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OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Chapters 39-42 65
Socratic Eros in Plato's
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol
the Twofold Presentation of the
Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
Hilail Gildin, Dept.
Philosophy, Queens College
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Robert D. Sacks
The Significance The Book
in Genesis 1-11
Socratic Eros in Plato's 65
Revolution in Burke's Letter to the 77
Sheriffs of Bristol Steven
the Twofold Presentation of the Will
to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke
Frank Schalow Bruce W. Ballard
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antitechnical. 26. failing to note that in each instance there are redeeming features. and it prejudges the motives of the characters in all three cases. Second. Why this? One finds in the traditional commentaries a number of overlapping themes. the city is associated with improper aspirations toward human greatness or even human divinization. No. or even defy. divine or conventional. was was often sur prisingly antiurban. few the pride or hubris desires to compete with. of the effort they are making is indeed narrator. the city and tower with its top in the heavens. interpretation.The Significance of the City in Genesis 1-11 Cameron Wybrow McMaster Divinity College where The city is mentioned in three episodes in Genesis 1-11: in Genesis 4. It improperly fuses the characters and accomplish life ments of Cain. in which the unified human race attempts to build Babel. although intent. for the actions of is that the failure to read the text carefully does damage to the one major point on which the traditional interpreters I will seem to be correct: the unacceptability of the Babel project. herds Nimrod. not paying enough attention to the different contexts in these characters appear. and in Genesis 1 1. where it is stated that Nimrod ruled over (and possibly built) cities. the Babel-builders. the Lord God. in Genesis 10. has not yet made among inroads into the human men at a time heart. man. with superfluous and which arts. Traditional exegesis of these stories. it makes funda mental interpretive errors. the city is connected with land ownership. Vol. in light the Babel project. second or at least reasonable those characters. in its urge to theory moralize about the lives and motives of the early city-builders. the Babel-builders are not evil in condemned For. from the to be political-theological perspective of the Biblical Finally. as a per Nimrod's kingdom of cities understood as a tyranny but fectly when reasonable attempt to establish a political ordering law. it is said that Cain (or possibly his son Enoch) built the first city. the city is impious in their intentions: Cain. that of the nomadic Third. those who are supposed to be First. Nimrod. The first is that much of traditional pious exegesis of Genesis 1-11 fails in its very reasonable task elaboration of a moral or political of urban because. I is wish not to argue that. associated with and antipolitical. Jewish and Christian. Finally. Fall 1998. and the which Babel-builders. the the In this paper I wish to make three arguments. and thus opposed to an allegedly purer form of life. The thing I wish to argue excuses. 1 . as argue. the city is associated with the complexity and sophistication of a of which are number of necessary for survival and many of which are possibly morally dangerous.
A. they Eve and the angel of produce much good. With this rather unauspicious head start in life. Noting that unlike his Genesis 5 counterpart Seth. THE CRITIQUE OF THE CITY IN TRADITIONAL EXEGESIS The traditional commentaries on Genesis are only enough to Genesis Rabbah. if the quality is acceptable. Nimrod and the will Babel-builders in show some representative premodern commentaries. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. is not said to have been born after Adam's (hence conclude that he is actually the offspring of death Sammael. different are all trying to blur the differences and notes).2 kills the son truly in God's image. of the Next. legion. Cain's very birth is suspect. In fus ing (they own. This is why he becomes a murderer and Abel. he offers (according to some of the rabbis) the samples of inferior his produce. his religious performance is faulty. Traditional One Hostility with Toward Cain and His Line must begin Cain.3 or. the an which founding of the city. I will propose my own tentative account of the Bible's moral-political evaluation of the city.1 His motives and his spiritual and the spiritual character of with his descendants. has had abuse upon by scores of Jewish and interpreters for at least two millennia. 4. I have used tateuch. have all been impugned. When he sacri Lord (Gen. anti- I have constructed kind I of composite account of the technical. This negative portrayal of Cain colors the event with he is associated. Cain. Augustine's these City of God. a and Calvin's Commentary on the Pen Commentary on Genesis. between them properly distinguished in the text tendencies of establish some general but merely trying to which I can set my against interpretation. Cain. Fi by nally. 1. I the inadequacy handling with of the political themes interpreters' traditional remarks the fine details of comparing the the Biblical text. that is. Out of antiurban. and establishes among interpreters recorded antiurban.4 I Interpretation will proceed in the be following manner.3-5). according to some of the rabbis. heaped who is traditionally him credited with founding Christian character. fices to the most Thus. the first city. often little basis in the text. Cain cannot be expected to God's) image. and I have consulted Specifically. . I will present the political themes which can gleaned from the discussion of Cain. Abravanel's reveal some representative tendencies. antipolitical tendencies of commentaries am not the Jewish and Christian traditions. in which those city-builders later in Genesis 1-11 get a (especially Nimrod and the Babel-builders) will find it hard to fair hearing. the refuse. First. antipolitical atmosphere.
we fundamental difference I over the worth of settled agricultural life. some rabbis say that he. and do not hesitate to invent facts in order to condemn them. 8. "wicked" "house" building of a city.The he gives City in Genesis 5 paltry amount after finishing most of it off himself (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 2. and Lamech are all said vol. (City of God. Jacob. Mehujael. that human society which seeks only earthly felicity and denies our supernatural end (City of God. Augustine. Those interpreters. 5. 153). but with his hy pocrisy. One became a murderer. and David." therefore became a tiller of the "natural" whereas Abel was satisfied with the Abel. Augustine. Calvin Cain's choice of occupation as a tiller of the grants that this occupation can be laudable and holy.4 The traditional do not commentators are a condemn little lighter on Cain in one respect: they and ground unanimously (4. Augustine sees the city which Cain builds as an allegory of the City of Man. 255). however. was the proto type of all the great prophets and leaders of Israel. (without etymological argument) to of mean sexual "rebellion" (Genesis Rabbah. says bluntly "Cain. absent from the Biblical text. says Abravanel. vol. 256). like other hoped to have immortality through a (presumably. This activ fundamental difference allows room which for a more positive view of Cain's ities and intentions. his son Enoch) which would live forever (Genesis Rabbah. explaining that "Cain also chose to engage in artful things and ground. God intended with us. XV. 21). Abravanel sheds light on the rabbinic hostility Cain's farming simpler. Isaac. 1. technical to run away which occupation represents the perennial nonluxurious human ten dency from the simple. 192). ruthless The commentators are regarding Cain's descendants. life into a sophisticated. Calvin on the other. dience for Rabbah see a Contrasting sufficiency and obe Abravanel and the Genesis and life of on one hand Rabbi Eliezer. 21). Cain's leper" occupa no good came of a (Genesis to Rabbah. Augustine takes great pleasure in repeat About Cain's edly noting that the line murderers. that with which originated the earthly city began and ended with is. and Cain Lamech Metusael. 8. Cain's tion: p. such as Augustine and Calvin. his city and people. Noah. who were themselves shep herds: Abraham. 1. another a drunkard. p. finding nothing wrong with Cain's sacrifice. p. 17. 29). 1. Rabbi Eliezer of allows The Genesis Rabbah. vol. who only a are not nature of vin willing to supplement the Genesis story quite so blatantly regarding the Cain's offerings. Augustine says nothing negative. XV.5 Cain's desire to settle down more of a shepherd. and them. Cain practised a purely external religion and did not really serve God in his heart. career. declares that Cain's other activities (unmentioned in the Biblical text) must have been evil. The names of Irad.5. that it in fact can be interpreted as commanded by God in Genesis 1 and and 2 (Calvin.2). another choice. The details Lamech's mistreatment of his wives. p. to will return later. p. supplement it equally regarding Cain's motives. are supplied by the . Moses. and Uzziah lusted after the ground. Cal declares that there was nothing wrong with Cain's grain.
far as we can tell from Genesis 4. his offering to God was shoddy of farming is judged ambivalently. duced Seth's line into waywardness. Calvin refuses to condemn 257). Abravanel argues that the were destruction which prevailed which before the Flood directly linked to the p. with political life) fall under a dark shadow. 217-22). Naamah. In Calvin these "sons of are Augustine virtually and Calvin the Cainite self-conscious that they are the Church (Calvin. if not being the "sons of God" completely evil. he affirms the vileness of Lamech's polygamy and waxes eloquent about Lamech's cruelty and inhumanity (ibid. either by the introduction by their desire for He and city which wealth. the op for him the arts are goods. 160). They eyes. In sum. Cain's daughters went painted tempting the angels to fall. the former being. sang and played in honor of idols (ibid. like beasts. his female descendants seduced the only godly people into his line have few if any redeeming features.). his male descendants increased the level of weapons or lence in the world.). creating the universal degeneration which lines' being wiped out by the Flood (City of God. flagrantly about violated the naked with rules concerning incest (p. Calvin. his founding or even of and/or of a insincere.22. In who se women are the "daughters men" justified both pp. superfluous sin. Tubal-Cain is mentioned as noted rabbis for his forging of of weapons (which are not provid specifically the metal implements crime Genesis 4. went about stark naked. 2. did not yet exist). Tubal-Cain's given (about whom absolutely no details as are in Genesis). of p. Traditional Hostility Toward Nimrod accounts. 237-40). however. acquisitiveness Cain bequeathed to his descendants (Abravanel. and gifts from God (Calvin. Like the rabbis. the latter who lived more virtuously. His birth is suspect. pp. 238). and all its connections (with the arts. the he founded.). violence and In a more analytical vein. In general. Nimrod fares only slightly better than Cain in traditional "beginning" He liter actions ally cannot even make a onto the Biblical stage without his . Cain's line is uniformly contrasted unfavorably with Seth's line. it can be said that Cain does not have a very good public image. these unions produced the wicked giants who were wiped out in the Flood (pp. view. 160-62).6 Interpretation (ibid. they did not need God (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. and because of this. God" at least more carnal in their interests. and 159). Taking posite the Cain line on such grounds.) (which. Such is the picture which traditional exegesis of Genesis 4 tends to yield. Cain's generation were sinners and rebels who thought p. with human law making. his taking up an act of city is vainglory of vio defiance of God. XV. Calvin notes the wickedness of the atmosphere in which the arts arise.22). thus more ing a way for his ancestor Cain's sister to be perpetrated efficiently (ibid.
2. In this attempt. 175). mighty and thus they can liberally 'rebelled' when he was a one in the earth" (Genesis Rabbah. Second. tried to kill Abraham he was young. Calvin tells He further argues that the statement that Nimrod was a the Lord (Genesis Lord. p. Since Nimrod is a slave. is reminiscent of the other hunter in Genesis." earth. who 4. vol. he Genesis Rabbah." the rabbis feel justified in translate: "Nimrod vol.). to "rebel" in their calling upon the name of the Lord. when in fact he did it by wearing the magical coats of animal skin which God had given to Adam and Eve when he put them out of was a great They Eden. they supply other examples of wicked people things. in Genesis Rabbah. of course. as master of the pagan lands out of which when Abraham came. 317). ants same Obviously. against the order of things that he should a king (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. 260). There is other evidence that Nimrod. it is p. Augustine tells us that Nimrod. Another thing which counts against rule Nimrod is his be being a grandson of Ham.The City in Genesis 7 being be a condemned. but mention rather. too. 60-61). p. so negatively. in must company whose as the Cainites and their offspring. that is." who "begin" upon the name of the Lord. "beginning" is is verb. being a mighty hunter. Finally. who. First. tyranny (Calvin. Nimrod is lived until evil the time of because. being a a beast than a human he was also the originator of more like being. in later Jewish literature (Neusner tells us) he oppressive power of us that "hunter.9) means that Nimrod was a rebel (City of God. pp. oppressor. is a deceiver. From the sense "pro fane. instead of "beginning" to multiply upon the earth. p. "began" 2. 2. XVI. as the-verb "to (halal). the ancestor of Israel. some of the rabbis do say he fooled people into thinking he could cow fierce beasts. if it mighty hunter before the mighty hunter "against" seems bad enough for not Nimrod that his even grant hunting is interpreted hunter. In case anyone should think the rabbis are stretching the meaning too much. like all hunters. 38). is bad for two reasons. was miraculously thwarted (Pirke vol. he a 10. and destroyer of earth-bom creatures (City of God. here found in the hiphil form. which is the normal meaning of the piel form of the same root. p. 420-21. was obviously a furious Nimrod. XVI. he was the foe of his brother Jacob. Nimrod. deriving all wicked things. be evil. and they the evil men of pre-Flood "rebelled" days. however. and hence were actually They mention the people of in not Genesis 4. to degenerating calling "rebelling. although it is not mentioned in Scripture. Esau.4). 174). he Abraham.26 are said. such evil to multiply upon the earth and the pre-Flood gi announced with the (ibid. Nimrod the city-builder evil. who was consigned to slavery by Noah in Genesis 9. which is what persuaded people to let him them. Thus. 3). Esau. his claim to might." sym bolizes the Rome (Jacob Neusner. . pp. was based on a sham (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Genesis 10.8 reads: "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to begin" profane" Genesis Rabbah interprets the verb "to mighty one in the (halal). de Rabbi Eliezer. and. man. And.
being settling and building in "settled. Calvin Calvin. therefore. as in the case of Cain. God's people do not rest con move. 11. scale Olympus and dethrone Jove in pagan mythology (City of God. "this they are rebelling to (Genesis Rabbah. 2. p. the Babel-builders are reminiscent . which p. to displace him. which is often assumed to chapters are be the city discussed in Genesis 1 1 Thus." are "rebels. and. There is odious reason to question the connection out between Nimrod and Babel. 49-50). and the is condemned because it was the brainchild of Nimrod. sinfulness of He the cruel godlessness of pride and the pagan empires. (Genesis Rabbah. which. 324). right motives. like Nimrod. 2. heavens. a city. Nimrod becomes Babel project due to responsibility for the Babel project. "Settling" is moti vol. according to Genesis 10. again. like Abraham. pp.8 Interpretation Nimrod. the the Ham line. with the upper part. bad scent. needless to say. in an summary. want 2.4. The rabbis object that in Genesis 11. In any case. as one might expect. Why is their act a rebellion? They are trying to build a tower says: with because in Genesis 6 God its top in the heavens. They they being given the earth. the purpose of this section is to discuss the faults of the Babel-builders insofar as they can be discerned without reference to Nimrod. 260). Both their deeds and their motives are entirely wicked. . it is said in Genesis 10 that Nimrod founded a city called Babel. the two intertwined in traditional commentary. he was often assumed to have been not Although the Biblical text does to do with the Babel project of its initiator. The tradition uniformly condemns the builders at Babel. was the area of his king dom. First. the lower part of the world. 2. p. and vol. for idol They filled the sin of pride. do.2 they decide to vated by Satan (Genesis Rabbah. is repudiated by much of the tradition because he represents was impious rebel against God and tyrannical over mankind. His city." but are on the 50). 1. too (Genesis Rabbah. XVI. Second. to make a "name" themselves (Gen. tent "settle" in the land of Shinar.4). the plain on which Babel was erected was in the land of Shinar. Augustine insists their pride impiety and their foolishness thinking that a tower of any height could ever challenge concurs with the others that the story is about like that of the giants who tried to pile Pelion on Ossa to God-defying pride. at signifies also that they made an on 261. takes on a associated with and his kingdom. the Lord. The Babel-builders. There are other flaws in the Babel-builders' motives. probably vol. vol. could hardly him have Urban life. means. as I will point later. vol. for two reasons. Isaac. 3. Traditional Hostility Toward the Babel-Builders explicitly state that Nimrod had anything Genesis 1 1. 51)." "and this they begin to which. worldly glory been founded with the set against righteousness. for they p. they are not satisfied with want the are are trying to challenge God. do" translated into rabbinic. and Jacob. In p.
The the city. hunting. The arts come from the children of vengeful bigamist Lamech.3-4 ("let brick. political which go with cooperation. which willing to supply motives which are recorded. sinners. Cain being rejected in favor first of Abel. It is their politics as much as their materialism that is at fault. They are from the wrong lines. or rebels against God. The city cannot provide for security against death. in criticizing the Babel-builders. thinking to build structures which will keep their names alive forever. the art of bringing people together to build a decent civil order. Nimrod. is grounded in folly. they God's murderers. the arts. is ated. that to urban the Babel-builders that wanted not only superfluity (his usual objection life) but social people they thought that political organization was the highest form of life. rejection of God. Ruling comes from Nimrod. The city-builders of Genesis 1-11 all have unsavory are They or are fugitives from God ters. and even actions appropriate moral of each This might not be a bad procedure. apparently picking up on the language a of mutual exhortation in 11. in order to establish the stated. More generally. CRITICISM OF THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE CITY One upon of the first things that and the traditionalists' strikes us when we read the assault Cain. then of Seth. the human beings who are desire to build is unnecessary. then. They story. only God can do these things. and the rule of with human beings by others. are quite are not Babel-builders is how much not they add to the text. are proud. is inferior to the way of the Politics. B. are equally stained by association the wrong sort of people. At best it is a necessary evil in a fallen world. Nimrod being things some part of the Ham line which Noah subjects to Shem and Japheth." us make "let build city"). desire of walking away from God rather than with him. idola They wish to build a settled and secure life or even against wishes.The of City us in Genesis 9 the godless Cain. if the materials they supplied were . it cannot give one immortal life or even an immortal name. heir of a slave. 4. The city. not rendered suspect by the fact that the first is people to be political cooper to build a better cities life. but to conspire against and a God. Abravanel argues. says Abravanel. which. being Esau's way. Abravanel thus. Summary of the Traditional Critique of the City associations. God's do not need the political life of the city. without God's help by They purely human means. at worst it is temptation to idolatry. who defined man as a political animal. manages to slip in the moral that the way of Torah is higher than the way of the Greeks. and is associated with the violence of patriarchs. and tyranny over others.
to Nimrod's connection with and associations upon Ham. more relevant interest. and other are facts simply do not fit into the antiurban picture. to the connection between Abraham left the eastern world ruled Nimrod. again might not be bad in itself. to the fact that Nimrod to the similarity is reminiscent of the evil "mighty "men of men" wiped out name" in the Flood." they ask us to accept too much on faith. point." but also the idiosyncratic "profaning" equation of with "rebel word Again. Among the following: Augustine's claim that Nimrod was a hunter is considered who "against even God" by Calvin. when they assert without philological "idol. they in the Biblical text. believe. to justify their They contrast can indeed appeal to a number of textual details. When material this far from the text is allowed to shape the inter limited to the go characters' pretation of motives and actions. to the connection be tween Nimrod Esau the hunters. they condemn Nimrod for his paganism and his attempt to murder Abraham. but some of fetched.10 Interpretation role of providing plausible explanations for what is recorded. that the real problem of the traditional interpreters deeper. They can point to the parallel between Cain the farmer and and Abel the shepherd. and Babel. far beyond this. Cain's line ended with a murderer is also untrue. for two First. The rule text can mean whatever the interpreters want it to mean. demanding us to allow not only the rendering of the hiphil the claims made are simply too far "profane. Sec that there is ond. between the pre-Flood and the Babel-builders' desire for a name. the errors the traditional interpretation is inadequate. the but the rabbis stretch it beyond the resemblance may be significant. however. if all the etymologies and legendary material were excluded. and so on. however. since Lamech fathers sons who are . We simply have to out much of the legendary material if we think our text of Genesis 1-11 make sense on can its own. which a plenty of loose connections traditional interpretation can be founded. Some of the claims are errors. Another mology noticeable feature is the Jewish This interpreters' fascination with ety and other word play. For example. and would maintain this even reasons. the evil of Cain and the others is axiomatic in the interpretive tradition in to my present which they have been would argue trained. philologically unacceptable by found Nimrod unappealing. and enough reading. to the fact that by Nimrod. The addition of legendary material and the use of verbal tricks are not interpretation. They attribute Cain's birth to the angel They Sammael. The interpreters have already decided that Cain. Augustine's most claim that translators. Shinar. all interpretive control is lost. to the between the violence of Cain and Lamech and the rise of urban life and the arts. Nimrod. There are Nonetheless. and the Babel-builders the reasons for the antiurban are evil." "begin"-"profane" breaking as the "begin" piel ling. they are merely the justifications." reasoning that the "name" in the Babel story all mean can only mean or that the names of Cain's lies descendants I "rebellion. even without the extraneous material.
The rabbis' claim that Nimrod shares the character Canaan. Yet the text is that God did nor not gaze unto Cain and imputed to Cain." Again. too their sheep. They they are by the farmer. he infers it in infers. And settled farmers (like Cain. because he does not keep for its entire life before killing it. Further. The text would seem was suggest that his motive was fear of being killed. Canaan's brother Cush and Cush's son Nimrod are not slavery included in the curse. if God will then. the entire race. the text says that Cain believes he is hidden from God's face. Abravanel. If Israel is not wicked . out of the desire for a name. the city falling to his arrows. is feeble.The not murderers of City in Genesis 11 but inventors. In fact. equally responsible for the that the sin of the Babel-builders was cannot explain of the cities of essentially the why God took desire drastic of action at superfluity that motivated Cain. Babel but not in the case Cain. Augustine all lifestyle. and Asshur in Genesis 4 and 10. For shepherds (like Abel) kill things. tilling it. further. and that the city to protect him. is his sacrifice said supposed his sacrifice. is cursed to in Genesis 9. How. or that he ordered the people him." not help him build "lusting after the laws to a heavenly that ground. runs against of the clear sense of the text in that of Genesis 11. The hunter is the loner. undertook the Babel project on his own. the rabbis rage against Cain for is. could we expect Cain to build anything but a "worldly city. The way of the hunter is thus the settled no more violent toward animal life than that of the shepherd or his prey creation captive farmer. and God does not contradict Cain on this point. Further. no evil motive is to be flawed in either intention or Similarly. not supplementation that Cain's offering is hypocritical. lives away from the city The landed farmer with his rural commu in the marketplace. there is bad reasoning in the traditional pretation of constructions. the hunter is less violent. the shepherd who sells his wool and mutton or in spirit to the city than is the hunter trapper who is self-sufficient. in a parallel manner. and the later Israelites) kill their cattle. Nimrod. are not rounded the association who up in pens of the hunter and with is peculiar. Cain is to to build his city out of vainglory." The interpretation same such is. Then there are the the slave Ham is untrue. The common interpretation that Nimrod to aid all the project. but he does order to wicked derive this from textual evidence. execution. these are nity. hardly closer the model of the political man. but say nothing against Moses who one? prescribes govern Israel's settled agricultural life. The association between simply Then there is the Calvin claims not worked out well hunting by the and city life allegedly intended of the by Genesis is traditionalists. or out of the wish to build a worldly city without God. text with uncharitable motives. Ham's son. which makes "children men. since not Ham but facts that do not fit. rather. His victims enjoy God's before as castrated. that Cain had a says justify God. The inter Augustine and the rabbis that Nimrod must have been unneces sarily violent and tyrannical. because he was a hunter and hunters kill things.
for wanting land exactly
of the what
the pre-Flood men are said to
why is Cain's motive so disreputable? Again, in multiplying upon the earth, but that is
do in Genesis 1.
their attempt at
out at as a rebellion? as motivated
Finally, why is Tubal-Cain's invention by the desire to make swords rather than
Certainly, his father
simply impute such emotions to a son. After all, no one else in the Cain line is said to be violent, and Tubal-Cain's siblings all invent useful or pleasant arts,
not violent ones.
One has to say, then, that the
antiurban trend of thought
of the city-builders and
completely reading of the details of Genesis 1-11. The motives their families are not so clearly evil as supposed. There
and misunderstood rather
among the tradi foundation, is not
Cain is frightened, slighted,
Nimrod in Genesis 10 displays
no wicked motives or
Babel-builders, however wrong their project may be, say nothing at all about defying God. Further, if Nimrod cannot be connected with the Babel project of
Genesis 1 1
would not reflect upon
work, then, to be done if
to articulate a coherent
in Genesis 1-11.
C. THE TEACHING ABOUT THE CITY IN GENESIS 1-11
essay will be a preliminary attempt to give the outlines of the doctrine of Genesis 1-11 on the place of the city in the political life of mankind. I wish to argue that Genesis 1-11 wants us to see the city, and, more
remainder of this
a much more positive
light than the
tradition sometimes suggests.
body am building
interpretation, but in its
I follow here comes, oddly enough, from the more unorthodox moments. For I
upon the work of
Eugene Combs, Kenneth Post, and Robert Sacks, indebted to Midrashic sources such as the Genesis Rabbah.
In the Midrashic writings,
of a a
by less pietistic, more acute of politically way reading Scripture. Combs, Post, and Sacks have devel oped these hints and systematized them to an extent; I wish to pursue their
an account which can
be brought to light
strive to establish
sees the and
to the problem
God is willing
to work with and, under certain
with classification of
trary. Cain cannot know why God pays no
it, but it must be questioned. First, is, from Cain's point of view, arbi attention to it, as God does not say.
his grain, probably
harder than Abel has
tried to obey God's the
to raise his sheep.
apparent commandments. and
God tell Adam to
to till the garden (Gen. 2)? Did not God tell Adam that
from Eden he
land for his food (Gen. 3)? One
He is, in
more qualified applicant who
the job to the boss's nephew, or perhaps to an affirmative action program. As a
victim of apparent which
follows, but it
so perverse as
make out. another nonmalicious account
that God preferred a sacrifice of an animal over that
that the sacrifice of a human
better (Genesis Rabbah,
248-49)? One does
to presume that Cain killed Abel out of anger or
one might argue that
he killed Abel in
Even if this
wicked. what sin
a misguided attempt to please
is discounted, it is
not so clear that
it is true (4.7), but God does not explain Cain any instructions about how to live. In
Genesis 9. That
nothing to anyone about how to live is, God seems to be waiting to see if
man can rule
race will not
his desire, this may be possible. If not, then perhaps the human able to live without law. The fact that Cain is not punished by
that no one else is
is waiting to see what people Lamech's speech in Genesis 4,
any laws before the Flood, suggests that God live like. The violent world presumed by
that God's policy of nonpunishment and
and the utter violence of the pre-Flood genera
described in Genesis 6, has
can grant that
to be the
sorry for it afterward. He engages remaining days in nonviolent ways, wandering, In this
bad deed, but only one, and he seems to be in no more malicious activity and spends his
and procreating. who
his descendant Lamech,
proudly boasts of his killings. Cain says that his sin is too
to be forgiven and expects that everyone
kill him; that is, he assumes, with Hobbes, that everyone is a poten try tial murderer and that there is no safety in the state of nature. Further, he fears
be hidden from God's face, and,
to protect Cain
the assaults of other men,
Perhaps God thinks his
ence, but Cain clearly does
implies his continuing pres God therefore allows Cain to
dwell in the land
mark, is it any
interest to God, and not trusting in God's that Cain builds a city to protect himself? Is the defen
of not a natural course
sive arrangement of a
the state of nature, with no law
the strong to protect them?
Similarly, it is hard
to find blame with Cain's descendants. None of them
son which means
does anything shameful, except for Lamech. Cain's lends his name to the first city. bad
Isaac Friedman has
in fact, it has rather the first city is an be
of a new
Jacques Ellul; 11, 49-61). The founding of life, one which may prove to
the act of a fearful murderer, but perhaps it will end in
something better. And, indeed, the descendants of Enoch, who invent arts which make life more convenient, suggest that this is the case. Even Calvin, who was
hostile to Cain, granted the goodness fact that one of the arts invented, that
prove the text condemns arts
the arts described in Genesis 4. The
can yield weapons
in general; for the text does
not even mention and mu
the other arts which arise at the same time
clearly innocuous. intent here is not to
to have understood God's
his line. Cain clearly did wrong, forgiveness of Cain in the
most perverse possible manner
(i.e., God does
have to do I
omen of the violence to come story. would
before they do it unto us!), appears as an unsavory in Genesis 6. So there are dark spots in the Cain
that the association of the city with violence,
though a genuine theme of
life, in any
ambiguous as a
Genesis 4, is not put in such a way as to force the of its aspects, must be rejected. The city moral and political possibility; neither God nor the
in Genesis 6. When "all
corrupt upon the
earth, much is said of wickedness and violence, but
nothing is said of cities or because the people of the Seth sense,
city, are condemned along with
not connected with urbanism
who are not associated with
Cain's line. The
absence of political structures and of would seem
it is precisely the led to the wickedness. This
by the fact that God gave the first laws after the if to try to avert a repetition of the same wickedness. If we now turn to the cities of Genesis 10, we discover that they emerge in the context of obedience to God's intentions. That context is provided Gene
Flood (Genesis 9.1-7),
to be confirmed
that in Genesis 1 God ordered
Adam to be
the earth. In Genesis 9 Noah takes the place of
fruitful, multiply, and Adam, and is given
13). Nimrod is word have begun his "kingdom" in the first in Shinar.1-7). that populated not merely by individuals but by descent speaking a common tongue and occupy ing a traditional land. and since they too are related. This time. which are life. naming the lands and peoples descending from and Japheth. the "nations. which relied too much on we are innate human told. people need to have some kind of authority set over a tribal or monarchical nature. the between Cain nation. that Nimrod's rule was a One might even argue that. The "king occurring in Genesis for the first time. cities a son of Shem. a slight modification to Genesis 1 . God's command and In this context of obedience to family solidarity. both over Israel and over other nations (cf. in this overspreading. however. Recall that in Genesis 9. the new creation as it were. whenever the tribal or them. we must remember and that that such a form of rule was very common in ancient times. the migrating offspring of Shem. (9. sons of Noah are obedient in the way that the sons of Adam were never said to be: they "overspread" the whole earth overspreading.1-7) to be enforced. without Thus. It also helps maintain concord between stay together. for the laws of God (Gen. suggests in which one will rule over many. either built by or Nimrod in said to dom. therefore. the city arises." Asshur. The next a region called in Shinar. One wicked one. Ham. Thus. must not conclude. the goodness. The familial basis of nations seems to offer the possibility of internal concord within each nation. The new begin ning. is. the race of Adam is being given a second chance at life. Since. Abel.19). In this new creation. amicably dividing the world themselves. those restraining murder and improper diet (9. Genesis 10 documents this family by family.The similar City in Genesis 15 It is as instructions in language that is very strongly reminiscent of Genesis 1. will have a legal dimension absent from the old." earth becomes peoples of common nations. these Nimrod either builds group arises in the east as well. which echoed Genesis 1 generally. families (mishpahoth) Shem. if we are watching a new creation. There is another interpretation. Abimelech in Genesis 20). something is added: God gives the first laws. among Japheth separate violence. If this automatically and a new political ordering suggests ruthless power tyranny to modem ears." for the Biblical statement and Augustine saw this as indicating was savagery and oppression. built by Asshur. in the east. and and seems an improvement on the relationship unit. which had no such structure discernible. 9. an a world organized on the world by the new political seems to be improvement before the Flood. The first cities are or comes to rule. that We may now be able to fathom the Calvin Nimrod was a "mighty hunter. The Bible acknowledges that good kings can exist. The peacefulness of the process reminds one of the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. the Biblical narrator would not auto matically have assumed such a rule to be evil. whether of The Bible may be suggesting that kingship arises national structures are felt to be inadequate to enforce the the barest minimum for a decent social reason Noachide laws. they occupy it as they were meant to. Ham.
then. Their sins cannot be imputed to him on the strength Thus. how to be a "hunter. condemn be evil.16 Interpretation God does dread" made. unlike Lamech's. men ruling men). but the text attempt be God's recommended least not for his own chosen people nowhere indicates that kingship is an illegitimate permis- to maintain order and justice in human life. in fact. Genesis 9 to him to be person carnivorous.9). first hunter. but those men were characterized by neither hunting hunting. the first have taken advantage of the new bequest God has "might" given. The new world contains harsh (men killing animals. but multiple vengeance driven by unre (mamlakhah) introduces into the world more stable and orderly. Kings may (I Samuel 8). one must conclude that cannot as such. and that Nimrod's hunting is not in itself a his cities. we must ing was Lamech's. Finally. Nimrod does not boast about himself. and as did Lamech (4. but his literally and hence the most striking excellence. of a any more. at hunting makes He may not have been him the hunter par example of the new. may not be pretty.4) or the Babel (1 1. I represents a political would argue.23-24). the text is which teaching at that the rise of Nimrod possibility is new and. "mighty" being "mighty" a hunter. vulnerability to random killing). Nimrod does not name any cities after himself or after not attribute as "name" does his son. For these reasons. One can grant that a king may become a one must also grant that a king can establish the rule of law. but it is perhaps less harsh than the pre-Flood world.17). Genesis 1 allows implicitly taught that man was to be vegetarian.8) and before the Lord (10. I would suggest. but it is less it has possibilities for something desperate. at overspread the earth at least potentially. In this context. city building. but human for up as prey beings. from the above discussion. In important respects. basis to nor of an adjective alone. strained passion. which consisted rule in Nimrod's prescribes moderate and measured punishments. but it is others who note his greatness on the earth (10. note that which the only version of law and order hitherto obtain something tyrant." can one fault Nimrod? He is person said the first in the text said that is. by God's . in which other forms of suffering must have been prevalent (starvation after crop failure. Nimrod became famous. Nimrod.4). At God's com the rule of mand are ruled not by kings. least some of the nations which legitimately source. new order higher than the Note Nimrod does also that the text not seek a builders of any motive of vanity to Nimrod. God-sanctioned It is true that Nimrod. did the mighty men of old (6. good. The likely to make men hopeless or pre-Flood world. may remind us of the wicked men before the Flood. kings are one possible source of law. Nimrod and his city compare favorably with the Cain line and its city and the Babel-builders their city. not speak of upon the "dominion" over the animals which are now given "fear and animals. as did Cain (4. that the rule of a hunter may symbolize the over urban civilization improvements elements of the new world over the old. and so did his empire. the order of creation.
be was afraid of safe. that is. united brotherly love. It "scattered. the language of unity and solidarity (Combs and "rules" Post. the descendants of Flood. Regarding this story. Rather. and in what respects their ambitions legitimate. their fear of being a inward-looking attitude. among these Combs and Post point out. in the Babel there features grant. it to be a certain un populating. as of (11. in a its top in the heavens. Finally. process. No one people (which is why I would con- .5). This desire runs counter to God's all and commandments of want Genesis 1 to build upward. something.28). if it and was a sin.4). p. is. to the motives of the will builders which the traditional exegesis redeeming does not the I my discussion by showing exactly in what respects Babel-builders are are condemned point by I the text. I think. They one spot. He. close even antiurban exegesis. The "sons men" Noah. God wants them to move outward. They heavenward (11. seems to have nothing to do seems storming heaven defying God. speaking one language. I certain turn to the Babel story. in one place. aim spreading master to many spots. scattered. The 11. Babel-builders is. instead of a multitude of warring of the nations? What is wrong as with the wish of the Babel- builders? To think this The language out requires some care. and Augustine. The with sin of the Babel-builders. the Babel-builders' adventure of mastering. like Cain's. kind people of Babel do to not wish to be "scattered" upon the earth (Gen. turns his prowess toward the ruling of peoples. but it is not to be so lightly condemned as it the rabbis. too. wants them to the earth (1." is only fitting. The "sons ratively) of reproducing and nonviolently occupying the earth." of perhaps educated obey God. The their cautiousness. They want live. is by Calvin. They "scattered. are there is a a justification for the traditional however. Further. then. case of Babel is not exactly typical city. by natural a by (literally or figu the refuse Adam." therefore are separated and moved over the earth in a more unnatural and violent manner. His proj may be ambiguous. God at the end of purpose. At this and will draw heavily upon the work of Eugene Combs Kenneth Post and attempt to confirm their analysis by the Babel-builders of Genesis 11 with Nimrod and the peoples of comparing Genesis 10. built desire for city in the east where he could can one condemn the Babel-builders for their we not social and geo graphic cohesion? a noble aspiration? Would Do normally call we the solidarity of the human race we not often say that believe that the in world would be better off if there were only one great people. that the Babel story they are a of There is "scattering" to carry out their true difference between the "overspreading" of Genesis 10 if and the Genesis 11. 428). of willingness to take on the adventure of human life. of super-city with together. too. and he. and enjoying the earth. settled on Genesis 9 that they should fill the earth.The sion a ect City in Genesis 17 mighty hunter. is perhaps reminiscent Cain's Yet motives. to obey God. the language of mutual entreaty. who have not learned the lesson that the Flood.4).
they on together as equal partners toward a goal is not them but chosen by themselves. God cannot allow it to be The Babel-builders. God. This form of social organization is in trast to the forms described in Genesis 10. The forms of govern men" ment. become corrupt. Abraham will continue in the tradition of obedience a not Further. having unable promised never destroy the world again with a Flood. the "sons of will founding "nations. his people who accepted the limitations of of nationhood. They do not wish to God. hold them together in Shinar forever. "name" necessarily an improper desire. may be and the ual or become dedicated to bad ends. as it were. the situation be irreparable. however thinking. built. Why might the author of Genesis think such a project scatter a group of people who are working together Why should God fraternally for a common they can bad? end. In Genesis nized 10. good which so I think is the one correct one. and seem to be peaceful and nonviolent. in if taking into account the desire of the Babel-builders. speaking. then. but he will obtain the reward sought "name" by the Babel-builders will not Genesis 11. be for . separate peoples. In fact. It is more likely that the Babel- "name" for their project to christen the marvellous urban struc they have created. are not malicious. because they are "one speech" to rule over they do not need a monarch them because they have already imposed a unity of purpose on and wish to remain that way. and powerful cities. Cain may have been proud of his city. but he was not God in naming it after his son. will in the very next story in the Bible promise to make great the name of a certain nation." which are "kingdoms" connected with essentially families writ large. and themselves. however. the nation sired by Abraham. so that become nations and war with each other? Why not leave the entire human race in one construc tive unity? The Combs-Post answer." a and that this may indicate worldly pride. is that it is not for human beings to be of utterly that there and arising a different ways of peaceful. noble it may be. only language that exists should If the only state.18 tend Interpretation Nimrod had nothing to do work with the construction of the Babel which of Genesis imposed con 11). will and to give it. then. unified world-state. no possibility of the living.7 overthrow "name. and the only people. and if every individ that state that will is so thoroughly committed to the own common ends of its evil cannot be perceived even by its to members. they dream. they do not even mention him. but that does not necessarily imply rebellion against rebelling against builders want a ture God. the world was orga according according to the to "nations. its be to stop the corrupted universal state from retaining all members in thrall for Therefore. would God. wanting as is fact. The desire to live in overlooks the is risk that the single. a permanent essence which. established by the "sons of Noah" of Genesis 10. were tribal and monarchical. validated by the consensus of everyone in it. The or reputation earn. It is true that they wish eternity." of that is. unified world-state. In Genesis not allow of 11.
" Nimrod's cities are the "inauguration" of something new: a social order in which justice can have a foothold. law. 1972). 1. p. who in Isaac Friedman's thesis. which do not claim the benefit of God's direct rule and teaching. 2. trans. "Piety and Four" Civilization: An Analysis of the City in Genesis results (Hamilton. Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans. to teach. The city is not bad as some of the rabbis and Christian by its association with Cain. 158. in Genesis 10. 12. Rev. And in one case. the world which is being properly populated by the sons of Noah. argue that the evils of 1979). vol.: Penguin. Although the political order is less than in that it requires the exercise of force.. it due to knowing God wanted. trans. Deut. if one wished to put the city in a better light. God. (Atlanta: Scholars Press. 1847). 3. One separated could use Friedman's (though he does not) to can be from the not require this argument. The mo tives of those who built the first mixed. eds.The martial City in Genesis 19 valor. Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis. In societies other than Israel. Genesis Rabbah. Gerald Friedlander (New York: Hermon Press. pp.3. John Calvin. The traditional pious exegesis of Genesis fails to understand that merely human are achieve political orderings. 4. Nimrod is establish not the rebellion. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. arts. flawed and susceptible to abuse as they are.: McMaster University. Ont. Augustine. King (Edinburgh. 4. NOTES 1. Medieval Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. But I do I do not believe that Genesis wishes us to understand Cain as funda stained mentally evil or ungodly. trans. Cain's son. the only possible means by which the non-Israelite children of Noah can justice upon the earth. (Title henceforth: City of 5. he is the first to explicitly a political in the new world.7. that the city cities were Genesis 1-11 would seem is not evil. 44-48. and not always the best. There are grammatical and general grounds built the city. Robert Sacks. in the bequest epitome of evil and order of animal flesh in Genesis 9. Isaac Abravanel. 242. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth. Eng. but for purity. trans. the order represented perfect by Nimrod is essential. as city of Enoch. Commentary on the Pentateuch (selections). 2 vols. The arguments for this are well summarized for arguing that it was Enoch. XV. 150 51. then. 196-98. 256. and human decency for any length Like Cain's city "Enoch.6). or not trusting enough in God's promises to obey his wishes. but these motives were not wicked. which once achieved will make Israel blessing and a source of wisdom for all the nations of the earth (Gen. 1970). it is can only in coexist some kind of political order that the of time. whose claim to leadership might be said to be indirectly authorized by God himself. Cain was afraid of afraid of what death. or for building great towers into the a heavens. p. John trans. we find that cities are built by a masterly figure. was the Babelers were not being scattered. Cain pp. pp. in Ralph and Muhsin Mahdi.) Lemer 1978). If these people strayed. 1985). Jacob Neusner. . because Cain is not so commentators make out.
Sacks in turn acknowledges his immense debt to Leo introduced him to Genesis. S. it is no longer possible for me to tell reliably which ideas were originally mine and which theirs. and undoubtedly to the rabbinic tradition of interpretation shows writings of up in Sacks's work. Due to space limitations. 6. 1988). But I give here a very firm acknowledgment that many of my specific sug gestions must have come from them. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength. and to Leo Strauss. whose 1990 work was available to them Athens" in typescript form much earlier. I have doubtless been influenced by another very rich interpretation in some respects resembles it.. in my necessary simplification the Combs-Post of the Babel story which discussion. Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in years. I have only scratched the surface of the Combs-Post account of the Babel story. 1-5. The Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Chandogya Upanisad (Lewiston. "Has YHWH cursed the Ground? Perplexity of Interpretation in Genesis in Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. In a general way. I know of no other philosophical and exegetical treat the Babel story of comparable length and depth. Readers who wish to think about its depths more fully should read the chapter on Genesis 1 1 (pp. Eugene Combs and Kenneth Post." Memory of Peter C. 1987). except when I can clearly recall a specific indebtedness. I too have been influenced by the various Strauss on the Bible and wish to acknowledge it fully. and that my general line of approach is completely theirs. . I am going to dispense for the most part with notes. C. even though Strauss is not cited in this essay because he does not deal with the specific passages I am working on here. Robert Sacks. Eugene Combs. ment of of 405-39) in the work cited. NY: Edwin Mellen Press. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Lewiston. I add that Combs and Post would probably transfer much credit for their ideas to Sacks. 1990). MA: JSOT Press. Craigie (Sheffield. As I have been deeply engaged with this material for a number of eds. whose "Jerusalem and Strauss.20 Interpretation 6. I add that. hence. which who essay was seminal for them.
Num 3. she has no fear 17 because God has understanding. in his is not strength as he goes out to 22 He laughs fear and dismayed. and thus to end their they couch and split you watched number3 open4 travail? 4 Their her children more. or that a wild beast might trample them down. Santa Fe CHAPTER THIRTY-NINE 1 "Do you know the when it is time for the mountain goat to drop?1 and have hind writhing in the dance of birth?2 2 Can you the months they fulfill? and do you know the season for them to deliver. interpretation.14 wings as if on high.5 thrive and flourish in the wild. and does not and even in the salt lands? 7 He laughs shout. as if they were not even in all vain. Her toils caused foot can crush them. hitch him up with a rope and hold him to the furrow? Will he behind you? 11 Would you rely upon him? Remember. meet armed combat. in Volume 25 of Interpretation. and she has no share in 18 She just flaps her rider. he every green thing is his crib? plow to search out. 3 when to give birth to their young.10 9 "Would the 10 Can is you wild ox agree to serve you? Would spend the night at your up the valleys great. his you strength Could leave him it into the your toils? 12 Would you trust him to bring in the grain and gather barn?" 13 "An ostrich plumage of a stork. 6 whose home I have at the made the wilderness.9 bustling hills as of the hear the drivers 8 but roams the his pasture.12 whimsically flaps her wings as if she had the pinions and 14 but leaves her eggs on the ground for the dust to keep a them warm.The Book Translation of and Job Commentary on Chapters 39 through 42 Robert D. Sacks St. 1 . 16 She treats her were all children roughly. John's College. Fall 1998. and who dwells city. horse'3 her to forget wisdom. Vol. They come out and return unto no 5 "Who6 sent the wild ass7 off to be free?8 And who has untied the reins of the untamed off jenny. appeared nor is he turned The first bers 2 and thirty-eight chapters of the translation and and commentary in Volume 24. or clothe its like a locust when the glory and exults at neck with a mane? of his snort breeds terror? 21 He digs up the valleys. and laughs at a passing and its 19 "Did you give to the horse 20 Can you make him leap its strength. You see. No. 15 She has forgotten that hers. 26.
His swill it from afar. if we were in Hebrew they have totally different names. Whenever death defiles. 25 but facing battle from afar. and each of them is either a close relative to a tame species or made is itself a member of species of animals some of whom have tame. and See notes to 26. building its nest on high? 28 He dwells upon the rock. the roars of the hawk16 the trumpet the he cries captains and the shoutings!" 26 "Is it by your wisdom that soars and spreads its wings out to the south? 27 Does the eagle mount at your command. 1 1 :6 The bars sword shall "whirl and down" against their cities. David heard of it. 24 With he gouges pays no homage to trumpet's 'Huzzah' ! He smells the blast. it originally meant "to whirl. and upon all his when devour them in their fortresses. "I and father's house. Indeed. he is there. much understanding of the Book of Job center on our attempt to regain the sense of of this word. unity that lies within the complexity As far as one can tell. Job has entered far into hind what we have come to call the Land of the Jackal.22 back Interpretation by He edge of sword. 3:28 are of Afterward. consume the of their gates." . The and single Hebrew word hul." Hos. Oh. guiltless May my kingdom before the LORD for the blood of Abner the son it whirl down upon the head of Joab. 2Sam. which have here translated by the phrase of our I have generally translated birth" is "writhing in the dance of "writhe. although almost as side. making it his stronghold.17 pinnacle. forever Ner. javelin. 30 and his fledglings down the blood."18 Comments 1. eye spots He takes up his lodging on the highest 29 From there he searches out his prey." a very will complex word. 23 A quiverful of arrows whizzes excitement and agitation. 2. There he The The The will meet six sets of wild beasts: rock-goat and wild ass and untamed jenny wild ox ostrich The The horse The hawk None been of and eagle them is mythical. by the flashing into the spear and the earth. he said. It is to leam what each would be when viewed from the other but absolute veil They remind us of that thin between the world of man and the world beyond 39:18 man.
neither did you give them to them. and often when first reading the word. anguish who shall hear the report of tremble and be in because of you. And to us. 23:5 Jer. it Psa. too. king. else you would now be guilty. making melody to him with lyre! But more often than not things get out of hand. 149:3 Let them timbrel and praise his name with dancing. only to the book Judges. saying. 15:20 Then Miriam. and watch.The Book of Job It can also mean 23 "to dance. then come out of the vineyards and seize of each man his wife from the daughters their Shiloh. And the to their number. "Go and lie in in the vineyards." or "to quake": The voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness. Grant them graciously to us." Sometimes it is and exultation: used in a perfectly wonderful context which can be full of joy Psa. we will when fathers or their brothers come to complain did not take say to them. and rebuilt the towns. The Book rule. 21:20 wait And they commanded the Benjaminites. foot and camp and saw the calf and the he threw the tables out of his and broke them at the of the mountain. the reader can feel a foreboding thought thickening the air. trembles and writhes The land in pain. Judg. they will be in anguish over the Tyre. and dwelt in them. 29:8 comes to mean "to tremble. and go to the land of Benjamin. 32:19 And as soon as Moses' he came near the dancing. her took a timbrel and all the women went out after with timbrels and dancing. 51:29 When the report about report comes to Egypt. the sister of Aaron. Exod. according whom they carried off. ends in fright and of a with such high hopes for self- the clear need of the one thing had hoped to avoid. then they went and returned inheritance. It "anguish" often means and "pain": Isa. the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. if the daughters of Shiloh come out win to dance the dances. because we for each man of them his wife in battle. that book which begins see them dashed. hands anger burned hot. Exod. Then. Deut. the prophetess. in her hand. 2:25 This day I will begin to put the dread and fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole you and shall heaven. from the dancers to their and took their wives. for the Lord's purposes . Benjaminites did so.
inhabitant. are on high. it the storm of the will LORD! Wrath has head gone forth. and you forgot birth. They look another. was revisiting the day of his own birth. they aghast at looks. in and your right as the noonday. Job. 51:5 Behold. Isa. as for his foes. For this reason. I conceive me. a whirling burst upon the of the wicked. or even a mortal injury: The battle hard found him." If the as we words and ideas the were intended pas- by the author to come together as naturally they do for may reader who knows the "whirlwind. it can also mean "to be in labor. pressed upon Saul." English-speaking in this also recognize . Note the phrase "a whirling word tempest. out of his sight. 23:19 one more aspect of Behold.24 Interpretation against without Babylon stand. and the archers he was badly wounded by the archers. and sin did my mother Prov." and hence "to give Deu. brought forth in iniquity. Here there is no indication that the by a curse or the result of having taken a bite of the apple. Pangs like a woman will and agony will seize will be in anguish in travail. To venture beyond the realm of man and to see each thing as having its own pain of was caused signet means to come to birth terms with the unity of all these things we must look at: opposing feelings. tempest. birth": as in our case. he We a man can now begin to understand the great admonition: "Gird your loins like is put (gebher). brings forth rain. thy judgments puffs at them. 31:3. 25:23 The north wind and a backbiting tongue. 32:18 the You God He were unmindful of who gave you the Rock that begot you. 10:5 His ways prosper at all all times. Ps. 37:6 will bring was forth the light." There is wildness and pain present when the signet to the clay to make a thing of value and worth. your vindication as Ps. But. angry them. their faces be aflame. to make the land of Babylon a desolation. There is Jer. the mean "pain" "anguish" same word that meant and can also "to prosper": Psa. and ISam. 13:8 and will one they will be dismayed. in visiting the day of birth.
5. then. while he showed a certain amount of compassion. and in terms of human justice it a world seems all wrong. fostering in each life to own its signet. speaks to Job. did not have the respect that these lines demand: Job 24:5 They are wild asses at in the desert. it would be best to begin by seeing how the is in other Biblical contexts: . 6. pain-ridden. 8. Job already had Job 6:5 some care Will the bray when there is grass? Eliphaz had Job 11:12 none: Hollow a man man will become thoughtful when the wild ass gives birth to ('adam). But quite even Job. the joys of our world could never come to be. To word understand used this passage. dancing.The Book of Job sage some 25 foundation for the shift we had already begun to feel in the role of the feminine. 66:7 her Before here from the Book in labor she gave Isaiah: pain came upon she was birth. The Voice here as reminds Job that in its own way. The question is. and are what they are. rhetorical. lets interrelated that they cannot be of distinguished in speech. In using such a harsh word. since. of course. and understanding the of the one may lead us in coming to terms with the other. How different things Isa. From the point of view of human justice there is no priori reason a a why birth our should entail so much pain. we can begin to see its own necessities which seems to be see that without such a totally indifferent to our sense of order. an order for the first time. This. is land? the question to Job: Can he discern number and order in this untrodden 4. Here. before her she was delivered of a son. going off about their labors of snatching up dawn. the separation of birth is that our hard and as final as the separation of death. are 3. perhaps with beyond world. for the Hebrew word for tempest is see that pain and birthing a tempest that Job joy and birth are so feminine noun. Yet we can all world. 7. The had been for it: wild ass mentioned several times in the text before. has never known either burden or rein. the Voice is beginning to open Job to different kind of order. the wild ass wild ass unlike donkey and the burro. It is the whirling. She. a nurturing god rather than a constructing god. number and season as well as pleasure being according and pain are an integral part of the way in which things come to be what they If God is are.
ears to me. "I love my master. gave no answer. he shall serve you six you. It is true that. but they were treated kindness: justly and . and the slave is free his lord. brought 9. along many others. he a shall let the slave go free for the Deut. to oppressed go free. years. he shall serve six years. to and the man who and will give Israel. and like a hireling he waits for wages.26 Interpretation Exod. And there are other passages. great riches. . "Is not and make his father's house free in choose: Isa. and destroys it. has served you six years. to undo the thongs of the yoke. but he him for favor. did have a slave or servant: Job 19:16 to I called to my servant. and in the seventh he shall go out free. 15:12 If your brother. be your slaves. all are there. or a Hebrew woman. and in the seventh year you shall let him ISam. male and . too. Jer. children. the his Surely king this the he has up to will enrich with defy Israel. Job 7:2 Like his a slave he yearns for the shadows. that show his concern. the At the who end of six years each of you must set free fellow Hebrew has been free from sold to you and your service. When a man strikes the . 58:6 fast that I loose the bonds let the of wickedness. 17:25 go free from men of And the come up? Israel said. female." daughter. for nothing. Job himself had once said nearly the same thing: Job 3:18-19 There driver's prisoners are wholly at ease for they do not even hear the of voice. and you had set them into subjection to free according to their desire. so that no one should enslave a Jew. you must set him But your fathers did you not listen to me or incline their but then turned around and profaned male and my name when each of you took whom you back his female slaves. 34:9 and to break every every yoke?" that one should set free his Hebrew slaves. Hebrew man. go out free. 21:2 When you buy a Hebrew slave. his brother." since the with language does not distinguish between "slave" and Job. and now must I curry They with were servants or slaves. and But if the slave plainly says. "servant. eye of my his slave. my wife. sake. is sold to you. Small and great. I will not male or eye's female. that was true. "Have come you seen this man who has him kills him.
There were always some men suffering it caused. both for moved for others. are watered bat. It is in noticeable Job 4:18-19 If He with the exception of 39:24." answer can do none of these things. Human art is only the vaguest image of the world which farm. roaming the hills as his pasture. It is generations. each thing can be be what it is. The an furrow. what would or maid when when they brought complaint against me. they and be eaten. in unrecorded Bildad's "first left to itself. It is through seeing the wild ass as having a life of freedom becomes important to their way its own. giving it a The signets. it requires something like the concept of a signet. that its us. 104:16 LORD abundantly. The trees of the Ps. the vulture. Job world sees a world chaotic as which all things are trusted rather than watched. the hoopoe. but here is have in abomination what is known: Lev. and them yet he did have ox. But the discovery of the notion that slavery is wrong as such. ance The farm. I do God rose up? 10. regardless of whether there is pain and suffering involved or not. five hundred of them. they are an abomination: the eagle. Job but. it will be a long journey. "trust. what of those who dwell in house of clay. requires a certain admiration for the wild ass. the heron according to its kind.. and he did "hitch But to "trust them to bring in the up and hold them to the grain" would. To put it other who were deeply by the pain and wise. the cedars of .The Book of Job Job 31:13-14 If ever 27 man I felt contempt for the cause of one of my servants." This is the only verse. 11. the . not certain what bird is meant. the way each thing is when prior to either the arts or to tradition. the stork. of course have been out of the question. That is not to say that such ideas cannot find world back into the human is No. as we shall see. 11:13 And these shall not you shall among the birds. whose foundation is but dust? or Job 15:15 He clean puts no trust sight. it may seem. in His Holy Ones and even the heavens are not in His Because trusted to each thing is what it is beyond the in sphere of man. the osprey.. and many of them devoted their lives to alleviating that suffering. in God speaks of contrast to what Eliphaz had said: put no trust in His servants and to a His angels lays charge of folly." time. oneself and men could always see that slavery unpleasant. Even from was within the human sphere. is 12. has kept itself in bal legitimate claim to be much older than or nature.
since the name of this bird means something like of the "piety" "loving by care. 33:15 He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly. had been domesticated. he will dwell on the heights. pathways which lure men like Job toward the in the Great Wall Both the highest City and that reveal its problematic character. Does this not mean raising the very passions in Job that Elihu. 8:7 Even the swallow. but the significance has greatly changed: Isa. their nests. For Job this have been the fearful to most difficult of the beasts to meet thus far. Who help being totally would charmed by the and foolish antics of this silly. Part irony of this passage ridden is that ostriches. subhuman might own why the human soul should find itself so moved by the of a beast that could mean to it nothing other than its for such a and why the author should wish to arouse in Job an admiration beast. lest they hold a bribe. worlds are met beginning to pull apart and to clash they have for Job as since we first him. Then I lifted my forward! The of a stork. Yet at the same time we are horrified know that if she were a fellow- citizen our arraign as judgment have to be Our quite otherwise and we would have to her for child abuse. who despises the gain of stops oppression. but two obscure and sometimes inter chinks weaving of the Human and the wall. two women wind was in their wings. who from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes from evil. the has her home in the fir stork Jer. when if only in part. silly beast. and the turtledove. he must learn to feel and to recognize all sides of the may find its proper place. 15. they had lifted they up the ephah between wings coming like the wings heaven. ears his looking upon his hands. with lowest in man have a certain kinship home the lands that lie beyond that If Job is to return safely to the human of man. earth and It is probable that the author intended or a double irony. his place of defense who shakes . The first thing to be moving any to be asked. must 14. and eyes and saw. 5:9 not the ordinance of the LORD. character that each 17. The imagery is not uncommon in the Bible." 13. but my know Zech. then. have been were some tribesmen of the area as they have if they horses. destruction are said of these verses is that the Hebrew text is Agincourt. too. foresaw hibernation? It he warned Job not to leave his warm den of would seem that there are not one.28 Interpretation Lebanon stork which he planted. The first as words ever spoken on the field at questions savage. insofar as been domesticated. There is an early bas relief from Khorsabad showing a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist. In them the birds build trees. The hawk. and behold. 16. at least it is the can most write about. and in the heavens knows her times. people crane keep the time of their coming.
his bread will be given him. Though The you make your nest as as the eagle's. and can you thunder in that you a voice such as His?3 splendor. know whether Job or it the horrified be he did a not see. Bind their faces in would obscurity. bring clefts will down from there. and Jer. did for its children all that the charm to do. How my hand upon my mouth. bring down to the is Though you soar aloft will like the eagle. 12 Look down the I upon everyone of majestic pride and majestic pride and abase bring hand him low and tread guilty. 48:28 Jer. is in the not Job. 5 I have spoken once. but I have no answer. thence I bring down. O inhabitants in the Moab! Be nests sides of the mouth of a gorge. sixth as beast. 49:16 Leave the cities. Put on glory and 11 Let fly the outbursts of your anger. who ground?" live in the "Who of the rock. who hold the height I will of hill. however. 13 Bury them all in the dust. for your own right have saved ."1 loins like Would might a man (gebher)2: I will question you. you though your nest says the among the stars. The sight of the blood and the gore have numbed carnage made was so him. 10 "Go ahead. Elihu's so implicit claim that no man is enough of a man (gebher) to face the world of nature seems to be vindicated. The cold and more grotesque. me dwelling set say in heart. 18. like the dove that The horror dwell in the rock. is high. the hawk. 1:3 heart has deceived you. twice. and you must let me know. you inspire has deceived you. you who your Obad. has been defeated. in returning to flow off into death. cause longterm planning that led up to the We do not. his of water be sure. the ostrich was unable CHAPTER FORTY 1 And the LORD wrangle with swer.4 even would praise you. order 8 you shatter be right? my judgment? Would you condemn me in 9 Have you an arm like God's. The ostrich." answered Job and said: would 2 "Should convict a man of discipline the Almighty? One who God must give an an 3 Then Job can answered the LORD and said: 4 "I have become so weak.The Book of Job will will 29 be the fortresses of rocks. we shall see next charming as his sister bird the chapter. Look upon every man of him. to of life life about precisely because he did see that the hawk. 14 Then you. deck yourself out in majesty and dignity. high and the pride of your heart. but I cannot 6 And the LORD answered Job out of the Tempest and said: 7 "Gird up your I answer You? I lay continue. pride of your whose says the LORD. the you you who dwell in the clefts of the rock. LORD.
I believe.8 21 He lies down the lotuses. his warning was just. or his head with fishing his head. but he did not. "Have you an arm like God's. or pierce speak to you servant?13 29 "Can ladies?14 play you with him like a bird hold or tie of him on a string for your young 30 Or 31 Can can the dealers get him and trade their shares in the spears? market? fill his hide hand with 32 Merely place your upon harpoons. his limbs Maker like rods of 19 He is the first of God's ways.30 * Interpretation Behemoth5 15 "But look now. God's argument is. or with you to be your eternal his nose. convinced him that Elihu was right." His?" such as God seems to base His argument on His power. "gird up your loins like a man (gebher)".7 Only his come can approach him with a sword. and if by court of law. The world Job has been converted from the Brother of and that the Jackal to one who would "call out to the muck 'Mother' 'Sister' 'Thou Father' art my right and call out and recantation to the maggots.6 of brass. 17 He can stretch out his sinews of strength in his loins. 18 His bones iron. 16 but just look at the is in the muscles of his belly. His ducts might tail stiff as a cedar. and can you thunder in a voice let Job "telling. 20 "The there to mountains yield him produce. under and all the beasts of the field play. had been what God had wanted. 23 Though the burst into his snare?10 river he is unalarmed." again "asking. Once Job thought that he knew what justice was. and his teaching is not a but an 3. The sight of the six beasts has 1 Job has . 24 Can he be taken by the eyes? or pierced the nose with a 25 jaw "Can" you haul in the Leviathan12 with a fishhook? Can through you press down his his tongue with a with the line? 26 Can you put a barb? 27 Will he always softly? 28 Will he you make a covenant ring be coming to implore you. He has been numbed as if stung by the Socratic sting fish.9 brook in him. He has it here at There would have been no need to continue. Now ray he neither knows nor believes that he knows. If Job's this not point. But the Tempest will go." 2. Again it says. who would plead my case? . are The and his thighs are are all knit together. 22 The lotuses blanket him surround with their shade and the willows of the rage. beyond man is no place for a man. He is the mighty one. and you will remember war no Comments no answer. here is whom I made along with you. confident that the Jordan will mouth. somewhat more specific than one might at first take it to be. but Job had always recognized God's greater power. Indeed. that was always the problem: Job 9:19 If trial be by strength. hiding in the reeds and the fen. He eats fodder just like the cattle.
and his limbs like rods of The visible universe is much larger than any man knows and of which he is unaware. Man is 7. and I find knowledge of and discretion. his wisdom. means by which justice is established in the learn of 4." "His bones are ducts brass. however. created me at the beginning his work. 4:7 The get. 8:12 . not turn out to be the and Job has yet much to the spirit behind the administration of that justice. with you . God is joking. Job 18:3 Job 35:10-11 Why none are we considered beasts and made unclean . The word is the normal plural of the feminine noun behemah. "Behemoth cattle. Job's search a world for human justice has led him into relevant. We have which means already seen any large domesticated it in Job: Just ask the animal such as a cow or an ox. being lous nor mythical. iron. These do cosmos. however 6. is this: Get wisdom. however. . dwell in prudence. . of It is. The next two chapters will the question of the administration of that justice. the first 8. In the become clear that Job's understanding beyond the last two chapters. of wisdom Prov." in the made masculine singular. in your eyes? say "Where is God my maker. His praise endures for Prov. he of also thought that he the means to establish that justice. are all who teaches us more The verbs. Job 12:7 beasts and they will show you. get beginning insight. fools despise and whatever you instruction. it has justice was defective in that he had problem of not realized that an adequate attempt requires that one to address the sphere of human justice prob journey human justice to face the lem deal of what one might wish with to call cosmic justice. Prov. of The LORD acts of old. Appropriately enough. Compare Ps. in which human action no longer seems Its vast forces are so wide seen and no outburst of his anger ever sweeping that no decking would ever be be felt. a good understanding have ever! all those who practice it. whom I along eats fodder just like the neither miracu It is a normal part of the greater world around us. "laugh" or . The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom. and it will take Job a time to see within the implications of that kind of justice as it expresses itself the sphere of human action. behemoth 5. . 111:10 contains creatures which man not did not name and the unquestioned center of all that is visible. clearly are of mythic proportion. I.The Book of Job When Job thought that he knew what 31 had justice was. 1:7 The fear wisdom and of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. than the beasts of the earth.
32 9. way limit our mean of seeing that other than "derision. person The first in the Bible to laugh on was Abraham: and Gen. note on role we must now begin a rather and long and. The wages of a servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. world with a living being at ease of monumental stature of the This grand beast is in the land Jackal. "Why did Sarah laugh. bear child?" next verses it becomes clear that it was not a contented laughter: said to God. and But had her laughter been goodnatured. child. He finds Thus." looking at each usage. half-real fabric reader whom of this account succeeds in leaving the feeling he has room that he shares a never seen." I believe that the role subject plays a of in the Book with Job which differs from its in the other the Bible. shall I have pleasure?" grown old. no the possible exception of the Book of Proverbs. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. Shall be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Sarah. "O that Ishmael might live in thy God said. verse inquiry be to the words shq and shq. 10. saying. Interpretation 'Ashaq kind. There is. The half-mythic. now that and say." as It occurs rather frequently in of the Bible and with the exception of this verse only. hand? that You have for the toil of your own You hired shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. 19:13 Does it contempt seem good to You that You oppress. and you shall call his name Isaac. 18:13 The LORD said to a she would have felt no need to deny Abraham. But from the Gen. He is passively ferocious yet actively gentle and seems to rule by laughter. always implies injustice the gravest Job 10:3 Lev. 'Shall I Indeed bear I old?' am Is anything too hard . sight!" And Abraham Sarah's laughter Gen. "After I have my husband is old. for the pounding. "No. I fear. tyrannizing river. but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. 17:18 is ninety years old. Gen. since words like or I shall by I'g essentially verse. 17:17 Then Abraham fell "Shall a child who his face laughed." Joy and happiness are another matter. 18:12 came next: So Sarah laughed to herself. "mocking" It must remembered that we are only speaking of "laughter. that she had laughed. making it his drinking foun tain. is usually translated "oppress. however. a and said to himself. somewhat boring books foot the subject of of "laughter" "play.
" and Sarah shall have son. Abimelech Isaac out of a window and saw king of the joking with Rebekah his wife. you laugh". 21:6 city. but certainly the betrayed him. in the saying. for she was afraid. It is hard to have any idea of what Ishmael consequences were disastrous. in to me to insult me. And Sarah said. and I cried out with a loud voice. came "See. every one hears will laugh me. and offered burnt offerings brought peace offerings. 19:14 went out and said to get out of this his sons-in-law. Next . "Up. saying. 21:9 to Hagar the Egyptian. Foolish Isaac's innocent play Gen. He said. and rose your And the LORD said to people. son whom she had borne Abraham." a But Sarah denied. "The Hebrew servant. place. "God has who made a laughingstock of me. whom you brought up out of the Moses. but did Then came the taunting laughter So Lot of the sons-in-law of Lot: who were to Gen.The Book of Job for the LORD? At the spring. Then came the golden calf: Exod. came have brought among us. "I did laugh. Gen. 39:17 and she told whom you in to lie him the same story. and the people sat down to eat and drink. "Go down." the But he seemed to be jesting. up to play. 39:14 she called to the men of her household and said to them. playing her Isaac. for land of Egypt. have corrupted themselves. not 33 appointed time I will return to you. he me to has brought among us a Hebrew to insult us." at Next there came Ishmael: But Sarah saw the son of with Gen. 32:6 and And they rose up early on the morrow. "No. The next two occurrences of the word are usually even translated by the word "insult": Gen. a When he had been there Philistines looked long time. his marry his daughters. he with me. for the LORD is about to sons-in-law to destroy Sarah: Gen. 26:8 also was actually doing.
so down together." twelve of the servants of his opponent by the head. with songs and making merry before lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. And when they came to the and was threshing floor of Nacon. 16:25 And when their hearts were merry. And in his each caught arise. Therefore that which place was called they fell Helkathhazzurim. 30:10 So the Ephraim and Manasseh." Then come mocking and scorning couriers went 2Chron. 18:7 And the women sang to and one another as they made merry. And the anger of the LORD kindled against Uzzah. by them I shall be held in honor. "Saul thousands. and he made sport before them." said to Joab. . David his ten Joab and Abner play rough: 2Sam. to appoint me as LORD and I will make merry than this. 2Sam. that he may make sport for So they called Samson out of the prison. is and thrust his sword opponent's side. and he died there beside the God. "It was before the LORD. Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God took hold of it. There is laughter no question was but that Uzzah's punishment which stemmed from the next too great." has slain his thousands. "Let them over and by Then they arose and passed number. but they laughed them to scorn. 2:14 And Abner us. "Let the young men arise and play before And Joab said. twelve for Benjamin and Ishbosheth the son of Saul. they said. I and will make myself yet more contemptible I will be in your eyes. before the LORD. from city to city through the country of and as far as Zebulun. and God smote him there because he ark of put forth his hand to the ark. and mocked them. but by the maids of whom you have spoken. the abased and above all people of the his house. who chose father." pillars. They made him stand between the us. David.34 Interpretation Judg. The same might even be said for Michal: 2Sam. 6:21 And David me above your prince over said to Michal. at Gibeon. 6:5 And David the LORD and all the house of Israel were with all their might. for the oxen stumbled. Next came laughter and a tune that led to a revolution: ISam. "Call Samson. Israel.
59:8 But thou. also will laugh at your calamity. the fool only rages and laughs. . 7:3 Eccles. he will snatch and tear you tent. there is no quiet. at them. I you. 3:4 to a time to weep. 10:23 beside him. Eccles. and a time to laugh. 14:13 Prov. 26:18 Even in laughter the heart is sad. Jeremiah is not quite the same. all the him. 2:4 Ps. rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. Prov. and I find knowledge and discretion. 7:6 the by sadness of countenance the heart is made glad. and fear. Prov. like a master workman. Prov. wicked. is vanity. Like a madman who throws and the end of joy is grief. Strength and dignity her clothing. "I am only joking!" Prov. It is like sport to a then I was fool to do wrong. 29:9 If a wise man and an argument with a fool. a time to mourn. however. 10:19 Bread is for laughter. Ecclesiastes also has a rather dim view of laughter. 2:2 I said of laughter. for he sees that his day is Ps. and wine gladdens life. and a time dance. is the man who deceives his has neighbor and says. He too rejects the "laughter" of his day: . at the but the LORD laughs coming. wisdom. 1:26 Prov. 8:31 Prov. "What use is Eccles. I will mock when panic strikes I. laughs at the time to come. Sorrow is better than laughter. so is the laughter of fools. 37:13 who sits in the heavens laughs. thou dost hold Peppered throughout the one quotations from the Book we of Proverbs. rejoicing before him always. Selah. firebrands. dost laugh nations in derision. for Eccles. and death. of There only do find something find in the Book Job. 52:5-6 But God will break you down for ever. he will uproot you from the land The righteous shall see. dwell in prudence. O LORD. . and shall laugh your from of the at living. arrows. and I was daily his delight. the LORD has them in derision. "It is mad. as For the crackling of thorns this also made under a pot. Ps. but wise conduct is pleasure to a man of understanding. and money answers everything. 31:10 . 8:12 . A good wife who can find? She is far are more precious than and she jewels. it?" Eccles.The Book of Job Even the good 35 laughing He at the bad is not the same as goodnatured laughter: Ps. saying. closer to what we finds another strain. Prov." and of pleasure.
they shall not It is reserved for another time and is not a way of meeting what is before us. however. and the voices of those who make merry. 126:1 A Song of Ascents. I will heal. 30:17 the For I will restore health to you. And playing in its Outside follows: Lam. I did alone. thou art than I. and they be be few. But he also has another notion of laughter. Jer. 20:7 stronger all O LORD. I will make them honored." Thus in the says the LORD of hosts: Old men and old women shall again streets of Jerusalem. I will restore the cares!' fortunes the of the tents of Jacob. for thou hadst filled me with indignation. When her . 15:17 not sit in the company of merrymakers. 8:4 sit tongue with shouts of great joy. Zech. him and he too shall be held in derision. multiply them. and have compassion on his dwellings. and your wounds Jer. They read as Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction and bitterness all the precious things that were hers from days of old. shall each with staff of the streets of the streets. Moab shall wallow not in his vomit. because he so that magnified himself against the LORD. Then our mouth was with laughter. Jer. and I was deceived. Was thieves. nor did I rejoice. and where city it shall be rebuilt upon its mound. thou hast deceived me. for whom no one Thus says the LORD: Behold. There are also such thoughts to be found elsewhere: Ps. "The LORD has done things for them. city be full boys and girls in hand for very age. When who the LORD restored the fortunes filled said of Zion. because they have called you an outcast: 'It is Zion. I sat because thy hand was upon me. then they among nations. 48:39 shame! Israel a derision to you? that whenever you spoke of you wagged your Was he found among head? How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in and a So Moab has become him. 1:7 of the Book of Job there are only a handful left. a derision horror to all that are round about and feels mocked Jer. I and the palace shall stand used to be. I have become a laughingstock the day. and thou hast prevailed. Out of them shall come songs of will thanksgiving. every one mocks me. the we were like those and our dream.36 Interpretation Jer. says LORD. shall not small. 48:26 "Make him drunk.
but of the at violence and starvation you of laugh. but hills as his pasture. and there was her. the Lord GOD: "You shall drink your sister's cup and Thus which is deep large. innocent joke! those younger than Job 30:1 they have would turned me into the joke. because one cannot fail to notice how play innocent laughter there is in the Tempest: He laughs Job 39:7-8 at the clamor of the roams the city. 25. 9:24. rooted of beasts in the safety of a fields" the but is not knew the "covenant" he will have "with the we so different from laughter laughter have known before. 3:14 Ezek. They laugh at heap up earth and take on. mocking at her downfall. for they like the wind and go they make sport. 23:32 I have become the joke to songs all all the peoples. even before his real thought had started: Job 29:24 I joked them them a many quotations given above. guilty men. But there of was another side of we are laughter. 1:10 contains much. The first to Job 5:21-23 speak of Job is Eliphaz: be When tongues scourge. the burden of their day says long. a simple. FEAR will of violence when you will secure and shall have no it comes. Lam. I fathers I have felt contempt to put with my sheep dogs. Then they sweep by own might is their god! It might be noted Testament also imply in passing that the six references to laughter in the New only scoffing (cf. whose it.The Book of Job people 37 fell into the hands gloated over the foe of the foe. none to help her. the beasts of the fields will bring His laughter is rocks and the you peace. and of rulers At kings they scoff. a one who would 'Call answer' and now joke. made him all his trouble. Mat. and every green thing is his to search out. . for you have a covenant with the rocks the field. James 4:9). Mark 5:40. Luke 6:21. and perhaps even before with bit so that my kindness would not overwhelm because they had no self-confidence. every fortress. for it Hab. if to judge by different from the others. laughter in the Book of 8:53. the a side which had always been a part Job and. The much subject was and bound to come up. and does not even hear the drivers shout. Have no FEAR in beasts and the earth. Job 12:4 on also grim side of But God But whose now I have become have him a joke to my friends. you shall be laughed at and held in derision. Job the outcast.
Some English translations 12." some connection of between Job's new understanding sees a bit strange. With Job. "Let us make man in our image. let them have dominion over the fish of the sea. their iden tity. 3:8 and 13. but he has a dream: not come to be the conquerer Job 5:22 .38 Interpretation Job 39:18 its She just flaps her rider. laughter ceases to be a thing hidden away for a better time a or a luxury with indulged in by those who are mindless of the times. . To that extent. bird and all the beasts come there to Job 40:29 Job 41:21 you play with him like ladies? young He laughs to the sound Can a or tie him on a string for your of the javelin. at fear and is not dismayed. who well who she is even while she is being Ganymede playing Rosalind? 11. and over all the earth. and laughs at a passing horse and Job 39:22 Job 40:20 He laughs The play. compare: seen as it follows from an Gen. mountains yield him produce. Job has come to learn from nature. for you have a covenant with the rocks in the field. after our likeness. Have no FEAR of the beasts of the earth. was not the right slave?" dream: "Will he make a covenant with you to be your eternal To conquer rather it more succinctly. . and over the birds air. the brother. Imagine Oedipus being mistaken for a long-lost twin than of comedy. subject of laughter and his Identity really discovery being what the signets. continually changing their clothing. he has come to have its ways impressed upon him than impressing his ways upon it. and over every of the . wings on high. It with is way of living the times: "I joked them a bit so that my kindness would not over whelm them because they had no It is hard not to feel that there isn't of self-confidence. but at violence and starvation you will laugh. Job has come. but it and the beasts of the fields will bring you peace. nor is he turned back by edge of sword. and over the cattle. is the importance of freedom understanding of the signets. this relation is seems to Dane. At one first. but not to it. and even their sex. See note to start Chapter Forty-one at this point. Hamlet. and one of the things he learned. Yet it is Lear shadow". Eliphaz once had he has seen. of nature." be more a It is in comedy tragedy that people seem more plastic. On this question. "It is I. 1 :26 and Then God said. granted who asks: "Who is it that upon can tell me who I am? Lear's and why must Hamlet insist knows full things which can so be taken for by Rosalind. as we put have from the ostrich.
but the he must perform now. the word for also has a sense of completion and final ity. to slaves of inherit as a them. "subdue" "dominate. neither shall nation shall not lift up they leam war any more. with harshness. to the house God Jacob. and say: of "Come. is not a world and 14. and shall their swords decide for many peoples. in the image of God he created them. 34: 1 1 and set up the tent of meeting there. It house of shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the the LORD shall be established as the highest mountains." It should be noted that both words. not as a thing for us. . and and shall be raised above the hills. it is only a in which he learn about play. and God said to them. Jer. But it is not the same. and subdued them as slaves. and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. but over your one over Israel you shall not take dominion. and over the And God blessed them. and their spears into pruning hooks. but the beyond is not ours.The Book of Job creeping thing that creeps upon the own image. let of us go LORD. We cannot divide it up and as we will. male and female he fruitful and multiply. the land lay before them. For that ways and that we may walk in his paths. But female afterward slaves they turned around and took back the male they had set free. people of sons after you. earth. 18:1 Then the whole congregation of the people of Israel assembled at subdued Shiloh. To see it is to see it as a thing for itself. He judge between the beat nations. The charm of the sentence teaches us it innocent jesting. ways 15. The world about use world beyond can man in which man can play." out up he may teach us his of Zion shall go forth shall to the mountain the law. 25:46 You may bequeath them to your possession for ever. the and all the nations shall flow to it. "subdue" In addition." and are quite defi nite and strong: Lev." 39 So God created man in his created him. sword against nation. you may make brethren the another. In many Isa. and they shall into plowshares. 2: 1 this verse reminds one of the famous passage from Isaiah: The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah of the and Jerusalem. There is no promise of a great an act day to come one day that Job must wait for in expectation. many of the peoples shall come. Josh. "Be fill the earth and subdue it. and have fish of the sea and over the dominion every birds of the air and over living thing that moves upon the earth.
18 26 He sees every towering thing. the gods are in dread. quaver. word mean but along it a sense of dread. stand. and terror dances before him. and not a his shields7. him? 2 No would stand restitution?4 [all] one expectation' is an illusion. Slingstones turn to sound of the javelin. He is king over all the sons of pride." times. which was discussed in carried the note to with Job 39:1. 19 He Iron he put counts as straw. or come before his double-folded jaw? 6 surrounded tight9 can open the doors6 of his face his teeth by terror! is the strength of the next. Even the can see that yhl reader not in Hebrew. nor lance.2 Do up.14 21 and clubs are rated as straw. up by a breath between them.'"9 Comments 1.10 8 each touching clings" one to his brother. men not reel at the sight of is so brutal3 as to rouse him Now. nor They spear. laughs to the 22 "His the mud15 underparts are jagged leaves shards. for he was made to dread. is a near relative of the at hwl or hyl. 11 fire escape. eyes are 10 "Lights flash of his sneeze. 9 Each closed8 seal. tohalto is from the much versed root root yhl (wait in expectation). could. 25 No without one of the dust shining wake till the abyss seems all hoaryhave dominion over him. fused all together. nostrils there comes smoke as boiling 13 His breath in ignites the coals and flames come out of his mouth. 12 From his cauldron. or exploits or the grace of his frame. They Out clutch'2 each other and cannot at be parted. whereas this implies hope might also of or expectation. He sprawls himself out implacable on 23 and makes the pot17 deep will to seethe a like a cauldron. 5 7 But his can unveil his garment. 17 "When he sion. "to or so I believe. of some use to the reader It the be to consider how the root is used in Book Job: Job 6:11 What end that strength have I. He makes the sea his be ointment16 24 and headed. 15 Festoons of flesh. who is that one who give exact before Is not me? 3 Who confronts me and [demands that] I everything outer under the heavens his mine?5 4 "I Who Who pride will not be silent about him.40 Interpretation CHAPTER FORTY-ONE 1 "Thus. It too. and bronze as rotton wood. 14 His strength resides his neck. rises up.13 cast as a nether millstone. His his mouth comes a flaming from torch as sparks of a stream or like the cracking of dawn. 20 No son of the bow can stubble him to flight. lie on him cast as metal and do not 16 His heart is cast hard as stone. shatter and are nor in confu 18 No sword that will reach can javelin. that I should wait in expectations? What is my I should prolong my life? . wait.
that God hopes? Would that God were pleased to crush me. insofar as it deals with our the world beyond man. Job 14:14 of If a man (gebher) dies. That is to say. Job 3:8 who despise the sea. that it is by giving up the yhl and recognizing that the world beyond man and its denizens have a legitimate being for themselves. apart from their being for us. till they stood longer 2. I have no higher expectations. will curse and those who are determined to lay open the Leviathan it. loose my his hand and cut me off! . on a with. I have waited in expectation for your while you searched words and listened for your Job 32:16 understanding I waited in and could no expectation reply. If abandoning that the "expectation" means day will come the Leviathan will primarily abandoning the expectation be crushed in favor of the alternative account of the Leviathan: There go the ships. need not imply the abandonment of hope QaWah. falling silent to hear counsel. you play ladies? young Can with him like bird or tie him string for your yhl. 27:1 On that punish the expectations: day. The Voice has introduced us to the then perhaps we can gain a deeper insight into the first while Since the relation to abandonment of expectation. but there came only a murk. that we begin to see our own legitimate being as it is implied in the notion of the hwl. 74:14 the You crushed the as slay the crocodile that is in the sea. till they had finished speaking. YaChaL. it might be wise to remind ourselves of Job's hopes Who will see as well: Job 6:8-9 grant to it that my request comes to light. He the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall Leviathan the shall flying serpent. None the less I will defend my ways before Him. and the Leviathan the crooked serpent: and Ps.The Book of Job Job 13:15 It may be that He will 41 slay will me. interplay between hwl and denying us the second. my Job 29:23 Job 30:26 the They waited for me in expectation as for the rain. which deals with our relation to the world of man. waited expectation for Job 32:11 light. I rain. he come back to life again? All the days Job 29:21 my service I have waited in expectation for my release to come. their in mouths opened wide as if to catch the I hoped for the good spring but there came evil. 104:26 Leviathan whom you made They Job 40:29 serve You and You give them their a to play food in due time. The first has replaced the second. We have heard those Isa. the Ps. Men would hear me and wait in expectation. for something to say. head of the Leviathan and gave it to the people of island Those food.
like the in the wilderness. has fallen The waters and crumbled away. and spread 'Thou art my to the maggots. and in which he for itself. but he and His body surrounds him pain. The comes the root of this word. Then the within fifty-two days. You have resigned. 6:15 the wall was finished (shlm) on the twenty-fifth day the month Elul. passed through that veil which separates the human from the of His journey had begun some time ago. word 'akf'zar. They with were in disgrace. occurs which I have translated "brutal." From it Hebrew So for "peace. spirit is eaten Job 17:13-15 If I must take the in darkness. means "to be whole or word complete. You have stones trashed all mortal hope." an is to see a world which man a world as a world can may first leam to recognize of man. shlm. He first felt it in the form fear: Job 30:29 I became a and so brother to the Jackal and friend to the ostrich. So." 4. Your hand You You hoist in the me up onto the wind and set me astride to be tossed about wreckage. to mean "to pay [a word comes debt]": . apart from the needs only lead one to say: "No one is so brutal as to him up. where out my couch Father' and call out and then is my hope? 3." Neh. But to see that "[all] expec tation is illusion. knew it. mangled never overpowered man. a rock dislodged from its torrents have worn the have You washed away the dust his face of of away and its the land. and he has and sent him off. and with the might of fact. The word. Back in Verse 21 of that same chapter. But that knowledge rouse may admire. away. Job had said: Job 30:21-22 You have turned brutal persecute me. to imply the attempt or desire to be or be come an actor within the realm beyond the human. The "brutal" word seems. One of them reads: give the Lam.42 Interpretation Job 14:18-22 A mountain place. 'Mother* call out to the muck 'Sister' Pit to be my home. ostriches but the daughter of my people has become brutal. Job has nonhuman. His his sons were was honored but he unaware. 4:3 Even the jackals breast and suckle their young. in already begun. then." as is not a very common and it only twice outside the Book of Job. But the forces pulling him back into the land of the Jackal had.
and what who can turn back? He tears down can never be rebuilt. Job's openness as We can in his "open But Leviathan is "to finally closed to man. In that sense. It leaves always room restitution. winnowing is the prime anal ogy of cosmic justice. If He should pass by and separate or close up. then. Satan He cannot be disturbed by others. cannot by No one can touch him. If. know him from the Here it is taken outside only. and pay debts and you and your sons can he said. case." oil rest. God sets the wicked to close in men. in the however." debt. does have kind He impenetrable be hurt skin the others." by all to his the scales. is to "make whole." insures of a of that there will be grass even note "where no man saw But its justice is the 6. In the embodied to Job 31:34 we door. The again. "Is not everything under the heavens human justice. to begin by looking to see word sgr ("closed") is used rest of the text: Job 3:9-10 of May it not see the eyelid of dawn open. for it closed not the doors Him Job 1 1:10 Job 12:14 my mother's belly but hid my eyes from toil. This is human justice as it is contained in the notion of shlm. and I am not sure that be of much assistance either to the reader or to myself. and its owner has not kept it in.The Book of Job 2Kings 4:7 - 43 She and came and told the man of your God." meaning "to or "to fill in" what one has "lifted This understanding is fundamental to human justice: Exod. defend." 7. it does not strictly make sense to "demand exact 5." mine?" Cosmic justice is larger than and for the Leviathan is. crime goal of this kind of justice is to make those who have suffered whole To the extent that one must speak of punishment. 8. from the root mgn. on me and casts me into the hands guilty . sell the live on the lift. It might help. mean normally In either of means "to shield. dead beast shall be his. He closes in on a man and Job 16:1 1 of nothing is ever reopened." where the word a for debt is related to a word To pay off. "Go. however. then punishment for cosmic crimes can only be punished in terms of the harm man has caused to himself. it means that the spoke Leviathan. Therefore he cannot learn from others and so cannot learn to know himself. unlike Job. 21:36 Or if it is known that the ox has been accustomed to gore shall in the and the past." importance winnowing kind. of. The I can remainder of this chapter is clearly how the quite dense. meganim. one charged with a is punished for what harm he has caused others. he pay ox for ox.
from the way." first came to light when we saw that he had no "skin beneath his This was the vulnerability that let in pain and anguish. has. shameful. tight itself. Job leaves himself openness open to what is most other. Job 41:9 Job 41:15 one clings of Festoons and (dbq) to his brother. the Leviathan does Job's skin. it is to another thing: Job 38:38 and liquify the dust and cast it into congealed (dbq) clods? for the Leviathan it Each seems to be yet another. as stone. At best. For the world beyond man. lie on him cast as metal do not quaver. in the world beyond man. are But if they bound in fetters and trapped in cords of affliction. for the Leviathan. fused (dbq) all together. dabhaq. Iqd: It is important to Job 5:13 Job 36:8 He traps the contorted ones see how very different this in their word looks to men: wise own craftiness as the advice of those dashes headlong. also consider: Job 38:30 clutches to Water draws itself up. of murk and confusion. become that which seals it hotam for Job." all others. For us it is ugly. and the face of the deep Again.44 Interpretation One cannot up. the list is . "tight." his completion and perfection." sar. The Leviathan's pride turns out to be Job's old foe narrow For Job it was the oppressive was feeling of walls For the Leviathan it "Seal. and their tongue stuck (dbq) to their palate. ness. But. 9. But it also left him open to feeling and then seeing a world beyond his world. flesh. 12. or a taint stuck (dbq) to my hand. making it unknown and unintelligible to 11. while noticing that the Leviathan finds his strength in Job's strength lay in his willingness to stand in the open help being not. closed entranceway. or constrictive: "stick. ing What gave anything its being by mak it intelligible to another. pulling in and sky cutting For Job it was the beginning 10. my heart gone after my eyes. complete. Job has seen the Leviathan. it restrains speech: Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed. but has the Leviathan seen Job? His closedness would seem to say No. "signet. off. Job 19:20 Job 31:7 My bones stick (dbq) to If my step has wandered my skin and to my flesh." away from all other beings.
The Book of Job
who once said:
Do I have flesh
flesh is to be
you pursue me
like God, taking
satisfaction out of
Not to feel
to understand pain;
For Job, it is through the
notion of which
of pain that we come
to understand the
importance, by seeing
risk pain and
death for that
do I take my flesh between my teeth
my life in
The way his flesh lies makes it appear to be open to the other, but, like a carved in stone, the festoons of flesh cast like iron remain for ever, but
forever in itself.
be for him
it is for itself. Difference for him
difference. "Slingstones turn to
to the world around
by, by only him. are for themselves and not as are for us, to things as they they the grass which grew where no man was, Job was forced to quit the
and yet we are arrested and can see
world of man
a world unstifled
let to be itself. But in
that world only man, the stranger, through his weakness and otherness could
learn to let things be.
then could he return with a
need. an old
anything in itself apart from what bit absurd. Has mud anything better to do than to be
young Socrates if he thought mud was it is for us. The question would seem to be a
stand upon the earth with never a thought of
asking its permission. Nonetheless, we can almost feel the jagged shards cutting gashes into the ground. In this imagery we see the great destruction to others implied in his
and you shall make of these a sacred as
the perfumer; a
anointing oil anointing oil it shall be.
ISam. 8:13 He bakers.
any like it or whoever from his people.
take your daughters to be
perfumers and cooks and
yielding fragrance. His
first it burst
behind the double door
tale the measureless realm of chaos and confusion,
always threatened to engulf
all, has become a simple utensil,
I have translated
one other passage
the passage reads:
and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on every the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered.
But the Leviathan "was
Thus, Job 41:25
so, as a
Genesis 9:2. If the
understanding is to be of any ultimate relevance, man cannot be master of the visible universe. It is only in seeing a thing outside of himself as a being in itself, that man can begin to regard himself as a self.
one other verse
exact meaning of this word is in the Bible. The context is:
eye of the
falcon has it
never caught sight of
sons of pride ever trampled
no witness, mountains
his hand to the flint
In Aramaic, the
in Ethiopian the
In Arabic, the shhis, "a bulky
is disagreement among translators as to whether the Leviathan is or over men. The ambiguity may not be totally unintentional,
that such a
not so clear
the Leviathan himself. It
not even clear
of any concern whatsoever to he knows that he is king, though
indeed he surely is.
all malice or
ambition, oblivious to all,
The Book of Job
rules all and
the mere weight of his
being. In him
we recognize our
1 Then Job
the LORD and said: 2 "I know that You
all and counsel
from You. 3 Who is this I had
knowledge? I have
beyond me, a world full of that I had never known. 4 Now listen and I will speak; I shall question you, and you will inform me. 5 I had hear;3 heard of You as ears can but now my eyes have seen You. 6 Wherefore I
contempt and compassion
the LORD had spoken these words unto
the LORD said to Eliphaz the
against your two as
not spoken of me the
Job. 8 Therefore,
get yourselves seven
Job, my bear8 Job shall pray for you; for I will deal with you after your folly, in that you have
and go to servant servant
burnt offering; and my his countenance in order not to
not spoken of me the
is right, as my servant Job 9 So Eliphas the Temanite
went and did according as the LORD commanded them, the LORD Job.9 bore up the countenance of 10 And the LORD restored the fortunes of Job when he had prayed for his
the LORD returned all that Job
11 Then his house
and all of
came over to
one gave a of
and each a golden ring;
LORD blessed the last days
than He had its beginning. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six
thousand camels, one thousand head of cattle, and one thousand she
seven sons and three
14 The first he
the second to be
and the third
the land there
found any woman more father gave them an inheritance alongside
16 And Job lived
these events, and
an old man contented with
theirs, four his days.
Comments 1 It is terribly
translate this word. Gener
ally speaking it usually implies
evil or wicked
Job 21:27 Ps. 10:2
Oh, I know
what you are
arrogance the wicked
pursue the poor;
let them be
the schemes which
they have devised.
In the Book
Proverbs, however, it
I find knowledge
it to describe God's
executed and accomplished the you will understand this.
In the latter days
in question, yibhaser, only in the Bible:
one other pas
Gen. 1 1 :6
all one and
And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do;
The verb, then,
would seem or
finds in Proverbs
taking the in Jeremiah, since in
word mzmh either
spoken of which one would want to prevent.
This leaves the first meaning, but that is
that that too can
it is known to be
without malice or
intent. beyond me,
2. "There is
3. Literally, "I had heard of You by rumor of the cf. 28:22. 4. 'al ken as wenihamti 'al 'epher we'phar. This is clearly a critical contested passage. I also think that it has been much abused.
James translates: "Wherefore I
The Revised Standard does
myself, and repent
puts the word
sponding to it in the Hebrew text. Greenberg has "Therefore, I recant and re lent, being but dust and Greenberg is more in line with the original
punctuation which puts the major
after the second verb rather than the
The Cambridge Bible translates: "Therefore I melt away; I repent in dust Their reasoning is somewhat complicated. The root m's had
that dust so clear 'al is exactly the word that one would expect to mean find following for. back to the everyday language of Dick and Jane." and 5." sorrow or Like the English word. of course. He is value. for instance. Job 30:19 It throws me into the mire and I become like dust and ashes. "Behold. 18:27 the Abraham answered. "upon. one feels remorse. and mean or When King James trans on lates "on dust ashes. one more reason for believing tion. require as Greenberg does. "Dust meaning mankind ashes. As far em' and together as the word 'em' they simply 'em' "I feel compassion one would is concerned. This return by an author who knows the names of Eliphaz and Bildad and Zophar is." but. the inference which is automatic in Hebrew. and repentance. I who am but dust ashes. together seem the fact that the It roots mss do mean "to melt. if one feels sorrow guilt. and would something like a "myself to be to be no basis for such an assumption. Also see Gen. But to others for something that one has done." and is. there seems "to feel deep compassion. far as I have been able to in English vernacular is by no means as they mean "while sitting tell. as ." meaning to them." "My also skin has become hard and begins to ooze. He also knows that that large woolly world has in it a kind of love and a kind of laughter which only he his fellows 6. also at home in a very each and and small world world in which each man is of infinite can be at home in only because he is at home in the other." or is. normally as 'el. "I have comtempt for as 'eth or strange to let the 'al do for both." These passages. I have taken upon myself to speak to Lord. . a common Biblical phrase in all its mortality. that the book was conceived of as a whole. 58:8. we have returned to Chapter One. The root nhm means understood in the text. in itself." 'al. means "to despise" "reject." wenihamti. have expected but it would not be so ." to be behind their understanding of the verse." one assumes ashes. The the root m 's fundamentally Again. by the way.epher we'phar. real feeling that God has when people offer Him sacrifices that have no to translate it as "recant. feel sorrow or compassion for the suffering of anything like "on" does not.The Book of Job occurred meant -49 in Job 7:5: ooze. "Let them be like the with snail which dissolves into and nms slime. however. and that the linguistic and flight from back to the mundane was a integral part of the author's inten . can establish in the world of the small. the word normally and so imply does guilt or self-recrimination. Job the homeless is which no man counts at home now." where it "to It is found in Ps. He is of at home in He a very large world in for more than a hill beans. Linguistically speaking.
that the moths eaten. Rahab: my father them. living in a nutshell. Job of the wide world is again Job the servant which of the LORD.50 Interpretation 1. Job 20:26 Job 21:25-26 He will be consumed by an unblown fire and all shall go ill with the remnant left in his tent. The world of out to seeing turned has returned. Gone is the vocabulary. will consume His be away. but that seeing took place in a foreign land in act." other Biblical character to use the was phrase "brothers and with all the sense of equality that it implies. "Has consumed not our enemy been destroyed. and Job His sons used to make feasts in their homes. that wonderful woman of the night. them over. the tents of skin will bribery eaten are a consuming fire. never having eaten of together they lie in the dust. death's first born his members. It might be worth mentioning that the only sisters. another eat their remains by fire?" then let me sow. . 11. interact: devour even and resig holds together a world that can act and Job 5:5 All he has harvested the hungry shall taking out from Job 6:6 an under the thorns: and the thirsty shall go panting after their wealth. Can egg what white is tasteless be eaten without salt or does the slime of Job 13:28 Job 15:34 Job 18:13 and all have any taste? becomes worn out like have a rotten thing like a piece of clothing . Remember Aaron. my brothers and sisters. yet his soul. 10. 8. Job 1:4 be a world devoid of all meaningful human action. but . and the worms cover Job 22:20 Job 31:8 saying. . All of by the language ordinary everyday adult human speech. The nation now word 'aChaL that had so often meant death. tortuous syntax of the long its obscure The that language is simple. destruction. but it is has been replaced not a simple return of to a fairytale world. and send word to their three to come and eat and drink them. and save alive and mother. 9. and Joshua 2:13 . Job's his hands his friends eyes could not have seen. Again there has been a switch middle in the texture section with of the language. our and all who belong to deliver lives from death. sisters each one on a different with day. of Another dies in the bitterness goodness. He who has seen the Leviathan will say a prayer for as they bring their bulls and their rams to be sacrificed.
They him conferred and to with one another and planned to come together to console him compassion. eating joyous unity. but look at the loins. they the from his own place Eliphaz the Temanite. What was not possible before has now become actual. fodder just like the cattle. How widow's could I from the poor or drain a with the Job 31:39 sharing it had grown with me for a father? fatherless. at the end of the book. strength in his Now. or even eat a crust of when bread alone. uprooting withhold pleasures all that I have ever accomplished. they up claims that I have eaten its produce without payment and eye. The recognition of compassion that Job gained from beyond the human sphere has had its full effect within the human sphere. Bildad show Shuhite. 33:19 Joshua 24:32 And from the The bones sons of Hamor. Shechem's father. He richest man ('ish) in the East 15. Joseph at which the people of Israel brought up from of Egypt were buried Shechem. not snuffed out the life of its owners. 13. whom Job 40:15-16 He But look now. 12. Gen.The Book of Job Job 31:12 Job 31:16-17 It would 51 be a fire consuming down to Abaddon. can lose its destructive Job 2: 1 1 Now when Job's three friends had heard came each of all the evils that had come upon him. inheritance of the descendants 14. ten thousand of cattle. when a mighty wind came in from the on wilderness and struck the four corners of the house. We remember: Job 1:18-19 While he was yet talking. in sons of an the portion of ground which Jacob bought from the Hamor the father Shechem for of a hundred Qesitoth. "Your sons and your of daughters eating and drinking wine in the house their oldest brother. It fell down . he bought for land on which a hundred Qesitoth the of piece of he had pitched his tent. and Zophar the Naamatite. Job 1:3 He head owned seven thousand sheep. five hundred she asses and was the head of a very large was the estate. three thousand camels. here is Behemoth eats I made along with you. His might is in the muscles of his belly. were another one came in and said. after character and become an act of simple Job's return. it became Joseph.
sym bolic of feminine corruption: 2Kings 9:30 Jer. 4:30 When Jehu her eyes. They are dead. 45:8 cinnamon and used in cooking. 18. of Job does not end with a deus ex machina or miracle or resur of death In recognizing the being of itself.52 Interpretation the young people. or all the things that a self." are. antimony. in the prophets. Job himself becomes word yom. "day. stones." is a fragrant bark of a tree that can be pow dered like Ps. so far for the things as I was able. the silver of of my God. too. all sorts of precious stones. We remember to his friends: his his day. in English. what do you mean that you dress in scarlet." Nor have they been forgotten: Job 42:1 1 to Then all of his brothers and sisters and all of his friends him came over his house and supped with him. It is from the words It is a new Job. And you. that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold. that you and adorned enlarge your eyes with paint? . besides great quantities of onyx colored for setting. Jezebel heard of it. keren happuli1: the first two ful. "cassia. They consoled and showed upon him compassion for all the evils which the LORD had brought him. and wood and stones wood. Then. including the being his 16. and I alone have escaped to tell thee. Job 3:1 Then. and she painted her head. also called pukf1. and of bronze for the things for the things bronze. of silver. As such it became. the iron for the things iron. qesi'a. the very fact that them a certain being and hence a The pukh names are the clearly intended to be very beauti daughters are mentioned by name gives But what of certain nobility. Job opened mouth and spurned 17. In ancient times it was ground into a powder. came to Jezreel. The Book rection. means "antimony": for house IChron 29:2 So I have the gold the provided the of for the things of gold. and used pens of the by women as eye makeup. and looked out of the window. O desolate one. Your your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad. this name? second word. and marble.
His bull has majesty. will give strength his king. They give him greater stature and a formidable look: adversaries of will ISam. all of them. 34:30 the And when Aaron and all the people of Israel saw Moses. to begin at the beginning. rays Hab. for I sons. and the Spirit of the LORD mightily upon David from that 1 Kings 1:39 day forward." 53 us look at the first word. flashed from his hand. and went to Ramah. and he veiled his power. and There Zadok the anointed horn of oil from the Solomon. "Long live King Solomon!" and all the people But. firstling them the word means the horn of a living horns animal: Deut. 33:17 ox. he anointed." means means so and together the more means "the Horn Mascara. 3:4 His brightness there was like the light. salvation. The people of Israel saw the face of Moses. Then they blew the trumpet. such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. the word itself can mean "a ray of light". behold." of but qeren much than A horn contained the oil used to anoint the said to kings of Israel: ISam. It "horn. tent. 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn his oil. and such are the thousands of Manasseh. rejected and being king to Israel? Fill your go. Moses' his face shone. said. 2:10 The them the LORD shall be broken will to pieces. hence. "How long him from will you grieve over over Saul. and anointed him in the midst of came brothers. my derides my enemies." provided for myself a king of among his ISam. My mouth rejoice in thy . "My exalted in the LORD. and exalt the his And so it comes to mean all these things for a human being: heart exults in the LORD. to the ends of the earth. 2:1 Hannah horn also prayed and said. qeren. have Samuel. The LORD to judge the horn ends of the of earth. The homs of an animal are his strength and his defense. against he thunder in heaven. I will send you Jesse the Bethlehemite. 16:1 The LORD seeing I have horn with oil. But the root also means "to shine": Exod. and they were afraid to come near him. because I ISam. until in to speak with him.The Book of Job Now let name "horn. that the skin of skin of face shone. and his homs are the of a wild with he shall push the peoples. he and went and Moses would put the veil upon his face again. And Samuel priest took the rose up.
and the wall of the people shall go will fall down flat. 29:12 And you shall make horns for it blood on its four corners. as soon as hear the sound of the trumpet. stronghold and my refuge. And. the bull and put it upon the blood you shall horns 1 Kings 2:28 of the altar with your finger. He has raised up a hom for his the people of people. Joab and the rest of the pour out at the base of the altar. too. the hom played a central role in the place of worship: Exod. 148:14 lamp for my anointed. thou . praise all his saints. my me from violence. its horns shall of one piece with and shall it. 132:17 will bring these meanings together: There I will make a horn to sprout for David. then city all the people shall shout with a great shout. my rock. cymbals.54 Interpretation Ps." boastful. When the although news came to for Joab had supported Adonijah he had not supported Absalom Joab fled to the tent of the LORD and caught hold of the horns of the altar. it was the source of all kinds of music: Joshua 6:5 And you when they make a long blast with the ram's horn. I have driven my horns into dust. I have for prepared a Ps. to the sound the hom. "Do not lift For thou exalted. for Israel who are near to him. 89:17 I say your to the horn. of course. Linguistically. trumpets." not and to the wicked. and you shall take part of the of overlay it with bronze. my shield and the horn savest my salvation. "Do glory boast. and the IChron. the phrase "hom mascara" of works well. 22:3 of My God. 15:28 So all up every Israel brought up the of man straight before him. my savior. by thy favor our horn is This is what Job had in I have the mind when he said: Job 16:15 sewed sackcloth over my skin. 75:4 up Ps. 27:2 be Exod. Often the Psalmist Ps. art the of their strength. Praise the LORD! As I once before had occasion to mention. in whom I take refuge. and made loud music on harps and lyres. because it eas and ily blends "the hom into the language along of with such other phrases as "hom oil" of my salvation": 2Sam. LORD with ark of the covenant of the and shouting.
"I the will see you. he said to Sarai his behold. "She is my Gerar sent and took Sarah. Although it is wilt thou slay an innocent people? clear that as a young man. "I will serve you seven years daughter Rachel. barren. by conjoining the Its bare word queren ("hom") to the pukh in such a natural and ordinary way. it is a subject in itself which would understood on own terms. Leah's soft. Abram's And ultimately. From the The subject first arises with respect beginning we are shown the difficulties involved: When he know that Egyptians me. the author has silently but mention force to fully robbed the word of its sting. "Behold. has a child: Leah knows only Gen. he opened her womb. there is also good. 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters. And Leah conceived and bore a son. they praised her to Pharaoh. but Rachel was beautiful and lovely." "Lord. will they will say. and his house because of Sarai. so as to not mislead ourselves. 19. 12:11 was about to enter you are a woman beautiful to Egypt. Jacob preferred Rachel's beauty to Leah's soft eyes: Gen. to Sarai. then they kill but they let you live. also complicated The Biblical The view of beauty since is and. and when . for she is Now Abimelech had not approached her. wife. And the But the LORD afflicted taken Pharaoh's house. Rachel. the and the name of the younger was name of the older was eyes were Leah. 20:2 And Abraham Abimelech said of king a of Sarah his wife. with great plagues Pharaoh wife. is no longer sufficient conjure up a degrading image of womankind. a prima facie assumption that the beautiful is that That statement is by no means intended to imply Plato was unaware of the problematic character of that assumption: only and think of such people as Meno Alcibiades. Jacob loved Rachel. so he said. her beauty almost led to the death of an innocent. cluded however. in have to be Song its of Songs. As is the case in the dialogues of Plato. and she . we shall have to consider the full list. 'This is his wife'.The Book of Job To word 55 put the argument simply. man's wife. But God sister." And to came Abimelech in dream by night. saw Gen. We have not. for your younger and he said. And when the princes of woman was Pharaoh into her. 29:31 gratitude each time she When the LORD but Rachel was saw that Leah was hated. Gen. and said to him. you are a a dead man." But it is not clear what the reader is to think. because of the woman whom you have taken. though perhaps somewhat naive man.
Bethlehem). saying. saw that she bore Jacob me no children.56 Interpretation called upon his name Reuben. for another And her soul was departing his (for name died). and I die!" shall Then Rachel said.' and she had hard labor. but he did into Leah's tent. for the way of women is upon So he searched. "God has judged me." "Any one with whom you find your gods shall not live. Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel's saddle. therefore she called his name Dan. and take know that Rachel had stolen them. In the presence of our kinsmen not Now Jacob did I have that is yours. 30:6 When Rachel sister. and said." them. "May the LORD add to son!" Her demand was met. and sat upon all about the tent. her Nor is it clear what we are to think of charm: Gen. "Because the LORD has heard that I his name am hated. but his father buried Benjamin. "Fear called not. when she was now you will she and when they were still some distance from Ephrath. and she called Simon. And midwife said to as her. (that and she was on the way to Ephrath is." She my affliction. 31:32 it. When she finally does have another: a son of her own. surely now my husband will love conceived again and bore a son. And he went out of Leah's tent. And she her father. and entered Rachel's. in her hard labor. she envied or her and she said to Jacob. 35:16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. "Give children. he has given me this son also". "Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you. but did not find them. said to me. But Rachel always thinks in terms of battle and victory: Gen. for she said. "Because the LORD has looked me. Then Rachel said. Laban felt . 30:1 Gen. and two maidservants. she reacts not with gratitude. and into the tent of the not find them. "With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. and have prevailed". the have son. but at a very heavy price: Gen. So Laban point out what went into Jacob's tent. but did not find the household gods. Rachel travailed. but with a demand for Gen. she called his name Benoni. voice and given me a has also heard my son". So Rachel died. 30:24 and she called me another his name Joseph. so she called his name Naphtali.
behold. 16:12 And he sent. David was beautiful: brought him in. "Arise. the [beautification] in it. was Joseph himself beautiful. he disdained appearance. the . 25:3 Now the name of the man was woman was of good Nabal. Nonetheless. And after a time his wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. . Abigail: ISam. him. "Lie with master's me. which and having him he had was for anything but the food he ate. they first seven fat cows. and the name of his wife Abigail. whom we saw at work in the note to Job 6:11. and saw and him. and up the there came up out of fed in the reed grass. 35:33 You shall not thus pollute the land in and no expiation shed which you live. 41:2 and fat. Nile seven cows beautiful and And the thin and gaunt cows ate On the other hand beauty as a fictional goal is at times implicitly praised: Num. Now he he. Joseph. And the LORD said. 39:6 So he left no concern he had in Joseph's charge. he was a Calebite. for when this is ISam. for blood be made pollutes the land. beautiful eyes." ISam. and said. for it. Now Joseph handsome (beautiful) and good-looking. for he He charm was but ruddy beautiful in was charming. a youth.The Book of Job But perhaps most 57 soft- telling of all is the ultimate superiority of Leah's spoken son Judah over that master magician. and not to allow oneself to fall under the sway of that one cannot is to miss a great deal of the Bible. 17:42 And the Philistine looked. and desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. The man was churlish and understanding and beautiful. Deut. anoint and was ruddy. blood that is by the blood of who shed There is a law: and see among the captives a beautiful woman. . Gen. totally forget his There relation was also to Bath Shibah. and had and was handsome. David. except can for him the land." Then come the pointless cows: Gen. but the ill-behaved. but all that again it led to grave problems. 21:11 you have but it must be read in the light of Cozbi. .
and she was a beautiful woman. lie with her. had a beautiful sister.58 Interpretation Tamar was a wonderful person. crown of cut there was no blemish in him. The very beautiful. and the mule went under the thick caught branches was of a great oak. but beauty did him in as well: 2Sam. he weighed weight. though I do not its importance: 2Sam. loved her. but king knew her . and brought her to the maiden was king. her. and being stronger to me. if I had dealt the will aloof." hand. he took hold sister. while the mule that was under him went on. . For the understand sake of completeness I shall add the rest of the story. and when the king came to see him. Absalom and struck him. hair his head. 14:25 Now in all Israel there was no one so much to be praised for his his hair it of beauty head as Absalom. 14:27 There were name was Tamar. 18:10 And a certain man saw it. one daughter whose Next came poor Abishag: 1 Kings 1:3 of So they sought for a beautiful maiden throughout all the territory Israel. his foot to the . every And when he the his head (for at the end of cut year he the used to cut of it. alive and thrust them into the heart Absalom. from the sole of . "Come. I saw Absalom hand. Amnon said to the king. 2Sam. Joab's armor-bearers. with listen to her. and told hanging in an oak. But he would not he forced her. and after a time Amnon. the and she became the king's not. and left hanging between heaven earth. while he was still in the surrounded And ten young men. David's son. whose name So Tamar. "I king). born to Absalom three sons. two chanced to and upon hundred the shekels by the king's And Absalom was servants of David. and found Abishag the Shunammite. oak. when was heavy meet on him. David's son. then you yourself would have stood not waste time like this you. 13:1 Absalom. that I may eat from her brought them near him to eat. my than she. nurse and ministered to him. his head and fast in the oak. Absalom he riding his mule. he it)." with And he took three darts in his of hand. "Pray let my sister Tamar come and Now was make a couple of cakes But and said when she in my sight. and lay Her brother was not so wonderful. and pretended to be ill. and killed him." of her. Amnon lay down. but her beauty caused her disaster: 2Sam. On the other Joab." treacherously against his life (and there is nothing hidden from Joab said. "Behold.
for fair to behold. that you what do you mean that you dress in Your beautify yourself with ornaments of gold. but it is The not clear what rest speak one kind way of a person she or the other has become by the end of the book. Men beautify so that gold. and there is little reason to believe she deserved her fate: Esther 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal crown. and He had brought up Hadassah. that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. a there will be rottenness. and what I have seen to be good and to be beautiful is to eat drink and find enjoyment of in all the toil with which one toils which under the sun the few days his life God has given him. Ps. and instead Isa. LORD is to be beauty is vain. Jer. 5:18 Behold. for themselves: is Ps. for the customs of the peoples are false. 48:2 the beautiful in elevation. baldness. 3:11 He has made everything beautiful in its time. Your eyes will see the king in his beauty. Mordecai adopted her his own daughter. instead of beauty. and and do not capture you with Prov. the daughter of his for she had neither father nor mother. they seek your life. the maiden was beautiful lovely. Do not desire her beauty in your heart. when she has done vile . therefore God has blessed for ever. Mount Zion. 4:30 hair. for of a this is his lot. as and when her father and her mother died. 10:3 lovers despise you. 31:30 Charm is deceitful. in she was order to show the peoples and the princes her beauty. her eyelashes. Esther 2:7 uncle. 33:17 Jer. yet so that he cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end. of perfume Isa. and instead of a rich robe. 45:2 You are the most beautiful of the sons of men. And you. Jer. is the joy of all the earth. 6:25 far north. 11:15 What right has my beloved in my house. they fasten it with hammer and nails cannot move. 3:24 Instead girdle.The Book of Job Vashti's 59 beauty did not help her. scarlet. Eccles. and instead of well-set that stretches afar. in let her Prov. but a woman who fears the praised. that is Esther. a girding of sackcloth. it it and worked with an axe with silver and by the hands of a craftsman. also he has put eternity into man's mind. Esther's beauty saved her people. shame. O desolate one. they will behold a land rope. grace you poured upon your lips. the city of the great King. Eccles. A tree from the forest is cut down.
9:15 that thirst. 27:4 any passer-by. faint for Amos 8:13 Zech. to feast their eyes on It was its roots went beautiful in its greatness. raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre.60 Interpretation deeds? Can vows and sacrificial flesh avert your doom? Can tree. . were blameless in your ways from the day you were created. the plane garden of of nothing compared with its branches. and its heart was its height. you. All who pass along the way clap their hands at you. Your heart was proud because of your beauty. I you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. he shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. lo. and multiplying your Your borders are in the heart of the seas. made they hung Ezek. to perfect your The men of men of Arvad Gamad and Helech were upon your walls round about. and your cloth. and went forth among the nations you because beauty. 28:15 You their shields upon your walls round about. renown. in the length of its branches. beautiful you you are to them like one who sings love songs with a what voice and plays well on an instrument. they shall devour and . . and grew embroidered fine flour came and honey and oil. And silk. you ate raiment was of fine linen. of your your renown exceedingly beautiful. but they will not do it. your builders beauty. "But trusted in beauty. for they hear young and men shall say. nor the fir trees equal its boughs. day the beautiful of virgins and the The LORD hosts will protect them. and say to him. high Eden envied it. and played the harlot because of your . but with the roar of a great tempest he fire to it. cast you to the ground. iniquity was found in you. I made it beautiful in the mass and all the trees of its branches. offering made harlotry. 33:32 And. full of wisdom and perfect in beauty till . 31:7 exposed you before kings. and were in your towers. no tree in the God was like it in beauty. I have cast it out. . towered proud of Ezek. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because it and set its top among the clouds. 16:13 Thus at the daughter was called the perfection of you were made Jerusalem. that were in the garden of God. You to regal estate. 2:15 with goodly fruit". The cedars in the garden of God trees could not rival were as it. Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection. they perfect your beauty. they hiss and wag their heads Ezek. you then exult? The LORD once called you." I Ezek. "A green olive beautiful will set Lam. Son of man." Ezek. the joy of all of with gold and this the city which earth?" the beautiful and silver. says the Lord GOD. for it upon was perfect through the splendor which I had bestowed your you. "Is beauty. and its branches will be consumed. I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. and lavished your harlotries your on any passer-by at the head of every street you yourself built lofty place and prostituted your beauty. for down to abundant waters.
but died for his sin. but only a dowry. The text continues: Num. how good and how fair it men they shall shine on his land. corners of be full like bowl. he those who gathered of among the company of themselves together against the LORD in the was not own company Korah. the next phrase Num. Noah. at the door of the tent of meeting. for like the jewels of a Yea. son of Hoglah. whereas in the Book of Job the inheritance is purely for the the daugh ters. 26:33 Now Zelophehad the and the names of the son of oc Hepher had of no sons. 27:4b Give to us a possession alongside our father's brothers. were but daughters: daughters Tirzah.The Book of Job tread and 61 down the slingers. Milcah. and he had no sons. and Tirzah. young be! Grain shall make the flourish. Had there been a son. should the name of our father be taken away from his The main argument here concerns the preservation of the name of the sake of father. 27:5 Moses brought their before the LORD. Zelophehad Mahlah. Thus. and before the leaders and all the congregation. Our father died in the wilderness. The names of his daughters Mahlah. drenched like the God will save them crown shall the altar. so cannot convey the same sense of equality that one feels strongly in the verse Job 42:15b and their father gave them an inheritance alongside their brothers. Noah. you shall give them . given what he had seen in the Tempest: case of Num. And they stood before Moses. Perhaps the best way of understanding the significance of what has curred is to compare it to the case of the daughters of Zelophehad: Num. It should also be noted that it was Job's own decision to change his will. tance only would not The first thing to note is that the daughters of Zelophehad received an inheri because their father had no son. 20. Milcah. the daughters have received an inheritance. And are the LORD said to Moses. from the families were: Manasseh the Joseph. 27:4a Why family. saying. On that of day the LORD their for they are the flock his people. 27:1 Then drew son of and near the son of son of daughters of Zelophehad the Hepher. son of Manasseh. "The daughters Zelophelad right. Machir. a and they shall drink their blood like wine. Hoglah. of Gilead. Num. and before Eleazar the priest. and new wine the maidens.
And every daughter who of the people of Israel shall be her father. tribe. so and added to the inheritance of the tribe to they belong. These LORD the commandments and the ordinances which the commanded by Moses at to the people of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan Jericho. And if he has daughter. So no of inheritance the tribes shall be transferred from Israel of one tribe to another. tribe to another.62 Interpretation possession of an the inheritance of their inheritance among their father's brothers and cause father to pass to them. and Noah. then his inheritance to his brothers. tribal the women inheritance is paramount. however. came near son of Manasseh. This is what the LORD commands concerning the daughters of of Zelophehad. saying. "The tribe of the sons Joseph is right. and of LORD to give the inheritance my lord was commanded by the Zelophehad our brother to his of the people of daughters. the tribe and their inheritance will be taken from inheritance Israel of fathers. then you shall cause no his inheritance to you shall give pass to his daughter. houses houses of and spoke before Moses and before the leaders. 'Let within them marry whom they think best. Hoglah. In the case of Zelophehad. inheritance turns be little more than a grand . for Mahlah. for each of the people of shall cleave to its own inheritance. The only. the inheritance of the people of Israel shall not be transferred from one for every one of the people of Israel shall cleave to inheritance of the tribe of his possesses an inheritance in any tribe fathers. then will inheritance be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which the they belong. Although the genuine concern words "Let them marry welfare of whom they think best" clearly own show for the the women. The heads of the fathers' there was a further complication: Num. they said. Tirzah. And you shall say to the a man people of Israel. "The LORD commanded my lord to the land for inheritance by lot to the people of Israel. Milcah. the heads fathers' of the of the people of give Israel. 'If dies. But if they are married to any of the sons of the other tribes Israel then their inheritance will be taken from the inheritance which of our fathers. were married to sons of their father's are brothers. so that of wife to one of the of family of the tribe of the people of Israel may possess the inheritance every one his fathers.' " The daughters Zelophehad did as the LORD commanded the Moses. it inheritance. son of Joseph. they shall marry the family of the tribe of their father. and the Husbands are immediately out to found for from their dowry. daughters of Zelophehad. 36:1 houses of of the families of the of the sons of fathers' Gilead the the sons Machir. And their when will be taken away from the lot of our the jubilee of the people of Israel comes." of our And Moses commanded the people of according to the word of the LORD. and has no son.
This led to a shift in Job's standing of and sensitivity to beauty. ways must be taught they must be learned. the other cried beginning The was a need "unjust. Without whole. "just" by the For Job. there would be no bread. there would no way to live as "one of com. . This insight. But men are such that the stories that teach these ways cannot be shared unless they touch upon "the first a things" and tell of a world which holds all of our ways together. led. They be taught. be and of the ways. A small change in a last will and testament was the result. by the fathers and some by the mothers. of his daughters. there and us. the way to bake bread.The Book of Job Job's daughters. the notion that things had their own selves apart seal upon them and were what recognition they were in them under from human need. and a need of clarity. however. Human sociality way to plant men work together and it requires means nothing more than that by day in the evening they talk. The inheritance is outright and absolute. Could this be world part of a legacy that Job has brought back from Job to very large and to a very small world? was prepared The way by the names that gave the slight shift the author gave to our understanding of worlds. for clarity that came about when his world began to fall asunder led Job to the need for autonomous understanding. that that Job has established the right of women to own and hold a property. beauty. in turn. as we have seen. Of what do they speak? Of the com." Out of the whirl of the Tempest came the notion of the signets. and it is the children who must learn them. the way to go out on the hunt." clashing for human One said while friendship. nothing is said dowries. men are empty and life is without taste." Without these would must be no life. So far In the case of means 63 or about husbands as I can see. the and all way to These some bury the dead. The needs of man may better be served being open to the excellence of things as they grow of themselves than by by seeing them as being directed towards those needs. to the emergence of the nurturing and swaddling God as distin guished from the making and constructing God. the two refused to mesh. and hence to ultimately questions concerning those accounts of "the first The need things.
Socratic Eros in
Plato's Charmides is
an evocative and
consideration and a
Three formal factors
corresponding points of entry into the work. First, the Charmides is aporetic, definitional dialogue, a dramatized discussion in which Socrates
term, in this
but fail to formulate
the question "What is
the end of the text, Plato encourages us to review the proposed
definitions (as Socrates
to scrutinize the processes of argu
investigation has derailed in
dialogue, featuring Socrates
as a participant
in the discus
on the next
also as a reporter of
the proceedings to
casting his dialogue Plato
the opportunity to as
sume the role of
and to evaluate
the obvious care Plato takes to give the dialogue a
dramatic setting demands that we pay close attention to details of characterization, locale, and time. Most studies of the Charmides have focused
the definitions of
sophrosyne presented within
the text and the complex and
of the concept of a approach
the dialogue the
the second and third routes,
dramatic frame, in
consider a theme not
with reference to
Socrates tell the
prefaces the elenctic core of the
his introduction to Charmides, Socrates
conspicuous elements of and at
an erotic encounter.
says that when
before, he had just
back from battle
stamping into the wrestling school (palaistra) of Taureas and met several of his acquaintances, to whom he gave a report of the fighting. After spending an
wandered undetermined time on this
able return to
in Athens. He
subject, he turned the
toward the latest
happenings in the
whether there were
1998, Vol. 26, No. 1
proven themselves exceptional
their wisdom or
(153a-d). It is
noting that Socrates (peri on in
ta nun) and about the physical attractiveness of the youths.
setting the Charmides in a be stimulated both physically and intel
one another's presence.
are reminded of the
Ctesippus try to entice Socrates into a new telling him that they and "a great many other young men good (203b).2 wile away their time there in discussion Already our
link between eros, the desire for beauty,
phy, the desire for wisdom, though the nature of that link is not
asked about the
began to fill the room,
Socrates, than a Critias told him, were the
that this cousin
Charmides (154a). We learn
young immediate discomfiture
common consent the soon
age group. of all
entered, to the
to his anonymous
am no good at measuring.
ruler when me.
beautiful young men. Nearly all men at that Charmides seemed just then remarkably tall
effect on all the men
present, from the
to the oldest, all of whom gazed upon
him "as if he
use of words and
images here is
What I have
translated as "I am
simply a blank Atechnos leuke stathme
make no extended make
meaning from the fact that a line coated with visible measuring marks on limestone or marble,
white chalk could not
at a man who seems to
perhaps of stone.
then says that
who was also
present, remarked upon
and added that his body singularly fine (pankalos) that it could easily cause one to forget the young man's face altogether (154d). There was, then, something unreal about attractiveness. He was like a sculpted image, with a superhuman
ual with a
that they were looking at an individ distinctive identity. The very magnitude of this distinguishing feature to his other admirers, but the
Eros in Plato 's Charmides
in the him.
that beautiful youths
admitting his wonderment, reminds his qua beautiful now seem much
the same to
not convinced that
needed to see
possessed, besides his specifically, "a
stimulating qualities, "one other little (154d-e).4 When Critias had answered that
kalos kai agathos, Socrates suggested by means of a discussion. In order to
that part of the young man
any impression of unseemliness, Charmides over. By making this
politesse older man
suspected of sexual motives often
approaching a youth could easily be partly for this reason that fathers would in such settings, to shield the boys from
See Symp. 183c-d, Lys. 223a; Dover 1978, pp. 82-83.). By soul, telling Critias just before that he was interested above all in Socrates turned the banter of the older men away from their carnal appreciation
of the youth.
up the issue Socrates
that this meeting does at
least have the
appearance of a seductive approach. enough
for headaches, the malady about which Charmides had recently been complaining. It may be that Critias suggested this scheme because it seemed to him a less erotically
Charmides to them.
that Socrates knew a
than a removal of the garments
In any event, it worked,
his narrative, telling his among the
proach caused a great ruckus man
neighbor aside opted
ap sitting in the palaistra, with every room on the bench for Charmides next
to himself. He eventually
to sit between Socrates and
sudden nearness threw
At this point, my friend, I lost my bearings (eporoun), and my previous confidence in my ability to speak with him easily was knocked out of me. When Critias told him that I
was the one who
knew the cure, he looked
right in the
eyes with an
and was on the verge of
me a question.
Everyone in the
palaistra gathered round us
circle, and it was right at that moment, my noble
that I saw what was
myself, and I came to regard Cydias as the
wisest counselor with respect
beautiful boy, he fawn before
gave the a
advice to someone:
care not to go as a
a piece of
In the Laches Socrates context of Laches agree that one speak easily Though of courage resisting temptation and of the indulgence (191d). at Symp. these virtues were often considered a rare combination. citation of Cydias is significant have from the poet. After tality seek marriage and family. and it can of that drives a consideration of course. Still. 221d). was a enough to see that Socrates' typical understanding of the word's meaning. (155d-e) The Charmides is which is all we only source for this Cydias fragment (Page 1962. in in the which self-control and exhibits itself in can actions. 97). One question is help the the elenchus of the of fact that Socrates apparently possesses the virtue? The first Charmides. an elenctic investigation begun. Charmides. but before elaborating its so far from the time Socrates Charmides. entered the palaistra to his actual meeting Sophrosyne. "oddness. if ally exclusive (North 1966. our Socrates' for Plato's treatment importance I wish of Socratic eros to review what we have learned with in this dialogue. Diotima explains that while those who want to gain a kind of physical immor eros ing theme in the Charmides. and another is implicit: What conse for our understanding of sophrosyne and of this dialogue follow from question meaning of sophrosyne has not yet Plato to frame the upcoming discussion two questions for us rather than one. 714). from sex been Since self-control. it is easy ability to overcome his immediate lust for Char mides introduces one possible definition of the term dramatically.68 I Interpretation thought that I myself cure had been captured by a beast like that. and perhaps it is surprising that we should find courage and sophrosyne complementing one another in his character. But Socrates is a rare creature (Alcibiades not alto remarks on gether his atopia. important texts on the theme of eros. audience familiar courage with it certainly springs to the mind of a later the Symposium." p.5 Furthermore. 306b). those who are more inclined to leave an intel- . Although Plato makes a connection between courage and sophrosyne in other dialogues (Grg. the setting of this well dialogue some immediately following of the battle at Potidaea may that Socrates displayed have reminded Plato's and original readers exceptional courage in that battle. We might see from Plato of the unity of virtue. in which Alcibiades praises Socrates sophrosyne both for and for (219d-220c). 507a-c. The second leads us back into Socratic eros. I managed when he asked me if I knew the for his headache. but more particularly we have notion geous coexisting and here a suggestion an augmented coura of Socratic sophrosyne. not mutu Pit. one of Plato's most enhance our understand she has explained to Socrates that is ultimately a longing for immortality through procreation (201c-208e). Diotima's lecture to Socrates in the Symposium is. particularly restraint indulgence. has ual not yet the topic of the discussion that takes up most of the mentioned. in these small dramatic hints such a explicit: quences way that it poses What is sophrosyne? (159a). with some effort to answer that I did.
rather than ugly ones. he about what sort of a man a good man will activities will pursue. and and since the greatest kinds "by justice (dikaiosyne) sophrosyne. Surely he too [like the hoping to child] to find some specimen of beauty with whom to reproduce. distinguished. least if self-control might presence. is. was considered the external we might manifestation of that virtue's with sophrosyne. and good. like his describes. at we observe that Plato has indicated to us through met setting and action that when Socrates his friends in the be He was. certainly will he would never anything ugly. Since love loves of wisdom both far" beauty are and wisdom (204b)." he says. 210a-212a). at least potentially. palaistra he had sophrosyne in his soul. but generally speaking he Socrates' beauty of all men (154b-c). Soc men met more or (as the blank ruler) confesses to his friend that he finds all young less equal in beauty. despite body. face. who be taught impregnated with soph It became quickly obvious that Charmides met the first qualification. and gifted soul. Narrative. someone who is both kotos and. the lover will prefer a combination of these qualities. just as a fawn . he the company goodness of a person and will if he should also come upon a beautiful. have we If the Socrates of the Charmides is a lover like that Diotima even should Charmides have turned out to be an ideal soul mate (the would passed term is hackneyed but strangely appropriate here). Like children. Socrates beyond his infatuation with the young man's individual beauty and begun his when ascent toward universal. Socrates felt that he needed to speak with Charmides face to rosyne. like He this be very much drawn to this combination. the spiritual a man looks for find a suitable wife to bear his goes out to a good match. inward say. know that Critias' assurance that his cousin's soul was beautiful. hoping to find young men who could were both kalos and wise. he implies that either at the moment he shortly "Charmides or Charmides universal. pregnant If this is the case. In he will be well-supplied with words about (arete). Therefore he attracted to beget offspring with beautiful bodies for his procreative intentions. thereafter seemed he had already started the movement to the just then (tote) to be remarkably tall and beauti appreciates the ful to young We me. eternal rates beauty (Symp. to quotation of return Cydias. Indeed. and what (209a-c) sorts of Returning the to the Charmides. then he is a man and old he will desire both man impregnate father be a another and to give will go out birth himself. he tual lover when he went out merely acting like Diotima's spiri to the palaistra.Drama. try to teach the other. dikaios and sophron: If anyone should even be pregnant in his of soul with these virtues when [dikaiosyne and sophrosyne] enough from the time to his youth. For the second. who had warned the lover that would one could be overtaken and consumed by a beautiful boy. lectual or spiritual and Eros in Plato 's Charmides 69 legacy hope lover to produce who wisdom (phronesis) and excellence (arete) (208e-209a).
has not always been recognized as such. Socrates. This is a remarkable passage for several reasons.6 Third. First. For of example. by having Socrates for a metaphor erotic pursuit that would have been familiar to his readers.7 as the fawn and the object of figures We might expect that the image his desire (the eromenos) would function the other way around. or as a hunter tracking game. Jowett's translation to make it approximate a more conven tional arrangement: . here appetite cite Socrates' having greater of this line urgency than his Cydias Plato appropriates sexual appetite. with trust in my strength. inversion the expected im age. reveals to his confidant that the actually foreshadows the sent Charmides' swarm of lovers detached sudden proximity of the youth of composure him reeling into elenctic aporia aporia. the perception of their own lack knowledge. an pp. The bewilderment greater engendered by the Socratic elenchus ideally spurs the of interlocutors to and self-awareness. 81-91. of citation of the line from Cydias. does indeed give of the hunter and the eromenos the part of the hunted. but it seems surprising that Socrates should choose (or perhaps construe) a version of the predator-prey image in which the lover (erastes) figures as the lion. Such metaphors are similar to the common compari game son of sexual pursuit to p. The usual formulation of prey lighting upon the erastes the part the metaphor comparing an erotic pursuit to a beast its quarry. This physiological loss in which the dialogue concludes. but did not drink its blood. passion and causes consider the significance of Cydias' The second striking point about the passage not is that turn a disconcerting. Sim sus ilarly. Halperin 1985. (Cited as an image for erotic capture by Dover 1978. In both cases. with who had been observing the behavior of amusement. right out from under hind. hunting (Dover. I caught a fawn in my claws. Socrates' sexual arousal here leads him to a new awareness of his ceptibility to advice. just so do lovers love 165). 1978. stretches the Charmides text enough For example.) his first speech Concluding motives of in the Phaedrus. Socrates' (241d).70 be Interpretation reduced to a chunk of meat by a lion. 241e). of which three come immediately to mind. fond of lambs. there c-d: seems to be a probable sexual connotation to Theognis 1278 A a lion. 58. the aporia has a beneficial element. Socrates begins to launch into epic (as wolves are he admits he has done. in singing. him to finally renewed reflection. consists in part in his intellectual Socrates' ability to unpleasant) event into an sophrosyne. "As which he denounces the selfish lovers boys" under the spell of eros. potentially embarrassing (if opportunity for detached introspection indicates that shown in his control of his desire. p.
who. when. while that he found himself in the role of the fawn If Socrates' we understand quotation of Plato is here whom foreshadowing the end of the Socrates had first approached as Cydias in this sense. 92. "So Charmides. and to imagine Socrates as the erastes and Charmides as the eromenos. is aware that he poses some danger to the younger man (Nussbaum 1986. he must mean us to go along with the game. "don't (176a-d). in speaking of a 71 well Cydias understood the nature of warns someone "not to bring the fawn in sight of the lion to be overcome by him. also reads the text in this way). to speak. lion. pursue.Drama. also interprets the quotation in this sense). and devour (McAvoy 1996. not for an individual whose beauty incites it. in which Charmides.8 and Eros in Plato's Charmides love. perceiving his craving for Charmides. and slyly Charmides have failed in his suggests that the pursued will become the When Socrates. Thus there to me to be use of at least two more likely readings. Narrative. we can see that dialogue. I thought how fair youth. Another reading. Critias. But what Cydias had advised the lover lion" fair youth was actually "take me care not to go as a fawn before a be devoured: eulabeisthai katenanta leontos seem Socrates' nebron elthonta moiran haireisthai kreon [my emphases]." realization of his desire to be Socrates. or . catch. 90. a phenomenon passive eromenos of a sexual in the nominally advances relationship not only enjoys his lover's but even reciprocates. "I with won't resist we continue to follow the erotic subtext of the dialogue we to "see him can view again. interprets the inversion his encounter as a simple rever sal of roles. we will be inclined to expect the metaphor of the lion and fawn to felt refer to Socrates and Charmides." he most likely means Charmides became. If we do. p. their attempt to tells Socrates that the two of them should cousin even define sophrosyne. so that the lion in the poem stands for carnal desire. Since Plato has seem contrived to make between Socrates handsome youth and and Charmides striking up so very much like a lover looking over a a conversation with him. If Charmides' either. only if a with the power to momentarily. Critias and and plotting that if Charmides is really intent says you" force to make Socrates submit playfully say that they to their will." for I felt that I had been by a sort of wild-beast lion." you resist me Socrates answers. which as a manifestation of anteros. Socrates to replies in kind then. respectively." no one will be able to resist him. this inverted image is to suppose that One way of understanding he means he has been snared by his lust for Charmides. perhaps to the point that the two roles are exchanged. and I think the one that most simply accommodates the text. He then realizes the version we can still as In this imagine Socrates the saliency would-be of the advice given of the and by Cydias. When Socrates says. Charmides thereafter spend every day together in will resort discussion. a lover might approach his beloved. p. he devoured appetite. "I myself to have been captured by a beast like that. pursuer.
to the With this present and as a could cause sophrosyne to settle into one's soul and to be in it (engenomenes kai parouses). his story about his meeting he had regained with Charmides and the others. which itself he beautiful words (logoi kaloi). 210a. Soc speak. met become should In the Phaedrus Socrates says that in He an ideal relationship eros be by anteros as a matter of course. With some confidence in that soul's made a proposal to the young man to next This would have been the Socrates in effect receptivity join him in constructing a kalos logos. Socrates' Halperin 1986.72 Interpretation merged.). In setting himself up practitioner of Zalmoxian medicine Socrates promised to impart sophrosyne to Charmides by means of kaloi logoi. came that Charmides would be willing to have Socrates' discussion of and was. in the hopes that soul would prove amenable to such a charm that Socrates had agreed to speak with him. or the entire body charm and the soul as well. If is . step. His focus shifted (not without difficulty) to up. 155e). someone suitable body. For Plato's treatment of see and anteros of in the Phaedrus Symposium. but also in Euthydemus and our very Charmides (222a-b). which cf. but he does not condemn the desires of either party. Then [the in a lover] must consider that beauty in souls is worth more than the beauty in his soul. as Diotima defines it: to sophrosyne. It was Socrates' version of the charm would Charmides' naturally prove to be an elenchus. will fall in love with him and care for him (210b-c)9 and give birth to the kinds of logoi that make young men better. was composed of A Zalmoxian physician would charm. The holistic Thracian had taught that other part of malady of the head the body could only be cured through a regimen of care any directed at apply the soul. philosophos (154e-155a). This cure he Thracian doctor working under the patronage of the god a Zalmoxis. relationship eros of their souls (255a-256e. bringing the soul to a healthy state consequently expediting bodily health (156d-157c). and actually help nurture the Symp. a neat and quotation of Cydias encapsulates this reversal of in Continuing told surprising image. Diotima's ladder lover standing drawn to a so unique after all soul Charmides' (step 3). The Charmides dramatizes the title character's expe Socratic eros the Symposium says that eros aroused a rience of (just as the Alcibiades I dramatizes Alcibiades' own first feelings roles Socrates' of anteros). Critias had quickened a his expectation by assuring Socrates moreover. he which rates says that once his composure and was able to consisted of a Charmides that the headache remedy he knew administered a leaf had to be had learned from concurrently with a charm (epode. The Alcibiades anteros not own corresponding only in Alcibiades himself. even if he has little to show on the that will be enough: the lover surface. cautions that the sexual desires couple on either side of the relationship should be kept in check so that the may enjoy each other's thoughts and pursue wisdom together. on Charmides' description Zalmoxian therapy and from the third rung of He was looking body (step 1) but realized in time that its beauty was not (step 2).
Charmides. 165b) kind remains and his agreement with Socrates that point must therefore of the be some of episteme (165c). In other dialogues. When Socrates Diotima's ladder: made an appreciation of the beauty of knowledge the observation about the benefits to a city of provisional being tance governed Critias' according to sophrosyne. expands his logos nomoi. Phil. the discussion possible Charmides an fixed for the meaning. e. What Socra present sophrosyne tes says about later in the dialogue could be said perhaps more naturally of dikaiosyne: A house city run in accordance with sophrosyne would certainly be run well. like walking and talking with deliberate. seeking to evaluate the others on the basis of their goodness and societal benefits. They consider kalon only in the first of these activities.Drama. level again. Now the third concep tion of sophrosyne. own" every member of a city. and. the element of to doing (163e-164d). expanded as a and usefulness (to ophelimon. their investigation still fo 64e) cuses on the quality of admirability in various practices. Indeed the Re principle followed by public is a much more extended discussion of nomoi than one's own is the Charmides. as would a so governed. diakaiosyne in Socrates mate also prompted on Critias to elevate the discussion to the next. The began (to Critias' consideration of sophrosyne as a form episteme with gignoskein statement that sophrosyne was the same as and know ing it oneself heauton. In the Charmides of sophrosyne Socrates. and Critias begin discussion by considering likely manifestations of that virtue quiet circumspection in practice. that he has both of the virtues required of sophrosyne and by a Diotiman lover. Rep. The first logoi that would ensue would and Eros in Plato 's Charmides the 73 (to be conversations about beauty kalon) of customs or laws (nomoi) and practices or activities (epitedeumata) their (210c). he did so with the definition of the virtue as accep of of "knowledge of the other knowledge and of knowledge itself (166c). and it may well be that Soc sophrosyne in the Charmides implies his concomi so tant possession of dikaiosyne. see Larson 1951).g. but leads the three Critias' definition in the things" of sophrosyne as "doing speakers sequences of dialogue ultimately to a consideration of the social con sophrosyne construed in various ways (171d-173d). about an individual soul (Charmides') to the of of a logos about It has been observed that the meanings sophrosyne and rates' dikaiosyne often apparent possession of overlap in Plato. and goodness (to agathon. Narrative. however. (17 le) Socrates. Soc rates argues for the identity of to kalon e. is accepted by Socrates and his interlocutors in the Republic as a definition for justice (433a). and so with everything else controlled by sophrosyne. (161b-163d).g. penulti rung (episteme). 457b). From that on on. "doing one's (to ta heautou prattein). possibility. showing modesty generally. keeping good things to one's own work (159b-160d). (160d-161b). (On the similarity in meaning Plato's dialogues. and benefits for individual a polis of a knowledge of knowledge .
vision. while in the Symposium acted in the guise of an he imagines how the actions of a philosopher- lover might be expressed in theory. Laches. especially the Symposium. more dogmatic treatment that his middle dialogues like the Re public would give to the ideas presented with less elaboration in the earlier "threshold" argued that Charmides ("premiddle" works. pp. Phaedo. The near as contemplation of the he can come to the vision of beauty beauty of the epistemai philosophy brings the lover as prompted itself. As an example. Rather. ideal youth with whom to give birth to such discourse. ostensibly. he as a solution to the question of sophrosyne. can reinforce the understanding of that topic we achieve through the other dialogues. The fact that Diotima's ladder in the Sym posium reaches no to the vision of the Beautiful in proaches such level in the Charmides drama has little itself but that Socrates ap relevance for the Forms when question of whether Plato had in mind a theory of he wrote the Charmides.10 By show reading the drama how one and narration of the Charmides "about" with frequent refer ence to other dialogues. 148291. he shows that the notion of the knowl- . 541-49). and Republic. pp. In the might Charmides he imagines how Socrates erastes. and Euthydemus would tions to the reader that could only be answered by a consideration writings with reference suggest ques of these early to the others and after the appearance of the middle dialogues (the Symposium. For and other Kahn has early dialogues or dialogues in Kahn's terms) partly in order to prepare his readers for the fuller. itself In the Symposium Diotima tells Socrates that the consideration of epistemai will allow the lover to see profound manifestation beauty in its of most and coax from him the kaloi logoi (210d). If he had I such a necessarily have allowed that Socrates had in Plato did not choose to introduce the theory and. 56-70. to topic. discussion before the topic of episteme came up. He dropped Socra ascent could go no further with him. as it turned out. Sadly for Socrates. my intention has been a certain to dialogue that is not. The discourse by the contemplation of pose the charm of knowledge here reminds us of the kaloi logoi that com comprise the therapy. 1988.74 Interpretation and the various epistemai. as well as the philosophoi logoi that Socratic lover's discourse in the Phaedrus (257b). the arguments of aporetic dia logues like the Charmides. In the Charm can Zalmoxis' ides these logoi Charmides tes' was not an out of the only be the elenchus. would not had. According to Kahn's theory of prolepsis. here eros. conclude with an observation about of the significance of the narrative and or "ingressive" drama earlier the Charmides for the proposed wrote the "proleptic" reading some years now of Plato's dialogues Plato by Charles Kahn. I am con Plato had developed have an vinced that when he wrote both dialogues idea of philo sophical love that he wanted to express through the character of Socrates. any case. Kahn 1996. Lysis. I do go not mean imply that Plato intended his original audience to back through the Charmides after kinds of point-to-point comparisons first reading the Symposium to find the I have been making.
as in the Protagoras and Euthydemus) are the Lysis and the Republic. p. 154). Plutarch. edge of good and and Eros in Plato 's Charmides sophrosyne 75 evil." this . proposed this activity in the belief that "surely something would come out of also Dover 1978. 187) It also preserves the ambiguity care the text: a someone on the subject of a provide a meal handsome boy 'to take lest. 25.Drama. Although the specific details of his interpretation would perhaps to the 550-51. 'Take care not to go as a meat. like in advising fawn in front of a lion." "dates" with conversations. as here. makes the comment that "a chatterbox [adoleschos] is simply a white it. 3. puts 6. more 184). 102. handsome boy. that thought the experience. [Cydias] said. the dialectically for trained philosopher kings of Republic V-VII (Kahn 1996. by which of fit neatly that there is a Socrates' ac tions and narrative anticipate of Plato's and more expositive." measuring-line about such a person. (For an pp. 187-88). the passage in the reading than the one I propose Plato meant to elicit. though rejected as a definition for courage and in the Charmides of and for the Euthydemus only becomes pp. 82). pp. . see the critique of Kahn 1988 by Griswold 1988. not opposing view. and Kahn (1996. McAvoy (1996. 7. 179-80) captures the ambiguity of but seems to indicate Charmides as the referent for the lion: "When speaking of a p. NOTES character other dialogues in which Socrates narrates directly (as opposed to narrating to another in the dialogue. Jowett 1961. has in common with the political art wisdom in the Lysis a possible political dimension understandable to which fully Plato's readers after they have met pp. mention from what poem that differed parenthetically the possibility that Plato puts a spin on its author intended because the quotation alone does not indicate that Cydias had in mind : Cydias' the metaphorical relation lion fawn : :: eromenos : erastes. For the 5. pp. in which Alcibiades tells the assembled guests that one of his early 1. The with Socrates included a bit of wrestling. he stood himself him how he in relation to Kydias with respect to wisdom. concern " for p. in the Laches. Cf. I to resist what had been an this. Narrative. address his remarks to a specific second-person listener. pp. p. he "[Cydias] for the beast. thing. the effect would have been an even more protracted pause 8. for example. 513f)innuendo of "one little see McAvoy 1996. Donald Watt's translation (1987. p. Bruell was aware of was part of this point of made by North (1966. Hyland (1981. principles 542-46). One of the more modest of the methodological which one finds elegant support is the point that the aporetic works dialogues look forward to the middle dialogues. 2. 73 n.' fawn into the just such a of I felt I'd been of caught by said Kahn (1996. he also thought. p. so to speak. Alcibiades." observation has been p. I would suggest dramatic prolepsis at work in the Charmides. (1977. 54-55." someone. possible sexual meaning that the topic of a discussion makes no difference to endlessly on any theme (Mor. since he can speak 4. If Plato's readers expected even from Cydias the more usual relation lion fawn :: erastes : eromenos. while the middle help the reader to a fuller understanding of the earlier works. who by this time was entirely smitten See Socrates. in Kahn's work 203-9.' seemed to me that I had fallen victim to a wild animal of sort. p.) kind kind of reading I have been pursuing here. together with his irresistible passion . but in those works he does not. the Symposium. theoretical explorations Socratic eros in the Phaedrus especially in the Symposium. 27) and. by Mahoney (1996. This recently. 146). well: "Socrates was not simply outside of himself. 1988. by way of advice to presence of a lion and be snatched as a portion creature. And gave some power his awareness of all his wisdom.
"Platonic Eros and What Men Call Love. Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature. Kahn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. D. lacked sophrosyne in its in its manifestation as a kind of knowledge. D.. 1996. Pp. The Collected Dialogues. 1951. 1962. 1986. Charmides. In T. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. as well as reference to the protreptic speeches Socrates loves to or address to much-admired youths like Charmides Plato and Clinias (in the Euthydemus) readers to come to beautiful boys like Lysias 10. "Socratic Politics Charmides. Pp. 1987. 1996. M." Dover. like Critias a member of the notorious oligarchic regime manifestation as Athens therefore also Peloponnesian war. 99-122. Ithaca. Greek Homosexuality. C. Hyland. It is with Menexenus. Athens: The Ohio University Press.. D. North. 1986. Human Journal of Philosophy 34: 183-99. 1988." Classical Antiquity 5: 60-80. Nussbaum. C. 1988. Benitez. 1981. H. "Plato and Erotic Reciprocity. Saunders. The Virtue of Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's Charmides. Potae Melici Graeci. Charmides. T. 1978. 1966. Hanmondsworth. M. trans. p. "Plato's Charmides and the Proleptic Reading of Socratic Journal of Philosophy 85: 541-49. "The Charmides: Socratic Sophrosyne. Edmonton: Academic Printing Publishing. 1961. ed. Cairnes. Pp. . Journal of Philosophy 85: 550-51.76 Interpretation 9. Sophrosyne.." and also reasonable to suppose that intended his to the Charmides ruling and the prejudice that after the Charmides." REFERENCES Bruell.4).. "self-control. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. University Larson. MA: Harvard University Press. "Unifying Ancient Philosophy 5: Halperin. C. Eng: Penguin. Page." Mahoney. 1977. In E. 1996. "Carnal Knowledge in the ern Charmides. trans. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. Griswold. Plato: Early Socratic Dialogues. NY: Cornell University Press." and Self-Knowledge: An Interpretation of Plato's Interpretation 6: 141-203. Ed. B. D. eds. 63-103. 270) also has the Symposium and in these men philosophical noticed the connection between the logoi Socrates' shared by the lovers natural described in Socrates' conversations with attractive an interlocutors: "It is flirtatious to recognize with logoi implicit reference to conversations handsome like Meno. Watt." Dialogues of Plato." 161-204. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. L. 163-209. E. Hamilton H. 1985. and Jowett. J. Kahn (1996. "The Platonic Synonyms dikaiosyne nal sophrosyn and American Jour of Philology 72: 395-414. K. Plato. Cambridge." South Dialogues and with Plato (Apeiron 29. McAvoy. C.
Paine failed to grasp the consistency of Burke's judgement because he failed to grasp the reasons for Burke's support of the Americans. Public had decayed in both instances into hatred and revenge. 26. Like Marx. He wrote the following Burke in Capital: "The romantic sycophant who in the pay of the laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution English oligarchy played the just as. because he thought that both revolutions supported the rights of man. His own Whig party with his condemnation of the French Revolution was inconsistent went so his for the Americans. Burke's apparent inconsistency was also criticized by Paine. 1 . in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles. and on prudential about grounds. He was the American Revolution because their of against Parliament during indignation. and one must ex as plain peculiar defense understanding of justice liberty they relate to prudence. posed the revolution in France because their doctrine the rights of man was leading ness anarchy and a subsequent military despotism.Liberty and Revolution in Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol Mark Kremer The University of Chicago INTRODUCTION Two of the most noteworthy and seminal events and on during Burke's life were the American French Revolutions. Marx to as to attribute Burke's of apparent lack of principle his love of lucre.'" any essential difference between the two revolu tions. and his himself. Burke them to threat of tyranny less from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie and from interpretation. No. if one is to make sense of his differ judgements his the American and the French and Revolutions. Fall 1998. was becoming of a tyranny. was an out-and-out bourgeois. Vol.2 Burke's defense opposition to the of the influence American Revolution is properly seen in light of his of theory or abstract ideas on political life. he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy. He op spirited saw the aristo- justified by a legal doctrine sovereignty. He did not support the Amer ican Revolution because it He defended it ent protected the absolute right to freedom and equality. because he thought both were part of an historical movement towards not see Marx did freedom. He them have wrote judgements thought support formed judgements far on extensively on both.
The American The British do rebels are not only thought of as authority enemy.78 Interpretation privilege. The law from corrupting one another. he also famous for arguing that policy needs to be guided by prudence. On temptation. It is. because it must regulate both the relation between citizens as well as the relation between citi ciation zens. see his thought and his peculiar genius. A disobeyed be effectual. The Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777) is an excellent portrayal of how Burke understood the conflicting aspects of justice and how he managed those conflicts in the defense of political liberty. one gains the distance faced philosophy The without abstracting from the concrete political problems by citizens and statesmen. Yet. In doing so. not disobedient want to Parliament and unfaithful to En them. Burke's rhetoric and reasoning appreciate the broadest questions about justice must and government. absolute and abstract character of cannot theory is a poor guide principle. but treasonous criminals. one learn to the universal and permanent problems of political life in his treatment of the political of issues of his time. he had to reflect on politics as a encompass whole. there is a strong of as the part of the British. Its force . In order to exact wage defeat the Americans. in order to persuade his audience about the meaning To events. and it is no small thought that part of the art of the statesman to they had their limitations. yet it must also execute partially American traitors. equitableness of the because it is threatened a two different and fronts. Burke's defense ciation of and of prudence against principle and theory requires an appre his art. He is keep them justice of law consists in its impartiality. however. The political asso is necessarily a mixture of the general and the particular. Justice has two different aspects. It is the nature of law to and the British have modified theirs to ensure ought not to its bite. Parliament must use the form simply suspend to punish of law to war. as he is for being a defender of constitutional government. while partiality to whom one's own country. who are gland. rather than law. than from self-righteous cratic authority and self-righteous rebellion fueled by general and abstract ideas. The whereas the justice of war consists in treat its citizens equitably. the habeas corpus in order to and unenforced law is not a law. His speeches letters are informed by the immediacy of of events. and foreigners. The political association is constituted by both the on aspect of law and the aspect of patriotism. The letter is a discussion about Britain's partial suspension of the habeas to corpus as a tool of war against the English in America. The the law is against defense against internal tyranny. rebels. fight the to rebels using the an law. but punishment. also the nature of law to be just. He did not write a theoretical work on politics. love of country is a defense foreign domination. the on account of the war being a civil one. must those same citizens must treat as enemies the rebels and foreigners against they fight.3 for political life because justice however much be made into a consistent This means that Burke thought the laws to be the as guardian of freedom.
The very names become incentives to hatred and rage. they are not gether an the bonds of affection between citizens. Of most all wars. He gives to the sheriffs political reasons. of the whole body of our nation affection and new kindred. but they have not lost their humanity. They vitiate their politics. He in effect helps to mold and strengthen a peace articulating the issues. and this is where Burke steps in to make their desire for peace more than just a humane Ameri and pious hope. They have lost confidence in justice. they pervert even the natural taste and relish for equity and justice. they corrupt their morals. for pursuing peace. The hatreds bom either civil or of broken love have be a vengefulness that is not excused by war. His opposition to the party by courage in the war party is . By teaching us to consider our fellow-citizens in us. Burke puts his case for reconciliation with America before the on sheriffs and the public as can he did earlier with Parliament in his Speech Taxation. By the of law into the British destroy honest patriotism war. It is in this background of Parliament's to use the law as an instrument of war that Burke writes the Letter. Their cynicism and 177). proposing a policy. bringing generality with hate. and he the foresees attempt grave consequences from it. The Sheriffs Bristol have grown cynical and are sworn has become melancholy because the law to which they instrument of crime and tyranny. 189)4 which were the becomes gradually less dear to bond of charity whilst we agreed. In order to maintain the integrity of law. they wish for peace (p. they dissolve alto of the common idea good. Britain's combination. devoid of hope. and making a show of face of popular and Parliamentary hostility. necessity Although law the common good. well suited to The theme of of Burke's letter is very an its audience. they are destructive to justice wars strike Civil deepest of all into the manners of the people. Burke thought that civil wars were the worst. because and piety.5 melancholy are not. or rather confusion. any more than its justice ought to overreach be enforced.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs overreach of Bristol 79 the bounds be of the bounds force of what^can its justice. The spirit might partial of murderous hatred dominates in its and in its object and patriotism devotion. they both an require a bond of love that is accompanied by a feeling simply negative and destructive. Their problem is how to restore peace without the sword of justice. however. when the communion of our country is dissolved. (P. the required is of an extent that goes well beyond the equity required for justice under the realm of law and law. of the realm of policy is very disturbing to Burke. realm of war and there needs to as a distinction between the for war the realm of law. and by bringing the partiality of war into law. a hostile light. and the slavishness of despondency the extreme consequences of Brit ain's corruption of the law. public spirited reasons. The dissolution of a of a common good feeling and idea among the British accompanies the extremes of Burke foresees the savagery as of tyrannical barbarism hate tyranny and servility.
the distinction itself of American rebels as pirates was made with the add intention allow of insulting them. The determination a it. to enable administration to confine. and then distribute a war themselves. and. third. Burke argues that the objects of the suspension corrupt the order of crimes. Their hatred is not entertain accompanied by pitiless- ness and fearlessness. because they do the possibility of their own deaths god. The British will not them the respect owed to a noble love of liberty or to a formidable enemy. inconsistently. rather than the moral This habit of indulging their hatred threatens the morals of of American commanders and mariners as pirates reveals disturbing and state of the English soul. is to detain in England for trial those who shall commit high treason in is pleased to America" (p. The Letter about of shows that Americans owed less to ideas effects democracy and abstract rights than to his opposition to the fanatic theory on political life and his desire to protect political liberty. but. . Hatred determines the crime. the British themselves. to the they rejoice at quality of the action. 178). 179). by treating fourth. It is in this that one opposition to the fanatic of effects of theory and his defense the two of prudence finds the consistency Burke's reflections on revolutions. is behaving like who appear tyrant. in fact. as long as it shall think . image of death neither softens nor horrifies the British. proper. by confusing by be denying the accused a fair trial. defeat. Although piracy and their equation treason share the same sentence tween mistaken virtue and (death). In fact. rather giving it to treasury (p. Parliament has taken the tone a criminal of an angry and all powerful but. Burke says that it under the cloak of naval is the British to be the pirates. to infamy to punishment. contrary. The determination infamous action. traced to the all-consuming anger of Parliament. second. blurs the difference be (p. by treating innocent citizens inequitably. those whom that act the act The second purpose of qualify by the name of pirates. and All four corruptions can The partial suspension determines as pirates those American commanders and mariners of private ships and vessels of war which fall into British hands equi- (p. the guilty justice in four different ways: first. THE PARTIAL SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS The partial suspension of the habeas corpus has two objects: "The first. they take the confiscated cargo. 179). because. the British the will not even allow them the pity owed to the con demned. . 178). The determination tableness of the law of enemy rebels as pirates undermines the by confounding the order of crimes. put to death the the cargo amongst American men. therewith. The letter of as a whole teaches and practices prudence by both teaching the limits Burke's support of the law and by supporting the belief in it.80 Interpretation defense of expressed as a justice against tyranny. than law.
(pp. of a The mere thought of shackling the to have them arrive ship (only where Americans. both. This manliness untempered whether by justifications and fears. 181-82). them down and then in the hold tossing them in forma trial. because it is blinded by its own indignation. and Burke suggests that this pitilessness will become a permanent part of the British character. taking their goods. object of their own insults. manly defiance becomes the only virtue. After strength not is American should defeats. peace. because the legal process appears to be nothing more than a cover for the arbitrary will of Parliament. as if In they is have killed British in to prove themselves virtuous. tried ac cording to form. finds itself in god a world where strength and a tyrant in so far as is the only claim to authority. the British more insult them order by calling them cowards. The punishments serve neither or nor the ends of which are victory. tying half dead in England). Yet the English in will await a pro they have lost all feelings of pity and humanity for their fellow Englishmen in America. but also in its description of American soldiers in general. This insolent men as some only reflected in its characterization of American naval pirates. in England for trial those But these trials cannot high treason in America" bring possibly be just. ought to evoke feelings of horror jail. 180). corpus The second object of the partial suspension of the who shall commit is "to detain (p. their proper time is cannot give punish after the war. they Britain are only hardened by the punishments. It is particularly important to understand that the blurring of the distinction be tween treason and piracy is only possible at the expense of love of country. rather than the the crime. it and expresses of itself in simple or the domina of tion. far from making the British godlike. VIII (p. therefore. the absence of justice. 180). The accused is. that they will become savage. and The proper place for the punishments is in America. The spirit of just victory is completely lacking habeas in the British. Parliament its proper time and place. because the accused cannot possibly forward witnesses to defend himself. .Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs Their wrath. should the ment English be victorious. but it does produce punished not even the desired effects of punishment. makes them of Bristol 81 lower than the By moral qualities of allowing their indignation to dictate the order of crimes. It is only the perverse hate that of a tyrant will that could cause one to congratulate oneself for an tenfold upon one's suspension be retaliated friends. it be the imprisonment killing enemies. therefore. What example can an American in England serve the Americans at home? The unjust pun ishments only pride and execution serve to increase American vigilance. This attempt to punish the Ameri cans through the law brings the law into disrepute. Burke does habeas corpus not hesitate to precedent point out that the partial of the has its justice in King Henry war. Parliament replaces justice with force and will. but not according to justice. Parliament denies a place for patriotism in the moral order and. Not only does the trial of Americans in England corrupt justice. it acts like both a its actions are not justified by country.
however.82 Interpretation The punitive hate of Parliament even extends to the exchange of prisoners. justice possibility The partial suspension destroys public spiritedness by destroying the public. justice is the as act's can most dangerous is a that. It shakes the foundation of the nation general. Burke says general venoms equity. far from being the opposed to manners. belief in What not makes the partial suspension of the habeas corpus truly dangerous is would its corruption of law. How can there can belief in fates? How there be a belief in shared fates when the law separates of those who are under it? This cynicism with respect to the has the effect of disaffecting decent citizens from politics altogether. The The exchanged prisoners were ing prisoners is to make clearly pardoned. 182). innocence and guilt dependent to do with therefore not to pardon the remain upon circumstance. but the distinction between men in the realms treats the innocent differently. 186). accords with them and moves them partial suspension codifies their further in the and same direction (p. The unequal treatment of American prisoners only treats the guilty unequally. therefore. because it between citizens. It dissolves the nation be citizens without the dissolves by dissolving shared the common good. never mind possible. Apathy is the accompanying obverse of legislated hate. like the deter pirates. 188). It hardly seems just. The issue liberty is really requires the Liberty a common good equality under the law. en one of it to a greater requires degree (p. the limiting qualification. expediencies of war necessitate the unequal treatment of prisoners. because it leaves no place for decent political attachments. but its to the corruption of manners. the British are intent on punishing as traitors those prisoners who remain mination of American of to the yet reasoning in their hands (p. This offense to threat to political liberty. But. far as he tell. liberty principle. 184). as a life was given in return for a life. parliament is incapable of such prudence. . because it is The empty prisoners are formality of legal proceedings and the inconsistent treatment of not. to punish the exchanged prisoners. At the end of the war. corrupts justice because according the action the earlier prisoners should have been punished. the worst aspects of the partial suspension. by breaking draws the first principle of law. this action. respect for justice has Since the much how consistently the innocent an and guilty with are treated. But the British punitive. instead of of taking out the sting. openly denies some men their rights while protecting those of others (p. The law be of no effect most if it were opposed feelings and ideas of the people. it is more prudent not to make crime and punishment respect issue to prisoners. The hatred affection between the British and the remaining bonds of English in America. Burke finds it disturbing that the partial suspension. naval men as they were allowed to go free. that it be The partial suspension the distinction between men in the differ ent realms and.
the attachment to country. He even wishes that some abuse of the partial suspension would touch them. dark. be can fore they be enlightened. as they are Burke's letter indifferent to its injustice only because they do not suffer from it. in love of country. They have the shamelessness to celebrate the names of victory of German are mercenaries and to concerned with herald the German generals. The British have spread devastation but have only the ground they encamp on and no more. But the British have lost their honest prejudices which supported their love of liberty. Burke raises the the unknown. The British must doubt themselves. have with doses of fear. might says that be of some consolation was enlightened for the loss is of their old if the reason of the British in proportion to the removal their honest prejudices.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs PRELUDE TO DIALOGUE of Bristol 83 By past raising the issue of liberty they the war towards the relation the British that and tyranny. In obstinate light of the dangers lie ahead. public Since British spiritedness has decayed into hatred in order of Americans. He wants to awaken in the people the jealous love liberty. attempts to moderate the extremes of hate and apathy by encour and aging the belief in virtue past. and full of perplexed and treacherous (p. He even speaks as courage justice. 189-90). it blinds them to their own nobility and their own good. Burke can move With the reawakening of his rhetoric from fear to shame. He even uses images to induce doubt and fear. if only through fear. The specter of foreign powers is meant to re awaken the ties of kinship which and the love of country. despite American defeats. Parliament's fury appears both ridiculous and irresponsible. He speaks to the consciences. He reminds are threatened by their rulers even more than of by the rebels. he says unknown a reality. He reminds them that the war has taken on a magni made the tude unimagined the fear of the to secret ain by those who either wished it or feared it. 191). British disaffection for their past connected to a lack for their future. Their hatred causes them to live in the pre sent. with because they harm to their Burke regards of less it British virtue and glory than doing enemies (pp. . of concern But. and moral Burke must appeal to private advantage to moderate the British. Burke Having specter of British doubt the certainty of victory. made the reminds them British feel invincible). he tells the he was that the mazes way ahead is intricate. British of as individual citizens with individual interests One the ways to make the British think about their welfare is to destroy. In sheriffs that order to give privy biting information concerning the real threat foreign powers posed to Brit in the last year. Burke asks the British to look between the people and their representatives. the confidence fueling their hatred (recent that victories they have not increased their authority. He first reminds the British of their noble order to en a representative of the traditionalists.
helpless creature. is in the eyes of God and man. when in triumph. By prepared the ground argument reducing British hopes to the salvation of their reputation. show little are content to real magnanimity. order to render others contemptible and wretched. "no blood pays the forfeit of [their] rashness. Burke has for his plan. The British can at best hope to maintain trade monopolies. any without civil wisdom or military skill. without a consciousness of other qualification for power arrogance. contending to save itself from an object respectable justice cannot oppression. being that crawls on the earth. 191) Burke to shatters the upon illusion of Parliament's bear its strength. But I conceive any existence under heaven (which in the depths of its wisdom tolerates all sorts of things) that is more truly odious and disgusting than an impotent. Being godlike authority by bringing reason limited in its strength. dominion in which he cannot exercise. but they will thing In light of this hopeless prospect. The mocking insolence of the British is who is courageous at the expense of Besides laying of a foundation for on shame and love of country. The victories fear of could only make it once he had tamed indigna humiliation upon which he builds places the recent are not proofs of allows in a new light. as if they kindred blood pours like from the arms of foreign soldiers. bloated with pride and he is not to fight. pride of a coward. pair facing the Brit ish. the cold doses of fear that Burke throws nal the heated anger of the British prepare a more ratio discussion the war. rather than simply force and in light of the real situation must will. actually the hypocritical others. He also tells them that they will not get one cent from America. of uncertain In light victory and certain understood as Burke reinterprets this partaking famous of death. that it is directed by insolent passion. contending for a violent (P. 199). They (he British invincibility draw the He but of good fortune. No desolate widow weeps tears blood over [their] ignorance" (p. Burke suggests his audience to conclusion for themselves) that the British should quit while they are ahead. and notable their private and they mortgage exult themselves performed some water exploit. far from being manly. With the awakening of their interests. or at money in the form of best the British can hope for is to not receive them. states to the . manliness and cowardice judgement. they their country. He has been building towards an explicit for reconciliation but tion and greed. rather than to punish and to subjugate. Far from man's of being cowards. and satisfied to be himself mean and miserable. closest least the to save their reputation not to look weak and foolish in frustration and defeat. Burke must discuss the rewards of war.84 Interpretation It is The and no excuse poorest for presumptuous ignorance. Those in favor of the war. Parliament needs wis dom be and justice. calling for battles which but his servility to it. They they would offer themselves promise for battle but fortunes hire German mercenaries. He reminds the British that the goal of the war was to increase their wealth. the taxes. those in favor of peace are acting responsibly.
rather than certain tyranny. (1774). the power under will be popularly recognized as such. Burke argues that rebellions are provoked rather than encouraged. The obstacle to almost unanimous support with peace seems. He is cautious in his blame. remains as he stated earlier to Parliament in his Speech on American Taxation and. of Without the affection and strength Englishmen. He is the people doubt Parliament and. Burke's not criticisms of disputing their right to trying to make unanimity are not direct criticisms of the people. themselves. and Burke shows As things stand. He directly to the unanimity by which Parliament justifies its by first drawing the distinction between agreement and truth. he wards ate it slowly by first arguing that the Americans cannot be peace.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 85 British. above the voices of many. Burke is faced dangerous and colossal task of himself American policy If one man is to be heard dividing and conquering a nation unified in its hatred. to risk with defeat their own arms. Just a short time . they must earn that trust. a division that has lost its tension due to widespread hate and The English in America their fellow will only put their confidence in a peace party that contains the popular support of the people. In order to and break this whom circle of hate distrust. This is his moves to first statement about British guilt. both addresses popular and parliamentary. The British have broken so many promises that it expect to expected would to initi absurd be for them to death in them the way. Burke turns to reason as the foundation his policy. the Americans are virtually alone. the Americans can place their The way to form and strengthen the peace party is not through parliamentary debate. THE ARGUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION The of argument for reconciliation must address itself directly to the accusation treason. and be trusted. therefore. But Parliament illusion that it is omnipotent and believes that any limit placed on its is necessarily a sign of weakness and an insult to its honor. therewith. In taking his case for reconciliation to the public (the letter is meant for circula tion) Burke is able to exploit the division between the people and their repre sentatives. Honesty and prudence compel him to take his case to those decent citizens in whom there still exist justice and pity. the British must form a strong peace party confidence. the Americans must trust in themselves. He is be heard but is rather competing for their ear. he must invoke a truth beyond the source and collective or conventional of wisdom. to that to reconcile while of in a position of strength is magnanimous the glory Parliament. cynicism. as it is asserted that talk of peace encourages rebellion (p. Burke has absented himself from Parliament. by pointing to the arbitrariness of Parliament's American policy. to be the for the the war in England. because his objections to its policies only increased its obstinacy. 195).
it may be the mind. to separate not accuse the British nation for the war. granted social rights (pp. legislative The not government should exercise its rule with as much reserve as possible. 207) omnipotence. he can accuse aggrandizement. Burke paints a picture and cowardly in defeat and confident and insolent Parliament lacks the gravity and constancy of reason and character. because the British had suffered defeats. Parliament is unanimously in support of the war. The argument for reconciliation on an argument about good government. rather than oppress it. He implies that Parliament is waging the war for its own Burke tries to awaken within the breasts of the British their minds towards jealous love British of liberty. because Parliament has given itself claims the right over to doctrinaire fanaticism. The people are. beg leave to observe. therefore. 210-11). I must attend to public opinion. when public . Parliament to tax the Americans. but that their desires should be respected because of their strength. at best. Burke recognizes Parliament's sovereignty only because it its power has exercised for a long time and continues to do so. by habits argues that abstract Parliament rules for the He does not argue that the have rights. He turns their traces the cause of the war to bad politicians government. without regard to the general opinion of those who are to opinion a That general is the vehicle and organ of theory to entertain Without this. because Parliament claims to have the sovereignty. that it is not will be resisted. Burke people not justified by an abstract legal right. but that no other given part of only the invidious branch of taxation that legislative rights can be exercised. be governed. Now. (P. The arbitrari can serve as a wedge its policy cannot but induce doubts that the lukewarm from the majority While Burke dares British politicians. Parliamentary of obedience sovereignty is (p. Due to the strength and the constitution ought to have offices which can variability be appealed to of public opinion. and he able to blame the with sympathies for the hinges war and to encourage a peace party towards the English in America without appearing treasonous. GOOD GOVERNMENT In the Letter to the and ity of Parliament Sheriffs of Bristol we see Burke attack the ruling author defend the colonists.86 ago Interpretation Parliament unanimously opposed the war and was willing to negotiate a peace. Par liament must. therefore. but it is nothing in the direction of affairs. its passions and mind are enslaved to the prevailing fortune it meets. waves of chance and. can neither be admired by those who love virtue nor ness of followed by those who worship the promise of success. It rides the of Parliament that is fearful in victory. so as to offend the people. having recently tasted victory. He is thereby domestic politics. but people. even though right of they have no representation. 205).
freedom others. the clergy and of maybe even veto and its legislation. rather theory require tions for injustice. any more than is sover of eignty. The this lower world (prudence) is needed to secure the blessing of the lower world (peace). as it was by the New Whigs. one sees that he flatters hopes to put pressure on and Parliament. Burke is quick to point out that. Freedom then be understood as to any government it is understood by the Americans. and even independence. It requires compromise. just in they are needed (p. But Parliament is are not attention to public opinion. through pressures placed on. it free would know that the Americans must are averse other than a one. Compromise If the in the the and reform. of Bristol 87 The government must act as a kind of grievance committee. ment. religion more the monarchy. and. 211). like authority. politics. the particular men running the govern people are sane enough responsible to articulate their particular grievance and blame those ment for the problem. is a feeling felt by those who are subjected to the oppression and admits rules Freedom is primarily freedom from to various not degrees paying depending in on the people being ruled (p. Parliament must be heard. the charac understand ter of those over which it governs. then the responsible should party Parlia to case of the American Revolution god of be prudent enough satisfy complaint.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs opinion changes. but it which gains might strength through the knowledge that there Since institutions in so public opinion is they important. . If one puts together his discussion of good government of his policy reconciliation. Freedom. they embody than parlia ment. but are account thinking in terms of an abstract legal doctrine that fails to for the character of the factions. In light freedom. which The British make a studying the are not particular circumstances prudence they must decision. The voice of and his friends is are a weak minority. than the particular men in power or an easily remedied law. as a defense of freedom in general. to be mistaken. doing what one wills. If Parliament had listened to and had studied the Americans. but with the belief that the problem is not with the entire constitution. parliament can no longer legislate religion. is of theories of susceptible government to the ex tremes of theory. but because of a consistent opposition to the influence of ab stract theory on political life. however. and it must have the to appropriate offices for the appropriate complaints. 208). ought not Burke's defense of American freedoms. of all becomes such tyranny as and usurpation because freedom is thought The perfection of in an extreme form. He condemned the French Revolution in no uncertain terms. because of the fixed sentiments and beliefs Burke the people. from. Freedom is not an abstract principle. Burke the veto power of with the monarchy. Reason cannot tolerate an freedom in theory is its death in inconsistent principle. whereas politics tends to blame entire constitu demands gated. compromise to the extent that first principles are better left uninvesti By painting the world in extremes. Thus it is wise not destroy case the convocation of the clergy or any other ceremonial also mentions offices. They practicing (the god of this lower world). not because of a perverse humor.
Burke considered civil war as an evil worse than national wars because the and self-righteous rebellion ought violence of civil war to be short is untempered by a concern for the common good. they claimed to embody mankind. of and are defiant of past therefore contain an element of mission that is lacking in Not the least Burke's concerns was the alliance between the hate that is the heart ideas were of civil war and abstract philoso religion as a new source of phy. made themselves absolute by claiming they denied their opposition the right to resistance. because it is a principle of compromise. as he saw that philosophic replacing hatred by lending fortify historical meaning to killing the enemy. not a principle that is destructive of all order and prudence.88 thus. idea the common good or of legitimate while The former is bom source of the antitheological of a god. and savage cruelty. thus denying claimed the church. In abstract theory. He even considered civil war worse than are more savagery. He is critical of favorably the disposed to the former but the latter two. on the are bom more from vengeance than an government. because the hatreds of civil war difficult to satisfy. These feelings and ideas of significance drown out the feelings of pity and horror that are the humane emotions evoked by slaughter. and the monarchy the status and rights they for themselves. do the doctrines of the rights of man and the absolute sovereignty of parliament. General theories passions. of man and the absolute hand. the aristocracy. rather than cod ified. Burke sees fanaticism leading to the practical both anarchy and tyranny. The British Parliament the authority of a god. of principles of destruction that sovereignty of parliament are. the latter has its in the wrath sovereignty fortify puni hate because they make authority absolute while denying the opposition the right to exist. The idea as of no taxation without representation does his criticism. The French revolutionaries made their anger absolute by claiming principles of and serve General freedom to tive to speak for the rights of man. Abstract ideas . they affection. Yet Burke's criticisms of abstract theory ously not effects of are obvi directed against general principles in general cisms of religious fanaticism are directed against religion not arouse any more than his criti in general. it implicitly legitimate The rights other possibility of legitimate authority as well as rebellion. No taxation of a parliament without representation does not deny the legitimacy It is to exist or legitimacy of grievances against one. Interpretation one must understand the demands of each faction and what is needed to satisfy them.6 ire of an atheist. rather than acknowledges the hate. because they only extend and exacerbate the evils of civil war. One of Burke's rhetorical goals in the Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol and the Reflections on the Revolution in France and encourage murderous cosmic and world fanaticism. collective are bom from disappointed trust. bom of sovereignty and rebellion tend to fortify the most extreme of self-righteous of the most extreme circumstances. Moments authority lived.
to law by evoking the pity fear accompanying the breaking of it and. greed. and affection by describing suffering crimes of innocence of the murdered and the stupidity. horror. The Reflections justifies obe dience then. malice. he never argues that revolutionary idealism than a platform and in effect. though in theory. In not fact. the by restoring calm and comfort by demonstrating and that the revolutionary contradicts science of politics is destined to defeat doom because it requirements of life. broke faith. who resented vengeance and on their exclusion from title honor. Burke is new fully aware of this and undertakes an examination of the science of politics that is being used to found the French republic. could and satisfy their books by confiscating church property speculating it. the revolutionaries treat country in the way as would a foreign conqueror. Burke says that the first law of revolutionary legislation is to their own destroy all that came same before it. because the citizens need theoretical principles for knowl edge of their rights and duties. in particular. and placed personal gain was before their ideals. He after places the discussion of their science of legislation the quasi tragedy in Their order to confirm through reason what science of government he had evoked through passion. confiscations. and the tence. is helpful for understanding Burke's opposi tion to abstraction. guilt. order a of how This is especially the case in a philo sophic revolution. just as their crimes are contrary to human and divine law. He argues that the revolu tionaries slandered. By looking into the actions and motives of the principles of the revolution. The Reflections. He looks at the character the revolution and shows how the actions of the and the various groups leading revolution reflect their individual low motives.7 He gives them human feeling justifies their exis He shows their virtue and beneficence Burke also with which they were painted. eyes each of the revolution's victims the church. and executions. he must have an understanding of the ends of government and each of the parts contribute to that end. The goodness of the cause and the wisdom of the laws cannot be reduced to mo tives. is contrary to the first and principles of politics. He defends decent morality accuse and obedience to the law as necessities for a free people. Burke removes the claim to justice with which they excused their faithlessness. The legislator must whole. thereby lightens the blackness diverts the imagination away from and all the grandiose claims of the revolution to about universal of righting wrong and to bringing freedom and the brotherhood of man. pocket- anything more by which the merchant class. might Some Burke of being fact reductionistic and opportunistic.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs is to restore simple and of Bristol 89 the and feelings of pity. and especially to science. the aristoc and monarchy. In this.8 The incommensurateness of theory and politics comes into focus most clearly in the revolution's activity of legislation. their persecutors. It is a stage upon which Burke brings before the racy. They destroy .
He is aware that all rebel lion contains evil. . Nothing can be conceived more hard than the heart of a thoroughbred metaphysician they a period do not think two thousand years too long and. philosophers are fanatics: independent tractable. he the appearance of continuity to mends and patches. they of any interest. The ancient sceptics had no public spir itedness because they thought the law was conventional. . who would themselves be if they were held to the letter seem of their own descriptions. though it may paradoxical. would sacrifice the whole human to the slightest of their experiments. Like the of the good seamstress. but in general. he teaches limits of both. which means they have feasted exclusively on satire. It is who are undoubtedly true. of from the declamations astonished and buffooneries satirists. because they think politics can be made can be made fully rational.10 Burke's understanding legislator is inextricably connected to his understanding of the nature of politics. and that the habit of criticizing and good breaking the law tends to must give make human beings completely lawless. it always flies before 520-21) defects must of Hate cient and abstraction are the legislative soul. the modem atheists are revolutionaries that politics politics. is at their horizon like their horizon. they do the not seek to reform but to build from political science. Burke has two types in he speaks of the thorough- ." Burke denies cause him to despise the By showing theory. but that does not the conflict between politics and mind when rational. that they . humanity (Pp. are ready to declare that they for the good they pursue. The legislator have of in his soul. offices. Their them. Philosophy not place be so him beyond the suffering blinded by indignation at the nor vengeful his fellow human beings. Your legislators seem to have taken their opinions of all professions. by By hating habit they only unfurnished with patterns of the fair to take no delight in the contemplation of those come to vices too much. which if it operated alone would make them more rage are carried away with such headlong race towards every desperate trial.90 the Interpretation beliefs and habits that nothing. This defines their task and wisdom of their new Burke struction. almost says that the revolutionary legislators have a disposition towards de that They have the taste of Paris. those are unqualified habitually and employed in finding and displaying faults. nor fanatic visionary. for the work of reformation: because their minds are not come good. they from love men too little. philosopher. ranks. because moderation they are defi must in love. united them as a people. yet he must not spectacle of injustice that he hopes to bring The legislator is neither about a Utopia through punishment and persecution. .9 The critical negativity that stems a love of ridicule is compounded by the detachment These and abstractness of the scientific mind. but things. God.
chemistry and geometry can produce a association. up France create districts according to for loyalty to a measuring stick. unique character of Geometry. atomism except by a principle of order. Its rebel to be used against them. At best. like promises proportion. substance Chemistry and (matter) its own geometry can only recognize the categories of quantity. but these are the two categories over which a man has no control. The materialism of the chemists expresses political arena as antitheological and antiaristocratic accompanied itself in the from but it lion is not. and exist in much greater clearness. The number geometricians who are and shape dividing ask and. creating Burke does. cannot recognize the politics. Nothing can come for infinite divisibility. in fact. begins with the idea that the end of government is the satisfaction Government is independence not made in virtue of natural rights. and may in and do exist in total degree much greater . In formative act. an un geometry differentiated mass. and order to do so it must must division and of labor. its rela tions depend more graphical accidents than upon numerical necessity.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs bred metaphysician of Bristol 91 the geometrician and the chemist. whereby chemistry creates and order uses its materialism to oppose groupings authority. therefore. decent morality his rhetoric and Burke understood that prudence and used were threatened by the French Revolution. and reaction of those experiments consist in churches and ammunition the manors of aristocrats and then tearing down the transforming the rubble into ire. The geo boundaries and of political associations are are meant formed by interest rather than symmetry. possibility (Reflections.12 chemistry. while geometry reduces them to number and shape. which of it. Legislation is deliberative p. a mathematical order. a by numerical from understand the science of the revo lution to have divided itself into these different functions. and Reduction and abstraction are the essence of their sciences. and he ways on different occasions ridiculous absurdities. His attempt to restore the political perspective from that of abstract rights and science of wants. 524). Chemistry reduces human beings to their lowest common element. The chemists would like to turn The all of Europe into laboratory using men like the revolutionaries are more proud of than their chemical action There is nothing experiments (p. however. however. they to represent and to secure those interests. rats. the uniqueness of human beings 301). These two types are legislators for the Europe and even new republic in France and have their ambitions set on all of the entire world. to show reasoning in many different the Revolution's shocking immorality and In confronting the French Revolution Burke himself was forced to put forward the first principles under which morality and prudence live. and recognize recognize and the peculiarity of the political But chemistry and geometry are material and simple. because it deals political order upon with number and The is not. to have the power of ordering.
then there must be moral . people can Burke thinks that the live content under the watch of Parliament. to tax in order to restore American trust.13 The British drove the Americans to rebellion by not one's Burke is willing to strip Parliament of the power looking after their complaints. Burke opposed abstract was against began. 222). The doctrine that because moral man is selfish poses a great threat to leveling made destroys trust in government as unsuspecting confidence. The belief that the cause government it is conducive to resignation. Burke therefore He have been virtuous men who cared about the public. 370) Burke did of not a contrivance of derive from this end the equal right of each to be the sole judge oneself. inherently Why would corrupt is a servile belief. He also points out the opportunistic reasons that lie behind the opinion that all excuse themselves is selfishness. of Thus he amongst argues that "unsuspecting which all confidence is the true rest" centre gravity mankind. If there are to be compromise and freedom. about the parts are at (p. Unsuspecting confidence look after is simply trust that the government will not be oppressive and will interests. from the funda mental end he derived a new basis for the rule of gentlemen and a new under standing of ancestral authority. If Parlia had the Americans and by differences between the British covered.92 Interpretation of abstract perfection: a but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. Government is human wisdom to provide for human wants. but because he wanted to it against abuse satisfied from both authoritative and rebellious pride. courtiers and political men would public in or der to enjoy freedom from scrutiny and indignation. 221). theory in the name of the satisfaction of wants. of government. do not rise to dissent among the people as naturally as do particular situations which clearly threaten their welfare and their liberty. then all the political the Americans would never have been un by this point. be would someone attempt to change the government if he thought the change would not improve things? There be no pressures placed on the government in order to keep it responsible to the public. He begins where other modern theorists but he combines the fundamental good with the old order. or to an equal share in government. developed its own Ideological differences. Burke hopes freedom and to cure apathy and cynicism with spirited jealousy is of one's own belief in the possibility of civic virtue. asks the public to government believe in virtue and to believe that corruption is not innate to like to (p. for America had. (P. since the belief in argues that there civic virtue is impossible (p. Unsuspecting interests confidence assumes that the government will look after public and not their own private interests. To the contrary. such. or rather conflicts provisionary mode of principle. 215). By having right to everything they want everything. give repealing the tax. not political because he temper ment the idea of right. But the actions of Parliament and the arguments of sophisticates suggest that all men act solely for themselves.
an Perhaps most important. Burke thus suggests is rare and weak. function of the people was to be a brake on the The people are a visible strength that always puts fear into the few who rule. He does backs gusted not want but that belief in its possibility better insures the people to become misanthropists who turn their on political life completely because they by the greed. of the people actually threatens the satisfaction of wants. from time yet does not require the usurpation of authority Burke preferred unsuspecting confidence to the rights of man. Every edge that nation must exist somewhere to the exclusion of other nations. a Unsuspecting blind faith or apathy. The as are though people dis must. is gentlemen have defending the habits of continuity on interest in property and. there would be no brake on as them (with the exception of a preferred military dictatorship). Burke the rule of gentlemen not only because of their education and expe also rience but sidered because of their relative weakness to the people. in which it depends. but. should the people rule. Burke con guardian their fear to be a that the of their virtue. This necessity of justice that equality The understood as qualified by country.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs indignation directed that virtue at of Bristol 93 the government from time to time. liberty. it must means justify its borders to itself must to others. The people are the product of the constitution. not contradict Even the claim to global revolution and liberation does the fact that the French would not recognize the claim of an Englishman to an equal share of French land. but because he saw that they The are that each man be the judge of the means to his own preservation and and happiness authority that he have an equal share in government to all other men. therewith. just the aristocrats and parlia confi ment must show some concern not for convenience and wants.14 birth that form own will or consent are not continuity and community. They competent to judge their grievances by their feelings. avarice. not so much because he thought there entailed were no such rights. If be a nation and is to be more than a band of robbers. The the rights of man French Revolution's it was claim to be defending fails to acknowl the rights of the French with which they concerned themselves. but they do are not possess the character and mind to demagogues. they provide only necessary Burke's attempt to found attachments and authority attachments without status of morality in prescription. have dence is to time degree of public spiritedness. and a brutality of accepting of political men. they are too strong to oppose. who ity and who seek They easily misled by blame everything on the inequality of property and of author to remedy all ills by bringing both under the rule of equality. natural Burke thought the rulers. rather than connections of its sovereign. but trust that is called to account and office. The issue of property to that other moderator of takes Burke away from the satisfaction of wants partisanship patriotism. however. therefore. satisfy those grievances. Some have so much authority to the past that Burke must . on habits of continuity gains the thought that prescription gives any basis in one's but also ennobling.
because he never believed is not Hegel's state. The best can constitution is not the product of the of practice. but he never allows the idea of impartiality or universality to dominate politics. viewed by its beneficiaries as a series of accidents grounded in man's desires. Burke believed that rational. but the end product does cess not exist independent of the pro by is which it came into being. It gives the political body continuity and its citi zens a shared past and a shared providence destiny. CONCLUSION The spirit of equitable justice that is corpus offended and dissolved by the partial suspension of the habeas leads to the twin tendencies of tyranny and cynical despair. But Burke did not equate the ancestral with the good. . Burke never lost sight of the conflict between the particular and the universal. Burke never thought reality. satisfies and its benefits are those habits of virtue and affection that preserve the constitution. mind. Contending for an imaginary power. all other Those ingenuous feeling minds who are so fortified things. history could that it could be The British constitution defends the equity of the law and recognizes how important it is to the common good. not think that the British constitution was the best form of government origins and because it had divine because it was his own. we begin to acquire the spirit of domination and to lose the relish of honest equality. Liberty is in danger of being made unpopular to Englishmen. To the contrary. however. Prescription Burke's ideas a matter of of political convenience and political pa process triotism. he thought it was the best form of government precisely because it came into being through a series of accidents over a long period of time. He was too impressed with the virtue to place so much emphasis on the particularity of politics and its need for law and its form. and so unarmed to whatever approaches in the shape of disgrace. He economics. It is something to be Although He respected. for the a leading to is the does for politics what satisfying Adam Smith did for result of variety of needs and desires. never harmony between natural desire and that history constituted a realm of be real. brings a degree of the common good. it is viewed as an unintelligible and superhuman force. . Provi dence appears godlike in its mysterious dispensation. tion or even an proven idea that be conceived greatest independent Prescrip beneficence.94 Interpretation a have been He did traditionalist. and beneficence. . It is impossible that we should remain long in a situation which breeds such notions and dispositions and without some great alteration in the against national character. History is so far from being rational that it is turned to in order to support attachments that are threat ened by reason. The origins are inferior to the end product. Prescription the constitution is satisfying want.15 The hidden hand is not. rather. force.
a God. which which he lends credence. Unlike Parliament. Burke himself is be an example of judge of yond the salutary hopes to virtue. He does not court power the prevailing opinions of the people. he apathy sought to preserve the perspective and attachments of political life. although Burke recognizes the power of public opinion and public opinion the need to work with it. 260. which will retire they considered as sure means of honor. he also recognizes the need to recognize virtue. but rather in his beneficence and wisdom. Karl Marx. The suspension would outrage the public if it were abused at home. Macpherson (Burke [New York: Hill and so far as Macpherson saw in Burke a bourgeois capitalist above all . but they can trust him. Prudence makes the former feasible. He age gives an account of himself as a representative in order to encour the belief in virtue and the love of liberty. Burke offers no greater counter example to the extremes of his time than himself. (P. the latter necessarily corrupts. he will not sacrifice by flattering ment his judge to the majority and even feels that it is for what he owes them as a represen tative. B. In to preserve prudence and public spiritedness from cynical politics was not that of a suspect particular. The partial suspension. but that his portrayal of the problems of politics and much art unless his defense he had its perspective could not perspective. and he encouraged the people towards a measured jealousy of their liberty so that they would not become either slavish or ambitious.Burke 's Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol 95 finding these principles. He is ment and goes well beyond the presentation not godlike himself as a virtuous representative. It would have been much more universal for it simply to only the other while suspend the habeas corpus universally. 1980]) follows Marx in 1. 1954) p. in order to guard against their authoritativeness and brutality. on hand. to be grown in disrepute. as an alternative to the Burke did not citizen and of portray the life of reason the statesman. In turning to life of the prescription and polemics against theory. he is in his self-right eous wrath. so or a misanthropist. not leads to tyranny and misanthropy by destroying an idea and a feeling of the common good. disheartened and disgusted. His Yet one cannot of visionary. but because he loves virtue and country more than himself. contains its abuses within it. Capital I (Moscow. to foster the love of Furthermore. Burke constantly encouraged prudence in the governing. espe cially in the great. C. The greatest fault of the partial suspension of the habeas corpus is that it He is not one of the people. 223) By fighting prudent a war with with laws and punishments. only because they have elected him. the British Parliament has in fected justice hatefulness and expediency. So. he and sought indignant fanaticism. be executed with seen past that NOTES Wang. country a universal suspension would serve liberty and by awakening the sense of urgency amongst all the citizens.
Conor Cruise O'Brien (The Great judgement of the French Revolution is Melody [Sinclair: Stevenson. But he did give the any property. Eng. and warm clothes in both the not winter and the summer. 520. many other cities. 282-83. 8. Conniff finds him too cautious for not advocating vol. Works. vol. independent farmers of the and that all the classes not (artisans. rather than his ideas Hippodamus was ambitious. 7. he denied and the artisans arms. Aristotle draws attention to the importance of Hippo calling him the first political scientist. 364) and thus he could not For Burke's vol. 9. but I think he emphasizes the aesthetic aspect of Burke's politics at the his political thought. 1960).: Penguin. he failed to understand the unique nature of on the politics. 350-52. 1994]) argument. Jackson Bate (Westport. adorned himself with expensive ornaments and long hair. This abound psychological account of the many political reasons that in the Reflections. In An Appeal from the New Revolution that it pretended to to the 11. 1994]) argues that Burke's understanding of change was not informed by conservative opinions. was so He knew nothing about the influence of force and interest. Phaleas'. Politics. Hippodamus thought that his and rulers would be popularly elected. jurors and . tyranny (Thomas Paine. 101. pp. Stephen Browne (Edmund Burke Alabama Press. 282-83. Works. Hippodamus models three.96 else. pp. Reflections Revolution in France (Harmondsworth. Burke's Despite their to define a realm of political existence cannot but remind one of Aristotle. pp. they both ideas. 382-84. Politics of Progress [Albany: 2. Nor did Hippodamus know He thought that instead of voting innocent or guilty. and the 2. 358. p. pp. remarkably similar to Aristotle's criticisms of Plato's. but according to his fancy. In from looking to the number three for order. although ment. and to Burke. 1. p. CT: Greenwood Press. Furthermore. CA: Sage. and by looking at the man. but by thoughtful considerations about the protection of liberty. p. farmers. The mind and the disposition of the Sheriffs clearly character Burke writes A Vindication of Natural Society. and three kinds of legal suits. in whose 6. remind one of the old man ed. Interpretation Paine thought that all hereditary government was ings of Thomas Paine [New York: Citadel Press. He he thought he was the first person ever to propose died in battle. reflections on progress see The Works of Edmund Burke (London: Bohn. was cited within the text as Reflections. 431-32. 2. 439. Phaleas for advocating equality of property. The Complete Writ 1945]. All references by to the Selected Writings of Edmund Burke. of govern 3. 164. wore by cheap whole. vol. 431. vol. ultimate differences. pp. W. and the 7. In desire to know nature as a whole. portrait. Old Whigs. page number alone are 3. 4. artisans the military) would be loyal to and the city as a whole. p. be legitimate according to the laws 287-300. attempt 8. therefore guaranteeing a military dictatorship. 10. 1992]) argues that Burke's decisively determined by the fact that he was an Irish Burke fails to appreciate Catholic. 1993]) argues that one must read Discourse of Vmue [Tuscaloosa: University of Burke as one would read a drama or look at a makes a similar expense of Stephen White (Modernity. his regime on the number 12. 6. and Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to make the city a unity. Hippodamus failed to understand the nature of political order. 279. There are three classes of citizens. 5. pp. 94. Glorious 1984). The faults of Hippodamus are the most important to both Aristotle damus only. 1854-89). 15-16. 31. Burke says that the genius of the of the old regime. and Aesthetics [Thousand Oaks. 2. 3. even though far removed political practice that who public assistance to the children of those it was a law in Athens anything about the nature of authority. Edmund Burke. Burke's criticize the attempt to understand politics through abstract and mathematical criticisms of the legislative science of the revolution are Hippodamus' best regimes. and Hippodamus for his ambition and simplicity. vol. and wished to be learned in nature as a Hippodamus did his ambitious dress according to the different seasons. vol. a more participatory form vol. sympathize with Burke's ideas of prescription. James Conniff (The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke State University of New York Press. vol. he made the military the farmers by giving the army their own property. 533. three sections of the city.
Burke's one solves problem While Burke is able to anchor the and political only to pose life in general.237). Montesquieu argues that the opinion of one's own security is the end of the law. p. is taken from Montesquieu. in Strauss concerning Burke's understanding of providence. 224) a argues that prescription supports popular prejudice and thereby corrects parti There is tions of Burke and the very interesting and illuminating controversy between the natural law interpreta Straussian interpretation of Burke as a precursor to Hegel. vol. Thomas Aquinas. those presumptions must are Presumptive virtue rests on about justice. Mansfield's analysis of the difference between presumptive and actual virtue helps to clar of ify Burke's relation to political life pp. that its authority depends habits of obedience. and Canavan (Ed mund argue Burke: Prescription that Burke and is a natural particular. he is vulnerable to the problems connected to his providential god. Canavan is for Burke life. NJ: Transaction Publishers. as opposed to natural rights. Strauss claims understanding of prescription undermines the idea of noble defeat. rather than the presumptive. pp. 348. 331-33. susceptible of of infinite improvement. 1984]. 1954). Thus. natural right is an indepen dent principle that used as a standard for political 16. and even expected. 406-7. because understand on he thought the law that the was like the arts. pp. takes issue with Providence [Durham: Carolina Academic Press. Science. When questioned. 470. the man of actual virtue. Frohnen (Virtue and the Prom ise of Conservatism [Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 1991]. uses his understanding to support men of political prudence and virtue. 1949). In the Spirit of the Laws. of Chicago Press. Like Burke. rather than action. Harvey Mansfield (Statesmanship and Party Government [Chicago: University p. March 1996) argues that Burke's understanding of virtual contemporary democracy by establishing confidence or trust between those who have been traditionally excluded from government. p. 294-95. vol. . (Harvey Mansfield. sanship. to hope against all odds in the heat of battle. Strauss has in mind the realm of thought. thus making an who improved the law. vol. 2. The problem is that Burke's idea of fate could lead to or encourage philistinism outside of the that Burke's because it sanctions vulgar success and argues that deprives the law or natural mind of a standard dominant. 1993]. he opposed a universal understanding of justice. Burke's emphasis on unsuspecting confidence. not simply its evident usefulness. find a standard of History [Chicago: University legitimacy through providence British constitution. Williams ("Burkean Descriptions and And Political Representation: A Canadian Journal of Political representation can still serve overcome it. pp. according to their also proposed authoritative verdict impossible. 431. against abstract doctrine. 77). Works. pp." the ruling majority and 14. 1. trans.Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs should of Bristol 97 be able to vote in shades of grey. 13. p. Nugent (New York: Hafner Press. 1965]. because he thought it made prudence impossible. Reappraisal. He honors for those individual judgement. He failed to and law is undermined by the habit changing it. Works. 1. 6. vol. as in the French Revolution. of Chicago Press. 432. Canavan. and actually increased the harshness of tyranny where it threatened authority but could not Melissa S. 1987]. for men of action are often.9-10). According to and Leo Strauss (Natural Right attempt to another. 29. a person of actual virtue defend the presumptions against dangerous theory.149-52). pp. 15. who lives according to the actual. Stanlis (Edmund Burke [New Brunswick. 151-53) law theorist in the tradition of St. case of the Edmund Burke [Chicago: presumptions University Chicago Press.
therefore. It is generally recognized that Zarathustra presents an argument will according to which the essential core of all somewhat things is the to power." In interpretation. In the second. 1 . but are inseparably It is joined. and that in its composition these aspects are not merely parallel or complementary. ." Preface. is fissure in what appears to only to those whose be a flawless on is keen enough to spot the of It is through the disruption the continuity of the apparent enter the level of the apparent that we are invited to new and strange and and into a deeper world that is that would otherwise be peculiar char sealed to us with seven seals (Beyond Good Evil. to interpret this drama. A genuinely philosophical book might to the golden bowl of revealed with some plausibility be of whose con compared stitution Henry James's novel." Part One origin and falls decisively in the "Night to break and the second rises from its the shoals of the Redemption" in "On of Self-Overcoming" with violence upon thought the eternal and return as Riddle" it is developed first in "On and "The Vision wave the and finally in "The Convalescent. but to those whom he "the wisest. Fall 1998. New Orleans Next to the things themselves the the greatest what writings of the philosophers seem to pose works difficulties for interpretation. argument and action. The acter of philosophical readers of his books . .1 As readers of the book. is a work that dramatizes the attempt of a man to we are called interpret upon the things themselves. "deepest. Vol. the truth observation surface. might writing led Nietzsche to give voice to the wish that be possessed of the philological equivalent of "the work gold smith's art offer his gratitude has nothing but delicate cautious in advance for some "subtlety of which and to do" and to interpretation" (Daybreak. 5. as it stands. No.Interpreting the Twofold Presentation of the Will to Power Doctrine in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra Steven Berg Loyola University. Zarathustra offers a revised to his teaching regarding calls the power not disciples. Within their only clue offered to the things are never they seem and yet the discovery of what is is what seems to be. 26. The first crests at the end of Song." In the first Zarathustra's to unsuccessful attempt to transmit and forces him will to reflect upon this teaching his teaching to his disciples to realize that. it is incoherent. presentation of this argument occurs less commonly observed that the in two waves. Beyond Good Evil. 27) seems to The book that Nietzsche himself have considered his Thus Spoke Zarathustra. 289). In our efforts to do so it is useful to begin with the consideration that a drama is composed of two essential aspects.
Nowhere is this other than a more apparent than in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: the book is nothing in the original thinker's progress from self-proclaimed wise man or dogmatist to sceptical philosopher Socratic sense.. If it is primarily the fact that he is wise rather than ignorant that accounts for his superhuman condition. he is met with incredulity. of accordingly. Overburdened by its superfluity. like the be merely a superficial or partial aspect of his thought. Appealing directly to the multitude. ridicule and hatred." this account. Nietzsche's philosophy looks less "post-modern" precursor of Heideggerian existentialism or tionism and more like an attempt in the wake of German Idealism to philosophy to its portrait of a genuine core: Socratic or Platonic thought. but as such to be more than human. then the distribution. insights the articulate the kernel of what comes return. e. Zarathustra will relinquish his than superhuman status by going down to ignorant men and distributing man his wisdom to them.2 to fruition in Zarathustra's as thought of the a eternal This thought demonstrates to Zarathustra in takes as final way the false character of his supposed wisdom which its first principle the doctrine of the will to power. This under persuading live. the will to power proves to doctrine. therefore. demon strates the false character of that doctrine Four a as such and." man since more man by his lack of wisdom or ignorance. however. one of these version of a man called Truthsayer. is directed to to go so that the superman renewal of this condition would have to find its source in the confirmation of his wisdom. of Thus when Nietzsche's utterances Zarathustra is through which simply as collection Zarathustrian Nietzsche gives voice to understood his own opinions. As it is attempt presented in "Zarathustra's Prologue." 8)." men in order to distribute his wisdom thereby "become empty is defined dead. Once deconstrucreturn its deeper levels are taken sight of. he and wishes to "go down" to again. much passes for the core of Nietzsche's philosophy. Zarathustra relinquishes his superhuman status may then only ultimately to renew or reconfirm it. but as a drama in of the which each speech round may be only in the light deeds that sur it and of what its necessary place within a sequential order of presentation.3 At the opening of the work it is made clear that Zarathustra not only takes himself to be wise. however. It seems that Zarathustra to will somehow attempt to confirm his wisdom through its distribution. It. however. he is not a god: part of his wisdom is his knowledge that "god is He is. In the light appeals and of this failure Zarathustra upon a novel strat- prudently further such direct fastens . therefore. no mention is made of it in Parts Three read not and the work.100 Interpretation to response his invitation to "seriously the test" "wisest. the superman.g." however. his first distribute his wisdom to men is an utter failure. thinks through this revised Zarathustra's The Truth- teaching further ecy" than Zarathustra the essential has himself and reveals to him in a "proph (Weissagung) sayer's mind incoherence still nested at its core. According to one auditor of his speeches he is lucky to have escaped with his life ("Zarathustra's eschews all Prologue." But this his means "to be again.4 If Zarathustra is human.
one Afterworldsmen. That is to say. this activity is directed to sustaining people of which the people to gain legislator or creator expanding the power of the is the founder.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra egy: -101 he will make a new beginning by transmitting his wisdom to a cadre of handpicked disciples who. the people. But being. Thus whatever allows a and victory or power over itself. the measure and the What Zarathustra believes he has discovered through his good and and whatever allows it to gain it calls examination of the speeches of the legislators or creators as embodied in their laws is that is the will at the origin and the end of the activity of legislation or to power. according to Zara thustra. the first. agree in articulating an understanding evil as identical to virtue and vice. will then turn their efforts to shaping humanity in such a way -as to prepare it to embrace Zara thustra's teaching and its final end. Zarathustra proceeds with As the narrative unfolds and his attempt to initiate his disciples into his teaching. Since the of about good and evil are derived from the laws the various political commu nities. "On the is to be interpreted or understood it to as man." holy. . as Zarathustra calls him. activity stands the legislator or." or power over neighbors meaning various creation of all victory "the high. including his soul and mind. Zarathustra does knowledge of not possible to gain an immediate access to since being is through examining the speeches of human beings. Jews because all and Germans all speak differently about good speeches and are formed by different laws. law. "On the Thousand authoritative speeches of the and One Zarathustra makes the claim that the speeches about good and evil on all men's lips are derived from the follow laws of various peoples: and evil Greeks. according to Zarathustra's understanding. which those speeches are first and foremost concerned to articulate not what is being. require that beings who speaks: man the rational animal. therefore. all of of good and them. in accordance with its law. The understanding and interpretation of interpret the speeches of that one being among speaking believe it being or. em but rather what good and evil. calls "praiseworthy." "will to for the first time. the Still. acting in the light of its truth. the apparent: he believes that he is in being. the life of the superman ("Zarathustra's Prologue." Here he that if be made to speak. Zarathustra's presented argument for the truth of his first principle as of in the speech that marks the beginning must attempt genuinely first is to transmit his reasons wisdom being his disciples." character of his alleged wisdom becomes of possession of a causal own knowledge principle "all including is the the being of his knowing. he insists. The first of this wisdom will to power. however. in the Aristotelian phrase. its things. despite their variety. the good for man is understood by the law to be convertible with moral virtue. speaks to man only being. Behind the creator. root cause of all the will to power is the things. the It is the of the creator that brings the law into being and." 9). since. power" In that speech of Part One in he ploys the term Goals. Persians.
5 But then Zarathustra's perspective of own speech about the beings itself transcends the his transcendence that marks wisdom as more any particular law. therefore. overarching then. This new "light to the will itself recognize Zarathustra as the source of its light and. The indefinite or through plurality of peoples can be given definition if Zarathustra how impose a finitude upon this plurality and then bind this finite unlimited peoples together can some number of into a genuine whole by directing each and every one of them to a single humanity itself. At the close of Part One. The only thing that seems to fracture identity is the variety of such speeches or the multiplicity Zarathustra himself has taken these laws and their multiplicity as the this of laws. Zarathustra to wish to establish not simply a link. as it were. that he cities of men. will have become the founders of a finite number of novel peoples and will themselves form what Zarathustra calls "a new chosen ("On the Giving 2). As both the laws of his fellow creators and his own law of laws will be the first to have been constructed on the foundation of a full recognition of the truth of the law as rooted in the creative will or the will to power. It is with this end in view has descended from his his mountain solitude to offer his the same a That teaching. law that is. divine. standing above and ruling a humanity they have helped to fashion. To create great endeavor. That the related political and aspects of claim. longer disciples. to a Virtue. insofar as he takes the paradigmatically human speech to be the authoritative speeches of the law. however. to creating creators. according in what to Zarathustra. is indefinitely being of infinitely malleable and that is simply a reflection of the essential being of all beings. perhaps. but rather fellow creators. a law that is. in Zarathustra's own words. therefore." nations" among its brotherhood of equals. their legislation will also be the first to have been articulated in the . believes of peoples and of the possible The indefinite plurality it to produce or create humanity itself on the level of the political transforming his transcendent or superhuman wisdom into a novel and comprehensive moral law. however. first no people" the successful completion of this promulgation. but identity between them. Zarathustra. as an expression of the indefi Zarathustra human. human beings seems necessarily is. is at one and new teaching in the time the distribu as tion of wisdom and the promulgation of a law. believes. directed to producing a determinate number of subordinate legislations or. man the speaking linked to their root man the political being and that both aspects of man's being is necessarily humanity find the rational an uncontroversial an he calls the will are to power. it were. that "humanity it plasticity self or in the proper sense does not in fact exist.102 We Interpretation see that. is Zarathustra's goal. nite laws. indicates. the to power. It is this than human. to an key understanding of the and human and taken the of human as the key to an understand ing of being in the light the potentially infinite this number of particular will peoples and laws has plastic or concluded that the human at its core. the coming to be of the superman. in his farewell speech to his disciples Zarathustra looks forward to a superlegislation future in which his friends.
rule of a justice that is identical to a certain form of inequality. saying that Zarathustra fails in this endeavor. therefore. this his account of the core of all beings as will to power and as indefinitely since plastic. it and as well. "the Great stand Noon." 3). as he At the moment of the Great Noon man will no principle of all join longer is the between animal and god. At this culminating moment hind his veil. Zarathustra for his first step from be true and mankind prepared advent as the divinity with calls or the highest embodiment of the his fellow creators it. but animal gods are and superman. Accordingly. as it were. Through it the political animal the rational animal will have been seamlessly joined and the law and made one. This teaching is is engineered produce within them the freedom of mind and will prerequisite to the activity of comprehensive: creation. How he We can answer this question if we recall that Zarathustra's like himself is incumbent upon the successful effort to create another sion of transmis to his wisdom or teaching to his disciples. create dom and. since mankind as a whole will recognize that "all of dead" and that Zarathustra himself living and incarnate truth the novel superhuman ideal ("On the of Giving man Virtue. the superhuman creator over his human creatures. If Zarathustra's disciples are to fulfill this command to freedom it would seem that they must proceed in one of two ways: they may either reject teach- his teaching while lacking a sufficient understanding of the truth of that .The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra light of 103 the the truth of being." 1). will creators. humanity being If he is itself into successful for the in his endeavor. The of his knowledge have become of coextensive with the horizon the law. while bringing humanity first time. reveal himself to a his career. But the freedom his disciples are obliged to achieve it requires not only that the understanding of they liberate themselves from their former prejudices or good and evil instilled in their minds by the old law. and the perfection of his wisdom will coincide with its successful trans mission or with the successful legislation have been of of his law of laws. by and made of same means his happiness made ("Zarathustra's Prologue. simultaneously confirm the truth of his wis condition. Zarathustra will." things. But Zara these thustra identifies the have perfect possession will of wisdom with secured happiness." 3). a He will his knowledge is being perfectly legal a himself blissful horizon divinity of who at the same time will philosopher-king will kings. but teaching as from Zarathustra's speech of command own teaching. It almost goes without fails is the question. In acknowledging the transcendant superiority kind will at the same time acknowledge the justice of the Zarathustra new law he has laid the legitimate down. It will be a legislation in perfect accord with man nature of and man man's things or. friends and fellow creators ("On the Giving Virtue. in of that the final a Part One Zarathustra to his disciples to offers as the last injunction themselves" teaching that reject "find in order they may ultimately become his equals. the authenticity of his superhuman if he is indeed able to make another like himself or confirm That is to say. in celebrating the feast of this new epiphany or. a natural law.
wholly not abstracts from the fact that the wishes child of reveal the dream expressly asks Zarathustra to look at himself: he to to Zarathustra something about on author of that teaching. This interpretation. The venom of the Tarantula is his doctrine justice ity at the center of which." in other words. lies the desire for suggests This doctrine is. What and grotesque of a devil." "divinely strive against one At the same or moment. the distribution of his author. must accomplish pre teaching force them into Song" an all too human bondage to its lover": it "The Night of a expresses an intense desire . must reject in full awareness of what it is they are rejecting. Zarathustra and down from his of what to rejoin his disciples practiced upon purify his teaching it by his foes." of first half his of Part Two.104 Interpretation so ing The that. them to become his enemies and suggests that from another. they may appropri they may reject it in full awareness of its truth. to be absurd. however. however. it is precisely what made clear at the awakes at Zarathustra demands Two. but about himself as the the basis of his inadequate understand mountain retreat ing of the dream. appears independent inquiries." Zarathustra seems to believe that he has at Consequently. of course. Nonetheless. This is the Mirror" opening within of Part in with Zarathustra from a nightmare he sees holds up a mirror there is the "mocking as and asks him to look mask himself it. his venom. of with the particular enemy claims a he here confronts. he henceforth they now bids last sufficiently prepared his friends for this rejection. What this incident another is that Zarathustra's attempt to make at like himself. the Zarathustra as "Tarantula" "preacher equality. It is not or while he takes to be the distortions enough then that sufficient his disciples knowledge of reject his teaching in they a distorted form it rather lacking its truth." victory over he bites him of and infects him as equal revenge. on the basis of their own or ate this truth for themselves. that the to pave the of teaching he believes to be a path to will instead prove way to enslavement and self-enslavement. which marks the cul mination of a series of engagements with his "enemies. By the seventh speech of Part Two ("On the Tarantulas"). to create his equals in the form of fellow creators. has itself in its the core the same vengeful passion that Zarathustra identifies manifests as the source of what teaching of the preachers of sickness" calls "the turning and equality and that "the tyrant liberation he madness. That Zarathustra is himself aware the implications of his encounter with the Tarantula is made clear in the first three songs which punctuate the close of the Song. of latter. In "The Child which a child his disciples. of course. as Zarathustra has argued."6 Zarathustra interprets this dream enemies and ence his teaching has been distorted signifying that have grown ashamed of their his disciples consequently that by his adher to it. rushes his teaching. opposed to Zarathustra's own doctrine of justice as inequality. Neverthless. "The Night In this song Zarathustra which opposite of what offers a portrait of own activity of creation in its fulfillment cisely the demonstrates that it is this supposed to effect: of mind disciples a more than will human freedom is "the song activity far from producing in his and will.
this condition with another. munity is now apparent to Zarathustra. to establish a community of and reciprocity. that is. The distribution of his wisdom create not equals capable of rior creatures of his will properly receiving returning his love. On the other hand. dependent position as disciples and attempt to become in their own autonomous creators right. fellow creators and wise instead result in one of two remain his disciples may returning equally unsatisfactory situations. therefore. made clear through stands following reflection. but by the falsehood of their willful ignorance. If they are to become his equals in creation they must reject that teaching in full awareness of its truth. that is. dependency disciples' upon or subordinate status to the will of an Thus the truth of Zarathustra's teaching. for he has come to perceive that the teaching he took to be the proper means to establish this perfectly reciprocal love must sity violate of its fundamental principle. friendship and love read on a basis of perfect of equality When "The Night clear Song" is in the light "On the Tarantulas" it becomes that Zarathustra's equality in love relations indicates that his longing for love has been infected with the desire for justice as understood by the preachers insistence upon absolute of equality and. is under in pursuing the their own independent activity of creation. as Zarathustra setting up only law ("On the Way of the Creator"). and It thus reveals Zarathustra's distribute his wisdom. requires that they his teaching as an external determination upon their wills. Thus Zarathustra's only disciples' attempts to achieve an equality with their master serve to confirm their inferiority and to him in terms of both will knowledge and the freedom of the will. that his understanding of the just political order is incoherent insofar as the essential character of its ruling peak would of neces this ruling peak itself. therefore. prove incapable either of or even of they may reject their properly receiving the gifts of his love. But precisely in such rejection they obey the final command of. Creation. they must liberate above oneself as one's it. but infe who will always fall short of his own perfection. is perfectly self-sufficient self-legislation or one's own will their wills from any other. be his love nor to offer love to him in return. which reveals Zarathustra to be the legislator of his reject own supposed self-legislation. and this is men. On the one hand. the com incoherent in its own terms. disciples and. That his disciples but fail in their his enemies efforts to free themselves from Zarathustra's tutelage by becoming however. they may transform themselves able neither to cannot from friends into accept enemies of Zarathustra and.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 105 that (Begierde) ate another to give and receive love effort to with perfect mutuality. In order for Zarathustra's disciples to become fellow creators. and adhere to and fulfill this teaching. In attempting to liberate their wills from subordination so all to the will of another they subordinate themselves to the will of Zarathustra. has its motive not wisdom and thereby his superhuman simply a desire to confirm his but moreover a longing to share condition. therefore. Moreover. It . And in creating while rejecting the true teaching of creation they are determined not by the truth of the will alone. as through such distribution cre like himself. consequently.
but by self-mockery. self-sufficient a them aware of their own poverty and dependence in relation to He will put them to shame. Zarathustra's attempt to combine jus perfectly reciprocal tice and love." By false terized "The Dance Song" of Part Two Zarathustra has become aware of the charac character of his by bombast he to accompany the Cupido. and the desire for revenge within his soul. rather than confirming his happiness or bliss. he is in useful a state of aporia. will supplant the for love his the perfection of Zarathustra's giving or creation proves to be at the same its undoing. and Having failed in his with effort to unite to freedom with friendship justice love he will succumb desire to punish his disciples for the inferiority longing and incapacity within of which he is Thus time the cause.106 Interpretation be impossible for Zarathustra to create another proves to proves to like himself because it be impossible love. how he the seductive and veiled figure of Lady Wisdom who persistently In an extended series of questions at the end of eludes speech his he gaze and grasp. spite. wisdom. As he puts giving. ("On the Giving Vir 1). demonstrates the incoherence of Zarathustra's Given the fact that the and his wisdom was to be identical its promulgation as will considering that the starting point of that legislation end the enjoyment of is the to power and its of love. compatible with the moral law insofar tue.7 either to command another to be free or to will a Consequently. consequently. Yet that thus be impossible in its of This impossibility law. will produce in his relations to his recalcitrantly inferior disciples the sad passions of envy. The dominant passion of the preachers of equality. confesses that this he In no longer knows where he is or how to go forward. way to an in its turn to a envy of those to whom he distributes such gifts and this envy spiteful desire to afflict them with the pain of the longing that he himself expe unsatisfied Zarathustra's longing to receive the gifts of love will give riences: he will take revenge upon them by withholding his gifts from them and thereby making his superfluity. As "The Night Song" predicts. it is his seems to follow that central to the incoherence Zarathustra's wisdom assumption that in its highest expression love is as the former finds its source perfectly in and is ultimately identical to the self-legislating will. dancing of a group of "lovely wisdom." Through its distribution Zarathustra distribution distribution proves to sought to confirm own terms. my virtue grew it in "The Night Song": "my happiness in giving died in tired of itself in its overflow. review order to articulate the structure of this aporia it is to the progress of Zarathustra's thought in the his wisdom following Zarathustra terms." Consequently pedantry. revenge. and his speech is no longer girls" In the song that he sings with "the little god portrays himself as the inept lover of two ladies by the names of Life and Wisdom. with his wisdom.8 ignorance what after by In this song he makes manifest his knowledge of his own describing how he falls into perplexity when trying to fathom "thirsts" he takes to be Life's boundless depths and. the punishment or desire for soul. Through wished to pro- his legislation and the transmission of .
the word "philoso por phy" nowhere appears within the speeches of Zarathustra. to secure the good happiness for his fellows with and himself. That is to say. ing and The rational good and the political good were to be made to coincide through the rale of the wise creator over his creatures. The in wisdom and toward the awareness of self-contradictory nature of Zarathustra's Gay Science. of the rational good. the just as final political order. since. Thus if in Part . 381). and the good. Though in his trayal in a dialogue with his beloved Life of his unsatisfied thirst for and ongoing suit. the rule of the creator over his creatures to the advantage of both is impossible. As he reveals at the close of "The Dance Song. that understood need on is. the In doing so he considers himself to have stepped beyond the limitations of the political realm. But Zarathustra's understanding came to ruin when he realized that friendship or love in the highest sense is incompatible with the justice of the political realm. in which the just is included as false appearance. the morally or legally determined under and pursuit of wis philosophy. therefore. all human community established upon the basis of the law.9 standing of the good points to the life devoted to the love dom in erotic community through speech: it points to In significant contrast to all of Nietzsche's other works. and that. from the perfect possession of speeches that beginning. or that love is incompatible with the self-legislating freedom of the will. therefore. He cannot painful beyond endurance. pursuit of Wisdom Zarathustra comes close of a to the ophy and. elaborating of the beautiful. he has identified perfect happiness with the and the two wisdom. to the career own desirability life informed of the discovery of philos by the love and pur at this point rather than the possession of knowledge sustain good. Accordingly. in his his newly won awareness of his the ignorance because he finds perplexity into which he has been thrown he misses the mark. that false horizon now of the is. His understanding of the good overcoming of need thus divided into the beautiful as the perfectly recip love of the wise for the wise and the just as the structure of an overarch final political order. and his beautiful as the loving community of the believes to be a new extramoral account what he instead wise. He that good to be coinci dent the overcoming would of human both the final rational and the political levels: ignorance political orders be replaced by knowledge and all partial and transitory its ruling by one that is comprehensive and and that had as peak the as the rocal loving community of creator-wise men. in "The Grave attempts follow he of to resolve his perplexity by jettisoning both his understanding understanding and the political good. What Nietzsche suggests in "The Dance is that the inco Song" herence human need as of Zarathustra's wisdom points of need away from an understanding of the good as the knowledge overcoming of ignorance (cf." he cannot understand his life to be worth living if he cannot believe himself to be Song" wise. and to have ascended to the naked truth of things.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra vide a comprehensive solution or 107 to the human problem. He man as political and man as rational and distinguishes sharply between concludes that the only genuine good is a transpolitical good.
" both his life his wisdom at the end of "The Grave "The Grave Island in Song" opens as Zarathustra retreats to the solitude of the Grave youth. rabble who are those whom the Tarantulas or preachers of equality serve: the of vulgar or well or the great majority fountain human beings. That is love were to say. It is the of have his it "poisoned" the (Borne) life for Zarathustra by bringing youthful loves to a premature terminus presence of ("On the Rabble"). e. envy. quickly devolves into to an he pretends to discover the cause of the transience of his youthful love in the "rabble" efforts of his destroy him." it becomes clear that up behind Zarathustra's days over the silent graves of his "best perfectly love that longing for a mutual love lay a nostalgic desire to in the recapture and perfect a species of of he knew but all too briefly sunnier the playful intercourse of "blissful minds" his youth. in the second half of Part Two he to have liberated himself entirely from the cave of the law and to have for ascended evil what into the light of the sun of a sense. control of The failure of be brought completely under the the distribution of Zarathustra's wisdom to to . happy. his difficulties or not upon his own dis longing on the for "purity" "cleanliness" perfection and (Reinheit [see upon "On the Tree Mountainside" and "On the Rabble"]). Zarathustra blames his failures position. Zarathustra's primary opponents. Nevertheless.. and by infecting them with the vulgar or base passions of. As is his habit. was the lingering he the low or the vulgar within the souls of those whom Zarathustra youth loved in his that brought the association between them to an end: even could not stomach the persistent presence of the low that he discovered in the highest form of this link between the high intercourse between human beings. consequently. In other words. for having corrupted the souls of those he loved best spite. It seems then that the recapture the distribution Zarathustra's in his wisdom was youth and designed both to believes to be ful love that he experienced of to overturn the political and "spiritual" dominance polluted the the vulgar majority that he or well of responsible for having fountain his youth joy in and desire for life. knowledge that his stands beyond good and in the moral Zarathustra exchanges refuted moral wisdom he understands to be a new amoral wisdom and wise thereby permits himself to the persist in the belief that he is principle of and. but of itself personified as a malevolent host assembled to oppose and thwart vulgarity him in his endeavors. a love expressed in (seligen Geister). His creation was supposed to guarantee both "eternity" the perfection and of his love. however. and however. fundamental doctrine ple of both his He original and his revised teachings remains the of the will to power. and reaffirms the will to power as the first princi Song. "enemies" however. the conditions of possi bility and his his actual enjoyment of will. Zarathustra's la angry accusation as mentation. order to lay a wreath upon the tomb of the lost loves of his In the course of the lamentations he offers loved dead. and his revulsion before and the low extinguished his love. the longing for revenge. that is.g.108 One Interpretation and the first half of Part Two Zarathustra his moral attempted to enclose the sun of knowledge pretends within the cave of law.
he also concludes that any particular vice." indefinite plurality or virtue and all of its creations that he originally sought to limit. and resurrects the creative activity of the can continue will highest The will to power doctrine. Zarathustra baptizes the name this revised understanding that in secret the will to power with "self-overcoming" and claims doing the words in which overcome ever much life itself revealed its he is merely echoing to him: "I am that which must create and itself again. In doing so go of rest he lays to as the as his desire for love good. and the of the by the infection of his longing for revenge. and indignation that have led to the premature deaths his loves. destroy ster such self-created only perpetually create. For the will. after to serve rein the cornerstone of his wisdom only having been extensively terpreted in the light speech of the collapse of his original understanding. therefore. His own others disgust and indignation before the traces be low that he detects in In fact it thus itself appear to an expression of this same vulgarity. he realizes. Be that it may. "whatever I oppose how I love it rooted I have to it and my love: thus my win will have it. His cannot skepticism extends to all supposedly final knowledge. One but wonder whether this new skeptical cate teaching regarding the will to power of so does not impli as itself in its own critique of all comprehensive accounts of being. He adopts a dogmatic skepticism. It is a protean mon must not that hides its essential indeterminacy in the ceaseless production of false in his and ephemeral appearances. The greatest good. As a conse good and evil quence. In the immediately following articulates "The Grave Song" ("On Self-Overcom to power doctrine." again and soon and. but perpetually limitations upon its own activity. spite. ing") Zarathustra his revised version of the will No longer addressing himself to his disciples. must be to the status of a transitory and so false fabrication infinite of the will to power. seems of to be this disgust youthful enemy. Without himself being aware of it. as well as relegated teaching concerning limited and any particular teaching now regarding the character of being. in the infinite power of the will." Life.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra effect 109 this unification of love and will was made evident own soul with the passions of envy. Zarathustra is his a paroxysm of own worst It is only over after he has of whipped himself up into perpetrated indignation the "murder" his loves allegedly by his foes that Zarathustra lets as his perplexity and once again fastens upon the will to power doctrine the means to his salvation and the foundation of his knowledge. in expressing its or unlimited character. however. manifests itself in an infinite becoming. "the good. he says is." creative It is identical to the creation of values as an ongoing activity or to the ever-renewed . but to those whom he calls "you he now embraces precisely the unlimited character of the will and the wisest.10 At the end of this same speech Zarathustra offers his new extramoral ac count of the good. Zarathustra thus replaces his dogmatic moral wis dom with an amoral skeptical wisdom that nevertheless remains grounded of the will fundamental dogma to power.
Zarathustra describes it "On the Sublime. . it follows that the genuine of the good as understanding moral inseparable from evil is incompatible virtue and with the understanding of good and evil as identical to vice." as a form of artful play." as a "still sea" whose calls riddling surface hides "impenetrable of the The infinite. the false char acter of which is fully recognized by forth renounce any desire to enlighten the minds of its creator." he describes himself depths. it follows minds and wills of now resigns that the wise man must remain since the creation of values that liberates his will solitary in his activity. good untouchable. "Thus Spake Zarathustra. As he puts it at the end of behind the serious or heroic moral virtue of the superman as the paradigm of the highest life lies the Nietzsche himself secret playful appears to ness of what scribe he now calls the "superhero. ascended from the plurality of accounts of moral virtue morality. the possession of wisdom. he no longer considers honesty to be the best policy and turns to concealment and prudential irony in the presentation of his thought: at the opening of his speech "On the Sublime. from opposites. will's creation of values as the greatest good is extra-moral and in charac ter and those values themselves or the moral law a beautiful concealing falsehood. will's "sublime" character good. of course. naively (The Gay Science. himself to purchasing his its first principle. that moral has compelled him to distinguish the the good from virtue. destruction of values as its Accordingly. wisdom and will and And. . Zarathustra is understanding and a now able to distinguish between a of good and (false) evil. as a whole through the transmission of Consequently. It is. entails moral (true) extramoral understanding He argues that since the greatest good. for. to the one true He now understands himself to have ascended and from the plurality of moral virtues to the truth of the good as distinct from the source of moral virtue and its plurality. virtue and vice are immiscible Zarathustra originally thought of that he had. must veil itself in the false the appearances of wholeness and com pleteness of the moral ation of beautiful. the false perspective of the moral law. 382. his desire for happiness as he understands it."" de Zarathustra's of new paradigm of the highest life in the . necessarily the greatest evil. law or or as he it there." 2). Ecce with all that was Homo. necessarily imprisons the Thus Zarathustra of mind and will those upon whom he imposes his creation. then Zarathustra must hence his disciples and mankind his wisdom. Gay Science when he speaks "the ideal of a mind who plays divine" hitherto If the called holy. or itself stands the gloomy seriousness of those ideals. But the "values. as the highest good. But the ceaseless creation of values requires the ceaseless precondition. If the creation of values requires the legislation morality. which he has come to identify of a with beautiful. the self-sufficient freedom at the expense of the enslavement of everyone else." self-concealing above cre beautiful moral ideals.110 Interpretation of fabrication transitory teachings of good and evil as virtue and vice. the destruction of values. in clinging to his its freedom. the creation of values. he . through the examination of the laws the various peoples.
and. These of a new Zarathustrian tradition that will ultimately provide for the coming into the being of a new creator. Symposium reproduction of his own good. never given a proper sayer comes but is simply called "the to understand is that Zarathustra's attempt to of Truthsayer. Zarathustra of attempts to demolish the tradition he confronts. the beautiful becomes a kind of rase through which the 206a. the realm of ing the life that is free on and slavery and informed by the of falsehood. truth." What the Truth his initial transcend understanding must of not the just political order by reducing the political realm to a mere means to the reproduction of his own necessity fail. and create engendered. its fundamental incoherence. therefore. one fers his revised account of the will to of the "wisest" to whom Zarathustra of power responds to his invitation to "seri his ously interprets them test" "word. The reproduction of the good is guaranteed (cf. he values the admittedly political community." as he calls it. Zarathustra himself has done. anew out use the rains he has as Zarathustra. help lower level than his The reason for this . Plato.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra renounces -111 his longing for love such or for genuine community are a with another like himself and denies that love and happiness. As in the case of sexual intercourse. his old moral teaching. He will attempt to direct the sense with another human being. think through. Zarathustra's Nietzsche indicates this fact way as to such a lead the reader by initially teaching better than Zarathustra does him presenting the words of the Truthsayer in to infer that they are the words of Zarathustra ("The Truthsayer"). is now understood by and from the intercourse radically of one human mind with another. however. with caution and of subtlety. to the end of reproduc words. the undiscovered in the furthest sea: after it I call my sails to seek and to seek.12 Yet if he has false renounced community necessary his desire for living together in the highest condition of still wishes to employ the promulgation of he has created. It creating on a will fail because each of activity in the person of another Zarathustra's successors can predecessor. Zarathustra In other gives dren. comes to understand the implications self. demolish it. as a means not only to realizing the freedom of his will. This fellow thinker is name within the work." "now I love only my children's land. now wishes to the beautiful a means to "procreation" ("On Immaculate Knowledge") or the activity in the person of another.207a)." He will produce his "children" or reproduce men within men will his own activity in of another through convincing the highest the political community then become the bearers the conditions the truth of his false moral teaching." up As he the men of the present and turns his attention to producing "chil proclaims in "On the Land Education. He listens carefully to these speeches. but ultimately to the generation. this second Zarathustra will penetrate as as riddling surface of the regnant Zarathustrian teaching. As we have already observed. of another like himself. in new doing so. in some indefinite future. Zarathustra to be ultimately detached It is identical to the self-sufficient knowledge freedom of the will of the wise and solitary creator of values.
his own efforts at through the transmission of a enervation and paralysis of reproducing the life of the creator Zarathustrian tradition must finally result in an the will. serve as a vehicle for the reproduction of own activity: his own successor. become the "night-watchman death. but rather a all efforts of creation and was. in his dream Zarathustra sees that. however. of Zarathustra's his successor cannot. as it were. Consequently. the conclusion of his dream that the Truthsayer has appears to offer a suggestion as uncovered can entrance ment of to how the difficulty be resolved: a black coffin appears in the gateway that is the be that. therefore. everything is one. must initiate a process of decline of what considers worst that will end in the realization in deed political order or regime: the rule of the "rabble. therefore. Thus. the high point of Zarathustra's best moral teaching. but in terms of knowledge as well. self-overcoming that begins from the which has at its center his account he to be the in speech of the political order or regime. everything That is to say. This second Zarathustra will be obliged to seal off the exit from the its false The cre beliefs ation that Zarathustra's account of the best regime had opened up..112* Interpretation as decline is sibility perfect of follows.14 have been handed over to the ignorant Zarathustra is laid low lapse he priate by the "prophecy" of the Truthsayer. In words. The implication seems to difficulties that the Truthsayer has foreseen. the Truthsayer foresees that Zarathustra will engender not a second Zarathustra. During his draw the col experiences a second nightmare in which he seems to appro lessons from the Truthsayer's He is the prophecy." and grave-watchman on the hill and fortress of guardian of other life that has been "overcome" that lies in as coffins around him. despite the in some to this region of the dead. in which "shallow swamps" reins of political rule men. It is only by thinking through the incoherence and impos Zarathustra's beautiful and false account of the best regime and its one justice that may ascend direcdy beyond the falsehood of the politi cal realm to the peak of knowledge of the good. Nevertheless. In his dream Zarathustra has . bursts open. If Zarathustra's successor must destroy cannot the Zarathustrian tradition even in order to clear the way for the creation of his own."13 It is the low despair point of this necessary future in which those process of decline that the prophecy with of will the Truthsayer predicts: a over the capacity to create the vanity of consequently succumb to the belief that "everything is empty. will exist on a still lower level and not only in terms of creation. his its core an account of the just political regime cave of the political realm and that is on a lower plane than that of Zarathustra.. and regurgitates an odd assort images of resurrected life. the future continues way . then do so if he attains to Zarathustra's level in knowledge he cannot in his best creation of values: regime he found his own teaching on an account of the that he at own new tradition must have has himself demolished. just the prophet had predicted. Zarathustra the Third." climate in which "the best grow tired of their works" "harvested" after having predominate or the multitude of vulgar "rotten fruit" and.
Dis courses on Livy. the series of tradi follow in their decline and renewal a necessary and need course. of therefore. 1. . If." will Truthsayer posed responds to Zarathustra's ostensible solution to the problem he has for him. however. not to willing all of the past. Zarathustra only will this repetition or recur will as in order to once again secure the self-sufficient activity of the the final cause of the becoming of the political community (cf.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra - 1 13 to hold out the promise of a reprisal or recapitulation of the high point of the activity of the will that Zarathustra's when own creation represents. circular process of the ascent and decline of the will Willing this circular recurrence of is the be "sea" in which Zarathustra be He apparently shares his new insight with the Truthsayer at the dinner party to which he invites him immediately following his recovery. but to willing this willing. if any one necessity fall under one of a among the infinite finite number of kinds regime. that the finite process of decline in the creations of the will the Truthsayer predicts cal regimes or implies a similar finitude in regard to the kinds of politi that no matter how be. The suggestion that Zarathustra immediately following seems this account that the will must learn to "will in its backwards" to refer. Much as we would like to know how the lieves the difficulties the Truthsayer "drowned. then. namely. is the causal principle of number of of those peoples. when combined with seems to suggest that a initially encouraging to Zarathustra be his understanding of the will as self-overcoming. to say to Zarathustra at the meal they by the speech of Part Three realize entitled "On the Vision and the Riddle. recovers he appears to fathom the full significance his that dream. Zarathustra. This insight is cause. the Machiavelli. By willing will's his own superior existence as of the inevitable in this way he would reproduce the highest good. Whatever the Truthsayer may have had shared. Zarathustra traces this circular at trajectory will as willing the point in the discourse which following teaching in "The of Truthsayer" ("On Redemption") in he speaks of his own the liberator and then follows this with an account of the decline of the will "madness" from this height in it seeks to annul several stages to the nadir of the will's which we or return once itself in willing not-willing." Zarathustra has the come to that the apparent salvation of his revised ac count of the will to power as the perdition of creativity. the peoples must of Yet. more to Zarathustra's own teaching that "the will is a height from which we creator" ascend to the makes began. Nietzsche does not afford us this pleasure. at least at this point. From this low point.2). all of them fall under one or infinite the variety of particular peoples may another of a strictly limited number of possible regimes (see note 5). it finite process of decline in political orders must inevita bly be followed by an tions and regimes were to predictable circular rence opposing process of renewal. highest good has been bought in his at the price of or unlimited of his understanding The latter according to will of the will to power as was grounded infinite in its proposition analysis the political things which the potentially infinite variety of peoples implied the corresponding infinitude of that which to power.
he therefore makes a virtue out of this way the will so the becomes. . . The truth Zarathustra believes himself to undermine his to have discovered. in which it may be willed. eternal return of . however. the to power as highest good transforms itself into the best causal principle of a be both beautiful in its wholeness and just in the riddle relations of its parts insofar as the rule of the within prevails within it. That there are problems lurking Zarathustra's apparent solution to the presented by the eternal return of the same is made clear at the end of . regimes implies a circular recurrence on the cosmological scale or that a power at the core of all being must give rise to the . he now concludes that the circular recurrence of finite finite same. according the Zarathustra's current understanding. that the liberation through acts of creation or by becoming cause: will can achieve genuine a truly autonomous recurrence if the cosmological order is defined a by a necessary of all things. his attempt to becoming of the political community in the reproduction of the employ highest good requires that he will not only the circular repetition of political regimes. time itself is sees a Zarathustra. must past and Accordingly. "dwarf" the "mind of of wisdom! fall!" who mocks You have thrown yourself you stone him. its to necessity by willing the eternal as it were. Zarathustra's Riddle" own gloom over this insight is or in "On the Vision heaviness" and the by the voice of the .114- Interpretation his doctrine that at the core of all then Zarathustra must reconsider unlimited power.' "My day-wisdom mocks all 'infinite worlds. there number politi becomes master: Zarathustra thus discovers that the or cal problem has certain implications for cosmology about the whole that that the problem of jus tice and its relation to the beautiful and the good points to the problem of the order of the whole. . the dwarf replies with the cos "all circle. then the creation or represented will can never be first cause and there can be no genuine liberty in this sense. Thus. the first cause own willing: recurrence of all things. seems fundamentally teaching first concerning the freedom of the will." mological and necessitarian version of the thought of the eternal return: truth is crooked. In a last-ditch attempt to salvage the freedom of the will that he understands to be the highest good. therefore. In of the whole of things and first cause of it wills its own will or becomes self-caused. but the way eternal recurrence of all as to reproduce it in the or things.' 'Where force (Kraft) is. then he must submit to secondary cause within the nexus of causes being will merely a dependent deter mining the necessity of recurrence. cosmological whole that appears to By willing the recurrence of all things. implies the that the recurrence of the past and the future recurrence of the moment in which the eternal return is known and. "O Zarathustra high. the As he says in "On the Three Evils": For my wisdom it has more says: "" force. being is an Accordingly. saying. but every stone that is thrown . however. one when Zarathustra asks him whether the paths of the future that stretch out "contradict" moment in contrary directions from the gateway of the another eternally. since if he cannot will the past in such a future as his own creation. namely.
choked me and crept . that this the first and final cause of all knowing animals and all being is decisively refuted by Zarathustra himself. freedom will at its peak. all would be one."17 In the thought of the eternal return the doctrine of the will to power as necessarily entail self-sufficient and shows. the thought of the eternal recurrence of all things is the or. the that has crawled his throat. despite the rosy "monster" his into animals paint of "snake" it.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra "On the Vision choking upon a -115 and the Riddle" where Zarathustra sees a vision of a shepherd "heavy black snake" that has crawled into his throat and there bit itself fast. into my throat. the life but is in creative great effect of in. . 21). he that the will's "free of all a things in willing the eternal return or the universal be indistinguishable from of necessity: as and thoroughgoing determinism choke. paradoxically. Though his insist that his never "spit" "destiny" is to become this doc the teacher of the eternal return. that was my disgust at all creation" existence. as Zarathustra now describes it. the of the . At equality the bottom will Zarathustra's attempt to bring all things under the sway of his lies the same passion that animates the efforts of the preachers of . nothing be profitable. that is. the thought of the will eternal return elaborates precisely the what would be required for the to attain to a pure and perfectly would activity impure community of the highest with the lowest and the complete passivity of the will in submitting to a blind and inalterable "fate. Zarathustra trine and in fact describes himself as it. the will "turning the low passion of revenge that lies behind the incoherent metaphysical superlative and unfulfillable sense" desire for "freedom and in the of (Beyond Good Evil. Zarathustra's and spit advice to the shepherd shepherd is to bite rises off the snake's head is it far away. . as having repudiated He does so far away because he has come to in his attempt understand that the same problem that encountered to trans form his disciples into fellow proves to creators embodied in his attempt to reproduce the autonomous activity of his will: the path to absolute freedom of the will be identical the with the path to or its thoroughgoing "tyrant-madness" self-enslavement.16 dominion would the Truthsayer prophesied. "foreseeing" longer man. The presence of the low not only persists human life. of It is. but the per recurrence of the bad in the form of the lowest and smallest sort of the rabble. This thought proves monstrous and nauseating to Zarathustra when he realizes that the political and cosmological rule of the best or his willing the eternal recurrence of all things means willing not only the reproduction of the will's own goodness or superior petual activity in the person of another. Thus Zarathustra explains that "the small disgust at man ." Zarathustra calls this vision a "parable" and a Convalescent" and asks "who it is that must come In "The it is made clear that the shepherd represents Zarathustra himself picture that insofar as he is a ruler and legislator and that. the result of what he takes to be the highest human activity. of sickness" therefore.18 does this promulgate "monster" having he is from him." Moreover. When the no does this he up one laughing day?" and "no longer shepherd." That "the man recurs realizes would eternally . knowledge would Thus.
of as on the awareness of the goodness of need and the the other hand. however. Nietzsche's primary Platonic recovery of Socratic sense. the thought of the eternal return developed.116 to Interpretation all things under the bring political realm. its law and sway of the rabble. character of grounded the thought of the eternal return. the will and its desire for and i. Zarathustra's revised version of the will an expression of the most to power doctrine passion. In figure political presentation of the life of philosophy in the his Zarathustra is ultimately directed to showing that the principle of the political realm. "purification" That the drama philosophy The three can Zarathustra is ultimately devoted to such be seen by reviewing its overall trajectory. of "justice" "freedom. on the one hand." revenge. but. that the will is the primary phenomenon and its freedom being. Finally. is in accord with reason. which this The self-contradictory is the image of a cosmos in double causality of the will. but is ine rather a projection of and the political onto the natural realm. of not be given.21 need. however. in Part Three. is in the deepest tension with the principle of the life of philosophy. In doing so he offers a teleological the beautiful and the good are wherein becoming in which fundamentally is distinct. is simply fundamental political The self-refutation of Zarathustra's doctrine of the will to power in the thought of the eternal return of the same thus proves to be the refutation of the fundamental ration premise of that philosophical school that finds its origin and inspi in Kant.20 freedom his of mind are incompatible his "wisdom. In Part Two he attempts to employ the becoming of the political community." the core of what it is to be a human Nietzsche's demonstration of the incoherent foundations of "German and Idealism" is in and the service of a philosophy in its original other words. In other desire (Lust) for eternity words." with the absolute freedom that of the Through the refutation of own Zarathustra discovers the primary source of tional constructions thinking is not the will to power and of its inten directed to the overcoming chance. In Part One Zarathustra found a political order that principle of all is truly just by structuring it in accordance with the true being. and that genu knowing will.. of a of parts of Zarathustra as it was published under Nietzsche's attempts to author ity may be characterized as follows. Zarathustra's understanding of the starting point and end of the po litical realm is shown to imply a complementary cosmology or an account of the will being of becoming according to which the whole of things is rooted in the to power as both its efficient and its final cause. as a means through which to realize the the political community and account of highest good. love and. Therefore it shows both that which a complete causal account could cosmological order. a good that lies beyond the justice of its moral law. he discovers that the presence within philosophy in the midst of things is a good that cannot be made to fit . the char acter of which he takes to be essentially indeterminate or fluid. namely. Far from having escaped the its justice.e. In doing so he unfolds an account of being or an ontol ogy in which the highest good and the beautiful are one and the same. shows such a cosmos to be impos a "rational" sible.
That the made clear of speeches of the Truthsayer June 21." 3. Cf. Beyond Good and Evil.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra a -117 beautiful to the whole of justly ordered parts. good and evil when the Chairs of and "On the Old Tables. 9. Zarathustra's mind of is the "mind heaviness" of ("On Reading heaviness. but that nevertheless conveys a good ness totality is of things which would made possible not be absent from such a perfect whole. Behind the 6. Zarathustra later specifies the ignorance of human beings Virtue" as believing they and know New what is they do not. One of the most striking signs of Zarathustra's transformation is his temporarily abandoning The god in question his doctrine that "god is for a declaration that he is "god's himself basis of their dead" advocate. 4. Tablets. belatedly offers the most fundamental kinds of regime: rule of the one and rule of ("despotism"). See "On Cf. if the refutation of Zarathustra's claim to wisdom points to philosophy as the human good. 23)." turns out to be Cupido or Eros. after having covered quite a bit of ground in his thinking. Zarathustra." 5. p. Zarathustra has aspect of the political community that is recalcitrantly his understanding of man. Through the twofold parody twofold presentation of Zarathustra's "wisdom" Nietzsche of philosophy. it also points to the partial obstruction that the political community and its justice pose to the acquisition of that good. are behind Zarathustra's thought of the eternal return is in "On the Convalescent. Preface. In its revised sceptical and extramoral he parodies the incompleteness and infinitude of philosophical speaks inquiry as of the pursuit of "the fundamental (Beyond Good and Evil. Zarathustra well arrives at this conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence: though it may and be the case that the number of particular peoples their particular laws is potentially strictly the various infinite. ful man that Zarathustra has chanced that he has to a friend. 4.'' something like an analysis of rule of the few ("nobility") and the many ("mob-rule"): "On Old and New "devil" 11. it is limited kinds of nevertheless also the case that these particular peoples and laws all fall under a number of kinds or species of regime. also see Ecce Homo. examination of This discovery human the or political a things.22 upon in his wanderings. 8. The Truthsayer is obviously neither a disciple of Zarathustra's teaching nor a creature of his will. Writing"). That Zarathustra is to be first lines of read with Plato and of his Socrates in mind is made clear in the very the book in which the famous images the cave and the sun from Plato's Republic are conspicuously employed. rooted In neglecting to perform an analysis of regimes. and therefore of being. In Part Three. Zarathustra's to command his disciples to Jesus' free themselves from their belief in his his disciples to love one another teaching is and the negative reflection of on the attempt to command belief in his teaching and his divinity. Of course. but the mutual pursuit of wisdom." Nietzsche philosophical version writing its artful completeness or finitude. Zarathustra's painted of Socrates' Second Sailing Song" (Chicago: distinction between the necessary and the good. On the simplest level. University of Chicago Press). He explicitly Zarathustra as a . As such he is the closest thing NOTES 1. parodies "wisdom. but by only by his community in Zarathustra's the speech and thought with community based not upon the mutual possession. appears to offer a 11. 1888. however. See Letter to Karl Knortz 2. of this In the original dogmatic and and legislative version parody may be Zarathustra's characterized as follows. 153. in that irrational. It points to the Seth Benardete. 10. 7. stands of claim to have fathomed Life's depths as the in stark contrast and to the portrait he himself in "The Dance ignorant lover Life Wisdom. is "the attempt revenge" mind of ("On Redemption"). 202. He is simply the most thought Truthsayer.
is the perfectly active and self-sufficient creator of the whole of from understanding the freedom of the an of second attempt of the good in terms the Jesus' being out of the infinite power of his will. to uncover that which is unchanging in the nature of things or fundamental problems": see Beyond Good and and Evil." steals the of the mob That the Truthsayer's reference to "shallow swamps" is meant to indicate the rule is made clear in "On Old to and New Tablets." Life's be is self-overcoming weaker steals. the topic of which is "the religious essen This fifty-sixth aphorism concludes by suggesting that the thought of the eternal return would be circulus vitiosus deus a vicious circle as god. The Wisdom of the Ancients. reproduces at its peak the contradiction that stands at the center of the traditional morality he had hoped man-god decisively to transcend: is. Michael Gillespie Tracy Strong (Chicago: in University with of Press. The fundamental problem that the incom of patible combination of freedom necessity in the thought of the eternal return points to is that the relation community and philosophy: the political community. to articulate (Nietzsches Philoso 197). In his "Irony and Affirmation in Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra's thought and Robert Pippin de Chicago of scribes this self-refutative aspect of of the eternal return with some clarity: see Nietzsche's New Seas. 1935]. . pp. Vol. "Proteus.118 Interpretation preface parody in the "'Incipit to The Gay Science. As Nietzsche's Zarathustra makes clear. divided and self-contra for all eternity the fatality of all existence and its eternal return and: I world" only one conditioned fatality in all the circling of the natural der Ewigen Wiederkunft des Gleichen [Berlin: Kohlhammer. Matter. it would require "something double. wonders whether in the way of his understanding the thought This renunciation certain other philosophers as well." "The Truthsayer. Zarathustra's p. What the preceding argument seems to show is that a solution to this problem of reproduc tion cannot be found on the level of political legislation. that Nietzsche the thought of the places eternal the one aphorism in Beyond Good return and Evil dedicated to of an elaboration of in the context of the third part that work. the political between the philosopher's pursuit of the truth must include an examination of the false appearances of the political realm." The Truthsayer has simply drawn these conclusions from Zarathustra's There Zarathustra indicated that although moralistic human beings procreation or may believe amoral secret all willing to be directed to a "a goal" or "something higher. Row. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper and sense See his Nietzsche. namely. Zarathustra limited in seems discover that the protean transformations of the will to power are number or that they fall within a determinate number of kinds. It should come as no surprise. See "The port of Wanderer' and "On Blessedness Against the This thrice-reiterated Jesus Will. "The speech Self-Overcoming. ed. turns out to be a necessary precondition for the life that is preeminently free because it is devoted to the pursuit of truth. any final end the direction of which can just as well down as up: "The into the castle and even the heart of the more powerful and power. 1984)." 360-425 and Bacon.'' Great Events." 16. lacking . His odd lack of a give an adequate for the One comic made it impossible for him to it did not stand interpretation of Nietzsche's of thought. in community with the lowest of the low and submits to suffering the greatest of passions and. trans. he then goes on to Zarathustra concludes from this self-refutation that is pp. 23." renunciation is the negative reflection of Peter's thrice-repeated renunciation of immediately before his death. what 53-54. Odyssey." Thus Spoke Zarathustra represents his attempt at such a solution. his revised wisdom in which mind and the unconditional freedom and self-suffi ciency of the will were to be perfectly combined. 13." is the im "On Zarathustra's three headshakes before his disciples in Part Two: and see "On the Poets. paradigmatically bad and mischievous declares itself: incipit parodia Heidegger's understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy as essentially tragic in character measures the depth of his misunderstanding. In the words of dictory: I myself am phie myself cause Karl Lowith. Unfortunately. or Zarathustra. IV. 15. "historicist" offer a not interpretation accordance Nietzsche's "the philosophical intention. as god. 17. the realm of ignorance and falsehood. . as man. Homer. 14. Nietzsche's "On publication of Truthsayer. Cf. 28-31. 12. II. overcoming of need. where he makes reference to the last aphorism of the original edition of the tragoedia' latter work. 1988). XIII. an aphorism it says at the end of virtually identical to the opening of Zarathustra: take caution! Something this doubtful-undoubting book There is no doubt." 1 1. The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. therefore. but only on that of philosophical writing.
1990)." necessity in the form of bodily need: he insists on a meal before indulging in speeches. How lovely it is words and sounds exist: are words and sounds not rainbows and bridges of appearance soul (Schein) between the eternally divided. the ill-constituted. too too soul had been bitten idea by the moral tarantula Rousseau. 264). from the complex motion of the larger argument that in its entirety unfolds. chooses to treat which Nietzsche's are arguments 213-27. "Where chattering is there the community in speech and thought in the lies before me like a garden. That Nietzsche return of all understands a the incoherence of Zarathustra's attempt to will the eternal of things to be demonstration the impossibility of a complete causal account of the whole of things are all is grounded founded 11. 29. therefore. he harboured in of his the of that moral fanaticism whose executor another disciple Rousseau and confessed et de la justice de la himself to be." eternal desire longs for "The Other For all desire wants itself: "The Drunken Eternity. If both Zarathustra and." also Dancing 4.The Will to Power Doctrine in Zarathustra 18. pp. vertu' 20. 40. 381) that is directed to (a) overtly appealing to while at the same time covertly undermining the dominant prejudices of his time. Maudemarie Clark is ceives 119 per and one of the few commentators on Nietzsche's work who the problematic character of the doctrine of the will to power: see pp. 283-85. his attachment to will not leave Zarathustra he and In Part Four of the work in "The Cry of in which Zarathustra have become so close as he reap to be able to guess each other's thoughts when to you. a philosopher free of all attachment to moral asserts the cosmological and that philosophy is. (b) proffering a morality while simultaneously demonstrating that the genuine life of philosophy is in the deepest tension with the moral law. "Kant depths felt of to be a concealing surface adopted by the presentation of his thought. Song. . 'de fonder sur la terre l'empire de la sagesse. despite his commitment to a particular set of moral values or convictions (see Clark. comes closer to the truth in her treatment of Nietzsche's differing presentations of the thought of the eternal return (see Clark. Between the most alike appearance (Schein) lies most Within the wholeness of this community Zarathustra seems gap is the most difficult to beautiful and within the genuineness of its community the truth truth of the to discover the finally of the every other soul beautifully. See "Before upon the in his understanding of the general character of causal accounts: they belief in the causality of the will: see Beyond Good and Evil. (Speech of 7 June. One can answer this ask observing that according to his own testimony Nietzsche was the practitioner of an art writing (see Beyond Good and Evil. Seth Benardete. on account of his 227). In "On the Convalescent" Cf. p. she for that doctrine in abstraction from the contexts of the works in each work squared found and. Zarathustra Socrates' 3. characterizes world following that terms. for the smallest just. however. Sunrise." Having pears by chance. bumped into Zarathustra him: he simply Need. Robespierre." and 22." 21. bridge." merely by looking into each other's faces. the Truthsayer proves to be very persistent in alone. 152 and 192. This leads her to attribute to Nietzsche an attitude that cannot be they with his own definition. "Fame and Second Sailing. 289. and the prideful account of the thinker as endued with a out responsibility for the whole of things turns Nietzsche according to the dictates of prudence in the 19. above all. p. 1794)": Daybreak. This closeness is confirmed Zarathustra declares to the Truthsayer that "whatever in my cave belongs to me also belongs where he reminds Zarathustra of We last hear from the Truthsayer in "The Last Supper. Nietzsche himself ultimately will repudiate the doctrines of the to power and the eternal return. Dithyrambs of Dionysus. and The Gay Science. Nietzsche on clearly Truth Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 30. She power. sceptical in character and so insistence that he is. namely. by "convictions" ("Antichrist. Within Thus Spoke Zarathustra the animals of Zarathustra are the spokesmen for the doctrine of the eternal return in that the eagle and the serpent represent pride and Zarathustra's godlike his prudence. Preface.'' for every is an afterworld. and question by of esoteric "philosophical" (c) providing of the proto-philosophical reader with a propaedeutic teaching that both seduces him to the pursuit of philosophy and points the way to the transcendence of that teaching in the direction fitting philosophy in the proper sense. 36 and 87. therefore. "All Song. one can legitimately wishes to appear in the guise of a teacher and promoter of why it is that Nietzsche these doctrines. 3. Unfortunately." 54): Clark insists that Nietzsche recognition that there are no good arguments to support teaching of the will to it. 27. To every soul belongs another world.
xi + 234 pp. 26. I develop to un- such an approach by examining a wide spectrum of which seek interpretation. University the Polity.. even to the point of at "apologetics. Michael E. itics (Princeton: Princeton Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Pol University Press.50 cloth.50 cloth.95. Zimmerman. $49. Since Victor Farias published his book detailing Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism (1987).50 Hans Sluga. Philosophy. 1993). No. Heidegger's Philosophy and Nazism (Berkeley: University of California Press. One might expect that this trend of Heidegger criticism would produce such dark revelations about his fascist tendencies have had the as to dampen all enthusiasm for his thought. Tom Rockmore. $14... xii + 263 pp. 1992). x + 285 pp. $47. Fall 1998. Julian Young. xii + 129 pp. Yet these works reverse effect of interest in his for his philosophy. $19. $15.95 paper. 1997)." spawning stimulating new if not as actions least for his perhaps philosophical vision.. Heidegger. NY: Cornell University Press. Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge. 1993). Art (Bloomington: Indiana with Modernity: Technol xxvii University Press. 1995).. greater notoriety. MA: Harvard University Press. + 306 pp.95 paper. xi + 382 pp.. and Nazism (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. Politics. this century comes to a close. Indeed.50 paper. 1990). $19. $15. 1996). Leslie Paul Thiele. the greatest thinker of his time has never received Precisely for has never this reason the need for balanced books criticism of will Heidegger's thought been more urgent. $33.95. 1 . $49. In this essay. and National Socialism Frank Schalow of New Orleans John D. Vol. a wave of books have appeared which develop this theme. Berel Lang.Review Essays Heidegger.. Heidegger's Confrontation ogy. xv + 232 pp. Caputo.95 paper. Demythologizing Heidegger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Heidegger's Silence (Ithaca.
they a conclusion often subordinate their explication of his concept of freedom to already the drawn about his politics. of and Derrida. Caputo's forms an important those scholars who sit on the Heideggerian fence and those who his philosophy because of his politics. that may be described This fact-gathering enterprise is crucial in order to embraced as "sociologicalsupport the con and never clusions. Farias' attempt ontology and his reactionary outstanding example. We can appreciate a thinker's politics only even when by lary treatment of freedom. implicit evidence and that of his his contin to National ways of different Socialism. we can making inferences from Heidegger the man-politician and vice versa. e. Wherever the terpret criticism of Heidegger becomes which most severe. that Heidegger recanted National Socialism its ideology. attempts to rein vision his thought in such ways more compatible with our democratic become Julian inevitable.. In order to discern this tendency. is . we must examine different interpretive the polity ger's sion strategies which scholars employ to outline the place of in Heidegger's and thought. we will to expose Heidegger's thought to the criticisms of work those traditions which his brand excludes. Among first the various books addressing Heideg Nazism politics. When scholars analyze Heidegger's philosophy. several books paint the Heideggerian Among these books is Richard Wolin's The Politics of Being. As bridge between reject discover. that he exhibited antisemitic provides silence about the ual allegiance evaluate horrors of Auschwitz tendencies. Unlike Zimmerman. of to Heidegger the intellectual-thinker darkest implications Not surprisingly. Although Farias champions this position. "Teutonic-Hellenism" including Ju- Levinas. which also exemplifies historical. daeo-Christianity. politics. we must consider those which explore the ten between his innovative development political views.122 Interpretation his fascist ties. From this a more radical spirit of an of criticism of Heidegger arises ex his presuppositions. Caputo develops "deconamination structive" strategies as practiced by the luminaries of postmodernity. implements his an "analytic" method to refute by point the damning evidence critics gather against him. One point example. which is exemplified in John Caputo's Demythologizing Heidegger. for example. Rockmore implements criticism. which follows on the heels of to re-examine Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism.g. the scope considering his or her corol of that freedom remains un clear. I will point cover the truth about to a theme which remains dormant throughout the majority of those analyses. along with the literature detail ing the atrocities of the Holocaust. namely." in Heidegger's Crisis. the interconnection between Heidegger's concept of freedom and the example of his politics. including Berel Lang's Heidegger's Silence. In the process. Lyotard. Given this historical archaeology. however. of One such is Michael Zimmerman's Heidegger's Confrontation "immanent" with Modernity. world comes a more recent example within the English-speaking and from Tom Rockmore's Heidegger's a method of Philosophy Hans Sluga Nazism.
he this correlation may have been slow in ontological inquiry only by participat in being's disclosure. he If concrete praxis orients the question of being. This work. they would not have had the impact they did upon many Anglo-American scholars if a transition were not already under way to engage Heidegger's thought with an area of philoso catastrophic events Farias' historical phy he seemingly ignored: namely. then any such investigation must speak to those ethical dilemmas which distinguish perhaps the most turbu lent period in world history. Philosophy. Nazism. Being and Time (1927). ethics. In this work. of was to tear away this buffer and foreclose the all too convenient option insulating Heidegger's thought from the surrounding his life in Germany. hence. This work stands motifs of must apart include Leslie Paul by reinterpreting the which undercuts key the Heidegger's thought in he order to outline a politics Nazi ideology initially embraces. which shift in the emphasis on provides the climate Heidegger scholarship not only parallels for hearing the troubling allegations Farias' but. University overall Freiburg in 1933 supported Hitler's rise to the phi Yet the story" has been to separate Heidegger losopher from Heidegger the politician. must help to shape the landscape of ontological inquiry. philosophy originates from the concrete situa ing tion in which the inquirer places him. and National Socialism also 123 Young's Heidegger. it is just as necessary to of approach thought as an occasion to question the possibility of ethics as to present his philosophy as an esoteric narrative on the meaning being. then practical concerns. As Zimmerman.or herself in question and owns up to his emphasizes that a thinker can engage or her unique existence as a finite it self. of ethics and politics. however. of most proponents with of Heidegger's thought had when aware of his brief flirtation "official National Socialism and he became rector of the power. thereby creating a buffer between the brilliance of his ontological insights and whatever myopia he may have shown in his political judgment. II. sanctuary for truth apart from its exemplification in the realm As Herbert Marcuse argues in a famous letter to his teacher: . As poignant as revelations were.g. the Polity. already the publication of his magnum opus. Caputo. Given this reciprocity hypocritical to suggest that philoso phy of human can secure a action. The Farias' effect of revelations. indeed. raises. e. inquiry.Heidegger. While in capturing the interest of many importance been etched in Heidegger's thought with its had scholars. If the inquiry into being is to have its root in the historical situation of human beings. Even been prior to Farias' book.. The thinker's commitment to authentic existence fosters the openness of philosophical appears between thought and existence. and Charles Scott began Heidegger's to recognize in the 1980's. We Thiele's Timely Meditations.
but instead how with such a why what destructive ideology.e. technology in social organization in order that we can combat ger saw and this potential both Western capitalism and communism as for destruction. the which unique forgetting of being. "Heidegger claimed that only authentic thinking and poetry could mons cians' human beings to face this save Germany in its hour of crisis. granting humanity the power to impose its will on the diver sity of being's manifestation. but the of technology. is "the question concerning all domination over exerts control and technology technology. Michael Zimmerman and em braces this statement as the leitmotif for his discussion. Thus the question he asks is not simply whether his thinking became juxtaposed Heidegger had Nazi ties.' he did not mean rational calculation. we cannot make the distinction between the he philosopher and the human be being be were Martin Heidegger it contradicts your own philosophy. Interpretation . By 'thinking. xxiii-ix) Jews. let alone the turmoil of including develop a new politics Germany in the 1930's. as the political movement which sum hence turned to National Socialism epochal challenge. us most basic global consideration of all remains the problem Because of its solicits from equally radical responses destructive power. Heideg instruments of technology. As Zimmerman emphasizes. As Zimmerman states: . and the end of metaphysics." nature.124 '. considers Zimmerman the interface between the intellectual Zeitgeist emphasis in Ger many concern from Spengler's for on the "decline of the West" to Jiinger's the worker's encounter with the global of forces of industrialization as a and Heidegger's interpretation the crisis of Western history descent into nihilism.. were the set of variables which shaped Heidegger's interest in National Social ism and seduced press him into the misunderstanding that Nazi ideology could ex the political implications of his thought? To answer this question. The audacity of the politi decision became the corollary to the philosopher's attempt at original thinking. but instead the mode of comportment which opened one awesome and dreadful presencing (p. The inquiry by he can address all of these configuration." up to the its darkness and horror to face the crisis of not far fetched. 84). i. . On the surface. the our need to day.' bloody In Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity. pp." the process of aspects of issues simultaneously and distinguish their As course. Yet could Heidegger verted went astray by underestimating how leaders be sub by the powers of technology they seek to harness. One can debate the sociological factors ment which surround Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. and turned everything that ever was and truth into its opposite. But he cannot mistaken about a regime that murdered millions of Jews merely because they that made terror part of everyday life really tied to the concept of spirit and freedom (Quoted in Kettering and Neske. That is. of "enframing. is of political which things. A philosopher can mistaken about politics then will openly admit his error. spearhead ing violence and mass destruction themselves.
conflict and resolution. Holderlin. to seek in the strife of the present the possibility of transmitting one's heri tage to future generations. According thing to accuse a to Zimmerman. Heidegger may flawed realm of politics could cal vision person of succumb to a ever yield a kind of hubris in it is one believing that the leader its with the kind of world-histori to match technology's global reach. the and National Socialism 'dark' 125 the Nazis meant by 'unrestrained' and was not the of being of entities. for joining these apparently The ar tist's ex-centricity convention and be in contrast to the complacency of bourgeois the self-serving politics of the modem enlightenment. Yet hubris and quite another to trace origin. For those who still espouse Heideg gerian at the themes. man born in a manger in Holderlin's beloved Swabian countryside knew that he was destined to change the course of history! (P. but instead blood and instinct. that is. On the one hand. a the greatest chal the lenge is to possibility Heidegger's thought through dialogue which examines of politics in the contemporary world. Zimmerman pinpoints the dissonance between Heidegger's grasp of the Westem crisis and the prospect of action. domination humanity and nature.Heidegger. 127). translating that insight into guidelines of political arises to take On the other hand. gerians" between the status as a thinker attuned to the who "right-wing voice of being Heideggerians" who uphold and the "left-wing Heideg employ deconstractive tactics to expose incongruities within the Heideggerian text (Schurmann. frenzy and violence. what the Polity. (P. Consider Heidegger's . harmony from strife. tion can provide even the barest recipe for politics. Unfortunately. it becomes forefront of increasingly evident that the question of politics lies any future appropriation of his philosophy. recast Going forward. Heidegger's hero sense of combines a nostalgia for the Greek origins with a grandiose "destiny" (Geschick) as reflected in Schelling's thought. As reactionary modernists. 84) In the end. But the question becomes whether the artist's way of begetting creativity from chaos. Not surprisingly. his we must still ask where a rift emerges why Heidegger found National Socialism to be at these revelations leave us as scholars. philosophy and politics. 132) The heroic leader must exhibit the creative power to transform tradition. Sacrifice the rather than comfort provides key to motivate individuals to place their trust in a new political regime. and that he himself was thus the worldhistorical figure who would transform the 'destiny' fate of the West. . [emphasis on] the The grandson of the linking him with Holderlin. The self-mythifying Heidegger believed that he had been destined to proclaim the saving vision of his hero. elements of must Art becomes the vehicle incompatible harmony revered and strife. a new opportunity Heidegger's short fall as an occasion to re-examine the perennial problem of the relation and between theory praxis. p. Once and destiny from destruc having understood tractive. . the Nazis united instinct with technology in a way which led to unparalleled devastation.
charity. . Heidegger abandoned his early theological ori entation to have been much of a in favor of Holderlin's to express mythic-poetic of other vision of the gods. As Caputo indicates. In his 'being' " advancing this criticism. self-affirmation. become 68). In a De- mythologizing which plays against Heidegger." which speaks contrast to the suffering "truth" of the of individual. and sayer of Heideggerian thought of this tendency does it purging to cultivate another ethos whose roots spring from the Judaeo- Christian heritage. The second pertains to the discovery of Heideg ger's thought uncovers an and in the early 1920's. including care." community. the German seem people's Christian heritage does not deterrent in preventing the atrocities of National Socialism. all of which stem from Hellenic the Holocaust. 73). we must cultivate a plu forum in which various criticisms of his philosophy: the need to heed the the and disenfranchised (Levinas). the scandalous comparison culture . The exclusivity with which holds the Greco-German other set of categories of and was virtues amounts to dismissing Heidegger up the importance of an Christian origin. in must emerge "singular. in his stark concept of Dasein.126 Interpretation past Within the have decade. to the radically to the generic being's claim upon Dasein (p. (Lowith. . According to Caputo. Caputo concurs teacher Karl Lowith. The first involves the emergence of the political question and the revelations of ment Heidegger's involve in National Socialism. and heroism. John Caputo blends his these two developments in way the compassionate spirit of Heidegger's early religious orientation subsequent commitment major the callousness of to totalitarian politics. Thus Caputo distinguishes the two dislocations in Heidegger's thought from which a new According commitment to topography of questioning can emerge. love. e. and temporality. . Heidegger's turn to National Socialism thought. baffling silence about of the gas chambers real to modem agri pain these are all scandalously suffering" insensitive to 'factical' and concrete human (p. in his youthful "hermeneutics of he ethos which includes motifs from primordial Christianity. "His parallels his to specific volitional categories of strength.g. To open Heidegger's thought to the ralistic "piety" traditions. the dissident (Derrida). . Caputo. love otherwise absent facticity. thinker. The deconstruction unfold of Heidegger's thought requires an alternative axis to the key motifs of But an appropriation of "myth" Greco-Germanic arises and his ontology. truth. Ironically. 72). Despite the deaf to the religious orientation of solicitousness about Heidegger's early thought. 207). "he the flesh in the biblical narratives (p. a new voice of the persecuted "justice" (Lyotard). the categories of tenderness. Only by possible a shepherd. there have been two major breakthroughs which dramatically changed the face of Heidegger studies. . who rebuked for his "self-stylization into p. Heidegger's thought cannot occur without undoing the of a privileged origin from which Western philosophy "homecoming" the nostalgic search for it through a with (Holderlin).
National or no important. In Heidegger.g. . namely. and that. he couches the Heideggerian problem of this polis in this which supposedly hold be National Socialism. 74). 54). Philosophy. the Polity. and cial their strategy is to uncover unusual facts about Heidegger the person and then weave them together "innocence. Rockmore thereby closes the loophole by which Heidegger's seek an escape of defenders purity to his "Spiegel "political" his thought in over against from confronting his Nazism." story" detective story assessing his As Rockmore states." Heidegger's philosophy (e. Because Rockmore way. the self's exercise of resolve and sion of political decision and the of 1933." more makes a stronger claim than most Nazism was based in his in suggesting that Heidegger's "turn to (p.Heidegger.. Thus Rock philosophy" "resoluteness. "What I call the 'official' view students. propagated not view only by Heidegger but by some of his closest It is the between Heidegger's political" philosophical position and that. construes the term sense to mean the implementation of a kind of ideol rather ogy aligned with Heidegger's thought. link (p. Both in Heidegger's texts and more as ars proceed less as disciples in steeped histo "guilt" rians. the time has come to combat the "offi that Heidegger briefly flirted with National Socialism in 1933 only an ultimate to reject it shortly thereafter upon resigning from the post of rector in 1934. 54). there is no. maintaining the its contamination by his behavior from 1933 Interview" a narrower in 1966. as Nazism." maintains that the key motifs of "conscience. Thus Rockmore makes can then establish the complex synergies and tween fundamental ontology the relevant associations between Heidegger's emphasis on the elitism of au thentic philosophy and his leadership his as rector of the German university. and National Socialism 127 Heidegger's most vehement critics converge in a single attempt to counter the wholesale attempt ment by "Heideggerians" to whitewash their mentor's involve and in National Socialism. III. This is a different position than maintaining that Heidegger outlines the ontological presuppositions of the polis and hence his thought can be interpreted as implicating various political stances. stance. the "destiny") are adaptable to Nazism and only Nazism. ties the element compelling question which Rockmore poses is whether some in Heidegger's philosophy prohibited him from recognizing the atroci the banner of National perpetuated under Socialism. roughly speaking. Socialism" Rockmore's overarching thesis is that Heidegger's thought is "intrinsically (p. these have is no bearing on our assessment of Heidegger may have exhibited as his thought. being's transmis its destiny most to a chosen intellectual German people's emergence as a vanguard of world history. despite a whatever personal shortcomings man. for Rockmore "hero. however. This distinction becomes important. Rockmore schol exemplifies this critical does Sluga in Heidegger's Crisis. Rockmore. Yet even given the plausibility of these connec tions. than a reflection upon the princi ples of the polity.
Lang ger history (pp. Sluga illustrates how thought transform the fragmented tradition of the German Volk and its uncertain future into a vision of destiny. Of course. In agreeing with that it is necessary to "see a connection in Heideg act of human between the domains of the political and the philosophical. but in thought" ignoring the "Jewish question" continues to "settle for limits to his forces life he (pp. the public and occasional" the private. Yet Heidegger of was not the was Nazism. philosophy While Zimmerman and Rockmore Germany show that as a catalyst of politi not develop a single in a political vacuum. there which are different interpretations But it is safe to of the degree to he Heidegger was or was not antisemitic. unlike the nihilism Nietzsche envisioned. While the macrocosmic events of the Western crisis can be lines. He emphasizes less the intricacies took in of Heidegger's thought philosophy does can the unique role which cal action. in con again neglected the "Jewish question" Holocaust the most abominable maintains Rockmore. Ironically. 5). In Heidegger's Crisis. the professional and the thesis (p. gories of interpreted along these character that the depths of its cannot be fit into the cate Greek tragedy. Heidegger speaking sanctified the role of silence as an ingre of authentic existence to the point that when the time came out against the he had a built- in be excuse for not forces of totalitarianism. which made the politics of National Socialism attrac tive and which allowed scale? intolerance toward the Jews to which develop on such a broad This is the question Hans Sluga raises.128 Interpretation to According dient Rockmore. insofar as the and then. In this clear sense Lang's the is not altogether novel. but the intellectual others. freedom and necessity. Sluga tional more reconstructs the historical environment which precipitated the rise of Na and Socialism. The "tragic question then becomes. . of illumination and blindness. never saw the persecution of the Jews as a philosophical problem say that in its own right. In Heidegger's Silence. 5-8). 100-101). stitutes plight of Lang points to a double fault by which the Jews during Hitler's uprising. But it may more accurate to suggest that Heidegger acknowledged political develop ments only on a macro power level proper to thought and not on the micro level of this disso concept of conflicting interests. Why does be that Heidegger's Greek sense nance occur? And a one possible answer might dimension" destiny includes in the purest of of strife and reconciliation. philosophy assumes such a leadership role as com pensation for a floundering economic and political life characterizing Germany . What stands out is his question for which even Heidegger's detractors do Heidegger not way have a of focusing simple answer: How can we continue to grant such premier stature in the history of philosophy when his indifference to the plight of humanity appears so obvious? The irony is that "Heidegger attempts to break the very notion of the limits of thinking . What shared with only German intellectual to align with the dark it about not only Heidegger. the Holocaust may be of such a singular darkness. Berel Heidegger ignored the retrospect.
for most critics construe these . be translated into any specific may For example. Arendt that he quali Marcuse. Mill and Kant. But despite Heidegger's Nazi ties. and the possibility of law. In outlining this Gestalt addressing to political. a voluntaristic sense of prevails. Sluga takes an thinker's thought arises through a important step in dialogue with the "reduced" his or her time. it may be possible which conflict with the specific politics proves Heideg develop other inferences about the polity ideology of fascism. he nevertheless upheld Greek view of politics as involving the determination of the polis as a "site" (topos). ontology some of the basic components integral to any freedom. 245-48). it is uncovers especially provocative to claim that polis: contrary to the his e. There are many different philosophers to whom we might turn to provide insight into and the nature of the polis Plato and Hegel. Given this philosophy politics the Polity. but what extent a political crises of of the political. link between which proclaims a new destiny and the rhetoric of a totalitarian the resurgence of becomes more than accidental. not Because fascism is so tenets Western democracy. And ger's while one may try vision. which philosophy prefigures cumbed. it is "political" not obvious fies as one of these of thinkers. action. which unfolds within the historical compass of being's mani festation. And because the determination this ancestry involves both establishing a as hierarchy among its members as well excluding those who do not belong." forged through the will. setting institutions the decline. inevitably The action must as a be but in among order not to appear arbitrary it must project "common of descent" all of its proponents (p. To preserve the question of to extract totalitarian elements to from to be one of the greatest strengths of Sluga's careful analysis. IV. community. in the 1930's. Philosophy cannot then be to the rather a philosopher may inculcate to show within his or her enterprise a questioning attitude which speaks to the possibility of politics (pp. 19). We order need to make this sights distinction in that a philosopher harbors in into the nature of the polis which or political beliefs he she upholds.g. Heidegger understood the not Greek polis as a site that combines the human concern for the good with an occasion to act. the brand of Nazi politics to the Germans ultimately suc a While Heidegger may have embraced Nazi ideology. "Politics is thereby always a process of ticular priorities of self-legitimation self-legitimation necessarily which par in for action and particular social structures must be justified" (p. Indeed. this sense of the polis formed one important ingre Gestalt of politics which are on took shape in National Socialism. and National Socialism the 129 a condition of social instability.Heidegger. a process occurs. an opportunism "timely. dient in In a According an overall where to Sluga.. 22).
35 ff. resolve is of such a indeterminate any prescription of the good within that decision (pp. vious. it would a type of action irrecon (p. resolve is correlation a way of bringing oneself can develop those in concert with what the situation possibilities which speak demands. a Heideggerian politics must confront. Schurmann problem stands alone as a scholar who tackles a tenacious a solution. his commitment to National Socialism. offers steps toward Anarchic be praxis "will be di ametrically cilably 14). sup emphasizes the inhumane ideology of National Socialism. how But once having a developed concepts on an ontological can their scope be readjusted to include the diverse variables of ontic concern of truth and the on so that action becomes locus language and of thought provides a sanctuary addresses of freedom? In Heidegger Being Acting.130 Interpretation formal which concepts whose motifs as stances meaning can in Heidegger first articulated circum only be derived from the them. Thus Wolin concept of resolve. Reiner Schurmann this problem by of explicating the insights suggesting that praxis constitutes the domain for Heidegger's thought. The analogue abruptness Heidegger's political decision 1933 has its in his concept of most ob resoluteness (Entschlossenheit). it is perhaps the is among the For Heidegger. in order that one to the dilemma in question. Ac singular character as to render cording to Wolin. hence only praxis can illustrate the mode of governance which thought seeks principles in divesting and itself of all rational unfolds at such a (arche) must and models of presence. e. however. anyone sympathetic the lack of ethical content pinpoints in Heidegger's which Wolin a problem to the prospect of on developing experience. In many respects. it holds only if we accept the deconstructive paradox that governance arises from overturning pre-existing models of political rule. and while the addresses the dan involved in totalitarianism. Yet his opposed to the Fiihrerprinzip. We must recall that Schurmann Farias' published his book in French five former years before the gers ger's publication of book. he Nazism nor an apologetic makes neither an encounter with Heideg for it primary.. While this most problematic.). Heidegger believed that tological concepts must be developed out of the ontic stream of concrete. As our discussion of the previous . action hostile to the standard" solution operates on a plane of generality." paints a grim picture of what happens when a philosopher In The Politics of Being.g. An "anarchic praxis" the forefront that of a new epochal relation between being thought. alien to all reduction to the uniform. factic plane. in way thinking and be informed by action and not simply the other way around. The indeterminacy port of Heidegger's concept of authentic selfhood implies that one could exhibit the steadfastness of resolve and yet do terrible things. Richard Wolin is hyperbolic Wolin prospect one such critic we must address before entertaining the of a "Heideggerian politics. breaks with the enlightenment tradition of political checks and balances and seeks to recre ate of the polis ex nihilo from "decision" a single of (Entscheidung).
a way is couched more in the language of logic than in phenomenol Young as that Heidegger's critics commit a and nection between his thought the claim implicate" Nazism. it tion and a allegiances than attempts at academics defending every a political his thought. books the Polity. Moreover. as those of a wide spectrum of European thinkers from Levinas to to Lyotard. On the first promoting selfhood as by failing front. is contrary to the demand toward conformity On the second front. Heidegger logical categories such as "inferior" was skeptical of any attempt to apply bio "superior" "blood-line" to designate a people as or (p. 41). at least exposes some of their one-sidedness. Against Rockmore was by point Wolin. provides According to Dallmayr. but Wolin. Heidegger had been percolating in Germany and for reactionary form of politics two decades (p. 50). Dallmayr's appeal to "letting be" holds promise as a either case a key for developing our political obligations toward others. on the ensuing decade would produce more caustic criticisms of Heidegger's Nazi based extreme. and National Socialism - 131 indicates. But in further exploration of the parameters of human freedom may be . Young appeals a sense of epitomized to provide grounds for its rejection" to Heidegger's concept of authentic which responsibility in totalitarianism. Rockmore. Philosophy. Dallmayr suggests that justice can be under others with great "juncture" (Fuge) or measure which care" disposes us "to let be and to attend to them with considerate emphasis on (p. Against that Heidegger was Hugo Ott. Young a sudden and that Heidegger's turn to National Socialism adopted a almost far from momentous which decision. if it does their objections. 79). a way which condemns the exploitation of people and under a fascist for Young in a concludes missed that Being Time harbors an ethic of respect critics" persons way by Heidegger's " 'decisionist' (p. Young argues that Heideg for the other. Fred ger" Dallmayr crystallizes a perspective that there Along with is "another Heideg example beyond the Nazi ideologue. 38-41). Farias. By drawing upon Heidegger's eclectic interests an in Anaximander stood anew as a and Schelling. and Nazism Julian as well Young counters the criticisms of the scholars mentioned above. Because in is not movement pushes philosophy to its surprising that the pendulum would swing in the other direc defense of Heidegger would emerge. philosopher Young refutation claims proceeds of like "analytic" an to provide a point and Heidegger's opponents. for his or ger's concept of solicitude promotes a concern her own integrity. Young maintains of not antisemitic rather exhibited concern toward many his Jewish students (pp. instead. In Heidegger. When joined Young's solicitude. in regime. 125). not answer Young all of makes a case against Heidegger's critics which. Heidegger's of injustice sights into the nature ironic way of re-examining his texts to discover in of justice. Young. 104). Lacoue-Labarthe Derrida.Heidegger. The fallacy fallacy works inferring a con itself out on two fronts that either Heidegger's philosophy harbors concepts which "positively Nazism National Socialism or his thought "negatively implicates (p. which claims In ogy.
of light the opera Thus. reorient phi speak In Timely Meditations. is that the power which permits political participation. Heidegger develops understanding may freedom "letting be. e. As Thiele emphasizes. that moral emphasis on can (pp.132 Interpretation in order to required rectify the Heideggerian Gelassenheit lacks As much as omission which Lang identifies. In words." Correlatively. in Such an approach refrained to articulate the democratic precepts we uphold. As Arendt suggests. the a first inserts us into the speakers) space within of in way which gathers together each of us (as community (The Human Condition. the between logos and community. Of in all the scholars who appropriate Heidegger's insights into politics a positive way. including "right" as a constitutional resetting the parameters of free speech which we accept (pp. In the proximity community action of this place we receive the guidance to act as members of a and thereby engage in dialogue "word" over the most equitable mode of governing. we this "disclosive evoke other of the liberties assume. simul taneously allows for the cultivation of individuality with a communal setting. "tolerance" namely. A still more unorthodox approach must motifs within a political context order transpose Heideggerian presumably to them. 48-49). they yield nuances to enhance our reflections on the polis. 198).. the nexus of politics. the self's unique way of dwelling with others. although in a way which can assumptions about of to the naive contemporary democracy. language and dwell By tracing synergy Thiele develops a "postmodern Yet this perspective remains ing. Free speech is asserts his her self-interest over against . 81-83). Western democracy. p. that democracy includes its own presupposi tions which.g. but calls each of us to submit to it as a place of dwelling. harbors a concession which most of Heidegger's critics have from making. Yet the fact that Heideg ger's thought can take this novel turn right to about "vindicate" him either may not be sufficient evidence in its own for his Nazi allegiance or subsequent silence be taken which can alien it. What Heidegger recognizes. In this way a community develops. namely. there is a more primordial connection "free" between freedom and speech "speech" than appears in how the adjective a qualifies the "right" not a by which one activity of individual in democratic or sense. Thiele locates this power of critical which fulcrum in for the way that ger exhibits the disclosive other truth. Language is not simply an instrument of verbal expression." rather abstract unless it can develop a critical edge to match liberal thinkers' criticism of Heidegger's language political views. Heideg is synonymous with freedom. if government as fully we articulated. the key to devel oping a democracy lies in safeguarding maximum participation among its mem bers. language. Thiele raises the question which would losophy within a practical context. facets as as Thiele indi cates. can also Heidegger's texts be directed against him. If an our democratic system on is its assumptions. namely. then tional concepts ontology implemented in our democratic an original freedom" must be able to cast practices. Leslie Paul Thiele follows this lead. however. that is. may exhibit shortcomings in our system of know it.
controversial.) is iconoclastic. there is a subtle enigma which remains and politics. 292). but like philosophical dialogue a greater master. Heideg help of a Kantian framework merits serious consideration (Sherover. but as also on the listener's duty to remain open and to." According to philosophical exchange thrives controversy to the extent that the invitation in freedom welcoming serves states a of speech: of of conflict reveals what is at stake namely. and "implicate" thereby suggest that his philosophy may the opposite political stance which his own fascist ideology condemns? on In his 1930 lectures with previous human must freedom. 5-12. in recalling Sluga's unclarified about ger construes reverse criticisms. the situation is almost the polis sanctions the philosophical enterprise a motif as an enterprise of could provide Is there in Heidegger's thought which the linchpin for such a reversal. Literally. inviting not contrariness is contrary response from the other. 60-63). While philosophical inquiry depends upon Auseinandersetzung. 86-100. But freedom takes shapes within a forum of exchange which safeguards the voice of the other. Thiele's attempt democracy as Charles Sherover does with the pp. 167). the interface between philosophy as the vanguard of Heideg in a philosophy democratic setting: the free exchange. The arbitrary. "The justly hal lowed right to free speech might be grounded not only in the speaker's preroga tive to utter opinions and person. Heidegger take the argues that his exchange philosophers form of Auseinandersetzung to "set apart" (Vom Wesen. While freedom "letting be" can admit beliefs may discord among its participants. censorship. even solicitous of. means or "place in on such opposition. politics. it Sluga. 128). Through his predicated upon clever extrapolations. Thiele shows how the spirit of dwelling in Heidegger's sense. p. . . challenge" Disclosive freedom beckons to the democratic ger's thought with (p. 16). and National Socialism 133 participate through which contrary voices can in serving the good of the community as a whole. will which it cannot allow speech to become a self-indulgent expression of is rooted in concealment rather than unconcealment. democracy can be "Democracy is a to link journey toward freedom that remains ever under way. While Yet. (For discussion and its connection with the persecution of the Jews.Heidegger. . thrives within a polis the greatest importance. another the Polity. philosophy flourish only it is . the process of unconcealment freedom" itself. but rather is the "openness" beliefs. is a the voice of the other can resound only because there forum in reserved for it itself at within the polis. philosophical inquiry is a "work of human (p. Auseinandersetzung Heidegger. As Heidegger in the Basic Problems of Phenomenology. where freedom of speech assumes Heidegger discounts when Since by its nature the philosophical enterprise and even subversive. the ontological difference these opinions harbor" (p. Although in his as weak rectoral address can "academic freedom" spirited. Thus Heidegger's philosophy free speech how comes conflict with the point where its commitment a to of yields to an ideology was see prominent censorship supporting in Nazi Germany pp.
" Lyotard. de Beistegui. 35). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. 1958. Ed. John. on the words responds to this contrary. Die Grundprobleme de Phanomenologie. 1993. Jean-Francois. University Press. Martin Heidegger and National Socialism. Heidegger the Trans. is As Heidegger's so (What Is Philosophy?. 33. Peter Collier." Heidegger Studies 1 1 the Political Dystopias. Marcus (ed. 1989. Political. philosophy of its task. 2. Wilde William Kluback. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. politics would then a Heideggerian could become possible at which the time freedom be translated into "multivocality" facilitates than we dialogue among diverse traditions. Trans. 1990. "Truth and Power: Martin Heidegger. 1 (1991): 1-611. The Human Condition. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. Silence.). when such a pp. GA 24. Fred. 1981. Pascal. Pierre. no. "jews. 1958. "A Philosophical Confrontation with the (1995): 191-204. but. Trans. no. 15. Jean T. Karl. and What Is Philosophy? Trans. NY: Cornell David. no. Heidegger and University Press." Man and World 29 (1987): 327-34. 1998. Lisa Harries. "Heidegger and the and and the Political. and Farias. GA 31. 1 (1995): 111-86. and Gunther Neske. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Brainard. 1990. will arrive sooner SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt. Heidegger adelphia: and Nazism. Martin. Heidegger Studies 5 (1989): 138-48. New York: Paragon Press. Trans. Phil Temple University Press. philosophy can then flourish through the "tradition [which] is a delivering into been" the freedom of discussion (die Freiheit des Gesprdches) with what has of each citizen rooted. Mark. George. 1991. London: Routledge. Kovacs. and 1995. CA: Stanford University Press. Truth. Heidegger's Ithaca: Cornell Being Possibility of Political Philosophy. Perhaps this time think. Andre Michel. by re locating ticity itself within the polis and the tradition as a whole. The Other Heidegger. New York: World Publishing. New Haven: University Press. Johannes. in which the fac- eloquently suggest. Dallmayr. Palo Alto. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kettering. 'The Essence of and the SelfBailiff. Bourdieu." Time Journal 14. Heidegger. In this spirit. Hannah. 1982. menschlichen Vom Wesen der Yale Freiheit. "On Heidegger's Lowith. Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism.134 Interpretation to the challenge of freedom.' Assertion of the German University." Gary Steiner.. Heidegger. Victor. Blitz. reawakened challenge not by accepting the elitism Ironically. Emil. Trans. "On Brinks and Bridges in Journal 18. 1975. . Miguel. 1962. Joseph Margolis Tom Rockmore. Ithaca. Richard Wolin." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Fritsche. The Origins of Totalitarianism.
Zimmerman. 1987. 4 (1997): Concerning Heidegger's Involvement in National Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology. and National Socialism the 135 Milchman. 4 (1989): 340-55. 1990." Scott. 1998. Michael E. Alan. 4 (1997): 554-62. Press. Sheehan. Nazi. The Politics of Being." Philosophical Writings." Holocaust. C. "A Normal pp. 2 (1995): 137-53. Encounters Parvis Emad. Time. Bloomington: Indi Wolin. Bloom University Press. 1992. Heidegger Jaspers. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. and In A. Freedom. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. the Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethics and Politics.Heidegger. 1992). Parvis Emad and Dialogues with Martin Heidegger. Hugo. Quarterly Ott. Reiner. 1989. Richard. Petzet. Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. "Heidegger's Truth eds. 1990. Trans. and and Philosophical Forum 25. Alan M. Thought. Schurmann. no. Van Buren. "Heidegger 27-38. "Revisiting Anarchy: Toward a Critical Appropriation of Schumann's Philosophy Today 41. Scott. Safranski. Albany: SUNY Press. Richardson. ed. Riidiger." . no. Roberts. by and Kenneth Maly. Socialism. no. Frank. no. Cambridge: Harvard University Press." University of Chicago H. Origins. Olson. Ewald Osers. Intro. Common Good. and the January 14. eds. 24. Charles E. NJ: Humanities Press International. Sherover. Thomas. the Polity.. Trans. and Danger. Trans. The ana Young Heidegger: University Press. Trans. The New York Review of Books. 11-24." American Catholic Philosophical Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. 1. 1994. Heidegger and lands. William J." 1996. on Free Speech. Pp. 1993. Albany: SUNY Press. no. "Resoluteness Ambiguity. no. On ington: Indiana 30-35. "The Thorn in Heidegger's Side: The Question of National Philosophical Forum 20. Rumor of the Hidden King. Dallery. A. London: Fontana. and Ethics Schalow. 1996. Christine-Marie Gros. Charles. Atlantic High 1 (1993): 72-97. Martin Heidegger Between Good and Evil. and Alan Rosenberg. Heinrich Wiegand. Chicago: Politics. 2 (1993): 121-39. Blunden. "Heidegger's Catholic 69. New York: Columbia University Press. 1994. John." "A Question Socialism.
xi + Michael the Moral 192 pp. Like other pluralisms. Michael Walzer.. Emeritus offers a Professor insightful Political Science of at Fordham University. Ballard Stephens College Conscience Francis Canavan. The Pluralist Game. Fall second book. $24. but what it excludes.95. On Toleration (New Haven: Yale xii 417 pp. 1997)..95. each author also his of own alternative version of pluralism. This fact is perhaps clearest and most damaging to liberal pluralist claims when we consider question the particular forms of life and thought liberalism excludes. possess. University Press. The Pluralist Game: Pluralism.50. liberals have no rightly of called for their communitarian chal lengers to offer not only critique their but alternative scenarios. 26. On the other hand. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search xi of + a Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Thus the is not whether a particular intellectual tradition is exclusive. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Sandel. Public $22. While some liberals have become more conscious of the partic ularities and continue limits of their tradition (cf. Francis Canavan. must and do include and exclude according to criteria which commitments. Liberalism and (Lanham. + 126 pp. others with simply to assert liberalism as an overarching social framework little to supporting justification. Harvard political scientist Michael Sandel refines and applies his in-depth philosophical critique of liberalism and offers a fullblown republican alternative in his long-awaited interpretation. indeed could not. He successfully exhibits important contradictions of American liberal in theory and practice while sketching an alternative vision of politics and morality drawn primarily from classical and religious communitarian sources. and reflect their own philosophical historical development. $16. 1995).. Vol. Three recent works do both. Democracy's Discontent: America in Search 1998. 1 . 1996). inclusiveness and neutrality liberal versions which they do not. why it excludes. penetrating and analysis the last few decades of liberal pluralism in the United States in his pluralism collection of essays written between 1963 and 1993. Within sketches larger pictures the good society. No. and whether it is transparent to itself about its exclusivity. Rawls's Political Liberalism). versions of pluralism pretend to a Typical liberal fairness.Whose Pluralism? Bruce W.
Canavan cites a number of Supreme Court decisions last thirty years which support this contention. had at least been more intelligible because the majority held a common biblically based faith and mo reflects a The lost unity of moral perspective in the biblical religion which Jews and Christians had rality. attempts to put communitarian emphases to in support of a larger left liberalism in his On Toleration. the Institute for Advanced work Study in Princeton. As Canavan clearly perceives. His an updated critique of of liberalism as a public philosophy. the state "necessarily sets for a whole society. the the effects of recent Supreme secondary mediating institutions. Law society. but or not limited to. the state in fact establishes secular individualism as ultimate. His identification and recovery of a republican strand in American history and politics recasts the question of pluralism discussion for public discussion. the background philosophizing which leads each author to his conclusions about the limits of pluralism varies in cogency and completeness.138 of a Interpretation Public Philosophy. Since Walzer mented version of still supports an aug liberalism. Those who earlier championed pluralism did so against this biblically informed background. In Canavan's account. In Canavan's account. so I thematize the discus two main by focussing its pluralism. indeed impossi ble. and aspects of his version of pluralism are vulnerable to the critiques Sandel Canavan provide. By seeking the lowest common denominator agreeable to the many and making law and policy accordingly. however conflictual. 76). lost unity of shared. Naturally. The categories overlap. in Rawls in Political Liberalism. the dissolution of this unity "left millions of other . norms by privileging the autonomous individual. separate religion from morality and morality from politics are misleading. Statecraft is soulcraft whether it appreciates or wills this result or not. also subverted a consensus which Increased West secularization had circum scribed earlier American pluralism. and exerts a powerful influence has institutions" (p. Earlier American pluralism. it challenges to would be impossible to sion and cover these topics in this short space. creates an environment on social in which everyone has to live. whether or not they were consciously aware of its func tion. typical liberalist moves to and some view about what is good for cluding the over the outlook of citizens who strongly identify themselves in terms of religious commitments. Court decisions on freedom of speech and reli gion. As might each approach ends up defining and limit be expected. pluralism and toleration. and the relations between economy and polity. the purported neutrality and inclusiveness of the lib eral pluralist state in matters of religion and morality is bogus. of Social theorist Michael Walzer. on dimensions: authors' liberalism and how and why ing pluralism as it does. All three volumes survey a wide range of renewal of issues including. ex policy unavoidably express Hence. surely ranks cluding the best among very contemporary treatments.
sustained analysis of the liberalism and capitalism would go a long way toward he affinity between completing Canavan's treatment. It can only be made on the basis of an antecedent moral of judgment." equally faced with ever-increasing calls to In Canavan's reading. Again for lack commonly and acceptable moral or the tension between ments over liberty equality basis for resolving for specifying their content. pluralism as a norm is the ultimate value of remain unresolvable. Yet of the three volumes. So liberal pluralism again turns out not to be neutral. Given his A would presumably reject capitalism as well. sees a drift toward secular state private secular monism over the last three decades in social-welfare regulation and As the increasingly took over various functions. Cultural liberalism is even determined by this pursuit that it can no longer judge identifies the the most outrageous wrongs. liberalism. He does note that argu ments in favor of abortion which treat a mother's womb as private property from which the unborn "tenant" may be evicted at will follow the logic between of capitalist ownership. what shall be left to private choice and judgment is itself a political decision. The author very perceptively economic counterpart of ideal liberalism as capitalism and the free market. it displaced institutions. pluralism being urged be cause ual it is a condition which supports so liberalism. This reduction is itself the incessantly of a reiterated in the media and wider popular culture. hospi tals and social services were injured. Canavan particular. their best. Canavan With Sandel and Walzer. The communitarian vision of pluralism supports also needs fur ther development of an appropriate range of economic arrangements congruent with that vision.Whose Pluralism? Americans 65-66). A main means by which liberal pluralism attempts neutrality is by taking controversial choice. what areas out of the political realm and as leaving them to individual But again. they have come to define the range of controversy between contemporary liberals and conservatives. but without developing the point at any length. schools. By increased federal private religious at the appropriation of taxes for public education. had helped to flesh out religious community life. neutral and Apparently fail to democratic yet values such as liberty and equality also resolve pluralist conflict. Certainly and American liberal pluralism is hardly neutral as capitalism any other model of economy. individ liberty. Understood in individualist terms. such values quickly reduce to discussions of rights. he does rejection of commend cooperatives in passing. Sandel's alone offers a sustained . "celebrate" either argu rights We and are nevertheless "diversity. but the lack of moral agreement in creasingly typical acceptable American pluralism makes such judgments necessarily un to many. with -139 the feeling that they are now strangers in their land" own (pp. to public Canavan notes. but hostile toward conditions which make for thriving community. These institutions.
On the other hand. things look neutrality. again it is Michael Sandel the more detailed philosophical explanation of the nature of the relation tween self-identity and be pic community which would help motivate Canavan's ture. we might have expected a note of despair in Canavan's conclusion. those outside the wider biblical tradition Canavan com mends will likely reject his pluralism. both cludes with conservative intellectually reasserting for private and legislatively. If anything. conservatism (economic libertarian the biblical religion congruent with Canavan Taken to its logical terminus. His treatment analysis of the sort by more in-depth argument and Sandel In Sandel's account. Thus the not pluralist must also celebrate not celebrating pluralism. The fact that Canavan's treatment of needs supplementation often provides. to make room for such groups in education. public policy his critics have to argue why their moral as But to take precedence over the biblical tradition of to American cultural formation. morality so central volume is a set of papers rather than a systematic a problem poses a different kind of limitation. even more desperate for pluralist For the liberal pluralist claiming full equally and neutral inclusiveness has to or groups which admit. always reflects some moral vision. Canavan nities "secondary" or the greatest primacy. so Canavan is again on target when self-defeating relativism and he identifies actual contempo rary plurality as a dilemma rather than a cause celebre. so vision ought Canavan argues. but Canavan con "divisive" religious) as by urging orthodox Catholics (Canavan is Catholic). social services. to join in the struggle. Protestants and devout Jews. But Canavan's identification of the affinity between liberalism and capitalism development by itself nicely divides so-called economic ism) from the socially moral conservatism supports. the state should reduce its direct etc. two main forms of contemporary social anguish demon strate the failure of the liberal project in America: fear that the moral fabric of . but a situation in which individuals Here as members of various communities can who provides pursue essential human goods. to flourish. That current liberal pluralism is in fact quite intolerant of strongly committed positions (particularly again underlines its own very inconsistent nonneutrality.140 Interpretation of the relationship between economy and community flourishing.. Groups with spiritual. creating accords greater social space Of the three authors. Genuine pluralism for Canavan qua is not primarily protection of the individual individual from group or state. that the reject views of individuals the celebration of pluralism are as valuable as their contradicto ries. cultural. tions to pass on are the essential and most defining role community. Given his very critical assessment of the recent drift of affairs. mon gious to help stem the tide toward secular monism and by a com reli biblically based morality institutional life. on pain of contradiction. and mediating commu intellectual tradi not the state. One can but be reminded here of other forms of scepticism.
Whose Pluralism? 141 family. others' based have chosen them. People are born for citizenship. popular psychology manuals make this promoting a virtual religion of the self in which there is no incentive on their content. for Sandel and the republican tradition. explicit or use in by deliberating but simply for the fact that sovereign individuals As Sandel notes. ing of Again. motivation for the mutual respect liberalism calls for is also undermined. is seen primarily as nega They need protection from the state and each other in order to pursue their private ends. as Sandel documents Failure through numerous primary sources. Sandel emphasizes the mislead ing and alienating idea of the self offered above all cording to that theory. rights apart to moral and religious views of from the good. Sandel recovers an alternative and republican way of genuine self-government from which liberalism can be seen as a de cline. with regard and national and collective control over life is unraveling and fear about lost individual life-goveming forces. the politics a neutral ideal of liberalism is not timelessly natural. Consequently. of citizens In the liberal conception. for instance. and a notion of ends all capacity block the way. the freedom tive. The minimalist political liberalism Rawls now explicitly calls upon citizens a thick argues to bracket thick and moral and religious selves for the purposes of public question of deliberation decision-making. Through detailed historical account of American public life from the foun ders to the contemporary scene. to a solution to these problems. with others about what is true any or good. community. When they tion. both conceptually a freedom as the of the individual self to choose its own and practically. Kantian versions obliga phenomena of family tions. As identification more alien in the whole decline and citizens become to each other. cannot everyday do justice to the moral experience. the self is value resides in its capacity to by contemporary liberal theory. even are deprived this sort of active community participa whatever elites their negative freedom is at the mercy of and participation do govern. Ac else a pure individual whose highest own ends. we no choose its Choice longer of one's respect ends becomes views a kind of end in itself. by the neutral liberal state to either identify or cultivate the virtues necessary for self-government helps account for the current crisis over lost control. As Sandel notes. As in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. whole and good of rally desire to govern their own and identification with a larger They find there a fulfillment than is available to isolated individuals. this asocial render human good is misleading. Sandel raises the crucial why we should suspend such identity-making aspects of our selves . Liberal ideals of neutrality citizens. But the self conceived as unencumbered by prior moral definition is an abstraction which of is falsified by liberalism. and this goal has American public policy. They natu common affairs. Ancient also had aspired to cultivate virtue goal of been longstanding in its citizens. since these all require description of the self. religious duties. or even citizen obligation.
Suspending moral name of toleration does not effect a neutral pluralism. rightly observing respect that a practical interest in social and mutual does not automatically defeat any that "We cannot without other moral interest. telling on the of the parallel argument against moral bracketing from Lincoln Douglas heart issue of slavery. to relative say that we should all respect each other because the truth is If "all truth is relative" is absolutely true. regarding toleration. In principle. virtueless abstract vorce and individualism. The argument for liberalism from is self-defeating. prochoice their views for public purposes. community. then there is for are others' at least one truth which is not relative. and religious leads him to reject forms of pluralism primarily based upon. moral." up ing what he terms a "mutual appreciation goods which would affirm peo ple and communities for the distinctive or other. In both cases. Sandel gets to the philosophical matter of by emphasizing that whether or competing views is true. seeing as one nonprivileged attitude and why would among other possibilities. but legal abor Sandel cites a provocative and against tion in effect simply grants their position. beginning would "bracketed" at conception and their view to accept they in effect advocates are also to "bracket" be countenancing murder. not their simple capacity to choose something . We might just as well say that all views equally worthy of disrespect it How since none is true. not we should bracket depends on which relativism is no help either. respect not follow. So Sandel pluralism. Sandel limit pluralism differently than liberalism? His of self-fulfillment civic and republican cision about ideal in communal deliberation is and de the social good certainly sets a different of parameter which for the discus constituted sion of pluralism. they express. Sandel observes that if the Catholics were correct about human life abortion. a contradiction. The devastation divorce society supports and and a di law have "choice" wreaked upon our virtue-based way of understanding Sandel's recovery of dealing with family law promoting would role- which brings good to moral accountability form and aims at the family as a for its members and the republic. thickly commitments unabashedly by family relations. Or we could relativize the value of respect. Sandel advocate ends willingness to curb the pseudopluralism of hegemonic business interests. question of what of By raising the economy best serve republi shows a can aims of self-government and the virtues which support it. and His alternative version the self. and promoting. 20). As Sandel correctly argues.142 when Interpretation it comes to questions of cooperation justice. judg Using the legal example of abortion. But even if we substi views need tuted some other version of the relativist claim. His him to morally advocat seriousness about ethical rationality and truth allows and transparent public policy deliberation decision. Sandel toleration is justified in any given in question" He raises the same point whether notes determine moral ment case passing judgment in the on the practice (p.
That is. program and its associated pluralism make for tall Sandel himself chapter. Michael Walzer agrees that liberal pluralism as it does need to resituated to address the increasing fragmentation of both personal and group life in the United States. Sandel rationality of recent Supreme Court decisions on free an ordinance could ban the Nazis from marching in Skokie. Presumably. or even malicious. Sandel needs in morality It could and national republican more elaboration and community defense religion other than noninterference? for "narrowness" "fundamentalism" in in order to save some of his own moral positions and certain examples which also illustrate them. Yet he had acknowledged and of highlighted the importance of ethical rejects truth when it came to the content-neutrality position expression. the same could be said about his ily law. Indeed. Sandel's order. in the nature of (p. it could as easily have banned King and his fol lowers. Walzer of toleration and coexistence. Arguably. while Martin Luther King sought civil rights for blacks. The difference the cause" consists in the content of the speech. "The answer may be simpler than liberal political theory permits: the Nazis promote genocide and hate. To with a return Sandel's abortion example. why should the prolife advocate murder? compelling And why and argument recognize a public should the religious decision tantamount to allowing porate goods Sandel enumerates. Sandel may depend more on an substantive positions on fam American consensus of biblical morality recognizes. in general. Sandel is arguing account of moral content that public deliberation can and should take permits are before marching handed out. be Canavan suggests. be added Sandel the offers about civil here that. raises and responds to a number of relevant objections questions are possible. Yet the decisions a deliberation questions can be philosophically shallow. and which community which realizes the very cor is convinced of the truth of its "common" beliefs with practices. Sandel replies. "narrow" in his final further But further rejects the In the arguments Sandel moralism of his closing the fundamentalist without course of qualification. With Sandel. care to subordinate itself to reject public deliberation sup In a those who it? What does such a community lack of criteria which needs plementing by word. There way would or be no foregone in conclusion about the outcome of of public deliberation one the other. notes the insufficiency of appeals problems to rights and abstractly fair procedures alone to address contemporary These problems vary depending upon the histori- . To the liberal objection that if the bracketing. 90). than his of open-ended republican deliberation ideal explicitly moral agreement upon The hope across a range of public as reaching the sort of policy issues that Sandel substantive calls for may depend stands it. the substantive conclusions rights for blacks and protection against harassment of to proceed from a Jews in Skokie do seem biblically older informed moral sensi bility.Whose Pluralism? 143 a Altogether. and partisan way to which ignores of truth rationality.
" wrong" of orthodox parents that ant of religious and that parents send the public "toler may Walzer responds that. attempts While Walzer everyone's rejects by groups with moral to "control behavior of in the name of a supposedly common (Judeo-Christian.) Nor can we repair to . With Sandel. Walzer identifies the immigrant society rather than a nation-state with republican foundations like France. Yet by keeping to the larger liberal pluralist picture. as an harbor republican hopes. this is an omission which pluralism. (It would be intriguing to see a published debate between Sandel and Walzer over this question. Walzer kind of hyperindividualism cele brated in postmodern conceptions of the self is both alienating and corrosive of sees a part of the solution citizenship. Walzer acknowledges that liberalism is a substantive and par its own. and social Where then. "one hopes that they are justified schools will have exactly the effects that orthodox make their children . since we are too multi United States In his typology of toleration regimes. 70). Religious parties. This highlights the social abstracting from a variety of dynamics which inevita bly shape the possibilities and problems of toleration acknowledges that the in particular societies. (p. Canavan. common roots of alienation and claim that its strong individualism. Naturally. ought to be barred from running in elections. Walzer is willing for these orthodox parents to their children to private schools (if they can afford it). Walzer largely responds by simply asserting his own secu lar liberal dogmatism. . so the unity which comes from that richer foundation for citizenship is unavailable to us. . according to Walzer. together with leaves intact the current crisis. To the fears state-mandated versions of tolerance education error. In the face of contempo ticular political culture of rary critiques like those of Sandel. of and others. but is unwilling to them of taxation fear" relieve would for state education. so he opposes a voucher system. 77). Yet his recognition that liberalism is one tradition among others does not lead Walzer to offer a philosophical defense of it. for example. is right say) tradition. so Walzer develops a suggestive regimes cal and political situation of various and useful typology of five tolerance analysis historical examples. and 'family values' or of their own certainties about what (p. He doubts that liberal politics be sustained were all children to go into private sectarian schools. with early roots in Protestant and English history. seriously many It lends particular judgments the and weakens Walzer's same proposals for American which ad hoc quality agendas be leaguered Just Unjust Wars.144 Interpretation societies. Walzer fragmentation which have led to the neither Walzer's Americans have is nor need anything in but certain political principles and toleration more like a restatement of the problem than a key to its resolution. With both Sandel revival of various and Canavan. of a pluralism which isn't simply cannot fragmentation? We farious a population. Walzer here in the secondary associations. Maclntyre. life are we of to uncover the resources necessary for a revived political the sort Walzer wants. To his credit.
But reading Sandel. . rationality in about we do not and after seriously engage questions of truth and we ethics. since that would Within the cannot confines of the position Walzer embraces. Altogether then. have less to assert reason than ever to relinquish that good." - 145 be of a biblically informed liberal moral consensus.Whose Pluralism? what remains "intolerant. it is difficult to overcome how Walzer's slightly revised liberal pluralism could either the problems Canavan and Sandel elaborate or provide genuine hope for revived public life. and the alternatives for liberalism are either to lack transparency its own particu lar value-structure or see it without philosophical defense.
in the original languages (German English). Gershom Scholem. remarques sur nach la science politique de Mai'monide de Farabi Maimunis (1937). (1921). Abravanel's Philosophical (1936). politische other Volume 3: Hobbes' Wissenschaft und zugehorige - Briefe politische Contains. B. French.i VERLAG J. Jacobis (1929). Gerhard Kriiger. Cohens Wissenschaft Spinozas Das (1924). Erkenntnisproblem in der philosophischen Lehre Fr. with critical editions of the German manuscript of of (1935) along Die the variants of the English translation as well as the book- length manuscript Religionskritik des Hobbes (ca. The from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. The Religiose Lage der Gegenwart (1932). be indispensable for all serious und zugehorige Schriften Analyse der Bibel- dust jacket. Volume 1: Die Religionskritik Spinozas 1996. more than a quarter of which Quelques are published here for the first 0n time: Philosophie und Gesetz Der (1935). 434 pp. among Wissenschaft writings. XIV..-). XXXIV. 1921 to Contains the 29 et essays from the years 1937. numerous previously Karl unknown letters from his philosophical correspondence with Klein. und Volume 2: Philosophie 1997. previously unknown writings and letters. DM 90 critical editions of (subscription: DM 78. and Lowith. Jacob In addition. cloth with English) many important. Gesetz - Friihe Schriften - 635 pp. Schriften 1936 Konspektivismus and more. DM 90 Die Zur - (subscription price: DM 78. cloth with dust jacket. Testament Spinozas (1932). H. Der Erinnerung an Lessing (1937). and others published here for the first time.. marginalia from Strauss's personal copies of these writings are published here for the first time. METZLER LEO STRAUSS COLLECTED WRITINGS IN SIX VOLUMES Edited by Heinrich Meier ISBN 3-476-01222-0 This the critical edition will include all of Strauss's and will publications and through 1937 in original languages (German. Tendency Eine Ort der Vorsehungslehre and der Ansicht Das Political Teaching (1937). . It study of Strauss's philosophy in the future. Contains the critical editions of Religionskritik Spinozas (1930).-). 1933-1935). Bibelwissenschaft Spinozas marginalia und seiner Vorlaufer (1926).
Each volume may be purchased separately. Address Phone/Fax VerlagJ. DM 16. Choosing the subscription price obliges one to purchase all six Subscribers receive the following at no extra charge: Heinrich Meier Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss und Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen with 1996. ? I would like to to the entire edition of the Leo should Strauss. The price of volumes 1 subsequent volumes has yet to be determined.00 each). $5300). published here for the first time in its entirety in this form. $46. Volume 6: Gedanken Uber Machiavelli Each volume contains a foreword by the editor of the Gesammelte composition of each Schriften which introduces the reader to the circumstances surrounding the text as well as its central concerns. The appendix the most comprehensive bibliography yet to be presented of Strauss's writings.metzler.. $53. Volumes 1 and 2 be sent immediately along with Die Denkbewegung von 2 is DM 78- Leo Strauss. Gesammelte Schriften and in sechs Banden at the reduced subsequent price. Dept.de . current list price.00). The essay is the result of a long and intensive involvement contains Strauss's philosophy.B. Name . the be sent as they appear.Volume 4: Politische Philosophie Contains the first publication with various - Studien zum theologisch-politischen Problem of the essay The Living Issues of German Post-War Philosophy along German translations. your order with your purchased Please use this ad or a copy of it when placing book dealer or when or college recommending that the books be library. ? I would like to order the following volumes U Volume 1: DM 9090- at the individual prices: (approx. 66 pp. (approx. . Metzler Postbox 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart Fax +49711/2194-249 Internet: http://www. subscribe by your university 1. ? Volume 2: DM ? Heinrich Meier: Die Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss: DM 16. $10. volumes should (approx.80 (approx. The prices of the 2.80 (ISBN 3-476-01504-1). The prices for subscribers to the entire 15% less than the volumes.00). Volume 5: Uber Tyrannis Contains the German translation along with the correspondence between Leo Strauss and Alexandre Kojeve (1932-1965) in the original languages (German and English). edition are approx.
" drawing Thomas L. paperback scholarship Zuckert and vast a work of careful lican ideas recounts came to By illustrating be blended.PRINCETON.EDU . how Lockean and repub forcefully the origins of the American republic. Zuckert Here Michael Zuckert philosophy that propos es a new view of the political lay behind the founding of the United States. historical of "This exemplary work of reconstruction dramati our understand cally transforms ing the genealogy of early American political thought. No one who deals with the eigh teenth-century Anglo-American political avoid tradition will be able to the unsettling challenge of original and painstak Zuckert's ingly documented tion. that forces all of us back to the boards.'' Richard Vernier.. and William Mary Quarterly Paper $18. for this is reinterpreta one of those rare at once scholarly achievements. Pangle. capacious and meticulous. The Journal ofAmerican History 'hf-UitlKllS Natural Rights and the New Republicanism Michael P.New in "This is erudition.95 ISBN 0-691-05970-5 Princeton AT FINE BOOKSTORES OR CALL 800-777-4726 University Press HTTP: //PUP. ..
edu/socres/food. Barbara Examining the Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Moderator) 5: Food in Art/ Food as Art: Food is both an object of art and a medium in which migrated. been assimilated is an of understanding our histories William McNeill. and important way foods have emerged. or e-mail For more information and reservations. All conference sessions will please call be held The New School. John Hollander (Moderator) 6: Abundance and 3: Key Note Addresses Scarcity: equal Sustainable Agriculture: Ismail Serageldin Food and Access to food is far from Culture: Margaret Visser Richard Goldman. Sidney Mintz. problems created by scarcity 1: Everyday Life: Food life as a major 4: Food not as Symbol or Sign: Food is as component of only what we eat but figures Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. the ceremonies surrounding mythic and symbolic and it. Wendy Doniger. Marc Shell. Marion Nestle. 1998 What and we eat. the fear famine makers with deprivation forum all are occasions reflections on the human condition.newschool. how food for marks our sameness differences.edu Further details coming to the World Wide Web soon! http://www. Robert Herdt (Moderator) 7: The Future: Prospects for the global availability of food and ways to increase it Gordon Conway. Theodore Zeldin. Robert Adams (Moderator) for artistic expression Betty Fussell. (21 2) 229-2488 socres@newschool. Steven Heller.NATURE AND CULTURE A Social Research Conference November 5-7. at editor of Social Research. David Pimental. of diet and food to and security the history. Keep checking for a link at . Aristide Zolberg (Moderator) 2: Case Histories: ways Barbara a symbol in most religions and as a marker of identity and difference Maurice Bloch. Leonard Barkan. Kenneth Prewitt (Moderator) This conference is organized by Arien Mack. This conference a brings together scholars and scientists as well as about policy in linking discourse the significant hunger. culture and political economy food in an effort elicit new perspectives on abundance. its of importance. Paul Rozin. Per Pinstrup- Andersen. the joy of plenty. Anne Murcott. Raymond Sokolov.
Inc.A. Queens College Rushing N.Y.S.ISSN 0020-9635 Interpretation. -a o PC fo a -a o CO 2 o 3 "I 3 o 3 O < CO a r 21 rra *> o m c3 CO . 11367-1597 U.
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