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OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
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Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
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the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. as argue. in light the Babel project. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. the city is connected with land ownership. Traditional exegesis of these stories. associated with and antipolitical. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. Nimrod. Vol. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. divine or conventional. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. Second. Fall 1998. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. although intent. 1 . those who are supposed to be First. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. interpretation. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. Finally. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. antitechnical. with superfluous and which arts. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. and in Genesis 1 1. 26. in Genesis 10. I is wish not to argue that. it makes funda mental interpretive errors.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. The thing I wish to argue excuses. the Lord God. or even defy. and the which Babel-builders. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous. the Babel-builders. man. second or at least reasonable those characters. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. No. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. herds Nimrod. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. Jewish and Christian. that of the nomadic Third.
they Eve and the angel of produce much good. the first city. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban. antipolitical atmosphere. In fus ing (they own. Cain. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. that is. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. A. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce.2 kills the son truly in God's image. Augustine's these City of God. Out of antiurban. the an which founding of the city. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. 1. often little basis in the text. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. Cain. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes). Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. have all been impugned. fices to the most Thus. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. of the Next. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel.3-5). heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. 4. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. the refuse. and I have consulted Specifically. Fi by nally. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. Cain's very birth is suspect. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image.3 or.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. When he sacri Lord (Gen. I have used tateuch. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. his religious performance is faulty. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. according to some of the rabbis. .4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. legion. if the quality is acceptable. First.
5. Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. to will return later. 192). Cain's tion: p. 21). The names of Irad. and Lamech are all said vol. Jacob. however. "wicked" "house" building of a city. and them. vol. (City of God. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. and David. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy. such as Augustine and Calvin. 21). 8. are supplied by the . This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. 1.2). that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. his city and people. 153). but with his hy pocrisy. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. 2. Those interpreters. 8. Mehujael. 255). 1. Augustine says nothing negative. 1. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. 29). says bluntly "Cain. ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. Calvin on the other. XV. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. Noah.5. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. says Abravanel. we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. Augustine. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. 17. p. Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. another choice. One became a murderer. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. XV. another a drunkard. God intended with us. some rabbis say that he. Augustine. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. absent from the Biblical text. vol. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. Isaac. p.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. Moses. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. and Uzziah lusted after the ground.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. and Cain Lamech Metusael. career. life into a sophisticated. p. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain. 256). p.
they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer.6 Interpretation (ibid.). the op for him the arts are goods.). his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features. XV. creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. and all its connections (with the arts. like beasts. flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid. his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world. however. God" at least more carnal in their interests. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. Like the rabbis. Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). and because of this. Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). far as we can tell from Genesis 4. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . with human law making. did not yet exist). superfluous sin. 160). his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. duced Seth's line into waywardness. pp. sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. 2. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. and 159). if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise. Calvin. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. In general. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. 237-40). Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image.) (which. with political life) fall under a dark shadow. violence and In a more analytical vein. the former being. the he founded. 238). Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. the latter who lived more virtuously. and gifts from God (Calvin. His birth is suspect.22).22. 217-22). They eyes. view. went about stark naked. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere. 160-62). of p. In sum. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp. Naamah. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall.). he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid.
Nimrod the city-builder evil. mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. is a deceiver. 60-61). de Rabbi Eliezer. And. 420-21. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. here found in the hiphil form. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. man. 38). In this attempt. it is p. being a mighty hunter. that is. which is what persuaded people to let him them. tyranny (Calvin.4).8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. was obviously a furious Nimrod. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 174). XVI. who. Genesis 10." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. ants same Obviously.26 are said. 260). Finally. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. "began" 2. Thus. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. Nimrod. oppressor. his claim to might. they supply other examples of wicked people things. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. who 4. XVI. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis. pp. but mention rather. of course. 175). being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham. to degenerating calling "rebelling. he Abraham. so negatively. is bad for two reasons. 2. be evil. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter. deriving all wicked things. he a 10.)." earth. and. p. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. First. Second. 2. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. p. he Genesis Rabbah. There is other evidence that Nimrod. to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. p. tried to kill Abraham he was young. 317). . he was the foe of his brother Jacob. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. 3). too. From the sense "pro fane. in Genesis Rabbah. Esau. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. Since Nimrod is a slave. "beginning" is is verb. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. like all hunters." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. Esau. however.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. vol. as the-verb "to (halal). pp. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. p. the ancestor of Israel.
for they p. as I will point later. First. Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. In p. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus. a city. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar." but are on the 50). for idol They filled the sin of pride. . again. with the upper part. 2. as one might expect. God's people do not rest con move. means. right motives. needless to say. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. which." are "rebels. (Genesis Rabbah. 1. want 2. 3. bad scent. and Jacob.4. like Nimrod. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. vol. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives.8 Interpretation Nimrod. which p. heavens. in an summary. and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. His city. p. pp. takes on a associated with and his kingdom.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . 2. the Lord. it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. like Abraham. could hardly him have Urban life. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. Calvin Calvin. the lower part of the world. to displace him. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. "Settling" is moti vol. Isaac.4). 49-50). the the Ham line. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. at signifies also that they made an on 261. vol. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. 11." "and this they begin to which. XVI. In any case. and. They they being given the earth. do. was the area of his king dom. as in the case of Cain. 260). The Babel-builders. too (Genesis Rabbah. the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. p. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. being settling and building in "settled. 2. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. do" translated into rabbinic. probably vol. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. Second. for two reasons. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. 51). therefore. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. according to Genesis 10. and vol. 324). is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God.
desire of walking away from God rather than with him. in criticizing the Babel-builders. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text." us make "let build city"). who defined man as a political animal. sinners. the arts. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. without God's help by They purely human means. The city. is ated. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. only God can do these things. then of Seth. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. are proud. they God's murderers. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth. Abravanel argues. being Esau's way. in order to establish the stated. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. The city cannot provide for security against death. God's do not need the political life of the city. or rebels against God. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech. and the rule of with human beings by others. is inferior to the way of the Politics. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. hunting. 4. Ruling comes from Nimrod. B. then. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. says Abravanel. rejection of God. heir of a slave. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. They are from the wrong lines. it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. but to conspire against and a God. Abravanel thus. Nimrod.3-4 ("let brick. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. More generally. is grounded in folly. political which go with cooperation. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. if the materials they supplied were . and tyranny over others. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. The the city. They story. which.
however. when they assert without philological "idol. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. and would maintain this even reasons. and enough reading." they ask us to accept too much on faith." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. and Babel. to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. all interpretive control is lost." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. since Lamech fathers sons who are . Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. far beyond this. For example. they are merely the justifications. and so on. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. point. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. Augustine's most claim that translators. Shinar. Some of the claims are errors. Nimrod.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. even without the extraneous material. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. to the fact that by Nimrod. There are Nonetheless. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. but some of fetched. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. however." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. Sec that there is ond. more relevant interest. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. they in the Biblical text. We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. for two First. believe. again might not be bad in itself.
" The interpretation same such is. since not Ham but facts that do not fit. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. the entire race. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. text with uncharitable motives. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. Abravanel. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. How. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. Further. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things. In fact. Nimrod. Ham's son. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. Babel but not in the case Cain. further. is cursed to in Genesis 9. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. They they are by the farmer. tilling it. too their sheep.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. And settled farmers (like Cain." Again. Augustine all lifestyle. out of the desire for a name. undertook the Babel project on his own. or that he ordered the people him. the hunter is less violent. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. and that the city to protect him. in a parallel manner. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. he infers it in infers. Further. that Cain had a says justify God. which makes "children men. is feeble. these are nity. The hunter is the loner. If Israel is not wicked . because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory. execution. rather. the city falling to his arrows. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. if God will then. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. hardly closer the model of the political man.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. The new begin ning. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. both over Israel and over other nations (cf.1-7) to be enforced. the "nations. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. the goodness." Asshur. in the east. which are life. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. the city arises. amicably dividing the world themselves. which relied too much on we are innate human told. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. built by Asshur. therefore. This time.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. One wicked one. something is added: God gives the first laws. suggests in which one will rule over many. whenever the tribal or them. 13). Since." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. will have a legal dimension absent from the old. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. families (mishpahoth) Shem. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. Recall that in Genesis 9. for the laws of God (Gen. the between Cain nation. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. among Japheth separate violence. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . Ham. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. cities a son of Shem. Genesis 10 documents this family by family. Abel. is. (9. the migrating offspring of Shem." earth becomes peoples of common nations. The next a region called in Shinar. if we are watching a new creation. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. which had no such structure discernible. Ham.1-7). Thus. The first cities are or comes to rule. in this overspreading. God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears. the new creation as it were. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading. 9. they occupy it as they were meant to. In this new creation. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well.19). Abimelech in Genesis 20). There is another interpretation. without Thus. and since they too are related. however. Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. must not conclude. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation.
and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. basis to nor of an adjective alone. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. unlike Lamech's. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. then. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. of a any more. one must conclude that cannot as such.4).8) and before the Lord (10. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. in fact. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. Nimrod. may not be pretty. the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city.4) or the Babel (1 1. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. Kings may (I Samuel 8). Nimrod became famous. the order of creation. strained passion. as did Cain (4. and so did his empire. but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant. In this context. For these reasons. by God's . Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. did the mighty men of old (6.23-24). good. at overspread the earth at least potentially. Nimrod does not boast about himself. At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. how to be a "hunter. Finally. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world. I represents a political would argue. Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. men ruling men). condemn be evil. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. city building.17). vulnerability to random killing). least some of the nations which legitimately source. we must ing was Lamech's. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. from the above discussion. and as did Lamech (4. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. In important respects. Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian. first hunter.9). that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. but human for up as prey beings. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous. in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. kings are one possible source of law. I would suggest.
settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth.4). speaking one language. They heavenward (11. They one spot." is only fitting. and Augustine.4). the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. in a its top in the heavens. Regarding this story. case of Babel is not exactly typical city. Further. I certain turn to the Babel story. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. Rather. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam. as of (11. The with sin of the Babel-builders. close even antiurban exegesis. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. They want live. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. Finally. be was afraid of safe. process. united brotherly love. scattered. They "scattered.28).The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples.5). The 11. if it and was a sin. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. and enjoying the earth." of perhaps educated obey God. It "scattered. in the Babel there features grant. that is. the language of mutual entreaty. aim spreading master to many spots. Babel-builders is. His proj may be ambiguous. in one place. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. and he. 428). among these Combs and Post point out. The "sons men" Noah. to obey God. like Cain's. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. then. of super-city with together. it to be a certain un populating. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. something. p. is by Calvin. is. God wants them to move outward. God at the end of purpose. I think. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. wants them to the earth (1. No one people (which is why I would con- . The their cautiousness. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth. too. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. He. the descendants of Flood. of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. too." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives.
unified world-state. and themselves. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation. they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. The forms of govern men" ment. In fact. they dream. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. become corrupt. It is true that they wish eternity. were tribal and monarchical. however thinking." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. wanting as is fact. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. good which so I think is the one correct one. In Genesis nized 10. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. but he was not God in naming it after his son. the nation sired by Abraham. be for . God. are not malicious. separate peoples. In Genesis not allow of 11. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful.7 overthrow "name. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. "name" necessarily an improper desire. no possibility of the living. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. unified world-state. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. They do not wish to God. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. then. Cain may have been proud of his city. the situation be irreparable. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer. and the only people. a permanent essence which. noble it may be.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. as it were. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. they do not even mention him. only language that exists should If the only state. hold them together in Shinar forever. then. The or reputation earn. speaking. however." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. the "sons of will founding "nations. built." of that is. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. would God. will and to give it. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. and powerful cities. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10.
7. 2. or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. or for building great towers into the a heavens.6). The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections).: Penguin. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world. In societies other than Israel. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. 1970). was the Babelers were not being scattered.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. . because Cain is not so commentators make out. 1985). trans. and not always the best. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. law. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. p. Isaac Abravanel. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. trans. 242. And in one case.: McMaster University. in Genesis 10. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. John trans. Deut. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. 1847). it due to knowing God wanted. 2 vols. Rev. 44-48. then.. 256. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch. eds. vol. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. trans. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen.) Lemer 1978). pp. God. (Title henceforth: City of 5. John Calvin. King (Edinburgh. 1972). The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. argue that the evils of 1979). Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Robert Sacks. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city.3. trans. NOTES 1. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. 1. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. 196-98. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. as city of Enoch. 158. Cain's son. Cain pp. Augustine. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. arts. 4. 3. but for purity. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. pp. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. but these motives were not wicked. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. if one wished to put the city in a better light. it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force. 12." Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. Jacob Neusner. Genesis Rabbah. If these people strayed. XV. p. Ont. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. 150 51. Eng. to teach. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. 4.
it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. Craigie (Sheffield. In a general way. Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Robert Sacks. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. 1987). I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. MA: JSOT Press. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. I add that. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. 1-5. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. S. But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. 6. . and to Leo Strauss. which who essay was seminal for them. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength." Memory of Peter C. hence. C. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post.. 1990). and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. 1988).20 Interpretation 6. Due to space limitations. Eugene Combs.
1 .12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm. Vol. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. 26. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. and who dwells city. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember.14 wings as if on high. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. 16 She treats her were all children roughly. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. interpretation. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. Num 3. as if they were not even in all vain. or that a wild beast might trample them down. 15 She has forgotten that hers. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. Her toils caused foot can crush them. You see. Fall 1998. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness. No.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more. meet armed combat. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. Sacks St. John's College. 3 when to give birth to their young. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider.
There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical." Hos. Oh." a very will complex word. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. javelin. although almost as side. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man. Indeed. and See notes to 26. 3:28 are of Afterward. His swill it from afar. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell." . guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. Whenever death defiles. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal. 2Sam. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. forever Ner.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. The and single Hebrew word hul. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. David heard of it. he is there. 2. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. making it his stronghold. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. 25 but facing battle from afar. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey. it originally meant "to whirl. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command.17 pinnacle. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word."18 Comments 1. 30 and his fledglings down the blood. "I and father's house. he said. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. consume the of their gates. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. by the flashing into the spear and the earth.
king. and often when first reading the word. and dwelt in them. in her hand. that book which begins see them dashed. trembles and writhes The land in pain. Exod. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. from the dancers to their and took their wives. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. the prophetess.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. too. And to us. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. 23:5 Jer. and rebuilt the towns. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. Benjaminites did so. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. saying. then they went and returned inheritance. And the to their number. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. Grant them graciously to us." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. neither did you give them to them. hands anger burned hot. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. and go to the land of Benjamin. only to the book Judges. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. for the Lord's purposes . "Go and lie in in the vineyards. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. and watch. because we for each man of them his wife in battle." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. Judg. Then. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. else you would now be guilty. The Book rule. according whom they carried off. the sister of Aaron. it Psa. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. Exod. 15:20 Then Miriam. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. Deut. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain.
was revisiting the day of his own birth. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher)." English-speaking in this also recognize . a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. it can also mean "to be in labor. brings forth rain. Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. thy judgments puffs at them. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. Job. 31:3. Isa. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold. are on high. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. 37:6 will bring was forth the light. brought forth in iniquity. They look another." and hence "to give Deu. as for his foes. angry them. in visiting the day of birth. inhabitant." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. There is Jer.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. tempest." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. they aghast at looks. pressed upon Saul. and ISam. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. But. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. and sin did my mother Prov. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. in and your right as the noonday. 51:5 Behold. and you forgot birth. I conceive me. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. birth": as in our case. their faces be aflame. out of his sight. Ps. For this reason. your vindication as Ps.
In using such a harsh word. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. 8. pain-ridden. are 3. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. 5. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. It is the whirling. Yet we can all world. an order for the first time. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). of course. Here. The question is. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. the joys of our world could never come to be. rhetorical. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. But quite even Job. How different things Isa. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. then. 6. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. This. dancing. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. before her she was delivered of a son. since. and are what they are. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . To word understand used this passage. 7. perhaps with beyond world. speaks to Job. has never known either burden or rein. fostering in each life to own its signet. She.
When a man strikes the . to oppressed go free. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. male and . And there are other passages. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel." daughter. children. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him. ears to me. for nothing. "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. Jer. gave no answer. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. eye of my his slave. that was true. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. has served you six years. 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. along many others. "I love my master. and in the seventh he shall go out free. I will not male or eye's female. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. 15:12 If your brother. sake. and like a hireling he waits for wages. too. and destroys it. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. is sold to you. or a Hebrew woman. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. so that no one should enslave a Jew.26 Interpretation Exod. "servant. his brother. Hebrew man. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. and But if the slave plainly says. my wife. be your slaves. that show his concern. . but they were treated kindness: justly and . It is true that. he shall serve you six you. all are there. but he him for favor. to and the man who and will give Israel. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. go out free. to undo the thongs of the yoke. he shall serve six years. brought 9. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. years. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. and the slave is free his lord. female. Small and great. great riches.
the osprey. and them yet he did have ox. ance The farm. The an furrow. as we shall see. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. not certain what bird is meant. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature. what of those who dwell in house of clay. There were always some men suffering it caused. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. they and be eaten. the heron according to its kind. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. is 12. the stork. the cedars of . what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me.The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants.. the . I do God rose up? 10. the vulture." answer can do none of these things. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. of course have been out of the question. it will be a long journey. the hoopoe. it may seem. that its us. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. roaming the hills as his pasture. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. each thing can be be what it is.. they are an abomination: the eagle." This is the only verse. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. It is generations. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. Even from was within the human sphere. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. 11. 104:16 LORD abundantly. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. are watered bat. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. "trust. Job but. five hundred of them. both for moved for others." time. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. giving it a The signets. it requires something like the concept of a signet. The trees of the Ps. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev.
8:7 Even the swallow. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. then. lest they hold a bribe. but my know Zech. the has her home in the fir stork Jer." 13. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. who despises the gain of stops oppression. had been domesticated. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one. and the turtledove. people crane keep the time of their coming. and in the heavens knows her times. 16. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. at least it is the can most write about. he will dwell on the heights. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. In them the birds build trees. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. two women wind was in their wings. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. The first thing to be moving any to be asked. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. silly beast. character that each 17. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. must 14. and behold. ears his looking upon his hands. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. and eyes and saw. The hawk. their nests. too. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible. when if only in part. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. insofar as been domesticated. 15. his place of defense who shakes .
thence I bring down.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. twice. however. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. who hold the height I will of hill. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. 5 I have spoken once. high and the pride of your heart. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. me dwelling set say in heart. you who your Obad. is high. pride of your whose says the LORD. LORD. 10 "Go ahead. 13 Bury them all in the dust. Look upon every man of him. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. the hawk. did for its children all that the charm to do. in returning to flow off into death. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. his of water be sure. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. 18. 49:16 Leave the cities. The cold and more grotesque. Bind their faces in would obscurity. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. you though your nest says the among the stars. The ostrich. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. How my hand upon my mouth. you inspire has deceived you. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. and Jer. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. bring clefts will down from there. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. is in the not Job." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. but I have no answer. has been defeated. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. for your own right have saved . his bread will be given him. sixth as beast. 48:28 Jer. 1:3 heart has deceived you."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. and you must let me know.4 even would praise you. 14 Then you. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter.
I believe.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. who would plead my case? . God's argument is. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. Again it says. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways.8 21 He lies down the lotuses." again "asking. and if by court of law. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was.6 of brass. or his head with fishing his head. are The and his thighs are are all knit together. But the Tempest will go. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. He eats fodder just like the cattle. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots. Indeed. and his teaching is not a but an 3. convinced him that Elihu was right. but he did not. and you will remember war no Comments no answer. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you.7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. here is whom I made along with you." 2. or with you to be your eternal his nose. hiding in the reeds and the fen. "Have you an arm like God's. his warning was just. 18 His bones iron.9 brook in him. If Job's this not point. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. He is the mighty one. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. confident that the Jordan will mouth. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. beyond man is no place for a man. had been what God had wanted. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)". 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. under and all the beasts of the field play.
is this: Get wisdom. His praise endures for Prov. and I find knowledge of and discretion. and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. clearly are of mythic proportion. . Man is 7. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. Prov. not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. iron. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. These do cosmos. than the beasts of the earth. 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. "Behemoth cattle. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. 8:12 . of The LORD acts of old. Compare Ps. get beginning insight. I. with you . We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. behemoth 5. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. 4:7 The get. ." in the made masculine singular. of wisdom Prov. created me at the beginning his work. Appropriately enough. being lous nor mythical. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. however. God is joking. the first 8. fools despise and whatever you instruction. of It is. are all who teaches us more The verbs. dwell in prudence. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters." "His bones are ducts brass.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. . however. his wisdom. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. however 6. "laugh" or . Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant.
32 9. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . for the pounding. a and said to himself. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. He finds Thus." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed. however. Gen. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. and you shall call his name Isaac. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. The half-mythic. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. "No. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. I fear. sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. shall I have pleasure?" grown old." looking at each usage. now that and say. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. "Why did Sarah laugh. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen. that she had laughed. "After I have my husband is old. child. There is. But from the Gen. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. making it his drinking foun tain. 10. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. 17:18 is ninety years old." Joy and happiness are another matter. saying. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. is usually translated "oppress. tyrannizing river. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter.
son whom she had borne Abraham. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story." and Sarah shall have son. you laugh". whom you brought up out of the Moses. up to play. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. 21:6 city. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us. but certainly the betrayed him. 26:8 also was actually doing. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. in to me to insult me. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. came "See. "I did laugh. "The Hebrew servant. came have brought among us. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife." the But he seemed to be jesting. every one hears will laugh me. and rose your And the LORD said to people. have corrupted themselves. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. Gen. place. Next . his marry his daughters. "No." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. And Sarah said. he with me. for land of Egypt. playing her Isaac. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. saying. in the saying. for she was afraid. "Go down. Then came the golden calf: Exod. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen." a But Sarah denied. and I cried out with a loud voice. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. He said. "Up. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. and the people sat down to eat and drink.
twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. so down together. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great. for the oxen stumbled. but they laughed them to scorn. who chose father. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. and mocked them. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. . to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. at Gibeon. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. "It was before the LORD. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. 2Sam." has slain his thousands. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun." pillars. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. and he died there beside the God. And in his each caught arise. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals." said to Joab. "Saul thousands.34 Interpretation Judg. David. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. 2:14 And Abner us. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. "Call Samson. the abased and above all people of the his house. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. by them I shall be held in honor. they said. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. before the LORD. They made him stand between the us. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. and he made sport before them. Israel. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry.
and wine gladdens life. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. 10:23 beside him. 8:31 Prov. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. and money answers everything. 8:12 . for Eccles. at the but the LORD laughs coming. O LORD. Eccles. also will laugh at your calamity. Sorrow is better than laughter. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. and I find knowledge and discretion. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. a time to mourn. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. the LORD has them in derision. Jeremiah is not quite the same. and shall laugh your from of the at living. "I am only joking!" Prov. for he sees that his day is Ps. firebrands. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. so is the laughter of fools. like a master workman. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. he will snatch and tear you tent. 2:2 I said of laughter. is vanity. and death. I will mock when panic strikes I. and a time to laugh. rejoicing before him always. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. Prov. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. all the him. Prov. 14:13 Prov. however. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. . and a time dance. the fool only rages and laughs. 7:3 Eccles.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. wisdom. I you. Selah. "What use is Eccles. Strength and dignity her clothing. it?" Eccles. laughs at the time to come. arrows. Prov. wicked. at them. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. 31:10 . A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. and I was daily his delight." and of pleasure. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. there is no quiet. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. 2:4 Ps. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . dost laugh nations in derision. 3:4 to a time to weep. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. closer to what we finds another strain. 1:26 Prov. and fear. Prov. Ps. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. . "It is mad. saying. dwell in prudence. 59:8 But thou.
But he also has another notion of laughter. I will heal. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. then they among nations. multiply them. and they be be few. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. and have compassion on his dwellings. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. says LORD. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. thou art than I. thou hast deceived me. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. and I was deceived. When her . Zech. him and he too shall be held in derision. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. and the voices of those who make merry. Then our mouth was with laughter. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving.36 Interpretation Jer. "The LORD has done things for them. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. I have become a laughingstock the day. I and the palace shall stand used to be. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. every one mocks me. and your wounds Jer. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. I did alone. nor did I rejoice. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. Jer. the we were like those and our dream. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. Jer. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. however. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. I will make them honored. Was thieves. they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. shall not small. 48:26 "Make him drunk. I sat because thy hand was upon me. and thou hast prevailed.
Luke 6:21. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. Mat. for they like the wind and go they make sport. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. and every green thing is his to search out. if to judge by different from the others. mocking at her downfall. and of rulers At kings they scoff. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. 1:10 contains much. whose it. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. made him all his trouble. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. laughter in the Book of 8:53. Job the outcast. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. . guilty men. The much subject was and bound to come up. the burden of their day says long. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. for it Hab. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. the a side which had always been a part Job and. 9:24. every fortress. Lam. a simple. But there of was another side of we are laughter. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. 25. but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. and there was her. none to help her. and does not even hear the drivers shout. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. Mark 5:40. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. but hills as his pasture. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke.The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. 3:14 Ezek. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. James 4:9).
"Let us make man in our image. of nature. their iden tity. 3:8 and 13. At one first. To that extent. With Job. at fear and is not dismayed. . let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. after our likeness. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. Job has come to learn from nature. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. Job has come. and over all the earth. the brother. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. and over every of the . bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. and even their sex. Eliphaz once had he has seen. "It is I. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. mountains yield him produce. On this question. and over the cattle. wings on high. this relation is seems to Dane. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 . as we put have from the ostrich. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. Yet it is Lear shadow". 1 :26 and Then God said.38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. . and one of the things he learned. but not to it. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. and over the birds air. Some English translations 12. Hamlet. continually changing their clothing." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange.
"Be fill the earth and subdue it. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. He judge between the beat nations. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth. people of sons after you. but the beyond is not ours. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. and say: of "Come. with harshness. ways 15. We cannot divide it up and as we will. and God said to them. it is only a in which he learn about play. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free. the and all the nations shall flow to it. and over the And God blessed them. not as a thing for us. and they shall into plowshares." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev. "subdue" "dominate. and subdued them as slaves. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. let of us go LORD. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. Jer. you may make brethren the another. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. but the he must perform now. and and shall be raised above the hills. . Josh.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image." 39 So God created man in his created him. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains. to slaves of inherit as a them. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. sword against nation. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. earth. In many Isa. is not a world and 14. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. "subdue" In addition. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. to the house God Jacob." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. male and female he fruitful and multiply." It should be noted that both words. But it is not the same. in the image of God he created them. the land lay before them. many of the peoples shall come. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. and their spears into pruning hooks.
who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. and terror dances before him. rises up. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). 15 Festoons of flesh. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. 14 His strength resides his neck. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . It too. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. wait. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards. and bronze as rotton wood. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. word mean but along it a sense of dread. quaver. stand.18 26 He sees every towering thing.2 Do up. 9 Each closed8 seal. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. 11 fire escape. 17 "When he sion." times. the gods are in dread. could. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. 12 From his cauldron. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. and not a his shields7.'"9 Comments 1. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. nor lance. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him.13 cast as a nether millstone. up by a breath between them. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. fused all together.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. or exploits or the grace of his frame. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. He is king over all the sons of pride. nor They spear.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. for he was made to dread. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. "to or so I believe. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted.
YaChaL. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. We have heard those Isa. I have no higher expectations. till they stood longer 2. That is to say. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. apart from their being for us. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. I rain. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. which deals with our relation to the world of man. The first has replaced the second. for something to say. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. loose my his hand and cut me off! . He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. but there came only a murk. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. till they had finished speaking. falling silent to hear counsel. on a with. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps. the Ps. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me.
away. But that knowledge rouse may admire. and he has and sent him off.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. mangled never overpowered man. The word. The comes the root of this word." 4." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. The "brutal" word seems. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich." From it Hebrew So for "peace. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. You have resigned. So. They with were in disgrace. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. Then the within fifty-two days. and with the might of fact. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had. apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. You have stones trashed all mortal hope. in already begun. like the in the wilderness. shlm. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human." Neh. knew it. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . One of them reads: give the Lam. means "to be whole or word complete. and in which he for itself. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. occurs which I have translated "brutal. but he and His body surrounds him pain. Job has nonhuman. word 'akf'zar. then.
"Is not everything under the heavens human justice. The again. God sets the wicked to close in men. of. cannot by No one can touch him. 8. then.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. dead beast shall be his. If He should pass by and separate or close up. and its owner has not kept it in." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. sell the live on the lift." 7." by all to his the scales. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. meganim. know him from the Here it is taken outside only. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past. If. he pay ox for ox." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. case. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open." oil rest. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5. In that sense. mean normally In either of means "to shield. however." debt." importance winnowing kind. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. defend. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened. It might help. and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others. "Go. in the however. it means that the spoke Leviathan." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. unlike Job. It leaves always room restitution. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. from the root mgn. is to "make whole.
flesh. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. from the way. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. tight itself. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong." all others." his completion and perfection. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11.44 Interpretation One cannot up. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. But. For us it is ugly. 12. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. "tight. the list is . it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. become that which seals it hotam for Job." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. ness. fused (dbq) all together. 9. and the face of the deep Again. At best. dabhaq. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal." away from all other beings. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. closed entranceway. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. off. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. "signet. For the world beyond man." sar. has. in the world beyond man. my heart gone after my eyes. of murk and confusion. the Leviathan does Job's skin. or constrictive: "stick. complete. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. for the Leviathan. Job has seen the Leviathan. as stone. shameful. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
by the way. one feels remorse. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not." one assumes ashes." 'al. we have returned to Chapter One. that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. The root nhm means understood in the text." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze." wenihamti. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other. that the book was conceived of as a whole. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes. of course. can establish in the world of the small. means "to despise" "reject. Also see Gen." or is. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew." but. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . have expected but it would not be so .epher we'phar. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. as . 58:8. a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. I who am but dust ashes." and is. one more reason for believing tion. require as Greenberg does. 18:27 the Abraham answered. Linguistically speaking." meaning to them. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned." where it "to It is found in Ps. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination." and 5. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. if one feels sorrow guilt. there seems "to feel deep compassion. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. for instance. in itself. however.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. But to others for something that one has done. "Behold. . He is value. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. "upon. normally as 'el. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. "Dust meaning mankind ashes." These passages." to be behind their understanding of the verse. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. and repentance." sorrow or Like the English word.
All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. Gone is the vocabulary. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. that wonderful woman of the night. 10. them over. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. destruction. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. 9. 11. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. yet his soul. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. sisters each one on a different with day. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. will consume His be away. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. . Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. . Remember Aaron. and save alive and mother. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. death's first born his members. Rahab: my father them. my brothers and sisters. 8. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. and Joshua 2:13 .50 Interpretation 1. that the moths eaten. but . but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act. living in a nutshell.
33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. it became Joseph. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. Gen. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. but look at the loins. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. at the end of the book. It fell down . How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. Bildad show Shuhite. 13. fodder just like the cattle. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. 12. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. strength in his Now. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. not snuffed out the life of its owners. His might is in the muscles of his belly. inheritance of the descendants 14. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. ten thousand of cattle. eating joyous unity. were another one came in and said. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. and Zophar the Naamatite. he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. What was not possible before has now become actual. Shechem's father. three thousand camels. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother.
Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. in the prophets. came to Jezreel. this name? second word. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. Jezebel heard of it. the silver of of my God. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. and marble. sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. too. They are dead. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. or all the things that a self. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet. Job 3:1 Then. As such it became. and looked out of the window. We remember to his friends: his his day. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. O desolate one. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. and wood and stones wood. also called pukf1. qesi'a. and she painted her head. all sorts of precious stones. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. "cassia. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. antimony. besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. "day. 18." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. of silver. Job himself becomes word yom. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. Then. keren happuli1: the first two ful. stones." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. so far for the things as I was able. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup." are. And you. in English. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking.52 Interpretation the young people. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself. including the being his 16. It is from the words It is a new Job. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. the iron for the things iron. The Book rection.
16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. salvation. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. and he veiled his power. he anointed. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. tent. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. And Samuel priest took the rose up. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". But the root also means "to shine": Exod. "My exalted in the LORD. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. will give strength his king. and went to Ramah. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. and they were afraid to come near him. because I ISam. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. for I sons. against he thunder in heaven. all of them. to the ends of the earth. that the skin of skin of face shone." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. behold. rays Hab. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. Moses' his face shone. have Samuel. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. It "horn. qeren. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. Then they blew the trumpet. His bull has majesty." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. My mouth rejoice in thy . until in to speak with him. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. hence." 53 us look at the first word. said. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward. flashed from his hand. my derides my enemies. to begin at the beginning. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. 33:17 ox.
Linguistically. and the IChron. "Do glory boast. praise all his saints. 22:3 of My God. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. for Israel who are near to him. and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. to the sound the hom. 27:2 be Exod. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. in whom I take refuge. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout." boastful. 89:17 I say your to the horn. I have for prepared a Ps. And. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. thou . by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. art the of their strength. and made loud music on harps and lyres. my rock. Often the Psalmist Ps. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. cymbals. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. my savior. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. I have driven my horns into dust. my me from violence. stronghold and my refuge." not and to the wicked.54 Interpretation Ps. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. too. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. "Do not lift For thou exalted. trumpets. 75:4 up Ps. of course. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting.
the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. cluded however. Gen. to Sarai. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. they praised her to Pharaoh. then they kill but they let you live. Leah's soft. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. 19. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. in have to be Song its of Songs. wife. he said to Sarai his behold. and she ." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. And Leah conceived and bore a son. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. and when . barren. for your younger and he said. "I the will see you. We have not. Rachel. will they will say. But God sister. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. because of the woman whom you have taken. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. saw Gen.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. and his house because of Sarai. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. "Behold. though perhaps somewhat naive man. you are a a dead man." "Lord. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. Jacob loved Rachel. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. so as to not mislead ourselves. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. there is also good. he opened her womb. we shall have to consider the full list. 'This is his wife'. and said to him. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. man's wife. Abram's And ultimately. so he said.
he has given me this son also". "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). but at a very heavy price: Gen. but did not find the household gods. the have son. voice and given me a has also heard my son". 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. saying. and take know that Rachel had stolen them. 30:1 Gen. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. so she called his name Naphtali. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. and she called Simon. but his father buried Benjamin. but he did into Leah's tent. and said. and entered Rachel's. Laban felt . 31:32 it. and I die!" shall Then Rachel said. said to me. And midwife said to as her. And she her father. in her hard labor. and sat upon all about the tent. "Because the LORD has looked me. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath." She my affliction. she reacts not with gratitude. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. Rachel travailed. So Rachel died. 30:6 When Rachel sister. and have prevailed". but did not find them. she called his name Benoni." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. "God has judged me. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. "Give children. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. and two maidservants. for she said. and into the tent of the not find them.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben.' and she had hard labor. Then Rachel said. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. for the way of women is upon So he searched. "Fear called not. And he went out of Leah's tent. she envied or her and she said to Jacob." them. but with a demand for Gen. therefore she called his name Dan. saw that she bore Jacob me no children. Bethlehem).
which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. "Arise. a youth. beautiful eyes. David was beautiful: brought him in. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. 41:2 and fat. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. . 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. anoint and was ruddy. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. Nonetheless. for when this is ISam. . whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. Abigail: ISam. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. except can for him the land. but all that again it led to grave problems. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. they first seven fat cows. and had and was handsome. 16:12 And he sent. and the name of his wife Abigail. Gen. 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. behold. was Joseph himself beautiful. Joseph. he disdained appearance. ." ISam.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. but the ill-behaved. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. Deut. the [beautification] in it. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. for it. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. and said. and saw and him. the . Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. for blood be made pollutes the land. Now he he. him. "Lie with master's me. David. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. And the LORD said. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. he was a Calebite.
. when was heavy meet on him. The very beautiful. and pretended to be ill. hair his head. and brought her to the maiden was king. if I had dealt the will aloof. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. Amnon lay down. nurse and ministered to him. David's son. but king knew her . 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. and after a time Amnon. the and she became the king's not. loved her. "Behold. 14:27 There were name was Tamar. Joab's armor-bearers. his foot to the . 2Sam. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. while the mule that was under him went on. with listen to her. lie with her. whose name So Tamar. oak. On the other Joab. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. and told hanging in an oak. and killed him. from the sole of . and she was a beautiful woman. and being stronger to me. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. But he would not he forced her. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. my than she. David's son. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. Amnon said to the king. had a beautiful sister. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. and when the king came to see him. born to Absalom three sons. Absalom and struck him." hand." of her. "Come. every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. 13:1 Absalom. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. he took hold sister. "I king). and found Abishag the Shunammite. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. her. and left hanging between heaven earth. I saw Absalom hand." with And he took three darts in his of hand. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. he weighed weight. he it). his head and fast in the oak." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. Absalom he riding his mule.
but a woman who fears the praised. Mount Zion. the city of the great King. 4:30 hair. Jer. Eccles. and He had brought up Hadassah. LORD is to be beauty is vain. is the joy of all the earth. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. 3:24 Instead girdle. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. Men beautify so that gold. And you. 6:25 far north. of perfume Isa. for of a this is his lot. also he has put eternity into man's mind. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. her eyelashes. Esther 2:7 uncle. for fair to behold. Eccles. 33:17 Jer. when she has done vile . and instead Isa. a there will be rottenness. grace you poured upon your lips.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. Ps. as and when her father and her mother died. and and do not capture you with Prov. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. instead of beauty. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. and instead of a rich robe. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. the maiden was beautiful lovely. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. scarlet. 10:3 lovers despise you. baldness. a girding of sackcloth. for the customs of the peoples are false. Esther's beauty saved her people. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. Jer. they seek your life. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. for themselves: is Ps. in let her Prov. that is Esther. therefore God has blessed for ever. A tree from the forest is cut down. O desolate one. 5:18 Behold. they will behold a land rope. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. shame.
33:32 And. "But trusted in beauty. were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. that were in the garden of God. high Eden envied it. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre. "Is beauty. and played the harlot because of your . full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . renown. and say to him. cast you to the ground. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. you ate raiment was of fine linen." Ezek. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. made they hung Ezek. they shall devour and . your builders beauty." I Ezek. for down to abundant waters. in the length of its branches. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. I have cast it out. and its heart was its height. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. 9:15 that thirst. offering made harlotry. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. and were in your towers. towered proud of Ezek. Son of man. .60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. and your cloth. 2:15 with goodly fruit". they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. And silk. lo. and its branches will be consumed. 31:7 exposed you before kings. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. 27:4 any passer-by. says the Lord GOD. You to regal estate. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. iniquity was found in you. . but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. you then exult? The LORD once called you. for they hear young and men shall say. but they will not do it. . you. they perfect your beauty. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech.
of Gilead. and new wine the maidens. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. Had there been a son. The names of his daughters Mahlah. but only a dowry. "The daughters Zelophelad right. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. Noah. Milcah. the daughters have received an inheritance. and he had no sons. Noah. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. 27:4a Why family. Milcah. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. and before Eleazar the priest. given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. And are the LORD said to Moses. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. you shall give them . at the door of the tent of meeting. The text continues: Num.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. Our father died in the wilderness. Thus. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. Zelophehad Mahlah. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. and Tirzah. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. And they stood before Moses. saying. but died for his sin. corners of be full like bowl. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. Num. Hoglah. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. and before the leaders and all the congregation. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. son of Manasseh. the next phrase Num. 20. Machir. son of Hoglah. for like the jewels of a Yea.
Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. Tirzah. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. tribe to another. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. for Mahlah. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. and has no son. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. came near son of Manasseh. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. son of Joseph. And if he has daughter. Milcah. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. then his inheritance to his brothers. daughters of Zelophehad. however. 'If dies. and Noah. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. In the case of Zelophehad. Hoglah. tribe. saying. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. it inheritance. The only. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. they said.
So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. . nothing is said dowries. be and of the ways. the two refused to mesh. beauty. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. as we have seen. This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. the way to bake bread. They be taught. in turn. there would be no bread. by the fathers and some by the mothers. Without whole. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. led. however. Of what do they speak? Of the com. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. This insight.The Book of Job Job's daughters. and a need of clarity. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. ways must be taught they must be learned. there would no way to live as "one of com. there and us. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. of his daughters. men are empty and life is without taste. The inheritance is outright and absolute. the way to go out on the hunt. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds." clashing for human One said while friendship." Without these would must be no life. the and all way to These some bury the dead. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. and it is the children who must learn them. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. "just" by the For Job.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
306b). was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. important texts on the theme of eros. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. if ally exclusive (North 1966. Still." p. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. 221d). one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). Charmides. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache. One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. 507a-c. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically. at Symp. In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d).5 Furthermore. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). 714). 97). (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. an elenctic investigation begun. "oddness. Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. particularly restraint indulgence. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. with some effort to answer that I did. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium. Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. After tality seek marriage and family. We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. from sex been Since self-control. not mutu Pit.
In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). 210a-212a). the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. pregnant If this is the case. and gifted soul. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. least if self-control might presence. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra. just as a fawn . he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a). For the second. like his describes. certainly will he would never anything ugly.Drama. to quotation of return Cydias. Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. face. Indeed. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b). eternal rates beauty (Symp. despite body. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. distinguished. is. try to teach the other." he says. someone who is both kotos and. inward say. rather than ugly ones. Like children. at least potentially. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. and good. Narrative. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification.
with trust in my strength. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. In both cases.6 Third. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. an pp. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. Socrates. 58. 81-91. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers. in singing. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. the aporia has a beneficial element. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. 241e). with who had been observing the behavior of amusement.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. has not always been recognized as such. Sim sus ilarly. Halperin 1985. 1978. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. just so do lovers love 165). of citation of the line from Cydias. the perception of their own lack knowledge. Socrates' (241d). but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. or as a hunter tracking game. here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. but did not drink its blood. inversion the expected im age. hunting (Dover. stretches the Charmides text enough For example.70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. I caught a fawn in my claws. For of example. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. him to finally renewed reflection. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons. right out from under hind. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . p. there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. of which three come immediately to mind. fond of lambs. The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. First.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus.
pursue. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. p. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that." realization of his desire to be Socrates. which as a manifestation of anteros. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. If we do. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. we can see that dialogue. in which Charmides. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. he must mean us to go along with the game. "don't (176a-d). in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. perceiving his craving for Charmides. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. respectively." he most likely means Charmides became. and devour (McAvoy 1996. who. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. when. "So Charmides. When Socrates says. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. only if a with the power to momentarily. 92. or . also interprets the quotation in this sense). p." you resist me Socrates answers. lion.Drama. Narrative. If Charmides' either." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion. Critias. a lover might approach his beloved. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]. pursuer. he devoured appetite." no one will be able to resist him. catch. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides. Another reading. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles. 90. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. also reads the text in this way). I thought how fair youth. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will. Socrates to replies in kind then. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. to speak.
his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. 155e). This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). someone suitable body. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. step. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul.72 Interpretation merged. In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. If is . philosophos (154e-155a). Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). which cf. to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. Socrates' Halperin 1986. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2). Soc speak. but he does not condemn the desires of either party. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne.). 210a. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. or the entire body charm and the soul as well. came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. and actually help nurture the Symp. Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover.
and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. From that on on. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. 457b). that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). They consider kalon only in the first of these activities. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. (17 le) Socrates. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. the element of to doing (163e-164d). however.g. possibility. see Larson 1951). the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). (161b-163d). their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. e.g. "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. (160d-161b). expands his logos nomoi. showing modesty generally. and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. Charmides. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. own" every member of a city. like walking and talking with deliberate. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge . In other dialogues. and goodness (to agathon. Phil. as would a so governed. about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. and. he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c).Drama. Rep. level again. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. Narrative. penulti rung (episteme). seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits.
Phaedo. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. 148291. 541-49). especially the Symposium. vision. pp. 1988. Laches. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. here eros. and Republic. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. to topic. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. ostensibly. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. Sadly for Socrates. Rather. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides. would not had. Kahn 1996. If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. pp. 56-70. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. any case. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). Lysis. as it turned out.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. As an example.
" someone. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. together with his irresistible passion . has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. McAvoy (1996. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. principles 542-46). p. that thought the experience. Cf. Alcibiades. 2. for example. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. pp. more 184). not opposing view. (For an pp. in Kahn's work 203-9. 154). Donald Watt's translation (1987. 54-55. 82). the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. since he can speak 4. so to speak. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. This recently. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. 'Take care not to go as a meat. well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. he "[Cydias] for the beast. . and Kahn (1996. Plutarch. in the Laches. the Symposium. the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. 27) and. by Mahoney (1996. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes.Drama. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. p. he also thought." "dates" with conversations. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. handsome boy." observation has been p. see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. like in advising fawn in front of a lion. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil. 73 n. but in those works he does not." measuring-line about such a person. as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. 7. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996." this . 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. concern " for p. p. thing.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. 1988. pp. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. puts 6. 25. 187-88). Hyland (1981. 146). theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. [Cydias] said. (1977. Narrative. as here. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. I to resist what had been an this. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive. p. proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. p. pp. 102. For the 5.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. 3. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. Jowett 1961. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue.
"The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. 1986. "Socratic Politics Charmides. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. Athens: The Ohio University Press. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. C. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. trans." Mahoney. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. 1996. Hanmondsworth. L. Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51. 1988. M. "Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. Eng: Penguin. B." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. 1985. McAvoy. Kahn (1996. NY: Cornell University Press. Hyland. Pp. 1981. Sophrosyne. 1996. 63-103. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. C. Greek Homosexuality. Saunders." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. The Collected Dialogues. "self-control. Griswold. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. Pp. 1986. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. 1977. Charmides." Dover. Ithaca. 1961. Pp. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. 1966. Watt. 1987. D. and Jowett. Benitez. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Charmides. 1988. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. J. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. Potae Melici Graeci. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.76 Interpretation 9." 161-204. Kahn. It is with Menexenus. p. C. 1996. Hamilton H. University Larson. 163-209. 1962.4). Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. trans. . North. 1951. D. D. Cambridge. 99-122. ed. Nussbaum. K. M. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. 1978. Princeton: Princeton University Press.. H.. C. Page. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. eds. Ed. D. Plato.. T." Dialogues of Plato. In E. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Cairnes." REFERENCES Bruell. E. In T." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80.. MA: Harvard University Press.
posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. was an out-and-out bourgeois. 26. was becoming of a tyranny. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. and his himself. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. Vol. 1 . No. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions. Fall 1998. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. Like Marx. and on prudential about grounds.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge.
3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. fight the to rebels using the an law. In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. see his thought and his peculiar genius. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. The law from corrupting one another. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. Its force . The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. A disobeyed be effectual. but treasonous criminals. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. On temptation. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. It is. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight. Yet. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. In doing so. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens.78 Interpretation privilege. however. rather than law. there is a strong of as the part of the British. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. love of country is a defense foreign domination. who are gland. while partiality to whom one's own country. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. but punishment. Justice has two different aspects. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. the on account of the war being a civil one. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. also the nature of law to be just. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. rebels. and foreigners. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism.
when the communion of our country is dissolved. Of most all wars. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. but they have not lost their humanity. By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. they wish for peace (p. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. public spirited reasons. necessity Although law the common good. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. bringing generality with hate. however. they corrupt their morals. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. Britain's combination. (P. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. In order to maintain the integrity of law. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. or rather confusion. because and piety. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. devoid of hope. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. a hostile light. The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. Their cynicism and 177). of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. for pursuing peace. proposing a policy. They vitiate their politics.5 melancholy are not. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. They have lost confidence in justice.
they take the confiscated cargo. proper. 179). It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. third. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). to infamy to punishment. rather giving it to treasury (p. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. inconsistently. The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. the British themselves. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. in fact. but. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. Hatred determines the crime. and then distribute a war themselves. the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. than law. by treating fourth. The determination infamous action. 178). by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. second.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. blurs the difference be (p. because. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. . to the they rejoice at quality of the action. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. 178). The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it. therewith. In fact. defeat. contrary. 179). to enable administration to confine. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. by treating innocent citizens inequitably. The determination a it. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. as long as it shall think . the guilty justice in four different ways: first. is behaving like who appear tyrant. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. and. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. .
corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. (pp. object of their own insults. should the ment English be victorious. taking their goods. VIII (p. 181-82). tried ac cording to form. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. that they will become savage. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. . The accused is. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. 180). It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. 180). because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. but not according to justice. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. far from making the British godlike. therefore. tying half dead in England). Parliament its proper time and place. therefore. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. rather than the the crime. peace. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. because it is blinded by its own indignation. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. both. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. After strength not is American should defeats. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. the absence of justice.
as a life was given in return for a life. liberty principle. like the deter pirates. naval men as they were allowed to go free. to punish the exchanged prisoners. never mind possible. innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. however. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. It hardly seems just. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. 188). The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. this action. But the British punitive. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. far from being the opposed to manners.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. therefore. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. 182). parliament is incapable of such prudence. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. instead of of taking out the sting. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. 186). because it between citizens. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. This offense to threat to political liberty. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. At the end of the war. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. Burke says general venoms equity. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and. justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. But. . the limiting qualification. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. by breaking draws the first principle of law. but its to the corruption of manners. far as he tell. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. 184).
In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. of concern But. Burke raises the the unknown. 191). The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. made the reminds them British feel invincible). might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. . He speaks to the consciences. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. he says unknown a reality. in love of country.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. 189-90). He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. dark. British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. be can fore they be enlightened. The British must doubt themselves. if only through fear. the attachment to country. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. have with doses of fear. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists. despite American defeats. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. He even speaks as courage justice. he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate.
those in favor of peace are acting responsibly. the taxes. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. states to the . pair facing the Brit ish. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. Those in favor of the war. rather than to punish and to subjugate.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. calling for battles which but his servility to it. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. helpless creature. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. With the awakening of their interests. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. is in the eyes of God and man. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. Burke must discuss the rewards of war. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. actually the hypocritical others. being that crawls on the earth. manliness and cowardice judgement. dominion in which he cannot exercise. they their country. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. far from being manly. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. order to render others contemptible and wretched. show little are content to real magnanimity. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. 199). pride of a coward. Burke has for his plan. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. contending for a violent (P. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. when in triumph. that it is directed by insolent passion. any without civil wisdom or military skill. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. Far from man's of being cowards. bloated with pride and he is not to fight.
the Americans must trust in themselves. cynicism.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. therefore. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. and Burke shows As things stand. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace. He is cautious in his blame. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. and be trusted. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. 195). to risk with defeat their own arms. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. above the voices of many. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. the Americans are virtually alone. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. both addresses popular and parliamentary. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. the power under will be popularly recognized as such. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. He is the people doubt Parliament and. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. to be the for the the war in England. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. therewith. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. (1774). they must earn that trust. Just a short time . the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. rather than certain tyranny. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. themselves.
therefore. be governed. beg leave to observe. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. The people are. at best. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. that it is not will be resisted. having recently tasted victory. even though right of they have no representation. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. he can accuse aggrandizement. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. when public . but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. because the British had suffered defeats. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. granted social rights (pp. 205). 210-11). can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. it may be the mind. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. therefore. rather than oppress it. but people. so as to offend the people. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. 207) omnipotence. (P. I must attend to public opinion. waves of chance and. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. Par liament must. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. Parliament to tax the Americans.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. He is thereby domestic politics. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. Now.
then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint. through pressures placed on. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. . and. from. however. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. they embody than parlia ment. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. Compromise If the in the the and reform. rather theory require tions for injustice. like authority. as it was by the New Whigs. to be mistaken. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. not because of a perverse humor. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. just in they are needed (p. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). parliament can no longer legislate religion. doing what one wills. In light freedom. religion more the monarchy. 211). than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. They practicing (the god of this lower world). whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. Parliament must be heard. 208). Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. Burke is quick to point out that. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. Freedom. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. freedom others. politics. and even independence. as a defense of freedom in general. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. Freedom is not an abstract principle.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. It requires compromise. ment. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. any more than is sover of eignty. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p.
One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. they affection. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them. Abstract ideas . In abstract theory.6 ire of an atheist. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. Moments authority lived. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. General theories passions. the aristocracy. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. and savage cruelty. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. because it is a principle of compromise. The British Parliament the authority of a god.88 thus. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. thus denying claimed the church. they claimed to embody mankind. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. rather than acknowledges the hate. collective are bom from disappointed trust. of man and the absolute hand. rather than cod ified.
and the tence. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. confiscations. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. The Reflections. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. broke faith. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. guilt. In not fact. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. their persecutors. though in theory. to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. the aristoc and monarchy. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. horror. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. The legislator must whole.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. greed. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. They destroy . he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. and executions. In this. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives. malice. in particular. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic. and especially to science. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives.
offices. humanity (Pp. Their them. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational. that they . Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. . he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. nor fanatic visionary. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. he teaches limits of both. united them as a people. they of any interest. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. .10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. . The legislator have of in his soul. Like the of the good seamstress. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- . ranks. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. but things. because moderation they are defi must in love. philosopher. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. though it may paradoxical. God. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. is at their horizon like their horizon. It is who are undoubtedly true.9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. they from love men too little. but in general. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue.
however. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. possibility (Reflections. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. they to represent and to secure those interests. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. 524).12 chemistry. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. like promises proportion. creating Burke does. a mathematical order. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. however. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. which of it. At best. atomism except by a principle of order. therefore. and exist in much greater clearness. In formative act. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. in fact. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. unique character of Geometry. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater .Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. cannot recognize the politics. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. chemistry and geometry can produce a association. an un geometry differentiated mass. Legislation is deliberative p. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. to have the power of ordering. rats. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. Its rebel to be used against them. These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. the uniqueness of human beings 301). its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and.
13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. then there must be moral . asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. such. about the parts are at (p. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. By having right to everything they want everything. give repealing the tax. of government. If there are to be compromise and freedom. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. 222). be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. developed its own Ideological differences. Burke opposed abstract was against began. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. (P. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. 221). The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered. to tax in order to restore American trust. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. 215). for America had. To the contrary.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. or to an equal share in government. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation.
liberty. and a brutality of accepting of political men. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. but trust that is called to account and office. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. rather than connections of its sovereign. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. The as are though people dis must. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. in which it depends. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling. they are too strong to oppose. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must .14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). therewith. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. however. should the people rule. satisfy those grievances. an Perhaps most important. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants. avarice. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. therefore. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. The people are the product of the constitution. natural Burke thought the rulers. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. but. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves.
The origins are inferior to the end product. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. mind. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. Contending for an imaginary power. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. force.15 The hidden hand is not. rather. however. To the contrary. Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. because he never believed is not Hegel's state. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. He economics. Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. Burke never thought reality. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. It is something to be Although He respected. . brings a degree of the common good. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. . Burke believed that rational. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence. It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. and beneficence. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. .
he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. 260. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. B. to be grown in disrepute. So.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. His Yet one cannot of visionary. but they can trust him. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens. Capital I (Moscow. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. he is in his self-right eous wrath. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. disheartened and disgusted. the latter necessarily corrupts. on hand. C. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. only because they have elected him. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . he and sought indignant fanaticism. Karl Marx. a God. The partial suspension. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. contains its abuses within it. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. Prudence makes the former feasible. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. espe cially in the great. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. which which he lends credence. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. to foster the love of Furthermore. 1954) p. (P. so or a misanthropist. Unlike Parliament. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective.
pp. 1. The Complete Writ 1945]. although ment. vol. 1994]) argument. Works. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. 6. pp. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. pp. pp. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. p. a more participatory form vol. 350-52. 94. vol. vol. and three kinds of legal suits. There are three classes of citizens. 4. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. vol. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. Works. 431. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. Jackson Bate (Westport. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. Glorious 1984). in whose 6. portrait. The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. CT: Greenwood Press. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2.96 else. p. 533. but according to his fancy. Old Whigs. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. jurors and . Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. 15-16. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. vol. and the 7. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. 282-83. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. 1960). and by looking at the man.: Penguin. and the 2. three sections of the city. attempt 8. 282-83. Furthermore. pp. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. they both ideas. Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. Politics. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. Phaleas'. 9. W. his regime on the number 12. 279. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. 1854-89). Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. page number alone are 3. pp. 5. 2. Edmund Burke. tyranny (Thomas Paine. In desire to know nature as a whole. In from looking to the number three for order. p. and to Burke. was cited within the text as Reflections. Hippodamus models three. 3. 439. 382-84. CA: Sage. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. Eng. 7. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. farmers. wore by cheap whole. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. vol. p. 164. 358. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. 10. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. 2. 431-32. But he did give the any property. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. of govern 3. remind one of the old man ed. 101. many other cities. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. 31. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. he denied and the artisans arms. 520. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. 8. ultimate differences.
of Chicago Press. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 348. and even expected. 1991]. p. pp. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. 29. as in the French Revolution. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. the man of actual virtue. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible.237).9-10). against abstract doctrine. 1965]. 1. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. sanship. 470. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. 432. pp. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. p. pp. . In the Spirit of the Laws. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. susceptible of of infinite improvement. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. 431. Reappraisal. 1993]." the ruling majority and 14. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. (Harvey Mansfield. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. thus making an who improved the law. 15. that its authority depends habits of obedience. 1954). vol. 331-33. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press. who lives according to the actual. 6. 1. 1987]. 1949). Works. 294-95. pp. trans. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. pp. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. When questioned. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. vol. Thomas Aquinas. Science.149-52). rather than the presumptive. 13. p. vol. because he thought it made prudence impossible. as opposed to natural rights. According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory. of Chicago Press. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general. 77). is taken from Montesquieu. Canavan is for Burke life. vol. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. rather than action. 406-7. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. not simply its evident usefulness. 2. Thus. He honors for those individual judgement. for men of action are often. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. NJ: Transaction Publishers. Canavan. Like Burke. Works. 1984].
" Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. 5. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power. "deepest. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves.1 As readers of the book. In the second. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. to interpret this drama. but are inseparably It is joined. The first crests at the end of Song. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. No. but to those whom he "the wisest. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . 26. . 289). as it stands. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. Vol. the truth observation surface. Beyond Good Evil. argument and action. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel. . is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. therefore.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University." Preface." In interpretation. Fall 1998. it is incoherent. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. 1 . 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. then the distribution. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and. therefore. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest.4 If Zarathustra is human. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. This under persuading live." But this his means "to be again. he and wishes to "go down" to again. of accordingly. ridicule and hatred. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens .3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise. however. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. therefore." this account." 8). like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense.." however. but as such to be more than human. Overburdened by its superfluity. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work. however. e. however.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. It. Appealing directly to the multitude. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. the superman. he is met with incredulity. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue.g. the will to power proves to doctrine.
however. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. its things. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. the first. activity stands the legislator or. Behind the creator. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. one Afterworldsmen. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. speaks to man only being. as Zarathustra calls him. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. the people. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples. the Still. in the Aristotelian phrase. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being." "will to for the first time. root cause of all the will to power is the things." 9). But being. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. Persians. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. The first of this wisdom will to power. he insists. ." Here he that if be made to speak. calls "praiseworthy. law. according to Zara thustra. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man. all of of good and them." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. since." holy. That is to say. according to Zarathustra's understanding. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder. acting in the light of its truth. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. in accordance with its law. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. despite their variety. therefore. including his soul and mind. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. em but rather what good and evil. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or.
is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. however. to creating creators. believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. At the close of Part One. the to power. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. perhaps. but rather fellow creators. in Zarathustra's own words. however. believes.102 We Interpretation see that. As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power.5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. indicates. law that is. To create great endeavor. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. but identity between them. the coming to be of the superman. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. it were. longer disciples. divine. that he cities of men. as it were. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist. human beings seems necessarily is. according in what to Zarathustra. therefore. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. a law that is. is Zarathustra's goal. therefore. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. to a Virtue." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . Zarathustra. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends. That the related political and aspects of claim. It is this than human. overarching then. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). nite laws. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself.
" 3). by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. create dom and. as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. as it were. At this culminating moment hind his veil. it and as well. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. while bringing humanity first time. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that . It almost goes without fails is the question. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being." 3)." things. will creators. rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. but animal gods are and superman. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. a natural law. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. "the Great stand Noon. Zarathustra will. reveal himself to a his career. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. therefore. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic." 1). simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. Accordingly.
lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is." in other words. What and grotesque of a devil. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth. his venom. of course." of first half his of Part Two.104 Interpretation so ing The that. must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes. In "The Child which a child his disciples. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth. appears independent inquiries. of latter. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. of course." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which. as Zarathustra has argued. the distribution of his author. to create his equals in the form of fellow creators. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. This interpretation. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . Neverthless. however. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. rushes his teaching. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. to be absurd. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. however. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. Nonetheless.
and this is men. made clear through stands following reflection. On the one hand. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. that is. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. therefore. and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. disciples and. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. therefore. as through such distribution cre like himself. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. the com incoherent in its own terms. Creation. therefore. this condition with another. to establish a community of and reciprocity. It . that is. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. be his love nor to offer love to him in return.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. On the other hand. Moreover. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. consequently. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching.
rather than confirming his happiness or bliss.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently. consequently. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of . it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will." Consequently pedantry. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. he is in useful a state of aporia.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. spite. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. with his wisdom. revenge. but by self-mockery. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. and the desire for revenge within his soul. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. compatible with the moral law insofar tue. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. the punishment or desire for soul. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause. As "The Night Song" predicts. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms. ("On the Giving Vir 1). As he puts giving. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. wisdom.
therefore. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. therefore. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. elaborating of the beautiful. since. in which the just is included as false appearance. that understood need on is. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. Thus if in Part . in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. of the rational good. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. and that. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. That is to say. He cannot painful beyond endurance. and the good. 381). ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. Accordingly. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good. the just as final political order. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. that false horizon now of the is.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. all human community established upon the basis of the law. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise.
a love expressed in (seligen Geister). that is. the longing for revenge. and however." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of.g." both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. Zarathustra blames his failures position. consequently. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. e. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. happy. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. envy. fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life.. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. In other words. Zarathustra's primary opponents. That is love were to say. "enemies" however. As is his habit. Nevertheless.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . however. His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead.
One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power. therefore. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge. manifests itself in an infinite becoming. The greatest good. "the good. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. As a conse good and evil quence. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. however. he also concludes that any particular vice. he realizes. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. in the infinite power of the will." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. he says is. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. Be that it may. Without himself being aware of it. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. spite. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves." Life. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine." again and soon and. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . in expressing its or unlimited character. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. For the will. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy.
the creation of values. as the highest good. But the "values." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. for. necessarily the greatest evil. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. 382. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator. himself to purchasing his its first principle. the false perspective of the moral law. wisdom and will and And. will's "sublime" character good. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. . or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. the possession of wisdom. of course. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else. good untouchable. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . naively (The Gay Science. the destruction of values. It is. in clinging to his its freedom.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice." 2). Ecce with all that was Homo. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood." as a form of artful play." he describes himself depths. through the examination of the laws the various peoples. . necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice. his desire for happiness as he understands it. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. from opposites. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. destruction of values as its Accordingly." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. he . Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. law or or as he it there.
is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. of another like himself. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek. Zarathustra In other gives dren. his old moral teaching. but ultimately to the generation. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. comes to understand the implications self. Symposium reproduction of his own good. As we have already observed." as he calls it. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. in some indefinite future. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. however. and create engendered. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. therefore. This fellow thinker is name within the work. he values the admittedly political community. Zarathustra himself has done. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). think through. demolish it.207a).12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values. As in the case of sexual intercourse. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer. He listens carefully to these speeches. help lower level than his The reason for this . now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. in new doing so." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching. with caution and of subtlety. truth. and." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. its fundamental incoherence." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education." "now I love only my children's land. Plato. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. to the end of reproduc words.
In his dream Zarathustra has . Nevertheless.112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and. however. Consequently. therefore. everything is one. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. In words. become the "night-watchman death. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. bursts open. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. therefore. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra. Zarathustra the Third. just the prophet had predicted. the future continues way . but in terms of knowledge as well."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. despite the in some to this region of the dead. his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own. as it were. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. Thus. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up. everything That is to say...14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer.
circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. 1. however. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. the Machiavelli. it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. but to willing this willing. then. . the peoples must of Yet. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. Dis courses on Livy. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power. Zarathustra. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. not to willing all of the past. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. If. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing. at least at this point. This insight is cause. From this low point. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. namely. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf.2). of therefore. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming.
in which it may be willed. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. however. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused.114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. "O Zarathustra high. . In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. eternal return of . but every stone that is thrown . there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. therefore. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. namely. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. Thus. the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will. however. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the . That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . saying. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. . being is an Accordingly. . regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . according the Zarathustra's current understanding. must past and Accordingly. he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes.
of It is. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. 21). but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. . that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. nothing be profitable. the of the . of sickness" therefore." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. "foreseeing" longer man. all would be one. the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. into my throat. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. that was my disgust at all creation" existence." Moreover. the that has crawled his throat. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man . paradoxically." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . as Zarathustra now describes it. as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement. knowledge would Thus. At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . choked me and crept . Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. . Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return. freedom will at its peak. The presence of the low not only persists human life.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him. that is. he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. the life but is in creative great effect of in."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast.
of not be given. of "justice" "freedom.. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being. the thought of the eternal return developed. on the one hand. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. love and. its law and sway of the rabble. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant.e.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom.21 need. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. however. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. in Part Three." revenge. Far from having escaped the its justice." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words. however. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. is in accord with reason. the will and its desire for and i. but. of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. Finally. namely.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. and that genu knowing will. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good.
4. Behind the 6. University of Chicago Press). Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom. 202. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. It points to the Seth Benardete. in that irrational. 9. 23). but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. Beyond Good and Evil. parodies "wisdom. See "On Cf. 1888. and therefore of being.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good." 5. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. In Part Three. examination of This discovery human the or political a things. 8. On the simplest level. Preface. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption"). The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. Tablets. He explicitly Zarathustra as a . ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1.22 upon in his wanderings. 10. Zarathustra. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism")." 3. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer. 4. Writing"). 7. however. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. Of course. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good. 153. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. p. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. Cf. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. also see Ecce Homo. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. appears to offer a 11.
28-31. overcoming of need." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. Zarathustra's p. Unfortunately.'' Great Events. namely. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. but only on that of philosophical writing. In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. 15. 1935]. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. IV. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. It should come as no surprise. 17. . The Wisdom of the Ancients. or Zarathustra. Row. is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. 12. Matter. Cf. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. Vol. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. XIII. as man. ed. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work." 1 1. Odyssey. it would require "something double. 13. 1988). the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same." 16. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. lacking . Homer. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. what 53-54. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. II. 1984)." "The Truthsayer. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press. 14. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. as god. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. 23. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets. therefore. "Proteus. pp. ." 360-425 and Bacon. trans." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. "The speech Self-Overcoming. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm.
a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is." Having pears by chance. Preface.'' for every is an afterworld." 21. 289." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. In "On the Convalescent" Cf. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. "Fame and Second Sailing. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. however. 27. Unfortunately. therefore. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. . and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. bridge. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. Robespierre. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be. pp. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. on account of his 227).The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18." merely by looking into each other's faces. "All Song. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. 152 and 192. 29. p. 40. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. for the smallest just. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. To every soul belongs another world. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. 36 and 87." also Dancing 4. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. Song. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. above all. vertu' 20." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. namely." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. characterizes world following that terms. Seth Benardete. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone." and 22. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. She power. (Speech of 7 June. 1794)": Daybreak. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. 1990). If both Zarathustra and. p. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. 30. 264). the ill-constituted. 3. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. and The Gay Science. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. therefore. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. Sunrise. 283-85.
the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. xi + 234 pp. 1993). Politics. $49.50 cloth. $19.. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. Tom Rockmore. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. xii + 129 pp. University the Polity. $14.50 Hans Sluga. Vol. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. 1990). Michael E.. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation.. + 306 pp. x + 285 pp.50 paper. greater notoriety. $49. xi + 382 pp. $33.95 paper. $15.. 1997). Caputo. Berel Lang. Philosophy. Zimmerman.95 paper. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. even to the point of at "apologetics. xii + 263 pp.95. 26. 1996). 1 . Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987). $15. Heidegger. 1992). Indeed." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision.95. In this essay.95 paper. Leslie Paul Thiele.. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. No.. MA: Harvard University Press. $47. NY: Cornell University Press. Julian Young. Fall 1998. this century comes to a close.. xv + 232 pp. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. 1993). One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought.Review Essays Heidegger.50 cloth. 1995). $19.
g. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. however. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. Unlike Zimmerman. namely. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. One point example. is . which also exemplifies historical. Although Farias champions this position. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. Rockmore implements criticism. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. Lyotard. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. daeo-Christianity.. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. e. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. of and Derrida. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. As bridge between reject discover. In order to discern this tendency. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. politics." in Heidegger's Crisis. for example. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. In the process. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. Given this historical archaeology. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought.
the Polity. hence. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. Philosophy. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. Even been prior to Farias' book. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment.. then practical concerns. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . e. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger.g. The Farias' effect of revelations. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. inquiry. ethics. This work. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. already the publication of his magnum opus. he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. raises. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. Caputo. As Zimmerman. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. We Thiele's Timely Meditations. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. however. indeed. Nazism. As poignant as revelations were. II.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. Being and Time (1927). of ethics and politics. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's.Heidegger. In this work. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history.
and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. pp. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism. the our need to day. 84). spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves.' he did not mean rational calculation. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. and the end of metaphysics. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration." nature. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis.e.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. . the which unique forgetting of being. That is. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. On the surface. As Zimmerman emphasizes. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. By 'thinking. of "enframing. is of political which things. but the of technology. i. As Zimmerman states: . technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge.. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. Interpretation .124 '. but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology. Heideg instruments of technology. xxiii-ix) Jews.
it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. On the one hand. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. but instead blood and instinct. Unfortunately. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. 127). .Heidegger. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. 84) In the end. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. . philosophy and politics. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. (P. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. harmony from strife. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. that is. Consider Heidegger's . a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. what the Polity. conflict and resolution. Holderlin. frenzy and violence. As reactionary modernists. domination humanity and nature. recast Going forward. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. p. translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. Not surprisingly. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero.
To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. the categories of tenderness. Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. charity. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. including care. love.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. 73). Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. and heroism. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. As Caputo indicates. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism." community. (Lowith. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. love otherwise absent facticity. Ironically. Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin).g. who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. According to Caputo. become 68). In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger. we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). and temporality. . self-affirmation. the scandalous comparison culture . . thinker. Caputo. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. . in must emerge "singular. truth. e. "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. 207). Only by possible a shepherd. . in his stark concept of Dasein. the dissident (Derrida). baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. 72)." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. . The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology.
stance. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. however. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought. Philosophy. and that. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933. 54). as Nazism. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. National or no important. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions." Heidegger's philosophy (e. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism. Rockmore. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience.g. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. This distinction becomes important. there is no. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. III. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. Because Rockmore way. roughly speaking. the Polity. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. link (p. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p. . 74). 54). In Heidegger.. "What I call the 'official' view students. for Rockmore "hero.Heidegger. namely.
in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. Lang ger history (pp. What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . . the professional and the thesis (p. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. In Heidegger's Crisis. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. insofar as the and then. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. but the intellectual others. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect. In Heidegger's Silence. philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. 100-101). philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. the public and occasional" the private. 5). the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. Ironically. Of course. The "tragic question then becomes. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. freedom and necessity. of illumination and blindness. 5-8).
And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong. Mill and Kant. 245-48). link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. And ger's while one may try vision. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. 19). action. be translated into any specific may For example. a process occurs. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. 22). he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers.g. it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. and the possibility of law. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability. for most critics construe these . Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. community. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism.Heidegger. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. an opportunism "timely. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel.. setting institutions the decline. IV. Indeed. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis." forged through the will. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. but what extent a political crises of of the political. in the 1930's. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties.
. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. e. in order that one to the dilemma in question. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality. vious. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). his commitment to National Socialism. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. it would a type of action irrecon (p. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things.g.). in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung). a Heideggerian politics must confront." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being. 35 ff. factic plane. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. however. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. While this most problematic. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. alien to all reduction to the uniform. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin. As our discussion of the previous . hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. In many respects.
But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. 38-41). 79). Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. 41). Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. which claims In ogy. a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. In Heidegger. 125). Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. Young. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. Moreover.Heidegger. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. Young argues that Heideg for the other. 104). Rockmore. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. instead. but Wolin. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. books the Polity. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. Farias. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. 50). When joined Young's solicitude. at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. if it does their objections. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. provides According to Dallmayr. in regime. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Philosophy. Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida.
the nexus of politics. however. if government as fully we articulated. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. the between logos and community. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. namely. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling." Correlatively. What Heidegger recognizes. In words." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. 198). "tolerance" namely. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. language. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. is that the power which permits political participation. that is. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. facets as as Thiele indi cates. As Thiele emphasizes.. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. As Arendt suggests. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. Western democracy. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. that moral emphasis on can (pp. of light the opera Thus. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which. namely.g. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. In this way a community develops. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. 48-49). 81-83). Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. p. e.
where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. it Sluga. another the Polity. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal.Heidegger. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. 86-100. Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. . Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. Literally. 292). but rather is the "openness" beliefs. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. 5-12. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. means or "place in on such opposition. ." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely.) is iconoclastic. and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. controversial. challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. 60-63). censorship. politics. but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. While Yet. p. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. 128). thrives within a polis the greatest importance. The arbitrary. the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. philosophy flourish only it is . even solicitous of. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. . will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. 16). 167).
Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. when such a pp. The Other Heidegger. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. Ed. 1990. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. 1962. Trans. Trans. In this spirit. . "jews. Mark. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. 1 (1991): 1-611. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. Jean-Francois. Bourdieu. Emil. 1 (1995): 111-86. Trans. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. New Haven: University Press. no. Andre Michel. 35). 2.. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. Richard Wolin. Silence. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. 1991. Johannes. Trans. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. 1993. Phil Temple University Press. University Press. Miguel. Pascal. 33. Peter Collier. 1975. George. John. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. Palo Alto.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom. Jean T. 1958. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. Perhaps this time think." Time Journal 14. no. Pierre. Karl.' Assertion of the German University. Heidegger the Trans." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. Marcus (ed. but. Hannah. The Human Condition. GA 31." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism. New York: World Publishing. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. 1981. 1998. GA 24. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Political. Dallmayr. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Victor. and Farias. Truth. CA: Stanford University Press. Heidegger. Lisa Harries. 1989." Gary Steiner. " Lyotard. Fred. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Ithaca. 1982. NY: Cornell David. Wilde William Kluback. New York: Paragon Press. Heidegger. 1958. no. Martin. philosophy of its task. Kovacs. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. 1990. on the words responds to this contrary. "On Heidegger's Lowith. Kettering. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. Blitz." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. 15. de Beistegui. and 1995. and Gunther Neske. Heidegger and University Press. London: Routledge.
Christine-Marie Gros. Rumor of the Hidden King. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics. On ington: Indiana 30-35. 1992). 1994. "Heidegger's Catholic 69." 1996. Dallery. Hugo. 1998. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. Nazi. Bloom University Press. Trans. "A Normal pp. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. 1992. on Free Speech. Heidegger Jaspers.Heidegger. Safranski." Philosophical Writings. Petzet. Zimmerman. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. 24. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. ed. Chicago: Politics." Scott." . London: Fontana. Blunden. 1. Heinrich Wiegand. Schurmann. no. the Polity. The Politics of Being. "Resoluteness Ambiguity. no. Van Buren.. no. Origins. eds. Riidiger. no. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. 1996. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. Albany: SUNY Press. 11-24. 1987. Common Good. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Pp. Olson. and and Philosophical Forum 25. Socialism. "Heidegger's Truth eds. Michael E. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. William J. The New York Review of Books. and Ethics Schalow. NJ: Humanities Press International. 1994." University of Chicago H. no. Thought. John. Trans. Sherover." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. 1989. 4 (1989): 340-55. Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. Roberts. A. Charles. and Alan Rosenberg. Reiner. Alan. Freedom. Intro. Alan M. Encounters Parvis Emad. by and Kenneth Maly. and Danger. Thomas. Trans. 2 (1995): 137-53. and the January 14. Philadelphia: Temple University Press." "A Question Socialism. Richard. Ewald Osers. 4 (1997): 554-62. Frank. Charles E. Quarterly Ott. Richardson. 1990. 1990. Scott. Trans." Holocaust. Albany: SUNY Press. Time. and In A. C. Press. Sheehan. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. Heidegger and lands. New York: Columbia University Press. "Heidegger 27-38. 1993. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 2 (1993): 121-39. no.
On the other hand. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. 1 . Public $22.. Vol. Michael Walzer. Sandel. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism. Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. 26. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. why it excludes. $16.95. 1996). 1995). xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. The Pluralist Game: Pluralism. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. + 126 pp. 1997). Liberalism and (Lanham. Within sketches larger pictures the good society.50. University Press. possess. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. Fall second book.. The Pluralist Game. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. Rawls's Political Liberalism). No. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. $24. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. Three recent works do both.95. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness. indeed could not. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. Like other pluralisms.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. Francis Canavan. inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not.. but what it excludes. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp.
ex policy unavoidably express Hence. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. Naturally. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. In Canavan's account. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. but or not limited to. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments. Law society. pluralism and toleration. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. however conflictual. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness. 76). lost unity of shared. norms by privileging the autonomous individual. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . In Canavan's account. Earlier American pluralism.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. As Canavan clearly perceives. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. indeed impossi ble. and the relations between economy and polity. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. The categories overlap.
but without developing the point at any length. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision. their best. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. hospi tals and social services were injured. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. schools. to public Canavan notes. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. it displaced institutions. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. Canavan particular. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. liberalism. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). These institutions. Understood in individualist terms. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. individ liberty. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. Yet of the three volumes. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. had helped to flesh out religious community life. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment.
Protestants and devout Jews. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. On the other hand. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. Groups with spiritual. so vision ought Canavan argues. on pain of contradiction. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus.. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. to join in the struggle. things look neutrality. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. social services. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. to make room for such groups in education. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. If anything. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . to flourish. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. the state should reduce its direct etc. cultural. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. always reflects some moral vision.
both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. or even citizen obligation. for Sandel and the republican tradition. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. ing of Again. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. They natu common affairs. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. with others about what is true any or good. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. Consequently. When they tion. this asocial render human good is misleading. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. People are born for citizenship. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. others' based have chosen them. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. As Sandel notes. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. and this goal has American public policy. the freedom tive. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. religious duties. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. to a solution to these problems. for instance. of citizens In the liberal conception. since these all require description of the self.Whose Pluralism? 141 family. community. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural.
In principle." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. So Sandel pluralism. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. Or we could relativize the value of respect. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p. and His alternative version the self. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. prochoice their views for public purposes. We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. a contradiction. In both cases. they express. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. judg Using the legal example of abortion. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. As Sandel correctly argues. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. moral. community. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. not their simple capacity to choose something . and promoting. regarding toleration. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. 20). respect not follow.
Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. 90). and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. Arguably. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. in general. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. Presumably. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. Sandel's order. than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. That is. Sandel replies. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. With Sandel. or even malicious. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility. Indeed. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. be Canavan suggests. the same could be said about his ily law. in the nature of (p. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. To with a return Sandel's abortion example.
" wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. Walzer here in the secondary associations. according to Walzer. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. this is an omission which pluralism. Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. is right say) tradition. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. To his credit. With Sandel. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. 77). Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question.144 Interpretation societies. . Canavan. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). of and others. Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. . common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian. since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. with early roots in Protestant and English history. so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. Maclntyre. so he opposes a voucher system. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. (p. Naturally. Religious parties.) Nor can we repair to . for example. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . as an harbor republican hopes. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. 70). In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. together with leaves intact the current crisis. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. and social Where then. ought to be barred from running in elections. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples.
have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good. rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. But reading Sandel." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus. . and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. Altogether then. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces.
Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. . previously unknown writings and letters. The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. (1921). politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). and others published here for the first time.-). Jacobis (1929). Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937). more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. XIV. Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). B. Testament Spinozas (1932).-). and Lowith. cloth with English) many important.. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. in the original languages (German English).i VERLAG J. XXXIV. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. among Wissenschaft writings. Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926). Gerhard Kriiger. H. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. Jacob In addition.. Gershom Scholem. 434 pp. French. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930). cloth with dust jacket. Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. 1933-1935). METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937.
The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined.80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1).00). edition are approx.de . ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English). The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes. $10. Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ. the be sent as they appear. ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx. published here for the first time in its entirety in this form.80 (approx. $53.00 each). The prices of the 2. volumes should (approx. DM 16. Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. $46. Name . Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns. .. current list price. (approx. Each volume may be purchased separately. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss. $5300).00). 66 pp.B. Dept. The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings. Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996. The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy. your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library. subscribe by your university 1. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price.metzler. ? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss.Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations.
Zuckert Here Michael Zuckert philosophy that propos es a new view of the political lay behind the founding of the United States.." drawing Thomas L. for this is reinterpreta one of those rare at once scholarly achievements. paperback scholarship Zuckert and vast a work of careful lican ideas recounts came to By illustrating be blended.New in "This is erudition. The Journal ofAmerican History 'hf-UitlKllS Natural Rights and the New Republicanism Michael P.95 ISBN 0-691-05970-5 Princeton AT FINE BOOKSTORES OR CALL 800-777-4726 University Press HTTP: //PUP. how Lockean and repub forcefully the origins of the American republic.'' Richard Vernier. .PRINCETON. historical of "This exemplary work of reconstruction dramati our understand cally transforms ing the genealogy of early American political thought.EDU . No one who deals with the eigh teenth-century Anglo-American political avoid tradition will be able to the unsettling challenge of original and painstak Zuckert's ingly documented tion. and William Mary Quarterly Paper $18. Pangle. that forces all of us back to the boards.. capacious and meticulous.
All conference sessions will please call be held The New School. Sidney Mintz. its of importance.edu Further details coming to the World Wide Web soon! http://www. the ceremonies surrounding mythic and symbolic and it. This conference a brings together scholars and scientists as well as about policy in linking discourse the significant hunger. culture and political economy food in an effort elicit new perspectives on abundance. Keep checking for a link at . Marc Shell. 1998 What and we eat. David Pimental.newschool. Kenneth Prewitt (Moderator) This conference is organized by Arien Mack. problems created by scarcity 1: Everyday Life: Food life as a major 4: Food not as Symbol or Sign: Food is as component of only what we eat but figures Kirshenblatt-Gimblett.NATURE AND CULTURE A Social Research Conference November 5-7. Per Pinstrup- Andersen. Marion Nestle. Aristide Zolberg (Moderator) 2: Case Histories: ways Barbara a symbol in most religions and as a marker of identity and difference Maurice Bloch. Anne Murcott. (21 2) 229-2488 socres@newschool. Theodore Zeldin.edu/socres/food. Paul Rozin. Wendy Doniger. the fear famine makers with deprivation forum all are occasions reflections on the human condition. Robert Herdt (Moderator) 7: The Future: Prospects for the global availability of food and ways to increase it Gordon Conway. the joy of plenty. and important way foods have emerged. John Hollander (Moderator) 6: Abundance and 3: Key Note Addresses Scarcity: equal Sustainable Agriculture: Ismail Serageldin Food and Access to food is far from Culture: Margaret Visser Richard Goldman. or e-mail For more information and reservations. Leonard Barkan. of diet and food to and security the history. how food for marks our sameness differences. Barbara Examining the Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Moderator) 5: Food in Art/ Food as Art: Food is both an object of art and a medium in which migrated. been assimilated is an of understanding our histories William McNeill. Robert Adams (Moderator) for artistic expression Betty Fussell. at editor of Social Research. Raymond Sokolov. Steven Heller.
S. -a o PC fo a -a o CO 2 o 3 "I 3 o 3 O < CO a r 21 rra *> o m c3 CO .A. 11367-1597 U. Inc. Queens College Rushing N.ISSN 0020-9635 Interpretation.Y.