996. Greek Homosexuality. Cairnes." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. 163-209. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. Plato. trans. Pp. C.
was an out-and-out bourgeois. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. 1 . and on prudential about grounds. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions. Vol. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. was becoming of a tyranny. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. Fall 1998. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. and his himself. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. 26. No. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. Like Marx.
must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. In doing so. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. rebels. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. but treasonous criminals. Justice has two different aspects. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. however. Its force . He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. but punishment. The law from corrupting one another. the on account of the war being a civil one. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. who are gland. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. On temptation. fight the to rebels using the an law. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. Yet. rather than law. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. also the nature of law to be just. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. It is. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. see his thought and his peculiar genius. A disobeyed be effectual.78 Interpretation privilege. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. there is a strong of as the part of the British. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. and foreigners. love of country is a defense foreign domination. while partiality to whom one's own country. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular.
however. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. necessity Although law the common good. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. bringing generality with hate. They vitiate their politics. (P. because and piety. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. Britain's combination. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation.5 melancholy are not. but they have not lost their humanity. when the communion of our country is dissolved. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. They have lost confidence in justice. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. public spirited reasons. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. for pursuing peace. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. proposing a policy. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. Their cynicism and 177). He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. devoid of hope. Of most all wars. they corrupt their morals. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. or rather confusion. a hostile light. they wish for peace (p. In order to maintain the integrity of law. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. and by bringing the partiality of war into law.
by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. In fact. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. but.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. Hatred determines the crime. second. proper. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. The determination infamous action. . Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. in fact. 178). because. to enable administration to confine. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. third. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. and. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. by treating innocent citizens inequitably. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). and then distribute a war themselves. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. as long as it shall think . the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. 179). . defeat. rather giving it to treasury (p. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. the British themselves. therewith. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. 178). 179). contrary. blurs the difference be (p. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. than law. by treating fourth. The determination a it. inconsistently. to infamy to punishment. they take the confiscated cargo. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. is behaving like who appear tyrant.
Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. tried ac cording to form. rather than the the crime. 181-82). finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. VIII (p. corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. Parliament its proper time and place. 180). and The proper place for the punishments is in America. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. tying half dead in England). the absence of justice.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. . After strength not is American should defeats. therefore. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. but not according to justice. therefore. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. far from making the British godlike. should the ment English be victorious. The accused is. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. (pp. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. object of their own insults. both. because it is blinded by its own indignation. 180). them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. that they will become savage. peace. taking their goods. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war.
82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. 184). At the end of the war. It hardly seems just. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. by breaking draws the first principle of law. justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. . The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. as a life was given in return for a life. like the deter pirates. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. however. This offense to threat to political liberty. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. But the British punitive. parliament is incapable of such prudence. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. instead of of taking out the sting. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. this action. far from being the opposed to manners. to punish the exchanged prisoners. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. liberty principle. the limiting qualification. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. 182). because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. naval men as they were allowed to go free. 188). that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. because it between citizens. 186). never mind possible. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. therefore. Burke says general venoms equity. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. but its to the corruption of manners. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. But. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. far as he tell.
and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. be can fore they be enlightened. if only through fear. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. despite American defeats. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. dark. he says unknown a reality. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. in love of country. The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. Burke raises the the unknown. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. He even speaks as courage justice. . 189-90). He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. have with doses of fear. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. 191). the attachment to country. made the reminds them British feel invincible). The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. of concern But. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. He speaks to the consciences. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. The British must doubt themselves. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals.
Far from man's of being cowards. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. when in triumph. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. Burke has for his plan. is in the eyes of God and man. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. pair facing the Brit ish. the taxes. Those in favor of the war. helpless creature. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. rather than to punish and to subjugate. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. calling for battles which but his servility to it. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. states to the . any without civil wisdom or military skill. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. actually the hypocritical others. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. order to render others contemptible and wretched. that it is directed by insolent passion. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. With the awakening of their interests. far from being manly. show little are content to real magnanimity. pride of a coward.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. 199). The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. manliness and cowardice judgement. being that crawls on the earth. contending for a violent (P. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. dominion in which he cannot exercise. they their country. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance.
He is the people doubt Parliament and. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. He is cautious in his blame. both addresses popular and parliamentary. Just a short time . themselves. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. 195). Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. to be the for the the war in England. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. the Americans are virtually alone. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. they must earn that trust. and be trusted. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. rather than certain tyranny. therefore. above the voices of many. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. and Burke shows As things stand.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. to risk with defeat their own arms. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. the Americans must trust in themselves. therewith. cynicism. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. (1774). the power under will be popularly recognized as such.
even though right of they have no representation. when public . He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. Parliament to tax the Americans. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. 210-11). because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. Par liament must. it may be the mind. beg leave to observe. Now. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. so as to offend the people. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. waves of chance and. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. be governed. rather than oppress it. I must attend to public opinion. because the British had suffered defeats. He is thereby domestic politics. granted social rights (pp. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. he can accuse aggrandizement. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. The people are. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. therefore. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. but people. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. that it is not will be resisted. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. (P. 205). therefore. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. 207) omnipotence. having recently tasted victory. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. at best. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion.
Compromise If the in the the and reform. It requires compromise. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. Freedom is not an abstract principle. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. 208). one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. rather theory require tions for injustice. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. not because of a perverse humor. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. They practicing (the god of this lower world). Burke is quick to point out that. through pressures placed on. from. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. just in they are needed (p. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. 211). and.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. doing what one wills. Parliament must be heard. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. as it was by the New Whigs. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. to be mistaken. parliament can no longer legislate religion. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. they embody than parlia ment. as a defense of freedom in general. Freedom. any more than is sover of eignty. religion more the monarchy. politics. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. and even independence. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. ment. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). like authority. . Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. In light freedom. freedom others. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. however.
He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. they affection.88 thus. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. thus denying claimed the church. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. General theories passions. collective are bom from disappointed trust. Abstract ideas . Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. of man and the absolute hand. rather than acknowledges the hate. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. because it is a principle of compromise. The British Parliament the authority of a god. In abstract theory. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. they claimed to embody mankind. Moments authority lived. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. and savage cruelty. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy.6 ire of an atheist. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. rather than cod ified. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. the aristocracy.
he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. broke faith. The legislator must whole. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. and executions. though in theory. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. in particular. confiscations.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. the aristoc and monarchy. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. In not fact.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. malice. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. They destroy . just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. and the tence. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. The Reflections. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. In this. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. guilt. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. and especially to science. greed. their persecutors. horror. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives.
and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. he teaches limits of both. God. they of any interest. humanity (Pp.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. united them as a people. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. that they . This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. but things. It is who are undoubtedly true. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. is at their horizon like their horizon. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. offices.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. The legislator have of in his soul. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. ranks. . nor fanatic visionary. but in general. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. because moderation they are defi must in love. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- . because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. though it may paradoxical.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. philosopher. . Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. Their them. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. Like the of the good seamstress. . they from love men too little.
The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. therefore. they to represent and to secure those interests. an un geometry differentiated mass. cannot recognize the politics. however. Its rebel to be used against them. and exist in much greater clearness. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . At best. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. a mathematical order. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. like promises proportion. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. 524). unique character of Geometry. creating Burke does.12 chemistry. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. in fact. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. atomism except by a principle of order. Legislation is deliberative p. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. rats. however. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. possibility (Reflections. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. In formative act. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. which of it. to have the power of ordering. the uniqueness of human beings 301). substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity.
13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. (P. give repealing the tax. By having right to everything they want everything. To the contrary. about the parts are at (p. 215). courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. such. to tax in order to restore American trust. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. 221). from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. for America had. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. 222). do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. developed its own Ideological differences. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. If there are to be compromise and freedom. then there must be moral . then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. Burke opposed abstract was against began. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. or to an equal share in government. The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. of government.
The people are the product of the constitution. The as are though people dis must. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. in which it depends. but trust that is called to account and office. however. avarice. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. and a brutality of accepting of political men. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. therefore. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). but. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. rather than connections of its sovereign.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. should the people rule. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. an Perhaps most important. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. they are too strong to oppose. natural Burke thought the rulers. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. liberty. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. satisfy those grievances. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. therewith. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land.
however. To the contrary. rather. brings a degree of the common good. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. It is something to be Although He respected. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. . Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. He economics. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. The origins are inferior to the end product. force. Contending for an imaginary power. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. . and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. because he never believed is not Hegel's state. mind.15 The hidden hand is not. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. Burke believed that rational. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. Burke never thought reality. and beneficence. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. . but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force.
which which he lends credence. he is in his self-right eous wrath. Capital I (Moscow. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. B. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. 1954) p. 260. His Yet one cannot of visionary. to be grown in disrepute. Prudence makes the former feasible. espe cially in the great. disheartened and disgusted. but they can trust him. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. Karl Marx. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. The partial suspension. Unlike Parliament. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. on hand. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. C. contains its abuses within it. (P. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. so or a misanthropist. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. a God.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. the latter necessarily corrupts. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. he and sought indignant fanaticism. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. to foster the love of Furthermore. So. only because they have elected him.
6. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. pp. W. 431-32. vol. There are three classes of citizens. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. Furthermore. 15-16. he denied and the artisans arms. 4. and the 2. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. and to Burke. Works. 1854-89). 350-52. vol. Politics. and the 7. and three kinds of legal suits. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. 8. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. Glorious 1984). Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. 279. 520. Works. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. pp. The Complete Writ 1945]. jurors and . In desire to know nature as a whole. his regime on the number 12. pp. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. 439. of govern 3. CT: Greenwood Press. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. vol. portrait. p. three sections of the city. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. 2. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. Hippodamus models three. 358. CA: Sage. Phaleas'.96 else. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. But he did give the any property. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. in whose 6. 3. remind one of the old man ed. Jackson Bate (Westport. vol. pp. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. 31. 164. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. In from looking to the number three for order. 9. 1960). Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. p. a more participatory form vol. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. they both ideas. Old Whigs. and by looking at the man. p. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. 282-83. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. attempt 8.: Penguin. 7. farmers. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. Edmund Burke. 282-83. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. page number alone are 3. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. pp. p. vol. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. 1994]) argument. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. tyranny (Thomas Paine. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. 5. although ment. 382-84. 2. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. was cited within the text as Reflections. pp. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. many other cities. 533. 10. ultimate differences. 94. 101. wore by cheap whole. 1. vol. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. Eng. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. 431. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. but according to his fancy. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics.
a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. because he thought it made prudence impossible. (Harvey Mansfield. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. 294-95. thus making an who improved the law. pp. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. 1949). 432. Works. as in the French Revolution. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. 1. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. Thomas Aquinas. 77). In the Spirit of the Laws. and even expected.237). as opposed to natural rights. 1987]. 1991].Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. the man of actual virtue.149-52). Science. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. Works. pp. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. that its authority depends habits of obedience. rather than the presumptive. Canavan is for Burke life. Thus. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. of Chicago Press. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. of Chicago Press. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. p. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. 2. rather than action. against abstract doctrine. trans. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. 29. pp.9-10). vol. 1984]. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. . pp. 15. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. vol. Reappraisal. is taken from Montesquieu. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. When questioned. 431. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. p. pp. not simply its evident usefulness. Canavan. 1993]. He honors for those individual judgement. sanship. 6. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. who lives according to the actual. vol. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. p. 1. 1965]. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. Like Burke. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. vol. 406-7. 348. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. 470. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. 13. 331-33. NJ: Transaction Publishers. for men of action are often. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it." the ruling majority and 14. susceptible of of infinite improvement. 1954).
Vol.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. 26. to interpret this drama." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . 1 . argument and action. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. 289). as it stands. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. it is incoherent. but are inseparably It is joined. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. 5. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. No. The first crests at the end of Song. the truth observation surface. In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects. In the second. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra." Preface.1 As readers of the book. is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. . "deepest. ." In interpretation. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. Fall 1998." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. Beyond Good Evil. therefore. but to those whom he "the wisest.
100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest. the superman. It. then the distribution. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom." But this his means "to be again. he is met with incredulity." however. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . therefore. of accordingly. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise. ridicule and hatred. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. however. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is.4 If Zarathustra is human. This under persuading live. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer. however. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions.g. Overburdened by its superfluity.. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue. therefore. however.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought." this account." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy." 8). Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them. but as such to be more than human. Appealing directly to the multitude. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. e. he and wishes to "go down" to again. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. the will to power proves to doctrine.
The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. according to Zara thustra. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. activity stands the legislator or. . require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. despite their variety. speaks to man only being. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. one Afterworldsmen. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. he insists. The first of this wisdom will to power." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. acting in the light of its truth. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. the people. since. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. all of of good and them. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. as Zarathustra calls him. in the Aristotelian phrase. including his soul and mind. em but rather what good and evil. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. Persians. calls "praiseworthy. therefore. its things. That is to say. But being." 9)." Here he that if be made to speak. law." "will to for the first time. in accordance with its law." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. the first. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. however. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice." holy. root cause of all the will to power is the things. the Still. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. Behind the creator. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and. according to Zarathustra's understanding.
believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. At the close of Part One. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. is Zarathustra's goal. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. according in what to Zarathustra. To create great endeavor. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. That the related political and aspects of claim. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). that he cities of men. human beings seems necessarily is. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. but rather fellow creators. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. believes. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. it were.102 We Interpretation see that. divine. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. law that is. the to power. indicates. but identity between them. however. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. Zarathustra. in Zarathustra's own words. It is this than human. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. however. nite laws.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. the coming to be of the superman. a law that is. to a Virtue. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. to creating creators. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. longer disciples. therefore. perhaps. therefore. overarching then. as it were. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or.
If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. a natural law. Zarathustra will. reveal himself to a his career. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. therefore. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. At this culminating moment hind his veil. as it were. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down. It almost goes without fails is the question. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god." 1). "the Great stand Noon. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. create dom and. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. will creators." 3).The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor." 3). the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. while bringing humanity first time. it and as well. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. Accordingly. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. but animal gods are and superman. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals." things. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it.
that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will. What and grotesque of a devil. however. the distribution of his author. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. as Zarathustra has argued. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators. appears independent inquiries. rushes his teaching. of course. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. of latter. to be absurd. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. In "The Child which a child his disciples." in other words." of first half his of Part Two. however. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. This interpretation. Nonetheless.104 Interpretation so ing The that. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. Neverthless. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. his venom. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. of course. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth.
is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. On the other hand. the com incoherent in its own terms. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. to establish a community of and reciprocity. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. therefore. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. as through such distribution cre like himself. It . they must liberate above oneself as one's it. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. Creation. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. this condition with another. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. On the one hand. therefore. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. that is. consequently. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. made clear through stands following reflection. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. therefore. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. and this is men. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. disciples and. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. Moreover. that is.
and the desire for revenge within his soul. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. the punishment or desire for soul. As "The Night Song" predicts. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. he is in useful a state of aporia. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. wisdom. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. consequently. As he puts giving." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. with his wisdom. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. revenge. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. spite.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently." Consequently pedantry. compatible with the moral law insofar tue. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. ("On the Giving Vir 1)." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. but by self-mockery. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame.
He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. of the rational good.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. that understood need on is. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. and the good. That is to say. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. that false horizon now of the is. since. Thus if in Part . Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. therefore. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. and that. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. 381). elaborating of the beautiful. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. in which the just is included as false appearance. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. the just as final political order. all human community established upon the basis of the law. He cannot painful beyond endurance. therefore. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. Accordingly. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf.
" it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. however. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. Nevertheless.g. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). the longing for revenge. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love.. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. Zarathustra blames his failures position." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. and however. that is. "enemies" however. As is his habit. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. e. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. consequently. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. happy.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. In other words. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. Zarathustra's primary opponents. envy. That is love were to say.
after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. As a conse good and evil quence. Without himself being aware of it. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. The greatest good. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine." Life. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. however. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism." again and soon and. he realizes. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. therefore. he says is. he also concludes that any particular vice. For the will. "the good. manifests itself in an infinite becoming. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. Be that it may. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. in the infinite power of the will.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. spite." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. in expressing its or unlimited character.
. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. the destruction of values. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. Ecce with all that was Homo. necessarily the greatest evil. destruction of values as its Accordingly. for. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. will's "sublime" character good. 382. naively (The Gay Science." as a form of artful play." he describes himself depths. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. But the "values."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . himself to purchasing his its first principle. good untouchable. of course. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. the false perspective of the moral law. Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. ." 2). which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. his desire for happiness as he understands it. the creation of values. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. from opposites. It is. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. the possession of wisdom. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. in clinging to his its freedom. wisdom and will and And. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. he . as the highest good. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. law or or as he it there.
Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. This fellow thinker is name within the work. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. and create engendered. help lower level than his The reason for this . of another like himself.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. to the end of reproduc words. its fundamental incoherence. As in the case of sexual intercourse. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. but ultimately to the generation. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer." "now I love only my children's land. Zarathustra In other gives dren. As we have already observed. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood." as he calls it. he values the admittedly political community. Zarathustra himself has done. is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. Plato. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. He listens carefully to these speeches. with caution and of subtlety. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. Symposium reproduction of his own good. in new doing so. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. think through. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). therefore. truth. his old moral teaching.207a)." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. demolish it. and. however. comes to understand the implications self. in some indefinite future.
Nevertheless. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer.. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. therefore. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. become the "night-watchman death. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. everything is one." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. but in terms of knowledge as well."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. In his dream Zarathustra has . and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life.. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. however. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. despite the in some to this region of the dead. Thus.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. the future continues way . but rather a all efforts of creation and was. bursts open. Consequently. therefore. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. as it were. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. Zarathustra the Third." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. In words. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble. everything That is to say. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. just the prophet had predicted. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy.
is the causal principle of number of of those peoples. . Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5).The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. 1. at least at this point. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. If. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity.2). Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. not to willing all of the past. then. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. Dis courses on Livy. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. This insight is cause. but to willing this willing. the peoples must of Yet. of therefore. From this low point. Zarathustra. the Machiavelli. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. namely. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. however. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer.
time itself is sees a Zarathustra. saying. however. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . . then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. namely. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. however. must past and Accordingly. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. but every stone that is thrown . "O Zarathustra high. therefore. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. in which it may be willed. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. . . that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. Thus. according the Zarathustra's current understanding.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. eternal return of . being is an Accordingly. regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the .' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered.
the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. the that has crawled his throat. "foreseeing" longer man. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man ." Moreover. nothing be profitable. choked me and crept .16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. The presence of the low not only persists human life. into my throat. as Zarathustra now describes it. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. the of the . he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. of sickness" therefore. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. that is. the life but is in creative great effect of in." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally ." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. of It is. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. freedom will at its peak. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . . . paradoxically. that was my disgust at all creation" existence. as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. all would be one. but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. 21). knowledge would Thus. Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return.
however. its law and sway of the rabble. on the one hand. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. Finally.. namely.e. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. love and. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being.21 need.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. the will and its desire for and i. but. of not be given. is in accord with reason. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. in Part Three. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same." revenge.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible. and that genu knowing will. of "justice" "freedom. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. the thought of the eternal return developed. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. however. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . Far from having escaped the its justice. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will.
Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. appears to offer a 11. Beyond Good and Evil. Zarathustra. On the simplest level. Tablets." 3.22 upon in his wanderings." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. and therefore of being. 202. 1888. As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. 10. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. also see Ecce Homo. Writing"). if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption"). Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. 153. 8. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). University of Chicago Press). It points to the Seth Benardete. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. In Part Three. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. Cf. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. parodies "wisdom.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. 23). it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed." 5. 7. 4. Preface. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. however. Of course. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. p. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. See "On Cf. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. Behind the 6. 9. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. in that irrational. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. 4.
Odyssey." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. ed. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. Row. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. what 53-54. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. Zarathustra's p." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. overcoming of need." 16. 1935]. II. Vol. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. ." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets. Cf." 360-425 and Bacon. IV. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth.'' Great Events. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. 13. The Wisdom of the Ancients." "The Truthsayer. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. "The speech Self-Overcoming. 28-31. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. but only on that of philosophical writing. pp. "Proteus. It should come as no surprise. 17. XIII. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. 14. . the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm." 1 1. as man.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. trans. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. 15. namely. therefore. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. it would require "something double. as god. 1988). or Zarathustra. 12. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. 1984). lacking . the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. Matter. Unfortunately. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). Homer. 23. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding.
Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. Unfortunately. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. 1794)": Daybreak. 36 and 87. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. If both Zarathustra and. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. "Fame and Second Sailing. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. pp. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. (Speech of 7 June. Preface. Robespierre. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. namely. above all. She power. 40. therefore. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. however. 3. Seth Benardete." also Dancing 4. therefore. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. p.'' for every is an afterworld." Having pears by chance. To every soul belongs another world. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. 30." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return." 21." and 22. characterizes world following that terms. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. p. 283-85. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. for the smallest just. Song. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. bridge. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. 27. vertu' 20. on account of his 227). the ill-constituted. "All Song. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. Sunrise. 264). . 152 and 192. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper." merely by looking into each other's faces. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. 29. 289. 1990). and The Gay Science." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided.
95 paper.. Tom Rockmore. $15.50 Hans Sluga. Indeed. $15. 1997). xv + 232 pp. $49.. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). 1990). 1995).95.50 cloth. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation. $19. + 306 pp. even to the point of at "apologetics. MA: Harvard University Press. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. Berel Lang. Heidegger.95 paper. Vol. Politics. Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. Michael E. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. greater notoriety.95. xi + 382 pp. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. 1993). xi + 234 pp. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. this century comes to a close. xii + 263 pp.. 1 .95 paper. University the Polity.Review Essays Heidegger. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 26. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. Philosophy." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision.50 cloth. In this essay. No. Julian Young. $19. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca.. Fall 1998. xii + 129 pp.50 paper. 1993). $47. 1992). Zimmerman. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. $33. Leslie Paul Thiele. 1996).. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. x + 285 pp. $49.. $14.. Caputo. NY: Cornell University Press.
" in Heidegger's Crisis. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. In the process. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. is . of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. Rockmore implements criticism. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. namely. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. As bridge between reject discover. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. politics. however. In order to discern this tendency. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. One point example. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity.g. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. which also exemplifies historical. Although Farias champions this position. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. e. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. daeo-Christianity. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. for example. Lyotard. Given this historical archaeology. Unlike Zimmerman. of and Derrida. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions.. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him.
then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. e. Caputo. already the publication of his magnum opus. In this work. hence. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. however. indeed. As poignant as revelations were. the Polity. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. ethics. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. Even been prior to Farias' book. inquiry. Philosophy. The Farias' effect of revelations. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. Being and Time (1927). This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. II. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. This work. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. of ethics and politics. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but.g. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. raises. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being.Heidegger.. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. then practical concerns. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. As Zimmerman. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . Nazism.
the our need to day.e. Heideg instruments of technology." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. 84). But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. and the end of metaphysics. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves. of "enframing. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. xxiii-ix) Jews.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. By 'thinking. That is. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. i. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. As Zimmerman states: .' he did not mean rational calculation. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. As Zimmerman emphasizes. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. On the surface. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism." nature. Interpretation . One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. pp. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy.124 '. the which unique forgetting of being. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. is of political which things. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power. but the of technology. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties.. . technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology.
The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. recast Going forward. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. Unfortunately. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach.Heidegger. p. 127). tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. conflict and resolution. Holderlin. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. (P. harmony from strife. . . Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. Not surprisingly. domination humanity and nature. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. On the one hand. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. As reactionary modernists. Consider Heidegger's . but instead blood and instinct. that is. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. 84) In the end. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. frenzy and violence. what the Polity. philosophy and politics. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin.
Caputo. . the categories of tenderness. who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. self-affirmation. the dissident (Derrida). Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. Only by possible a shepherd. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. love otherwise absent facticity. Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. . Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin). (Lowith. As Caputo indicates. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. including care." community. The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. and heroism. charity. baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. According to Caputo.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. in his stark concept of Dasein. truth. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. love. . To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. . a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). e. in must emerge "singular. become 68). Ironically. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. the scandalous comparison culture . The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism.g. The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. 207). and temporality. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. . 73). thinker. 72).
and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. This distinction becomes important. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought. 74)." Heidegger's philosophy (e. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states. National or no important. and that. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. In Heidegger.. . propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that.Heidegger. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. however. link (p. "What I call the 'official' view students. Philosophy. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. 54). roughly speaking. for Rockmore "hero. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. as Nazism. there is no. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity.g. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. III. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. namely. Rockmore." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. Because Rockmore way. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. stance. the Polity. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. 54).
philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. The "tragic question then becomes. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. insofar as the and then. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. In Heidegger's Crisis. 100-101). philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. but the intellectual others. Of course. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect. . While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. 5). In Heidegger's Silence.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. the public and occasional" the private. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. Ironically. freedom and necessity. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. of illumination and blindness. 5-8). gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. the professional and the thesis (p. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. Lang ger history (pp.
an opportunism "timely. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. community.. And ger's while one may try vision. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. Mill and Kant. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos).Heidegger. Arendt that he quali Marcuse.g. for most critics construe these . In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. action. setting institutions the decline. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. IV. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. but what extent a political crises of of the political. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. 22). There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. 19). which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. 245-48). To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. and the possibility of law. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental." forged through the will. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. a process occurs. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. be translated into any specific may For example. in the 1930's. Indeed. which philosophy prefigures cumbed.
factic plane. As our discussion of the previous . Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. a Heideggerian politics must confront. action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. In many respects. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin.. vious. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. While this most problematic. e. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. his commitment to National Socialism. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. it would a type of action irrecon (p. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). in order that one to the dilemma in question. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. however. alien to all reduction to the uniform. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around.).g. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. 35 ff. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence.
which claims In ogy. 125). Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. but Wolin. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. instead. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. if it does their objections. Young argues that Heideg for the other. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. Young. 79). books the Polity. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. 50). 38-41). Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. Moreover. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above.Heidegger. in regime. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. In Heidegger. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Philosophy. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. When joined Young's solicitude. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. Rockmore. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida. provides According to Dallmayr. Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. 104). 41). it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. Farias. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p.
there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. 81-83). facets as as Thiele indi cates. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. In this way a community develops.g. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. As Arendt suggests. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. Western democracy.. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. that is. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. the between logos and community.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. What Heidegger recognizes. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. namely. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. 198). of light the opera Thus. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. if government as fully we articulated. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. p. e. As Thiele emphasizes. the nexus of politics." Correlatively. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. language. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. 48-49). In words. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. "tolerance" namely. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. namely. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it. that moral emphasis on can (pp. is that the power which permits political participation. however. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions.
The arbitrary. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. means or "place in on such opposition. politics. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. . 5-12. . inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. Literally. 292). (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. thrives within a polis the greatest importance. philosophy flourish only it is . democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. 60-63). Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. 16). 128). Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment.) is iconoclastic. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. 86-100. even solicitous of. the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. censorship. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. 167). Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. it Sluga. p." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. While Yet. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. controversial. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p.Heidegger. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. . challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. another the Polity.
1982. and Farias.. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. Lisa Harries. Mark. 1990. Silence. but. Palo Alto." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. John. Martin. philosophy of its task. 1993. Johannes. Richard Wolin. 1989. Victor. no. Miguel. In this spirit.). CA: Stanford University Press. Heidegger the Trans. Trans. 1990. 1 (1995): 111-86. Wilde William Kluback. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. de Beistegui. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Jean-Francois. The Other Heidegger. Ed." Gary Steiner. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. 1998. Trans. and 1995. 33. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. Blitz. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. Andre Michel. 1958. George. Pascal. Ithaca. London: Routledge. Bourdieu. 35). Marcus (ed. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. New Haven: University Press. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. Phil Temple University Press. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. Karl. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. Trans. . Kettering. Perhaps this time think. 15. New York: World Publishing. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. 1 (1991): 1-611. 1962. University Press. Political. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. NY: Cornell David. Fred. "jews. 1991. Dallmayr. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. 1975. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. no. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. in which the fac- eloquently suggest.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. "On Heidegger's Lowith. " Lyotard.' Assertion of the German University. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. The Human Condition. and Gunther Neske. Heidegger and University Press. Peter Collier. Trans. GA 24. 1981. Pierre. no. Truth." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. on the words responds to this contrary. 2. Heidegger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. GA 31. 1958. Emil. when such a pp. Hannah. New York: Paragon Press." Time Journal 14. Kovacs. Heidegger. Jean T. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann.
The Politics of Being. "Resoluteness Ambiguity." Holocaust. and and Philosophical Forum 25. Reiner. 1992). 1990. On ington: Indiana 30-35. Richard. by and Kenneth Maly. 4 (1989): 340-55. on Free Speech." Scott. Safranski. Chicago: Politics. "Heidegger's Truth eds. and In A. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. Scott. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. Quarterly Ott. Ewald Osers." "A Question Socialism. London: Fontana. 1994. 1998. Roberts. eds. C. Encounters Parvis Emad. 1. Richardson. Petzet. Sherover. Olson. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. Blunden. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. Frank. Heidegger Jaspers. William J. Sheehan." . no. no." University of Chicago H. 1993. ed. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. "A Normal pp. Intro. 1996. 1989. 1992. Zimmerman. Trans. Thought. A. Albany: SUNY Press. no. "Heidegger 27-38. 1987. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Charles. no. Common Good. Dallery. Socialism. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. Riidiger. Alan. Trans. New York: Columbia University Press. Charles E. John. Bloom University Press. Trans. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1994. Rumor of the Hidden King. 11-24. 2 (1993): 121-39. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. and the January 14. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. Heinrich Wiegand. Michael E.." Philosophical Writings. Albany: SUNY Press. Nazi. Heidegger and lands. Van Buren. and Ethics Schalow. 24. and Alan Rosenberg. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Thomas.Heidegger. 2 (1995): 137-53. no. 1990. Time. 4 (1997): 554-62." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. no." 1996. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. Alan M. Trans. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. Schurmann. the Polity. Freedom. Christine-Marie Gros. and Danger. Pp. Origins. The New York Review of Books. Hugo. NJ: Humanities Press International. Press.
He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources.95. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. The Pluralist Game. Fall second book. Public $22. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. why it excludes. 1995). but what it excludes. indeed could not. The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. possess. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. 26. $24. 1 . inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. Liberalism and (Lanham. University Press.. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. Sandel. + 126 pp. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan.95.. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes.50. Like other pluralisms. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism.. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. Michael Walzer. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. Three recent works do both. Francis Canavan. On the other hand. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. 1996). versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. $16. Rawls's Political Liberalism). Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. No. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. Vol. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. 1997).
and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. indeed impossi ble. Naturally. Earlier American pluralism. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. As Canavan clearly perceives. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. lost unity of shared. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. however conflictual. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . ex policy unavoidably express Hence. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. Law society. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. 76). norms by privileging the autonomous individual. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. and the relations between economy and polity. but or not limited to. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. pluralism and toleration. The categories overlap. In Canavan's account. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. In Canavan's account. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism.
Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. but without developing the point at any length. individ liberty.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. their best. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. liberalism. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. Yet of the three volumes. Understood in individualist terms. A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. had helped to flesh out religious community life. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. schools. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. to public Canavan notes. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. Canavan particular. hospi tals and social services were injured. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. These institutions. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . it displaced institutions. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict.
Protestants and devout Jews. always reflects some moral vision. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. cultural. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors.. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . to make room for such groups in education. the state should reduce its direct etc. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. to join in the struggle. If anything. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. on pain of contradiction. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. so vision ought Canavan argues. social services. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). things look neutrality. Groups with spiritual. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. On the other hand. to flourish.
explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. People are born for citizenship. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. community. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. or even citizen obligation. the freedom tive. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. Consequently.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. As Sandel notes. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. to a solution to these problems. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. of citizens In the liberal conception. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. and this goal has American public policy. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. for Sandel and the republican tradition. for instance. When they tion. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. this asocial render human good is misleading. since these all require description of the self. religious duties. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. They natu common affairs. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. ing of Again. others' based have chosen them. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. with others about what is true any or good.
" up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. 20). Or we could relativize the value of respect. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. a contradiction. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. and His alternative version the self. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. So Sandel pluralism. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. regarding toleration. moral. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. not their simple capacity to choose something . respect not follow. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. and promoting. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. In principle. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. judg Using the legal example of abortion. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. community. prochoice their views for public purposes. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. they express. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. In both cases. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. As Sandel correctly argues.
while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. 90). be Canavan suggests. the same could be said about his ily law. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . Walzer of toleration and coexistence. in the nature of (p.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. With Sandel. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. Sandel replies. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. Arguably. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. Sandel's order. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. Indeed. in general. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. Presumably. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. or even malicious. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. That is.
Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. 70). and social Where then. since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. this is an omission which pluralism. of and others. so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. Religious parties. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. . for example. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. so he opposes a voucher system. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. (p. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples.) Nor can we repair to . is right say) tradition. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). Naturally. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. Canavan. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. To his credit. With Sandel. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error.144 Interpretation societies. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. together with leaves intact the current crisis. Walzer here in the secondary associations. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. with early roots in Protestant and English history. 77). Maclntyre. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. . seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. according to Walzer. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . as an harbor republican hopes." wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. ought to be barred from running in elections.
have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. But reading Sandel. Altogether then. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. . since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus.
politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. Gershom Scholem. and others published here for the first time. with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. cloth with English) many important. Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926).. H. Gerhard Kriiger. previously unknown writings and letters. Jacobis (1929). Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. cloth with dust jacket. and Lowith. Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. (1921). in the original languages (German English). Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. XXXIV. Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. B.i VERLAG J. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). 1933-1935). Testament Spinozas (1932). Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937).-). more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). among Wissenschaft writings.. 434 pp. French. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. . It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future.-). DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. Jacob In addition. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937). numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. XIV.
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paperback scholarship Zuckert and vast a work of careful lican ideas recounts came to By illustrating be blended.EDU .. historical of "This exemplary work of reconstruction dramati our understand cally transforms ing the genealogy of early American political thought.. for this is reinterpreta one of those rare at once scholarly achievements. ." drawing Thomas L.New in "This is erudition. that forces all of us back to the boards.'' Richard Vernier. The Journal ofAmerican History 'hf-UitlKllS Natural Rights and the New Republicanism Michael P. Zuckert Here Michael Zuckert philosophy that propos es a new view of the political lay behind the founding of the United States. how Lockean and repub forcefully the origins of the American republic. Pangle. capacious and meticulous. and William Mary Quarterly Paper $18.95 ISBN 0-691-05970-5 Princeton AT FINE BOOKSTORES OR CALL 800-777-4726 University Press HTTP: //PUP. No one who deals with the eigh teenth-century Anglo-American political avoid tradition will be able to the unsettling challenge of original and painstak Zuckert's ingly documented tion.PRINCETON.
and important way foods have emerged.edu/socres/food. or e-mail For more information and reservations.NATURE AND CULTURE A Social Research Conference November 5-7. Barbara Examining the Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Moderator) 5: Food in Art/ Food as Art: Food is both an object of art and a medium in which migrated. David Pimental. Theodore Zeldin. the fear famine makers with deprivation forum all are occasions reflections on the human condition. been assimilated is an of understanding our histories William McNeill. Marc Shell. at editor of Social Research. Aristide Zolberg (Moderator) 2: Case Histories: ways Barbara a symbol in most religions and as a marker of identity and difference Maurice Bloch. its of importance. Wendy Doniger. Keep checking for a link at . how food for marks our sameness differences. Robert Herdt (Moderator) 7: The Future: Prospects for the global availability of food and ways to increase it Gordon Conway. the ceremonies surrounding mythic and symbolic and it. John Hollander (Moderator) 6: Abundance and 3: Key Note Addresses Scarcity: equal Sustainable Agriculture: Ismail Serageldin Food and Access to food is far from Culture: Margaret Visser Richard Goldman. of diet and food to and security the history. Robert Adams (Moderator) for artistic expression Betty Fussell. Marion Nestle.edu Further details coming to the World Wide Web soon! http://www. Per Pinstrup- Andersen. culture and political economy food in an effort elicit new perspectives on abundance. (21 2) 229-2488 socres@newschool. problems created by scarcity 1: Everyday Life: Food life as a major 4: Food not as Symbol or Sign: Food is as component of only what we eat but figures Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. This conference a brings together scholars and scientists as well as about policy in linking discourse the significant hunger. Anne Murcott. Sidney Mintz. All conference sessions will please call be held The New School. Steven Heller. Raymond Sokolov. Kenneth Prewitt (Moderator) This conference is organized by Arien Mack.newschool. Leonard Barkan. 1998 What and we eat. the joy of plenty. Paul Rozin.
Inc.ISSN 0020-9635 Interpretation.Y.S. -a o PC fo a -a o CO 2 o 3 "I 3 o 3 O < CO a r 21 rra *> o m c3 CO . 11367-1597 U. Queens College Rushing N.A.
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