Interpretation

A JOURNAL
Fall 2000 3
Heidi D. Studer

A

OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Volume 28
Number 1

"Cross Your Heart
Die?"

and on

Hope To

Francis Bacon

Making

and

Breaking

Promises

17

Gordon Hull

Marx's Anomalous

Reading

of

Spinoza 33 Wiebke Meier Corrections to Leo Strauss, "German
Nihilism"

Discussion

35
45 51

Richard F.

Hassing

Reply

to Arnhart

Edward J. Erler
J.

Reply

to

Lowenthal
and

Harvey

Lomax

Carl Schmitt, Heinrich Meier, the End of Philosophy
American Law
and

79

Harrison J. Sheppard

the
of

Past,
the

Present,

and

Future

American Regime
Book Review

07

Travis Curtright

Ravelstein, by Saul Bellow

Interpretation
Editor-in-Chief Hilail Gildin, Dept. Leonard
of

Philosophy, Queens College

Executive Editor
General Editors

Grey

Charles E. Butterworth Seth G. Benardete Robert Horwitz (d. 1987) Hilail Gildin Howard B. White (d. 1974)

Consulting

Editors

Ernest L. Fortin Joseph Cropsey Christopher Bruell John Hallowell (d. 1992) Harry V. Jaffa Muhsin Mahdi David Lowenthal Harvey C. Mansfield Michael Oakeshott Arnaldo Momigliano (d. 1987)
Ellis Sandoz (d. 1990) Kenneth W. Thompson

Leo Strauss (d.

1973)

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Heinrich Meier

Maurice Auerbach Fred Baumann Amy Bonnette Patrick Coby Elizabeth C de Baca Eastman Thomas S. Engeman Maureen Feder-Marcus Edward J. Erler Ken Masugi Will Morrisey Pamela K. Jensen Susan Orr Charles T. Rubin Leslie G. Rubin Susan Meld Shell Bradford P. Wilson Martin D. Yaffe Michael P. Zuckert Catherine H. Zuckert Lucia B. Prochnow Subscription rates per volume (3 issues): individuals $29 libraries and all other institutions $48 students (four-year limit) $18

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interpretation

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Interpretation
A JOURNAL
Fall 2000

JL

OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Number 1

Volume 28

Heidi D. Studer

"Cross Your Heart Francis Bacon Promises
on

and

Hope To
and

Die?"

3

Making

Breaking
Spinoza 17 33

Gordon Hull Wiebke Meier

Marx's Anomalous

Reading

of

Corrections to Leo Strauss, "German
Nihilism"

Discussion Richard F.

Hassing

Reply

to Arnhart to Lowenthal
and

35
45
the End

Edward J. Erler J.

Reply
of

Harvey

Lomax

Carl Schmitt, Heinrich Meier,

51

Philosophy
and the

Harrison J. Sheppard

American Law

Past, Present,

and

79

Future

of the

American Regime

Book Review

Travis Curtright

Ravelstein, by Saul Bellow

107

Copyright 2000

interpretation

ISSN 0020-9635

Interpretation
Editor-in-Chief Hilail Gildin, Dept. Leonard
of

Philosophy, Queens College

Executive Editor General Editors

Grey

Charles E. Butterworth Seth G. Benardete Robert Horwitz (d. 1987) Hilail Gildin Howard B. White (d. 1974)
Christopher Bruell

Consulting

Editors

Joseph

Cropsey

Ernest L. Fortin

John Hallowell (d. 1992) Harry V. Jaffa Muhsin Mahdi David Lowenthal Harvey C. Mansfield Michael Oakeshott Arnaldo Momigliano (d. 1987) Leo Strauss (d. 1973) Ellis Sandoz (d. 1990)
Kenneth W. Thompson International Editors Terence E. Marshall

Heinrich Meier

Editors

Fred Baumann Maurice Auerbach Wayne Ambler Amy Bonnette Patrick Coby Thomas S. Engeman Elizabeth C de Baca Eastman Maureen Feder-Marcus Edward J. Erler Ken Masugi Will Morrisey Pamela K. Jensen Susan Orr Charles T. Rubin Leslie G. Rubin Bradford P. Wilson Martin D. Yaffe Susan Meld Shell Michael P. Zuckert Catherine H. Zuckert
Lucia B. Prochnow Subscription
rates per volume (3 issues): individuals $29 libraries and all other institutions $48 students (four-year limit) $18

Manuscript Editor

Subscriptions

Single

copies available.
outside

U.S.: Canada $4.50 extra; $5.40 extra by surface mail (8 or longer) or $1 1.00 by air. Payments: in U.S. dollars and payable by Postage
elsewhere

weeks

financial institution located (or the U.S. Postal Service).
a

within

the U.S.A.

The Journal Welcomes Manuscripts
in

in

Political

philosophy as

Well

as

Those

Theology,

literature, and Jurisprudence.

follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed. or manuals based on it; double-space their manuscripts, including notes; place references in the text, in endnotes or follow current journal style in printing references. Words from
contributors should

languages not rooted in Latin should be transliterated to English. To ensure impartial judgment of their manuscripts, contributors should omit mention of their
other with

postal/zip

work; put, on the title page only, their name, any affiliation desired, address code in full, E-Mail and telephone. Please send four clear copies,

which will not

be

returned.

Composition by Eastern Composition A Division of Bytheway Publishing Services Binghamton, N.Y. 13901 U.S.A.

Inquiries:

(Ms.) Joan Walsh, Assistant to the Editor interpretation Queens College, Flushing, N.Y. 11367-1597, U.S.A. (718)997-5542 Fax (718) 997-5565
,

E Mail:

interpretation

journal@qc.edu

"Cross Your Heart
Francis Bacon
on

and

Hope To

Die?"

Making

and

Breaking

Promises

Heidi D. Studer

University

of Alberta

making and breaking treaties permeates the core of political justice. Our interaction with other human beings depends upon our ability to
about

Concern

understand,

and

to rely upon, their statements of their wills
and agreements of all

and

intentions. Mak

ing

promises, contracts,
and

sorts, is

at

the heart of political

interaction,
of

keeping

those promises and agreements is central to any under

justice, even if it is quickly clear that it cannot be the whole of standing justice (Plato; Republic, 327a-31d). Honouring one's commitments, and binding
one's

future

actions

by

one's reason and will, are essential
and

for

political coexis

tence

between individuals
indicate "after

between fire

nations

surrender to

you won't
you,"

your

from waving a white flag of weapons in return for not being fired
a

upon, to
slam

a polite

when

holding

door,

which

implies

you won't

it

against the nose of

the

the essence of contracts, and
of

going through. Honouring agreements is Hobbes was not the first to point out how much
person

the chief

political

virtue of

justice lies in "the

performance

of covenants

made"

(Leviathan,
covenant go

chap.

15)

and

keeping
and

one's word.

Socrates

refers

to prom

ises in Plato's Republic (443a), God
made with

early in Genesis, the Bible describes the Noah when he and his crew were set on dry land to

an

multiply in unfathomable development
and

forth

communities.1

Indeed, language itself
of them

would

have been

without the premise of and

honesty.
word.

But human beings

can

lie,

many

do. People break their

For

various reasons, agreements and treaties are

broken,

and not even a written

record of receipts and promises

is

sufficient to guarantee compliance

(although

that might explain

have

are

why for the first millennium of human writing receipts), for receipts have been known to be forged
schoolyard
attempt

almost all we or erased.

A

common

to

secure

contracts

acknowledges

this

fact:

"crossed

erasures."

and stamped and no

As

a

result, it does not take

humans

long

to insist upon oaths, to demand more than words, to ask for a special their words: "Do
promise?"

ratification of

you

"Swear to

God."

And for many

reasons,

it is god, the

most powerful or omniscient

being,

that is sworn upon.

First, (and,
of

those who swear to uphold an agreement will consider themselves
god

bound to it if they have faith in the
course,
as
members

by

whom

they

swear.

Faithful Christians
gods

of

other

religions

with

providential

even

Athenians,

documented

by Thucydides)

believe that

they

should

keep

their

interpretation, Fall

2000, Vol. 28, No. 1

4

Interpretation
is
witness.2

promises when god

a

In addition, Bibles

are sworn upon

in courts,
include "I

marriage vows are solemnized

in churches,

and often-used phrases

All illustrate the sentiment that if an oath "Cross my is sworn, especially with God as a witness, it should not be broken. But those without faith may not have the same scruples. Treaties are often
swear to
God" heart."

and

broken,

even

if

sworn

upon,

and political realism requires that we recognize

this

fact. Those

who

do

not

political actions.

They

believe in god are missing may ultimately be wrong, but that
all that can
as well as

that constraint upon their
matters

only in the

afterlife,

not

in

politics.3

The

appearance of

piety is
are not

be observed,
those

and those who appear

to be pious but

actually

who appear

to be impious but

actually

are pious

are not what

they

appear.

In politics,

appearance

is

often

in

tension with reality, and the tension between the two necessarily favours the
unscrupulous.4

As Bacon

puts

it "far

more than should of political

be the case, treaties

are

lacking

in

firmness."

Bacon's treatment

to how this equation may be evened out

for us,

as

necessity will point the way far as is realistically possible.

BACON'S METHOD

The

problem of promises and

treaties is an

ancient one.

Bacon

couches

his

examination

in terms

of ancient are not

myths,

thoughts as though
seems and

they

thereby he can his original invention. His
and

present

rhetorical

shocking device in them,
will

to be to

pretend

that the ancient

fables have hidden
old and

meanings

that he is only revealing

appear

something impious, for the teachings come from

long

forgotten. Neither

he

pre-Christian

times. On the surface
endorse

Bacon's teaching does not seem to be new. He seems to made famous by the Athenian delegation in Book I of
ponesian

the notion

Thucydides'

The

Pelop-

War (I.

72-78)

that

not

only

matters of

life
is."

and

death, but

even

honour

and

money truly

count as necessities

treaties. He seems to be

simply

"telling

in politics, it like it

sufficient to

justify breaking
politics

But Bacon is rarely explicit about politics. When he discusses learning," famous "divisions of he says,

in his

Concerning Government,
these
respects are

it is

a part of

knowledge

secret and

retired, in both

in

which things are

deemed secret; for because they

some things are secret

because

they
Bacon

hard to

know,

and some

are not

fit to

utter.5

endorses several methods of

esoteric, or acroamatic writing. His writings
"initiative,"

include

lengthy

discussions

"magistral,"

"exoteric,"

of
"assertive,"

"acroa

matic,"

"aphoristic,"

"methodical,"

"questioning,"

"similitude,"

etc., in addition, he says, to the diversities of methods that have "hitherto been pointed out by (Advancement, Bk. II, chaps. 16-19; De Augmentis Sciothers"

could not something more stringent serve as a among for immortal gods. Athenians be account of come clear. and in doing Of the he challenges the reader not to take them face value: "they will be held to not be vulgar by the vulgar. which it girdles with many meanderings or and no other one lower world. for. involved in fables He explicitly Ancients so will affirms that of the fables in appear actually contain more than they at Wisdom of the to contain. which the upper The story is common. chap. problem of But Bacon begins fairly "realist" conventional the treaties and promises. suspicious of oath of of "lighter" penalty must attend violating an oath. has special advantages. that for in the sacrament alone. themselves with fear: that those who fail could inflicting for a that impresses be admitted to the banquets years. than "no banquets"? What the banquets stand penalty. Ancients. the aground as but rather deeper intellect. (as I said) for an infoldment. but to Styx. policy (De Augmentis Scientiarum. held to be firm one not and violable: even assuredly gods the penalty for perjury upon them. cannot be to death for breaking a promise. 2). which does often seem to be the perceived "ulti men. and Immortal gods.7 of the gods a certain span of Bacon's cessity meant analysis of the fragility of treaties and his teaching on political ne are presented in a complicated elaboration of an ancient mythical con stant: there was only one oath that the gods of Greece used when they really to keep their word. was Indeed. 13). about that single oath by Gods used to oblige themselves when they in no way wished to room leave themselves enly majesty court of mula of for repentance.8 A powerful taken seriously. parables. if it is going to be promises and were Even the ancient gods broke many oaths.6 be left us to delve deeply into the hidden meaning of the fables as we A close look at the details Bacon invites us to consider understanding for breaking treaties from the then will the difference of the question of political will help us to refine our necessity. will perhaps (so I hope) will be led Bacon encourages along. ." can. and that was to swear by Styx. Bk. it serves such as is used Of the Wisdom . for be seen as and such things. and to distinguish com mon pretexts "realism" role of Only between Bacon with a Thucydides' and in making treaties. the river Dis. Bacon cannot use mate the threat of threat" death. and interposed in many fables. his treatments philosophy chap. besides it. even . That oath calls upon and testifies to no near the and heav divine attribute. The penalty among the immortals for breaking the "lighter" Styx was to be banned from the banquets of the put gods. Parabolic writing. Bk II. Yet. I mean. therefore course. the twistings. that is when the secrets and mysteries of religion."Cross Your Heart entiarum. however. and Hope To in Die?" 5 of the II. the river of the under world. the are dignity or whereof requires that they should it were through a veil.

perspective." absence these rankings work within a moral community. that however fortified with the solemnity and religion of an oath. Yet.9 between the well noted "reason" and the "reason given" (or the aitia and the prophasis) is by those who wish to present their transgressions died" in a better light: "I was out "My drinking in the is grandma is a better excuse for a late term paper than last night. should are and the pacts of princes: in it is the case. (2) seem to be made more and for (1) esteem. (3) ceremony than for They (1) faith. Matters of life and "I didn't feel like it. however. security." than "I wanted to go So within a was single moral excuse community the tendency is to exaggerate the importance of the The difference talked about in Thucydides in order to justify oneself. while there obvi ously are some cultural variations among the rankings.6 for Interpretation we don't hear until the last line cut of the chapter. for these reasons signing. Some excuses are for missing a head of state's funeral half-way deemed more justified. (2) fame. or kiss. Bacon waits until the not final sentence to put the "banquets" Bacon is quires that we see the primarily interested in issue in human terms. treaties lacking fame in firmness. flight" or "could not get a Whether one "wanted to go makes consider skiing" able difference as an excuse around the world." not revealed now. Realism re The fable which seems to be fashioned more about treaties. and However fortified with solemn oaths and religion and with expressions of treaties don't work. for so example. We certainly have seen our share of this in the order to get praise for being someone "who coverage. of a single powerful umpire the assessment of grounds while But differing variable between such groups. excuses are still ranked. RANKING EXCUSES Some broken treaties not all are seen as and promises are more equally legitimate. "I more excusable appendectomy" is easily excused than others. or to ensure the people's security. and in the ER undergoing an emergency fishing. rank higher than most and presumably do in all but the fatalistic of societies or cultures. than for faith security and effect. ("Styx") piety. . or out of a sincere desire to fidelity to the terms." or for the sake of media to have the ceremony of the big handshake. The appearance of having made a treaty yields such great acclaim that those who love such honours may well sign treaties instead of either for a real ensure effect. (3) effect. promises. and so much so that they and are almost summoned more for esteem and ceremony. far than it truly be. or past century: treaties made in cares. that they have is into considerably more significance than "being from the invitation gods' list. even transnationally." death.

As Bacon points out. (3) license of domination." This. what and what is due to honour. Humanity." of nature's links. set the terms for others. might go even that is the worst of it. ("Styx") of Nature. The inchoate desire to be the real motives of most to use power. and honour only counts for the honourable. these are all lower than ambition and utility license of Even if they susceptible to are strengthened by "bonds affinity. He cites approvingly an Athenian from the Peloponnesian War who says that the only way he will believe the Spartans is if they concede so much to the Athenians that they would not . and ambition people. Humanity."Cross Your Heart and Hope To But even Die?" 1 not Many treaties are entered into for show or reputation. they are and gets being broken for the honour too even often even the real motives Not only are fame behind treaties. lower. these rely too much on honourable people people who will recognizing be For most. as brotherhood and and mutual desert will not weigh as much (1) ambition. come Only the few will respect the higher reasons pp. and good accrues to both parties under the terms of the treaty. There at are motivated by even less than fame (which even least a still sub jects one to outside judgment even and observation. but. nevertheless it will be found that. can those who want fidelity do? Only general necessity is binding. In addition. with specious Those who as compulsions humans' successfully present their own ambitions as real necessi in human nature. Orwin. Bacon says. There has to be something stronger than honour to bind men to the terms of their treaties. 69). (2) utility. Without and single a problem arises with universally recognized. love of money. And combined to abilities dissemble. the true motives are often disguised by pretexts. it sake of ambition. if it is merely democratic standard).12 tempted by to be educated to see that treaties in politics are only as strong as their basest link. Therefore he too can many men enveloped in silence in their souls. Fear of god only works for those who believe (cf. princes of course. dishonour accruing from breaking one's word only matters in a world where what is truly dishonourable is dishonoured. Bacon has no unrealistic expectations in this regard. puts Christian princes at a decided disadvantage." for Christian princes and "speak openly what honourable urgently need to be reminded of these facts of human nature. And those more Christian or need non-Christian who are bound by honour than gain. and if there is mutual merit. Even if bonds is honourable affinity are there. some further than Morgen- thau's third realism:10 principle of political Even if the bonds of affinity and come into it like the Sacraments domination. umpire. Bacon suggests. for keeping a treaty (see also Orwin. p. of worse. for most. It will only be the honourable who will be bound by honour. 61-63). What What binds others? Necessity. assessing different grounds for break a ing treaties. powerful. ties.

necessity means it is impossible to Accordingly and that there is assumed one thing for the true and proper firmity of faith. first because of their fear of the Persians. The case that realism requires Athenians. These are highly reminiscent of the reasons given by the Athenians in their speeches in the first book of The Peloponnesian War to justify the Athenian Empire (I. elegantly there is no return. argue they are they are compulsions admits only in human nature (cf. necessity admitted by Iphicrates. And it was this since lord one whom Iphicrates the Athenian called upon for the treaties. also include honour speaking. and. if you to. His inclusion of "destruction. extending after all. not more than extenuating will circum Strauss. to recognize that it is realistic to expect them to break their promises for these reasons. he far as apparently to for breaking treaties which shock our sensibilities. 170-92). Bacon's use of several reasons such as Thucydides' Iphicrates the Athenian.'4 Recall that the Athenians say that they were compelled to dominate their allies imperially. does for their of not simply condemn princes their pacts and treaties. he is the discovered is not amiss to refer openly spoke what many enveloped in silence in their souls. REALISM AND NECESSITY Bacon. This realism is of the antiteleological. rationally were out and you concede most wished propounding. pp. your very capacity for harming us would be lacking. mere The Athenians stances. then because of honour. by Styx.8 be Interpretation capable of harming them even if they wanted to. Bacon break pacts when fear for the very existence goes so Even more. Necessity Necessity which (Lord to Great powers). but actions. He. but that considerations in human Generally not ambition and profit. and is not any heavenly a Divinity: it is danger to the state. and then because of profit. They stress fear. that. speaking to the Lacedaimonians. "it's only human for nature" . represented and communication of utility. explicitly reminds us of the Peloponnesian War. of action is removed. however. who. He understands them. and profit as we consider compelling fear an extenuating circumstance. and from is moreover. interrupted them: The able to tie and secure us with so you. Bacon these three are realistically that And he teaches not everyone us keep an oath when at stake. or the diminution of the state. who river fatal. 72-78). it turns out. it to his own words. having thought out and considered the firmaments and various cautions and sanctions and bonds of the treaties which the one Lacedaimonians thing (he said) you thinking Lacedaimonians. like Thucydides who renege on and Machiavelli. breaking them for money. is if plainly demonstrate that even 13 to us and put into our hands much. Necessity means that the act very capability otherwise. marshalled arguments "necessity" beyond the single kind certainly does of the state is recognize not attack those who a concern. The City and Man. even worse ones. or its revenue" requires us to consider the Athenians' claim in book I.

because it is may animating their leaders than is the varieties of the people of a nation princes . And in politics." out. and that is why Bacon suggests a more expansive solution. their real intentions. Furthermore. or if from the destruction or of a diminution of the state. how if they wanted to. Therefore it is essential to recognize duplicity secrecy about the a true motives of actions. oaths are It is easy to explain why ever. sity a witness is not a strong enough belief among men to serve as a sure guarantee. as Machia velli put it. ("Styx") NECESSITY VERSUS CONTINGENCY These three revenue are obviously to not all necessities. is driven were put here to vulgar. but Bacon now outlines the other three take away "all ways (in addition to necessity). are God doesn't broken easily because there is no higher judge to arbitrate these make himself visible (see Mansfield. Mister Allnut. as Queen. there oath is no one but the way to have it even binding is to base it on necessity. Iphicrates had said only one thing could guarantee it. says. unless treaty nue assails a not until danger of capacity for harming is lifted. if one is going to be in a position many pretexts to lie. clearly. "Nature."Cross Your Heart and Hope To Die?" 9 variety. . to confirm treaties that are being made: Accordingly. no oath to any warrant complete faith in it." rise Most people are by the lowest the soul. That they and Therefore the only could not break successfully. some of 295-314. to doesn't reveal standards of obviously so "easy for actually the and as she reveals standards veil" for good health." of is not equivalent "removing the capacity for doing Much . possible rupture of the or of reve then is it to assess that the treaty is ratified and sanctified. there is and nature no real United Na justice as tions empire with sharp teeth. Because princes have But when are we in a position to demand absolute or strict necessity? Can one capacity for harm"? This option is not always possi realistically ble. The threat of diminution harm. for the implications of this). Only neces be enough to strong heavenly future belief in punishments because god is is Bacon binding. and confirmed as though by the oath of Styx. or. who points above. pp. quite unlike the position that distinguishes the "least common denomi nator" view of nature from one that requires striving to achieve expressed by that prototeleologist of the film The African what we part of fulfillment. ("Styx") Treaties things. "in a the world. to guarantee god can treaty. be duped into believing 15 that nobler motives are case. Bacon continues: broken frequently. Machiavelli's Virtue. So much more so sions and less than sincere because it is easy for princes to support and to veil their pas faith with their various and specious pretexts (there be account must ing no arbitrator of things to whom an be given).

" Self- preservation is men.17 But the we cannot always rely this in politics. of nature such as Necessity very and means of as with physical laws gravity means that the acting are away. It is circumstance. could tic" "legitimate" perfectly excuse It may well be granted that true necessity to break an oath. We make it impossible for them to break it even if they want to." "really pain it": "Till death do "On my the drives that part. so such choices and actions do not operate under choice" the same kind of necessity as gravity." grave." and and is a respected extenuating mean of one of all circumstance. they do not compel Bacon invites us to look at them further: the threat of revenue." We use them precisely when we on have no faith in be pledges. It is the tables turn. strictly speaking." mother's move "Cross my heart and hope to "I stake my life. in the same way. Castration of sexual offend ers ("you say you won't ever rape again well. now I believe you. This. But the three "realis elaborates excuses are not true necessities. That death is considered the ultimate threat the summum malum is witnessed to us by being invoked in oaths when we die. the threat that you would in force." The initial terms treaty must acknowledge necessities. not having absolute power over able forces of nature. people will believe that these contingencies are makers" 'Treaty what must recognize that people will erroneously interpret at this point that necessity Now the Christian beyond as is inherently or a contingent. but it is not all-powerful (as it isn't animals). we cannot ensure that someone will not to break the treaty. the tempta princes those higher types who have resisted tion to break treaties have choice and what decided advantage. which we and impounding of enemy armaments are some of the ways in have used this "pledge of faith. "matter its life death.18 even among One can choose to die. threatens the very will remain existence If breaking treaty threatens to destroy a state."). The first state. capital punishment. Bacon these three guarantees of treaties in terms that are familiar taken to students of Thucydides and Machiavelli. Then one can be fairly sure of compliance. one should be reasonably an extreme sure the treaty a contracts and agreements. on Oaths based Athenians necessity might not be practicable. which may be why the were able to convince others that there are more not necessities. of a and the possibility of a diminished empire. but it is not of coercion that some people would exactly the "free or lack like to see . But they are not truly necessities.10 Interpretation is available more choice to one who is threatened with losing some money than with losing be a all wherewithal for action. and why Bacon. and less less-than-necessary a Bacon brings up is danger to the state. it is clearly how we force some people to keep their word." "On death. the "treatymaking" they merit being considered: on the other side side of the instead of as the justification for that many "treaty breaking. admits though apparently ready to concede that all three are necessities. for they know what is truly is not. is all that Bacon can extract from Iphicrates' quotation. Other people think and act as though there are many action more necessities. "compulsion" destruction. In many die if you kept your word of exonerates you.

The convincing them about which course of action will de next supposed compulsion. This "pledge of and more importantly. or the threat of the diminution of their Bacon even points out several problems with more open honour." or more often "kill innocent children. according to the Athenian realists. there are multiple possible contenders for interpreting how the common . There are several serious problems with this carrot. and think through the nuances of how it attracts and seduces the souls of men." or "slice up my father")." For most people the threat of death thus. referred honour. for the threat death is only to contingency. but do it the unusual way. Humanity. then you must do excuse X. of course. Fear is "often individuals" a respectable extenuation even of crimes choice. The security of this "pledge faith" of relies on each party to treaty believing the reprisal will occur and will destroy the state. Self-preservation isn't a neces by they law like the physical of gravity. But even go to war and risk in politics.19 and sometimes with Sometimes dismiss leader cannot act out of the highest principles or be allowed to some of his own people's lower be to motivations. a approbation." "Red. it has been done. as noted above. often claimed The ians next contingency that is to as to be a compulsion is what Athen empire. will also prevent have an advantage shocked in making treaties. political leaders cannot make it politically. then." therefore. is the carrot (compared an to the first's stick). one might be reasonably confident that the on treaty be kept. Most people can fill out the sentence "I'd rather (whether it be mother. party to the treaty In 1991 Saddam Hussein. Some people even rank how finish the sentence. death is not the ultimate threat certainly be dead than "have not our own X" death. If the common interest is of revenue and benefited. faith."Cross Your Heart operate are and Hope To Die?" 11 fear of in treaties. make is a of the world And however much realists might want moral to argue that although humans may this decision as individuals. "//you want seems legiti there still mately to them from obligations. contracts entered into out of binding. not a necessity. Those a who understand this have It an advantage. Given the contingency of even the alterna sity tive of death. But those who have resisted it." to being subverted on by "specious pretexts" and and Successful use of honour depends and the ruler recognizing using the people's under standing of honour liver them honour. 46). is profit. can be phrased live. it seemed. the death and destruction. Yet as Hobbes points out. relying or there is increase will wealth. however. it seems that we must try to figure out which contingencies sex with my their colleagues excuse and which do not. Another difficulty with the threat of destruction is that might question whether the threat is real. First. and among the heroes (Orwin. choice must sometimes We also must not forget that for some of us. one a did not think the United Nations coalition would actually attack. before the fact. someone's safeguard They can therefore themselves from being by temp them tation to break a selves treaty for these reasons. And honour is "veils.

in effect. . for you know they are Bacon ized" entertains little naive optimism that the world will become "christian so that such a view of necessity will no longer need to be taught. fable what can suggest ing as a solution? When Bacon closes the with an explanation of what the gods considered what in their treaty making. psyche A thorough insight into the one wants the human is what is required if to be sure of a promise. Then you can use them. or no need become ble in place. . ("Styx") of the gods" To include in the meaning "happiness. who believe that choice" profit is the ultimate motive for everyone's make with comes will not have an advan tage in the contracts they those of us who don't. He would outnumber the Greeks. Those. the higher types these facts of human . then there is either for a treaty in Bacon be the first party might well see an advantage to cheating. under which name ancients signified the rights and prerogatives of com mand and affluence and happiness. will and to make that the terms of the treaty: most look at the contingency that matters to them (which is whatever part of the psyche as dominates them). the "true being as necessities. for they. reveal than more about their own psychological understanding The trick is to find out show of ours. what is most important to the other party to a treaty. they do not all necessarily imply A an of empire and revenue come at the price of too many have discovered that wealth second security may difficulty is that such benefits of independence and reputation. quite the reverse. The ultimate goals. relationship. instead.12 Interpretation will interest increase and be benefited. seems to to the most important or as and of men. both of course. not necessities." gravity are and other physical of nature necessary as Even if these actually contingencies. you must realize that men will think those contingen cies are a matter of necessity. under must accrue to each party only the terms accessi the treaty. In fact not they will have the disadvantage that stand from recognizing that the high can under the low but the low cannot understand the high. for "rational example. With such a realistic appraisal of treaty breaking. That as be what they are inclined to treat laws being compulsory. the summum bonum. the most important things that men cherish or that motivate motors of them are the keys to treaties. and. the gives us a glimpse of what is required. if they another or one can be seen to be accessible otherwise. Those who believe that fear of death or threat of a loss of a job is sufficient to guarantee compliance with all of their demands will not have the power over us that they believe they motivations will." of "the banquets the rights such overarching ends as and as well as all of refer and prerogatives of command ultimate goals of gods affluence." probably agree that "the barbarians will always He does not argue that men will eventually all honour must recognize higher bonds. it were. he the banquets really mean. Instead.

for example. presentation of these of the activities around us. the Christian princes. there is a compact and feature the Western tradition. 1-9. Ahrensdorf. sticks. 3. August 31. for example. This type of occurrence is frequent in the legends. See Orwin. who had 26) that he was only being asked . 1981). Bacon has to caution the good." 'Realism' Thucydides. degree of faith."Cross Your Heart nature and and Hope To Die?" 13 fashion treaties in light compulsions" of their recognition of whatever supposed "necessities To or they perceive in others. Realistic Critique of Polity 30. whereas teaching is the counsel to descend to and half-beast. motives of actual concern with the order not insight into the historical characters than is warranted. Genesis 2:17. and then to two beasts. this reliance on contracts is not a myths. but I am not aware of it as a practice (beyond the schoolyard loophole of crossing the fingers of your left hand behind your back to let the devil take to speak about all strictly monotheistic ones. without endorsing the realist excuses for breaking them. that honour ensure that we tion of having only even even counts among the honourable.20 don't go too quickly to our graves with only the satisfac lived honourably. counseling us to act just like the gods. "An Introduction to the of a talk prepared for deliv "Thucydides' Realism. Although I shall not pretend at the Annual Meeting of the American Political religions. so that the latter would be willing to dive far beneath the water to bring up earth. that the judicious use of carrots. 2 (1997): 231-65. Ella Elizabeth Clark. Obviously. Indian Legends of Canada (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited. And this may involve deliberately putting tempta seem to take the tions and other antee "feasts" "banquets" or within the sights of our partners to guar their respect for the terms of the treaty." ery to the Society for Greek Political Thought Science Association. I he commanded might even point out the earlier implicit contract God made with Adam when him only not to eat a particular tree's fruit. Genesis 9:9. 1994). Coyote Builds North America (New York: Avon Books. but for a short time. NOTES 1. But. Giving Birth to Thunder. As The 4. In noted by Leo Strauss. Sleeping with His Daughter. 1996. but the human McNally and Company. Bacon's issues in this fable provides no grounds for belief in divine get providence or cosmic support end" for treaties. was relieved Huckleberry Finn. He points us towards a methodological realism in making pacts." City and Man (Chicago: Rand to presume more is "not indeed the gods. The belief that "they'll "their" their comeuppance in the will such a velli's man belief will do is ensure our probably failure in the not alter behaviour. as is often shown in Barry Lopez. The Humanity of Thucydides (Princeton: Princeton University Press. this seems to be necessarily true of the may have trickster gods to whom people can swear when they do not mean to uphold their word. 209. All Machia halfcan present. 2. 1960). Peter J. pp. the beastly standards first the lion and the fox Bacon high road. no. or of superstition. the honourable among us. 1964). p. and necessity may help to elevate the moral level if it does not elevate the motivations. and Robert C. At the very beginning of the Cree creation made between Wisakedjak (or Nanbozho of the Chippewa) the muskrat. I some might recall a fictional example that reveals this tension: to see (chap. the issue gods. Bartlett. Polytheistic religions your words and absolve you from a promise).

1972). also helps to explain . Humanity. 144. and apparently supported by Bacon in Of the Wisdom of the to Ovid al "Dionysus. aphorism 27. p. Politics Among Nations (New York: Alfred A. 54 (1992). see Thucydides on the difference between Machiavelli. no. tradiction and implying are that among men necessity overrules even promises to god. quotation. Machiavelli in all 18 all says of the prince. reprinted (Philadelphia: Harper & Row Publishers. Almost hundred years before Bacon. 1 (March. 150. 469-505. 103-5. Swearing upon a Bible would have been more problematic 5." within see Orwin. 237-38). Hans Morgenthau. See. 1. why Bacon's fable on nature As Orwin says. Robert Leslie Ellis. Mario Domandi. at p. "to see him and hear him. involves a con in traditional Orwin argues "by suggesting that the gods are subject to necessity it implies that they of War: 233-39. all honesty.47. collected and edited of Learning. 1." aitia and prophasis and Princes. Clifford Orwin points out that an understanding of oaths implying that gods are subject to necessity. all religion. and the Necessities Review. pp. interpretation.14 Interpretation a to swear upon dictionary. chap. humanity. from a book in progress. p. 1861). Political realism and has consequences of for domestic politics as well as international the relations. that is. 358. II. Of the Advancement and volumes. 167. See of course. According {Metamorphoses. "In What Mode Faith Should Be Kept by Steven Forde.755 and xiv. Iliad. Treaties" or with a new are mine. For more on this the implications "political realism" for "life city. Mount." This. Certain Observations 146-208. things so arranged that he cannot hurt you even if he wants to. who discusses acting with honour when faced with the dilemma of the Sermon on the 13. Francesco Guicciardini number very similar advice in his Maxims and Reflections. 7. Machiavelli's Virtue (Chicago: University Iphicrates spoke. he for him. vol. Cf. trans. has long been recognized. Winston Churchill. "Varieties of Realism: Thucydides and Journal of chapter Politics. Bacon Iphicrates quotation in at least three upon a other works: Made War with Libel. 9. no. Homer. your true and best security consists in having the will and discretion of others men. of natural discovery Bacon what necessity as opposed to the radical contingency that is the basis of all real political philosophy or of says of a world ruled by gods also science" (pp.75-76. 1996). piety." 319-21. could safely maintain his lie. place. The Prince.287-315). and several indices. one open to the charge of reading too much into Bacon. See [is] a Harvey gist of Mansfield. and V. The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. New. 11. p.55. Pennsylva Paperback edition. at gave 1. In the final version. xv. 10. 48. 18. idea p. in The Works of Francis Bacon in 15 by James Spedding. Of I hope is placed not Taggard. translation. And nothing is necessary to to have than this last quality. Clifford Thucydides' Delian Debate. 83. 12. chap. 37-42: See also ii. seeing how little goodness and faith is to be found in Francesco Guicciardini. less than gods" (p. For a different account of the oath of see Aristotle's Metaphysics (983b28-84a3). pp. every time a god swore by Styx he soon regretted it." most Styx. pp. Apothegms Old vol. vol 13. p. for example. all faith. III.40-110. 8. a critical edition of Ancients. "The of interest is indeed the essence of politics and is unaffected by the circumstances of time and 11. It sounds similar to the uses this the Athenians say in Thucydides. and Douglas Denon Heath (Boston: Brown 6. . There the gods swear by Styx because the most ancient is the most revered. 1959). the discovery of the notion of political necessity in the sense. he more should appear appear mercy. he said: "If you have doubts about someone. 23. 237). in Letters and Life. Maxims and Reflections (Ricordi).271. For any ." also Machiavelli. Translations of "Styx. but I would use Bacon's own defense that the work is not badly (Preface to Of in either case: "either we shall be illuminating [Bacon] or things course this leaves themselves" the Wisdom of the Ancients). 8. ". Knopf. Bk. p. Justice. Considerations Touching a one 477. Spain." nia security founded on is worthless." American Political Science Orwin. I could not locate the and Chicago Press. 1948). "Piety. which charge justified in my case. 1989): follows this chapter on necessity and strict This oaths.

have always known this to be the of no most effective way to get their children to abide by their For some. A more elegant version of this formulation was enunciated by Professor Clifford Orwin in a class on Thucydides in 1978-79. seems that 18." As Orwin out. the points and Hope To Die?" 15 his pointed this out. "the state has no right to say so in the name of those who are in its Politics Among Nations. something else entirely is . says "it is necessary to know well how to color this a great pretender and dissembler. state. 15.70-72." for extending the "right to to the "right to a guaranteed annual 17. defend males pack their young the risk of their own lives. December 27. at least from among the warm blooded." 16. Parents.36-50. it is the threat required. the risk of death. V. 18. 1.9. life. Machiavelli in The nature and Prince. 111. This arguing that if you take away the wherewithal claim is at the core of some arguments income. 20. We think only that are of extreme cases such as Masada. then you are and people claim that is a true necessity. p.84-116." This is noted in Ahrensdorf s Orwin's examina tions (cited above) of the Greeks' views of justice Thucydides' portrayed The Peloponnesian War. The Peloponnesian War. see Thucydides." Associated their bidding)." puts it. 1998. "in effect" taking away life. 18. And strong healthy young males who could benefit themselves at the expense of others again at often stand at the perimeter of the to defend others. wishes. profit chap. It even at many mothers. "The to be issue of the speech is the status of these alleged chapter compulsions.46. This is the basis of the opposition accusation of President Alexander Lukashenko's attempt to merge Belarus with Russia: "he is going to surrender leaders' As Morgenthau Belarus' independence. In Some of addition to Machiavelli. but in we may look and at reasons why some states enter wars not "their own. of course (and everyone else who is successful at having others do our country's state."Cross Your Heart 14. for others." p. The Prince. as in chapter 18. life" too. care. dessert. Machiavelli too. in hopes of acquiring supreme power in the united Press story cited in The Edmonton Journal. "so let be a prince win and maintain means will great always be judged honourable and will praised by everyone. or no allowance. need not 19.

.

Marx reads work. . No. can Spinoza. may rialism" suggests about the context serve as guidelines from which to begin. Marx or reads Spinoza as as an anomaly. it remains that this encounter was a decisive element in his development.2 hand. where. Fall 2000. ophy into the larger was one aspect of Hegel's reading of of the history of philos the production of a certain narrative structure of Spinozism. doctrinal never positions.Marx's Anomalous Gordon Hull Vanderbilt Reading of Spinoza University powerful Karl Marx. Two general points in which Marx worked. after tial evidence me . I intend two thoughts at that his which is to Spinoza anomalously. reading of Spinoza is opposed to say that provided by the Hegelian environment in which he produced his early work. the doctrinal association of both thinkers with "mate both its possibility and its importance. I wish to develop Hegel the thought that one constitutive element in Marx's efforts to overcome of be found precisely in his reading Hegel's Spinozism. Whatever Marx's encounter with Hegel. 1 . the an encounter with study of Spinozism Spinoza and Marx is fully dissociable from bly perilous. For this reason. thought. First. On the other once. the integration of Spinoza what Hegel's history. Vol. mediocre epigonoi interpretation. and rather fixed. seminal with the title of this paper and its obvious gesture to Antonio Negri's On the one hand. this one thinks context was overdetermined of the outcome of by Hegel and Hegelianism. is nothing else than translated into forms of the material world reflected by the Marx famously writes: The mystifying side of Hegelian dialectic I time when it was still the fashion. arrogant. But just "Das Kapital. Second. against and outside of Hence. 28." criticized as nearly thirty at years ago. Marxism. which is to what might Marx reads the "materialist" "mainstream" "bourgeois" contesting developments of the late comes Spinoza say that be taken as Ini seventeenth century. in particular the early Marx. at a I was working the first volume of it was the good pleasure of the peevish. the science investigator who applied the method of Spinoza to social Hyppolite Lissagaray1 Spinoza associated and with Marx were thinkers who attained sufficient notoriety to become certain. In follows. is dou Nonetheless. then. A study of Marx's reception of Spinoza." asserting that "with human mind. for both thoughts the idea and from Capital.

" that. such a retrieval is a demystification or a profana tion of textual canonicity. will capitalism be against its apologists. For both think The reading of Marx's ers. "eschatological. the appearance . perhaps. will reread the with similar against identical) strategic Bible its most pious adherents. to treat Hegel in [the] same way as the brave Moses Mendelssohn in Lessing's time treated Spinoza." and searching for a elements which contradict or exceed the canonical reading.). Retrieval of the rational form against the received involves "awakening the text to life. In other words. Hence. he kept Treatise and a notebook of passages transcribed from the Theologico-Political (TTP) and a number of Spinoza's letters.e. in 1841. Reading Hegel." in that they they simultane ously involve radically rethinking what such eschatology might mean. Spinoza (but not be read against doxic Spinozism. an official reading is be always limited. both in the sense that it pursues a definite purpose. participation in a struggle is above all a ques tion of strategy and tactics. Even Marx's occasional remarks an indicate early familiarity with Spinoza. One marker of this materialism will be Marx's recovery of the occluded materialist Spinoza. i. How one presents an historical event says as much about the presenter as the event. Further. however. Spinoza himself. therefore openly avowed myself the pupil of as a "dead dog. which suggests that Marx's reading of Spinoza is a strategic one. of according to same "deism and materialism are two parts one and the principle. although Marx's texts can be said to be envision the cessation of politics. demystification will be a process of I will pursue here is part of a reading against the larger investigation of the grain. As Hegel since the Hegelian Bruno Bauer. the former fashionable apology for mediocrity. Spinoza are it is clear that Marx understands difficulty in the reception of as a question of two competing strate gies for the reading of tensions which against already present in Spinoza's texts writes themselves. thoughts. for Marx. Marx dom adds "mystified. In word. but the latter critical of exactly such medi ocrity. both thinkers have a "rational" a and a form. understood as political and of ideological pro cesses. The juxtaposition of the receptions of "received" Hegel and Spinoza suggests that. references to Spi in Marx's work are extremely scarce. questions of historical transmission and canon formation." for Marx.18 Interpretation who now talk large in cultured Germany. although in Hegel dialectic was "standing on its in its "rational form it is a scandal and abomination to and head" and bourgeois- and its doctrinaire professors" "is in its essence critical and revolution ary" (ibid. "materialism" early thought." I that mighty thinker. will cannot read excised from the reading and historical texts. Spinoza had two schools which struggled over the always meaning his system.4 aspects of noza The preceding suggestions might seem premature: after all. Marx of that. It is these TTP notebooks. From the a comment in his 1845 Holy Family. and of the extent that. and in the sense that Marx recognizes that reading is always such a strategic exercise.

which are the topic of this paper. p. long before embarking on his Feuerbach. it con tains various histories later assembled by one or more compilers without regard . That one effect of Spinoza's work was the profanation of sacred history move seems not should to require much further elaboration. and as an orientation to the question of reading. illustrate the First. 24) question of marginal notes returns our attention to the question of and biblical codices. ing passage about biblical interpretation from than we now the in fact more readings find marked Treatise. Marx comment.. the Holy the Family. "if the earlier [Aristotelian] system is taken for the content. Marx had struggled form and content "exit" official in with ques "philosophical" tion.e. the question of the material ity the of the text's production essential: elements of the text's production and of "meaning. see an initial orientation to this topic. indicates that for Marx is its for Spinoza. the analogue with Hegel's suggests political official interpretation history philosophy readily terpretation has material and tions of adherence to of itself. Hegelian. of sacred Allow me to clarify. in his 1841 doctoral dissertation. p. codices" 9. preferably the cycle of the Epicurean. "I say that in the (TTP. Marx dedicated a Proudhon. in rendition. to the late medieval practice of hiding Averroist and other counterhegenoza could monic manuscripts inside officially sanctioned Marx had been concerned from the beginning Two passages should serve to codices. The outlines of Spinoza's be sufficiently familiar: the Bible is not the work of one author. (For a more complete a discussion de Rubel. schools." as and "profaning" "demystification" position which enables ries. For his part. "Marx la rencontre listing Spinoza. Again. and contrasted "mass" section to criticizing a neo-Hegelian translation of with the "critical. a silent Proudhon 's text suffers. but had done so as part of a larger (uncompleted) project of decanonizing the post- Aristotle as the high point of Greek philosophy.Marx's Anomalous of Reading of Spinoza 19 Spinozian elements in Marx's early work. silencing in his characterizing notes" translation. Marx had not only attempted to separate the philosophies of Democritus and Epicurus. the question of aspects. for the subjective form.") As and of Spinoza references in Marx. "a double attack of Herr Edgar." i. copies the sentence as into his notebook verbatim and without official further biblical of the Insofar the codices represent an interpretation of narratives and events. one evident in Proudhon 's original text." ideology of producers are indissociable from its and It is this it is this histo position which marks both Spinoza their Marx or "materialists. 268)." he writes. official inter pretations. Marx says. Spi equally have been referring.5 with questioning point." the eleventh "Thesis on the space much-discussed and in writing his disserta from philosophy in to open before his explicit purpose was for a thoroughgoing critique of political economy. The an expressed silencing in his as critical marginal (HF. allow me to propose the follow there were chap. in addition to the reduction of texts into codices. "It seems to me. 129).. the character of Greek phi interesting" losophy is more clear and (MEW I Supp. and stoic and skeptical Aristotelian system. Second.

15).6 suggested that people existed not and that therefore original sin meant that people and sin did not exist before "imputed" been to people before Adam. because this notoriety has nothing to do with the usual current reception of Spinoza and little to do with a reading of the Ethics. "the an word English text of is the Word of In 1668. particularly among those who rejected all "new sci- . miracles and prophecies and to the concordance of those histories occurred in such a way as to impress the vulgar. that part of presents an entirely different Spinoza. and Physics to be read in scripture . chap. Hobbes had declared that philosophy began in Ethiopia of the interpreter of the scriptures God. which in turn means that the Bible cannot be taken literally. As such. In words." history in the particular history of the people was a Spinoza's text had appeared in 1670. and not of intellect." According to Hegel. History. and that a better reading other precisely because he suspected Hegelianism was not adequately Spinoza would be useful to his own was work against Hegel. immediately developed. Adam. either as a report of miracles or of science. God spoke of government. they inter be a canon Morals. on the other hand. then all of distinctions between the the heathen peoples sacred history and of the chosen the of history collapsed the idea of an incarnation Hebrew the meaning of universal destroyed. but only that sin had not Hence. managing to avoid altogether reference to the ancient Hebrews. "the Spinozist philosophy is related Cartesian only as a consequence of filling out and carrying out the principles of Although such sentiment was certainly part of the seventeenth-cen tury reaction to Spinoza.20 Interpretation with one another. In 1655. presented should pause to underscore the published notoriety these own in the one work during his lifetime. As Paolo Rossi put it. through both than a explicit or for more century at the center of all discussion of mankind's earliest history" (Rossi. between the first and second editions of Hobbes." Further. the superiority of the ancient all Jews over others confined itself to their form God. "if all of this was people and true. Descartes. Spinoza's text in both implicit radical condemnations and references was to remain represented the culmination of an all-out assault on the sacredness of Scripture. perhaps Spinoza was excessive to Hegelian to the Spinozism." and Egypt. 212). In 1668. including a reprint of was had said not only that scriptural interpretation his 1651 De Cive. faculty" Prophecy theses. although still cannot contain true teaching. was a gift of a "lively We imaginative Spinoza (TTP. Hobbes had issued which Latin Opera. since scripture requires pretation. The disso "atheistic" nance between the Hegelian Spinoza and the one grounds the possi bility why Marx read Spinoza that the Spinoza presented to him by orthodox of understood. p. "the Theologico-Political Treatise cautious adherence. to be governed by the temporal sovereign. which was that was revealed to them by to the prophets in a way designed to impress them. of the mysteries of the Christian religion. but also that "as there is a good deal of "Politics. p. those passages. Isaac de La Peyrere had before Adam. . Hegel. for the pious. and are a canon of such teaching.

this Spinoza was a "translated" ical Treatise shows that treatment of the Mosaic tance. as applied to those people as chose to long they retained that political state. Hegel creates a version of the "Jewish which Question" was to entangle many never young Hegelians. Spinoza says: With the destruction force the of of the Hebrew state. ended. In one of his most explicit passages on the a have king."8 the same failure. for in so doing they God p. their revealed religion ceased to have the right law. for example." hand. Hegel. [and] is in borrows from the Socialists the illusion The two borrowings are aspects of seeing in poverty nothing but poverty. in tion.7 not to limit the Mosaic law to the Jewish people generally. a as I will indicate. When Spinoza analogously remarks that.Marx's Anomalous ence" Reading of Spinoza 21 reaction was clearly not reducible to the sentiment that Cartesian. 3ff). can tell. 19. conceptual determina "Jew" His reading therefore blinds itself to the possibility that as the bearer Mosaic law could be a concept with limited historical applicability. reads as an ahistorical. On the grounds tion. the distinction is what Marx's subsequent critique of Hegelian responses to the "Jewish Ques On the other hand. Marx copy any of Spinoza's explicit statements in this regard. all that the kingdom of God and the to an abrupt end. p. "granting that any conclusion could since existence" was not a valid inference. The dif one ference is important. completely should annulled the covenant whereby they had prom ised to obey speak. p. chap. the "only thought of despotism is the contempt of the hu- . 235. as soon as the Hebrews transferred their divine law came to king Babylon. Marx names "despotism. emphasizing the Ethics and with his own priori Spinoza. be drawn from miracles. Proudhon "borrows from the economists the neces of sity of eternal relations. Hegel continues that the Theologico-Politties. Else socialists of reifica first principles. drawing distinction between a conceptual determina tion which is always and essentially true and a conceptual determination which is true only at a certain time is precisely Marx's critique where. God's event can also chap. This passage is of central impor it. 103). has clearly at a stroke. of other words. (TTP. indicates that it is precisely real. 77). their theocracy As far I subject. We of cannot doubt that. individual people That is. because As Spinoza with "the Mosaic law is limited only to the Jews a critical books (VGP." who suffer. 221) "Jew" Hegel. but he could have failed to encounter them. and the problem failing to see that context is important to reading. (MEGA2 causes" When the result a order reifies and itself and declares itself necessary. his purpose is of the Marx. which had been the basis of God's kingdom. simultaneously occurring in its entirety IV/1. Marx legal copies the passage (TTP. Rather. "an be the result of several 6. including tires of reminding his readers. Marx accuses both the capitalists and tion of their of reification. the point is that the and only When the Mosaic law Hebrews does not not was given to Moses as secular ruler of the as Jewish people.

the anger of the mob MEGA2 are regarded as criminal. chap. One possible war. 148. one mark of despotism. 244). its prop He adds that stay. this apparatus is the use of religion and religious language to behavior on the part of the multitude. line Spinoza into his MEGA2 notebooks verbatim: "Happy all indeed would age. in all" such circumstances is usually the greatest tyrant of one (TTP. p. here I in how a wish to point interest. another IV/1. May 1843. he also copies the following be our chap. Hobbes's one and this ambivalence generates a context. common to both Spinoza Marx. in reading Spinoza in a Hobbesian more On the hand. At level. however is to be understood as a matter of law. noted by both Marx Spinoza. pp. 7). despotism operates. that there are no people (ibid. it is important to note that Marx spent much of his early career constant battle with the censors. which are an nothing else). In . 11. the sovereign encouraged to use religion to the end of obedience. humans writes. in the Holy of we Family. lengthy other polemics against and nonsecular authority in allied with On these points. is in the majority. must and with the specious title of religion to cloak the fear by which they be held in check. Hobbes own seems deliberately God used to invoke traces of the theocratic God" in his be "geometric" one: monster which the "mortal Leviathan and was named after the seems to biblical to humble promote Job. in of course. inalienable right [uniuscujusque juris]. supreme who writes in the preface Theologico-Political Treatise that "the and mystery of despotism. significantly. and it is not to be concern with doubted. The to the despotism is common to Spinoza. Marx declares people that it is in Hobbes that materialism becomes "hostile to [menschenfeindlich]" (HF. in the He adds: "where the monarchical principle people are minority. however.22 Interpretation MEGA2 man. there" 1/2. if were to see religion freed again from superstition" (TTP. in such expression have been (in fully indicates precisely or integrated into the despotic principle. Indeed. who since not effort to stifle expression ("seditious" language. is to keep men in a state of deception. Spinoza was often read as being of Hobbes. is the draconian Hobbesian terms).9 For his part. this might As all of suggest.)." "no more wealth" (TTP. On these points Spinoza seems rather opposed to Hobbes. civil disastrous policy can p. 215-16. the human split from itself (Marx to Ruge. 238-39). be devised or attempted in a free common consequence is political instability. religious contain matters. This right one should note not that the question is one of expression and right. without or even outright Such a possibility to the was of course not interest for and Marx. 477). 136). difficulty this point is strangely ambivalent. Leviathan. At level. p. both De Cive theocracy and. Spinoza from which "individuals" and Marx copies a chapter he copies almost "Tyranny is most violent where individual beliefs. 18. and the manner in which despotism is sustained by an apparatus which aspect of One simultaneously plants the seeds for its violent collapse. and IV/1. On the model hand. position on induce ern" quiescent As the emblematic "mod political theorist.

17. It is life-producing life. the nations" individuals "subjects." parallel term in Marx is "activity.. The affirmations of "expres on "activity" and criticize despotic conceptual apparatuses for infringing the essence of affirmations. Marx's of comment is at the close of his letter calling for "ruthless critique existing." Marx's thought is radically historical. 147). p. an obvious target is Descartes. its species character. who declares intro is the fundamental principle of society. "the versatility of the meta a whole that physical being is transformed into the exuberance of the being" ethical (ibid. with which each thing endeavors to persist in its the thing itself (E3 P7). chap. mens." Activity copies and of in this sense serve as critical principles against the atomic interpellation qualitatively identical. endeavors to persist means Reading of Spinoza 23 it is a question of conatus: the right of any individ as which is to say: in its own being" "Each thing." is continually perfectible by means of imagination and Savage Anomaly. Also in both cases. the matter is one of expression as the activity revolu which counters a metaphysical system. the following comment in his 1844 Manu scripts carries distinctly Spinozian echoes: "In the type of life activity lies the whole character of a species. In both cases. resolve the ment" critique is that "equality" "property" "property" contradiction . from In place of detailed exegesis of this passage." indicates what individuals do as a free from despotism." offer neither enlightenment rities origin of critique consisted in eliminating impu order to establish the purity of the in they appear. this ual is its expression. Marx famously concludes a letter to Ruge: "in to have its sins (MEGA2 forgiven. both are revolutionary (The reference here is obviously to Negri. needs only to explain them for what they a 1/2. 369). In the context of Marx's early work. conatus. an "enlighten model. according to which phenomena as perhaps most obviously carried out by Proudhon. 207). individuals in their being. "Potentia. let me suggest that the emphasis on expression as a matter of right and although in both Spinoza does so on the both "critique. those phenomena. in this sense. when they The constellation "species being properly conceived and "species serve [Gattungswesen]" "activity" in Marx's 1844 Manuscripts to indicate the socio-historically given character of human life. p. his thought is clearly moving with Spinoza's in that he is pointing to an organicity of With the caveat that customs" life. in so far (E3 P6) and "the conatus is nothing but the which are it is in itself. It is passion. and the extent to which human activity produces human life: "pro ductive life is however the expression species life.10 own being actual essence of The when being.Marx's Anomalous Spinozian terms. that abolished in be order to should duces inequalities. such expression is thus in itself order are" tionary. p." everything Marx indicates that. and free conscious activity is the species character of sion" man" (MEGA2 1/2. and that therefore In Spinoza's case. 151)." or When Marx from Theologico-Political Treatise that only "laws and divide "individu als into (TTP. humanity 489).

" MEGA2 is Hegel' Rechts philosophie: 1/2. chap. The parallel with Marx is quite close: for Marx. as an position this in his book The Jew presents ish Question.) He follows that "the earth. Spinoza way and not nonetheless warns things are conceived are at once confused or enlighten a in this abstract through their true essence. 170. in it. We Hegel does not mention what Spinoza had said was his "main namely. 22. the differentia Spinoza's tion of philosophy from own theology" (TTP. they by the imagination" (TdlE. up Judaism." and reification or abstraction is the problem. be that the Jew give man give up religion. state. in order to emancipated as a state-citizen. the Cartesian ment critique part of fails on immanent grounds. religion does not make man. This stating of the question leads Bauer to the following position: Bauer thus demands on the one hand. in both I is cases is that thinking is necessarily considerations allow us embodied. because imagination is knowing. 143 [JF]. 171. Man is the world of This this men. . The struggle against struggle against schen every world whose spiritual aroma Einleitung. human nature. society produce religion. Spinoza "critical" when Hegel reads Treatise. Hegelian of emphasis original). they man is no abstract essence society. because human is thus mediately the religion. he and says that shows that the Mosaic law is limited to the Jews. and in general On the other . According essential to Hegel's reading "Jews" Spinoza. of the contradiction of religious imprisonment and political emancipa tion" ("Zur Judenfrage." MEGA2 1/2. 35). Marx published his a answer in 1843. perhaps following Spinoza: But sitting outside of the world. These to approach again the Jewish Question. a treatment of the Mosaic law discloses that necessarily determination. the critique critique of heaven is transformed into the critique critique of the of religion into the of law. It is the fantastic realization of sciousness. an inverted world con because are an inverted world. emphasis original. can also note that purpose that this a treatment of the Mosaic law." Marx adds." which is "the question of the relation of religion to the state. emphasis original). ("Zur Kritik der religion nature possesses no true reality. As the Theologico-Political have indicated. the critique of theology into the One politics" critique of (ibid. 238h). In other words. As Marx it.. such critique is of the appropriation of the "critical" Jewish Question. Bauer specific provides "the Jewish question universal meaning independent of German relations. The all thought point necessary is "ideological. Reading discussion of the prophets and their imaginative (rather than rational) facul ties against Hegel's Spinozism generates the same point of emphasis as reading Marx against Hegel: "The fundament of the irreligious critique is: man makes religion.24 Interpretation result of what sounds conceding the of soul and like a Cartesian deduction that "when about the union body. state.. Bruno Bauer to which come with adopted the Mosaic law attached.. p.

Indeed. which of so-called theological questions. in essence.e. "we do We transform theological that the contradiction worldly questions into theological ones. not a reason for." which means that one can consider the relation of religion to worldly human the emancipation." questions "contradiction between the state and that the "contradiction of the state of the state with determined worldly with religion in general elements. "imprisonment" worldly limitations. the pres ence of religion is an indication of. p. emphasis original). Rather. from the Mosaic law. however. ." a political question. The . religion powerful existence of one finds proof that the existence of does not contradict the fully developed political state. p. Ensuring demystifying za's of political questions. Hegelianism. Marx continues that at least part of the "North American free states real . Marx will thus accuse Bauer the Hegelian The of the of cipation with one human emancipation. is in "In Germany. if one considers only the Treatise which Marx copies." commentators notice "living. if follows Hegel's reading is necessary not. where no political essence not political. the of the theological nature of the modern state: conflicts with resolution for Marx. which takes Christianity as its fundamental words. The question of identity. to be emphasis original). supplemented establish is obviously schematic and would need detailed textual work. no state as state tion is a purely theological question. The Jew finds himself in tion to the state. and is to say the is precisely the point of Spino in Marx's treatment of the Jewish Ques tion. Marx's conclusion is into worldly determined religion is the state and abstract between the not transform ones. human state. 146. of the political question is into a question of the abstract identity the Jew.. which suggests that for Marx. p. When of religion will itself be Hence. considers Reading of Spinoza 25 the political sublation of religion as the sublation of (JF." This means general" is the "contradiction The its assumptions in (JF. where all religion. it is instead theological: exists. "Le T. Marx adds that in such places.13 response having confused political eman is deeply Spinozian. the Jewish Question loses its theological meaning and becomes a question. Rather. in other and confuses the Christian German state with the rational. Marx drops tions of the passages from Spinoza which involve biblical exegesis or ques "true" religion. (CF Matheron. condition" (JF. It seems. these limitations are overcome. First.Marx 's Anomalous hand he consequently religion simply. the confusion i. collapsed abstract a one: emancipation from Theologico-Political Treatise. vu religion is always a politi ten- cal question. in in so doing. the overcome.T-P dans le du jeune Marx. emphasis original). 144. the matter becomes even clearer. that modern theology and is. such a state. is "Judaism."). Theologico-Political shows Treatise. confuses religious and political questions. however. he the sections of his sensitivity to Spinoza's point. the Jewish Ques religious opposi state. on Hegelian grounds. sufficient to foregoing by more that for Marx the Hegelian Jewish question involves conflating the spheres of politics. 145. . political worldly life.

e. 488). then this understanding presupposes a theological proposition about the relation a our understanding and God. writes: that the political state can be considered sub specie political state rei discloses that for Marx the is itself a theological determi an eternal mode . he takes to be the residual elements of this theological Marx drops precisely (it seems) procedure in Spi In order to develop this last suggestion.. be obvious. 1/2. something exterior or prior to it ("state of nature"). or as governed by a pro cess of abstraction. this its does not produce knowledge. this is why it expresses social On the publicae other hand. Insofar as the for the social. inside of (MEGA2 so is the political state of its practical. As religion is the index The of the theoretical struggles of political state thus expresses needs and humanity. If between our mind understands the political state sub specie rei publi cae. . of thought can This line be directed against both the . In this form the political its existence: struggles. is of thinking which is determined all by another eternal mode of thinking with the result that God" they together constitute the eternal and infinite intellect of (E5 P40S).26 Interpretation to mistreatment of dency what noza. and theological basis of the modem state form. its form sub specie rei publicae all social struggles. I would like to examine a passage from one of Marx's letters to Ruge." On Spinozian grounds. in its the reference suggests that most for Marx the in its political state considered and conceptual which determination. insofar as they be qualitatively identical abstraction participants in a "social con and tract." everything Marx writes: Therefore the the social truth is allowed to develop everywhere out of this conflict of political state with itself. however. this question as a theological one betrays the abstract. one The Spinoza Marx's reference should and it discloses the depth developed form. modern state form and against Spinoza's invocation The might complaint put as of sub specie aeternitatis against the state form and its theological presuppositions be follows: the modern state form requires a conceptualization of the social as state accounts static such. state expresses of engagement with Spinoza. for example. is able to give such prior basis for his "civil and to speak of the meaninglessscience" . as a refer to entity which does not Even the conception of are understood to the or individual "citizens" elements of the socius as will "subjects" be abstract. which is to say that it presupposes theological proposition about the ahistorical nature of our understanding. i. nation. the critique of same letter in which Marx announces the need for the "ruthless existing. On the is to be hand. . is to say that it has conatus. in so far as it understands. truths. indicates that the because it only singular essence of the modem state members as form is as an abstraction considers abstractions. Spinoza "our mind. it will only do so qua concept. ity to a geometric This is why Hobbes.

all and universals are thus the product of human imagination. As Marx has read the Treatise biblical refer ences.) to a "universal Marx had begun the letter to Ruge reformers" with reference anarchy (MEGA2 among less both the 1/2. about not erase a Spinoza's text: What be Spinoza's invocation. and things. could its achievement would constitute only operate from a "moment of sober overcoming Hegelianism. In this sense. Rubel." p. of God and of things. suffers scarcely any disturbance necessity. 236-37. which Insofar as Spinoza's reflection. besides possessing true being driven hither as and thither by external causes. cf. by virtue of a certain eternal himself. In so doing. Regardless possibility of being. lives if he were unconscious of himself. In working of whether toward a method of "ruth critique. "Spinoza and Marx iiber Entfrem- pp. "Marx without the la rencontre de Spinoza. Marx had "enthusiasm of complained in his dissertation humanae" notebooks about the of the consideration sub specie aeterni. at the ulti knowledge is properly of individual things.14 Whatever its force tension in of what could Hobbes. quiet- Marx is able to resolve what might strike the reader. especially the reader who. or of the libertas a mentis IV/1. . in Ethics V. against engagement reappropri- Spinoza can thus best be described as a critical a ation which reads the materialist elements of will noza Spinoza the ones which of be received into Hegelianism. in so far as he is considered as such. however.Marx's Anomalous ness of Reading of Spinoza 27 the multitude." Marx works toward the wise and active. the ahis construed as the same theological proposition about torical nature of our understanding? We are thus returned to the tension "atheistic" "deistic" between reading and of this elements of as an aspect of Spinoza. like Marx. (E5P42S. to be at God. read cited by M. but always possesses contentment. the wise man. in Spinozian terms. all. knowl attached union of the mate expense of conatus and expression: edge had itself to the is always historically determined. when he speaks of God. other and as soon as he ceases to be passive. and is of the part of historicity Mosaic theocracy in against why Spinoza's understanding the Theologico-Political Treatise this reading does own of the seems anti-Hobbesian. Marx's critique radicalizes the one presented of by Spinoza in the Treatise: declarations eternality are symptomatic of religious thinking and thereby occlude consideration of the political. never ceases to be. but that knowledge is itself in some sense universal. never contentment of spirit. and to Marx's strategic tension overcoming Hegelianism. as a Spinoza concludes the Ethics. Spinoza himself ever achieves such a position. 486). had been trained in the Hegelian istic dilemma with which appropriation of Spinoza. of true spiritual dung. 104. he at once ceases On the hand. of the (MEGA2 love Spinoza. For Marx." of spirit. but being conscious. the Hegelian reading Spi understanding and God. so too here he seems to with Spinoza against himself: Marx's appropriation.15 In particular. Seidel. 242). The ignorant man.

15). quoted in Maximilien Rubel. 1978)."16 appropriates and as well reworks certain aspects of as against what Spinozism. is Epicurus. 15 32. my indebtedness here to his Negri's indications of his own revisions to his thoughts Ethics V. because one might they suggest in both cases a thinker who resisted what loosely call the bourgeois development as a representative of thought." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 18. provides and insofar and as those contain possibilities which are not realized critical moves in Hegelianism one in Hegelian of Spinozism. where "order has been thought disorder" as the absolute other of (Read. no. Antonio Negri. The Savage Anomaly: The Power of Spinoza 's Metaphysics and Politics. in be obvious. p. at the time he his notebooks on Spinoza. and (b) to indicate the limits of . Do not misread: I do not want to be taken as was a thoughts as not a Spinoza. the is the question "what are the possibilities of a sociality of constitutive to retain this suggestion insofar as a wish "activity" use of [Tiltigkeit]. 258. in his "Spinoza's n. Lissagaray de was a French refugee who knew Marx. 'The Antagonistic Ground of Constitutive n.) is clearly felt in Such caveats aside. 7. he was also engaged in both his immediate such socio-political context and with other whose presence historical thinkers. Marx reads as other aspects of Spinoza's own texts. 2 (September 1995): 14 number of Power. particular work should One should note his reading of Ethics V. trans." 22 and his other writings can summary of Negri's thought which includes a be found in Jason Read. 2 (Summer. A useful Rethinking (p. Michael Hardt (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. for Negri. Read suggests that. "Marx a la Etudes de Marxologie (Jan-Feb. no.. In this. Thus for Spinoza's the questions of influence and the reduction of Spinoza into Spinozism.28 Interpretation texts exhibit a tension between activity and texts knowledge. Adorno and Horkwould heimer suggest quote Spinoza Enlightenment thinker. Marx clearly Spinoza against the reception of ossify. or that Spinoza saying that Marx had the same Marxist avant la lettre. 1991). emphasis original). 1999): 1-17." NOTES 1 . 15)? I question of communism power" Marxism 11. I do wish to suggest that the affinities between Marx and Spinoza deserve to be taken seriously. Anti-Modernity. My translation. Spinoza was if one Hegelian dialectical thinker. practice depends on But they are the intransigence right to suggest that "true revolutionary the face of the one of theory in insensibility may call the with which texts of In this sense. But thus neither also a nor warning against the reduction of Marx into Marxism. While I disagree with rencontre Spinoza. Marx's Marx's thought sis on as rereading of Spinoza way tracing various it toward the famous expression of the eleventh 'The world Feuerbach": "the point philosophers it" have only interpreted the in ways. In Marx's case does one face a "dead dog. p. it Even remains that Marx was both a prepared an original thinker.. society allows thought to both Spinoza and Marx revolutionary. I they are wrong. elements and even finds a prodigious number of prolific reader and Spinozian in Marx. (One both Spinoza and historical thinker another Marx is Machiavelli. term which indicate Marx's thinking and maintained ." many on of Negri's conclusions. against it might be applied to the early Marx's functions analogously to Negri's potentia. 2. in order (a) to the Hobbesian seventeenth century. the is to change (MEW 3.

the notebooks comprise the manuscript. a . For subaltern Judeo-lslamicate elements in Spinoza. "I say that there were in fact IV/1. in the exegetic method of the TTP. which emphasizes the Utopian (in the traditional in Marx. . Marx read the Latin the current translation of trans. I wish to express reservations about Matheron's Marx "is le jeune not argument that interested exegetic . I will generally follow the Gebhardt edition found in Spinoza. For element Immanence. see especially Bruno Bauer's cautionary letter of 12 April 1841 HI/1. 773ff. Louis Althusser. consequence. "reading against the grain. 169.16-17). Other Marx references are to the best available German edition.T-P radicalizes Spinoza's method. The study. either the Marx-Engels Werke (Berlin: Dietz Verlag. barbarism taints on the also the manner History. another" Etienne Balibar." the the representation of the "Le politique. recall that it is Hegelian historicism which Marx is contesting. "Marx's Ontology and Spinoza's Philosophy of vant sections Studia Spinozana 9 (1993). All translations are own. was Spinoza. For Marx's dissertation difficulties. so Family: "Deismus und Materialismus zwei Parteien eines und desselben hatte Spinoza zwei Schulen. very manifestly. founding theory why in read- history and a philosophy also: of the historical distinction between Spinoza ideology of and science. subject. and her "Gersonides's Meeting of the Minds: The Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 17. And just as such a document is of barbarism. . a man This of explains and a philosophy of the opacity of the linked together in this way the essence of reading and the essence to us why Marx could not possibly have become Marx except by of history and in in the world to have proposed immediate. the first man trans.. and he was also theory time ever. I do not endorse Althusser's grain" between the and post-1845 Marx. emphasis in original). Theological-Political Treatise. nos. humanism." cow: 3. and the last analysis this ing" foundation "we was consummation can regard in the dissipation as the religious myth of (PP. p. 139 [HF]. for the first of history. 243. 358). Ben Brewster (Lon don: Verso. vol. . man Reading Capital. The tension between what Marx calls the deistic and materialistic Spinoza is discussed by Negri as the "two foundations" in Spinoza's thought. "Le Marx. trans. by notebooks chapter and page]. For passim. my 4. 1979) both a suggests: "The first ever to have posed the problem of reading. reads 1991) [TTP. and applies that method to all canonical texts. rearrange In a very important commentary. 256). of writing. suggests that "in materialism of Marx there is also. 1976-) [MEGA2].be (Berlin: Institute fur Marxismus-Leninismus. 233-76." vu par Cahiers Spinoza 1 (1977): 159-212. die sich iiber den Sinn seines Systems Grundprinzip (MEW stritten" 2.." cf. . One result of Spinoza's order) as a Matheron's study is that Marx's text of systematically excises scriptural references and grounding from Spinoza: Marx's TTP has none Spinoza's religious language. Samuel commentary on his excerpts. (MEGA2 "Maimonidean Aspects of (1994): 153-74. 1-2 in Radically Modern Understanding of the Agent Relations between Medieval and Classical Modern European Philosophy." ." a different see comparative reading. almost no included Shirley (Indianapolis: Hackett. 217-27. Holy seien. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (Mos Progress. p. Spinoza's Intellect. 1." Philosophy p. sense) is essentially Rousseauian. an element of the deconstruction of . see MEGA2 IV/1. With him. See The Savage Anomaly. See standpoint" sophical "rupture" (p. For pre- reasons which will Marx's only direct ancestor. see Idit Dobbs-Weinstein. Alexander Matheron Marx's (which coherent text and compares that text with Spinoza's. See Balibar. 29. "revolutionary la Politique: De Rousseau a Marx." Thought. Yirmiyahu Yovel. 1954). 102). The "against the no line is Walter free Benjamin's. from the philo become apparent. 1970-) [MEW] or the second Marx-Engels Gesamtausga. of should 1968). however. trans. of his Adventures of Immanence." 29 etc." subject" 203-15: 212. reading of the Both of these points will early Marx as advancing "Feuerbachian be developed over the course of this paper. de Marx a Studia Spinozana 9 (1993): the Spinoza." It seems rather that Marx T. above comments are deliberately allusive and meant to suggest a possibility for further The early Marx's reading of medieval texts would certainly bear further investigation. reading Spinoza and Marx together against Rousseau. is not here I at wish to emphasize the sentences before it: "there is document of civilization which not the same time a document of barbarism. Harry Zohn (New York: Schocken Books. notes on which contains a programmatic summary of rele MEGA" 5. For dating and Paulus Opera and MEGA2 more readings": IV/1.Marx's Anomalous a reductive Reading of Spinoza "Hegelianism. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Here. One in which it was transmitted from one owner to ('Theses in Illuminations.

of 1998). 1998). 1989). ed." - 9. Full treatment Spinoza is of these topics is obviously outside the scope of this paper." Vorlesungen iiber die Gesch und der neueren vol. 126. "Models of Difference and in The German Jewish Dilemma: From the Enlightenment to the Shoah. The opinion that "anti-Hobbesian" is stated with particular assembles much Negri. Samuel Shirley (Indianapolis: on Deleuze in understanding the 11. This edition is a translation of the Latin text. and thither as Pythagoras. la speak of a Spino- M. For further discussion Alterity. ed. 74. 1 (1996). notes see Politique. 17. thirteenth. and Gerard Granel. The Savage Anomaly. 7. For thoughts on the Jewish Question in context. Negri relies heavily to 10. Lydia G." Marx is "nature" Marx and Spinoza can be applied against the Rousseauian subject." of Marx's reading of Spinoza as it relates to the Jewish Question. 1946). vol. as will be evident. For further discussion in this direction.30 ed. p. The Poverty of Philosophy (New York: International Publishers." Decameron Physiolog- icum. 212. "Spi noza und Marx liber Studia Spinozana 9 (1993): 229-43. 24 Iff. Spinoza and 1. pp. Interpretation embedStephen F. 179-230. "Le Politique. Paolo Rossi. Thales. That the first Men were created before Adam (London. Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza. although the Latin text is of the unauthorized substantially different from the English. Belgium: Brepols. rather than a reproduction 1651 English edition. Molesworth (London: J.]. it at least in Marx's early writings. 16-17. ed. pp. Rubel. dedness in the subaltern Marrano community. see Gilles Deleuze. Brown (Turnhout. Martin Joughin (New York: Zone Books. since it was in De Cive was more available on the continent. Es ist das Leben erzeugende Manuscripts. and is itself a historical category in Marx. NY: Edwin Mellen. TdlE. de la no. vol."' question in Traditionis traditio (Paris: Gallimard. aber Leben ist das Gattungsleben. Lachter Production in Marx: The Paradox of Labor and the Enigma of am aware that this 1/2. 1999). Spinoza and Politics. Rubel suggests of Marx's dissertation that "one is tempted to . to fetch philosophy into went the curious Greeks. For Spinoza's Other Heretics. la "coupure. trans. By which are proved. The Dark Abyss of Time. Isaac de La peyrere: See the English translation of a year later: Men Before Adam. pp. of course post-Kantian. For thorough analysis of expression in Spinoza. originally had a copy. The question of revolution seems clear that the ending of in Marx is particularly difficult. Plato. 1986). Or A Dis course on the twelfth. and in of Hobbes and Spi being read as allied in The Dark Abyss of Time. As a survey of his footnotes indicates. Spinoza. 1839). 7.) The 1668 Opera also included a translation of Leviathan. and fourteenth Verses of the Fifth Chapter of the Epistle of the Apostle Paul to the Romans. Durchfuhrung des Prinzips des ichte der Philosophie. (It was De Cive of which Spinoza Latin. "The other readings which emphasize the Ontology of Graduate Faculty Philosophy de 1844 et is a heterodox reading of the 1844 centrality of production. trans. and others. 6. p. In this sense. see Helmut Seidel. The relation between tyranny and revolution in the Theologico-Political Treatise is discussed at length in Balibar. 9 (Hamburg: Felix Meiner. und Manuskripte. 102 [VGP]. 191-213. Rossi noza force in Balibar. Hegel: "Die Spinozistische Philosophie verhalt sich zur Cartesischen nur als eine konsequente Ausfiihren. "Productive life": "Das Leben" (MEGA2 potentia/potestas produktive distinction." Balibar. Ausgewdhlte Nachschriften p. Edward Timms and Andrea Hammel (Lewiston. The Marrano of Reason (Princeton: Princeton University Press. Letters. 1972). For man. 25-49. Bohn. Marx breaks sharply with Spinoza. I cite De Cive rather than Leviathan because. in The English Works of Thomas Hobbes. Ethics trans. "Egypt was then as it were an university to all the world. there is a strong correlation between demystification and despotic polilical orders. 1984). vol. "Marx a la recontre de see Willi Goetschel. etc. 8. De Cive. Teil 4: Philosophie des Mittelalters and Cartesius. Cochrane (Chicago: University Chicago Press. trans. Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect and Selected Hackett. references are Ethics. 3-23. 1992). see Yirmiyahu Yovel. p. Richard Tuck (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. On the Citizen. 25-38. see pp. Greece. I Praxis'' Journal 19. Pierre Garniron Walter Jaeschke. 1656). "L'ontologie marxiste pp. 1992) [E. trans. 369). For the suggestion that Entfremdung. Spinoza of the historical evidence and Politics. Zeit. see David R. pp.

Spinoza accomplishes what Negri says Spinoza himself does. is conceivable without the State. are 14. then. trans. emphasis original). from which I borrow the discussion of ed. Negri woven "In Spinoza moments . Marx with 'political' 'human emancipation' [Sein Grundirrtum. Kritik und Praxis: Zur Geschichte des Kritikbegriffs Gruyter.Marx's Anomalous zist Reading p. Theodor Adorno (New York: and Continuum. The State is society illusion" not conceivable without the simultaneity of the social. 12. See P. as inseparable of association and antagonism produced in constitution. Max Horkheimer. critical appropriation of 15." 244)-a suggestion which seems particularly insightful given Marx's dissertation uses Epicurus to critique Democritean atomism. 41. and von Kant bis Marx critique "enlightenment" its reversal in Marx. viz. 1993). p.' aufgedeckt]" wurde . What Is Property. Negri locates specie aeternitatis: "if the succeed transcendental wishes to absorb the energy of the singular. it does however in doing it justice. the Verwechselung der 'poli(HF. is only (The Savage might Anomaly. but p. In the discomfiture of Hegelianism precisely 'atemporal' Spinoza's usage of sub not later writing." as somehow a See The Savage Anomaly. that he disclosed "his years later. 200). John p. the replacement of the "first foundation" (religion) by attempts a the "second foun (expression It is curious the extent to which Negri to downplay Ethics V "regression. tischen mil der 'menschlichen writes: Emanzipation. Donald R. (Cambridge: Cambridge 13. 16. Hence. Proudhon. civil society and the political State completely civil an together. The bourgeois ideology of civil society. Cumming . p.' Spinoza expresses a concept of time as presence and as singular ity that the great dialectical machine wishes to expropriate. of Spinoza 31 reading of Epicurus by Marx" ("Marx that a la recontre de Spinoza. trans. inversely. 1975). die [Bauer's] fundamental error." 5). See Kurt (Berlin: Walter de and Rottgers. One dation" say that Marx's and praxis). cannot" ("Spinoza's Anti-Moder nity. Smith University Press. confirms 1993). J. The "acosmic. at passim. and neither. 112. Two confusion of Kelley and Bonnie G. Dialectic of Enlightenment.

Corrections to Leo Strauss, "German Nihilism":
Published in
pp.

Interpretation,

vol.

26

no. 3

(Spring 1999),

353-78.

The transcription
the typescript

of

Leo Strauss's handwritten insertions in
Nihilism"

and additions

to

"German

was checked against the original

by

Wiebke fol

Meier, Munich. The
lows:

text published

in Interpretation

should

be

corrected as

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cialism

socialism should read

National So

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[The
word

motive

led to

nihilism, should read motive

led

to nihilism.

led is

underlined

twice.]
militarism

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is

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precisely Page 360, line 2 from bottom: about the probable future the future [probable crossed out by Leo Strauss]

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Baumler [Alfred Baeumler,

Nietzsche,

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Politiker, Leipzig 1931]

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2000, Vol. 28, No. 1

34
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We can. Are these principles understood given thinker to 'comprehensive' comprehensive of the biological realm. O. 28.Discussion Reply Catholic to Arnhart Richard F. and defending truth of the latter as the argument of a a requirement of natural kinds ends. No. (3) Darwinian Natural Right by recourse to the work of Leon Kass. 151-56). (4) concludes with the illustrative of Darwinian natural right. Wilson and Allan Bloom. selection Consider the two great and natural for reproductive fitness. or not? If not. or only such as the by a partial? By the noble I mean that no other principles Good. Hassing University of America Larry Right Arnhart: Arnhart responds to with a restatement and my review and criticisms helpful elaborations of his of Darwinian Natural position. contemporary thinker on whose value incest aversion as example of both agree. 1 . INTERPRETATION. the contrary. principles of random consider a variation and very useful question. 265). on this crucial confusing set of alternatives. (1) begins with Strauss on the problem of modern natural Specifically. Clarification is a task for Arnhart makes clear when he states that "Darwin is caught and kind" denying that the human difference is (p. According to Arnhart. Thus. (2) the supplements elaborates the opposition between reductionism and emergence. but of this intention is hampered "Darwin" by unavoidable ambiguities "Darwinism. are reproductive fitness compatible with Darwin or on Darwinism. Fall 2000. Right?" is based on a list of six philosophical problems 133-34) and an appendix of eleven quotations from Strauss on science (pp. Darwin for the degree-kind human specific whether there exists a significance of emergence point difference Darwin himself was of two minds." and and the vast What is the relation in the meaning between Darwin's the terms own thought a body proponent of philosophy Darwinism? Is Darwin? Are notions or of science and now called Darwinism? Is Kass ends of natural of the living kinds to be found in Darwin himself natural ends with beyond or universal are a in later Darwinism. I refer back to these in the following. incompatible with Darwin or Darwinism? We have Darwin specialists. hallmarks of both Darwin be Darwinism. as in this contradiction both affirming only a difference in degree not in did not adequately appreciate the distinction. I would like to make as clear as possible our points of disagreement. science. I regard we these as the salient points.' My argument in "Darwinian Natural (pp. Vol. however. they. although brief mention is also made by Arnhart of E.

no significant emergentism. (Strauss. beings the Intellect. Corollaries I we and II of Newton's Principia. relation to species-neutrality. There is difference between It is Arnhart issue. studying its parts each parts by itself. distinction. possibility. Let me explain how I understand the distinctions between reductionism. We do not answer this crucial question the Darwinian principles comprehensive or partial? by affirming the truth of evolutionary emergence over against reductionism. . and species-neutrality. By 'partial' liv ultimately needed to account for Darwinian prin I mean that the two because the ciples are not false. that the things we call "alive" possess survival instinct. for the to the parts. order to and then trying to sum up or aggregate the properties of the deduce the properties of the whole? The essential assumption here is that the parts of the whole are not modified in any fundamental way by their parts coming together are prior or being together in the constitution of the whole.g. but life" ("Darwinian Natural are Right?" p. that is at system admits reductionist explanation if its behavior parts when can be derived from. not a sufficient possibility of a Socratic (Platonic. both ontologically opposite Politics 1253a20-24. under stands the two Darwinian principles as partial. or Leon Kass.36 or Interpretation beautiful. a principle of activ ity residing in the whole organism as such. the be properties possessed by its the isolated from one another. "one of the paradoxes of they. Aristotelian) understanding and the human natural kind mysterious" its problematic situation in a whole that is "elu (thus sive . But if as someone else understands the two principles comprehensive. This is always a what could more convenient than tempting taking a thing approach to complex wholes. or (descending) myself. (See Aristotle. are other systems e. in rule which the essential assumption is embedded in the parallelogram for composition of forces. namely. of course will militate against any approvingly use of Hans Jonas on the beyond it. A and me on the the second first distinction. can quotation 6). find that there be adequately or fully explained in terms of simpler parts? Suppose. emergentism in reductionism versus emergentism. principles their thought for accounts that are compatible with those speak and that approvingly of Darwin(ism) Darwinian while going beyond it. the divine are ing including principles ourselves. for in apart. So the to the whole. machines. in spite of the success of reductionism for many important systems. then. This was the point of going my elevation of common means into specific ends. This is because an emergentist antireductionist) theory be either species-neutral or species-specific. but must share the stage with other principles. but it is only a necessary. 141). like Hans Jonas. talk of will speak of Darwin(ism). too.) knowledge. parts are or reduced to.. that the whole is prior and our in Classical mechanics is the preeminent example of reductionist science. for it ple. then there is plenty of room in realm. cover a part or an aspect of the Darwinian If some living only one. But that cannot exam what if. The refutation of reduc tionism by emergence condition of the of is salutary. and suppose that remains impossi- . the solar system. or the Pope.

one cannot combine Aristotle. speech. that "Darwinian theory does away with any right requires a cosmic teleol says. see value of truth for life (pp. molecules. The idea of emergent properties has become the past increasingly accepted within the new sciences of com plexity over few decades. for the sake of 1178a5-8). that the human brain-mind is both the lem 5 of "Darwinian Natural As far as survival truth seeker. tition of for food. if it with and means. We have of the whole that cannot an emergent property. 268 269). As I understand it." ogy and so that the order of the whole universe supports human goodne (pp. Darwin(ism) is species-neutral in the sense just described. say. This is a species-neutral. versus sive of the living and species-specific) Right?" by simply saying. this holistic property. and According our to our research pro gram. during the origin of life in the a that. or in his pursuit of science . They the disagree the end or telos with this in relation to origins As to why we cannot and dispense dichotomy (Darwinism. Arnhart does not declare himself of Rather. disapprovingly. 1139b5-6. emergentist and species-specific account. originally acquired. remote past. But there is more to the story. survival instinct. he says. indicates to me that Arnhart does not yet the difference between not possessed. predation.Reply ble to derive survival to Arnhart 37 a instinct by summing up grant (in however sophisticated fashion) we survival the properties of the isolated parts. meaning property be ade quately explained in terms of simpler antecedent parts. On this account. just as a garden slug has its distinctive equipment for the sake of surviving and reproducing in its local environment. that Hassing "thinks natural of the comprehensiveness or Darwinian science. emerged know We then instinct. For example. one regards Darwin(ism) about as comprehensive. without comprehen reflec prob comprehensive of living species-neutral. partiality and cosmic approvingly. tool and deeper tion. on the crucial question I can see. we unlike that of any other species. according to different local envi and compe ronments. But either way rejection with tainty This it of comprehensive teleology certainty or mystery (and aporiai) understand demonstration would with cer be dispelled. in biology in which we seek to understand the many kinds of organisms as expressions of all the specific characteristics of that one common principle. 144-45). which outside falls the imagined research program. the human species evolved a brain. the differences that presently specify the kinds organisms began as. Aristotle. means to one common end: survival in the struggle universal unique for existence. The alternative. under conditions of random heritable variation.2 Therefore. presently possess. emergentist (nonreductionist) theory. wisdom possessed and love of a wisdom that is needed but And has so seems that he does not yet understand. would be Aristotelian: we survive and reproduce using our distinctive brains well in thought. and remain. teleology. distinctive brains for the sake of surviving and reproducing in our local environment. not to mention the older tradition of emergent evolution that Imagine now a research program Arnhart nicely describes. in spite of all that about molecules. and action (Nicomachean Ethics 1139al9. somehow.

it is Strauss's claim: see quotation 7. We are thus brought to the of Arnhart' of the con of doorstep on which s account of Aristotle. and as Arnhart's own account of aversion (discussed mentarily) shows. while avoiding the extreme dualism (from Hobbes through Kant) that separates man from nature altogether. . In the first place. a Unfortunately. I believe science that Strauss's understanding of the problem of modem is not based on the status of premise 2 (Aristotle's cosmic teleology). thereby making ence' of man and society a understand Hassing's claim that radically malleable Darwinian theory artifact. 265). status the meaning of philosophy. This is problem 4 of "Darwinian Natural Right?" (and meaning) cluding paragraph of the fundamental issues Strauss impinges. the Strauss. is perfectly plained the one. must Arnhart does "not 'species differ deny and affirm 'species neutrality'" (p. (2) "the cosmic teleology that sustains human Taking his bearings by the Introduction to Natural Right and History. so crucial for Socrates. but rather on species-neutrality as the predominant characteristic of modern natural science. Arnhart right: purposefulness" then says that "Strauss thought Aristotle had the clearest view of this depen dence teleology" of natural right on natural physics of (p. as ex mo above. such that the refutation of Aristotle's teleological his teleology the heavens by classical mechanics infected this is a of the other parts of the cosmos. should thus distinctions between reductionism. and us look once again at Strauss on the problem of modern in right. have acquired very different the problem: look that at the human brain with which to survive and project their But (the last six words of the preceding sentence) is for Darwinian theory. and the subject the present reply. Arnhart believes that the refutation of universal reductionism by the far more plausible accounts of emer gence in several classes of natural phenomena suffices to solve the problem by securing the human specific difference. but appended eleven quotations misreading facilitated to "Darwinian Natural one by Strauss are Right?" a corrective to the impression gets by looking natural solely at the Introduction to Natural Right and History. The intended as of Strauss's real position. Darwin. common. as explained above.3 relation to classical natural According to Arnhart. Emergent naturalism. although of this antireduc- compatible with the species-neutrality incest end. In light of those statements. I believe misreading himself. 263). be clear that Darwinian theory is not spe different species cies-neutral with respect to means. which is indeed the key premise of classical natural This in turn poses our disputed question: is Darwin(ism) species right* neutral or not? I believe it is. 142-45). universal. It I have tried to explain the and species-neutrality. and Aristotle. Species neutrality denies premise 1. thus species-neutral end is survival and/or reproductive fitness. nature". 263). tionist. Let natural science philosophy (pp. emergentism. there are two fundamental premises of classical natural (1) "the uniqueness of human beings as set apart from the rest of animal (p.38 Interpretation perhaps forgotten. equipment genes. Plato.

Can Darwin(ism) happily grant that the stage with other principles. The confirms the right. 271). that the abhorrence of incest is not natural at all. this moral emotion has been expressed culturally [thus in human societies] as an incest taboo. and so. but purely based only on (p. or at Right?" least not of the human 1 of "Darwinian Natural and end product ples must share on the causal relation between generative process great princi (pp. 138-42). Why? Because we humans have condoms. but dis problem tinctively human. inbreeding animal tends to produce physical and mental deficiencies in the offspring [of all species] that lower their fitness in the Darwinian struggle [universal. . is accordingly the always in need moderating awareness to keep us from unlimited willful self-assertion (and prob this is problem 2 of "Darwinian Natural Right?" Baconian-Cartesian lem [pp. But it doesn't and are trained the all-too-familiar background of radical far enough. Arnhart' see s account of Politics 1324a25-25a5 for incest is not encouraging. against go This is not a trivial discovery. [And therefore] as a result natural specifically selection has fa vored the mental whom one sion to and disposition to feel an aversion to sexual mating . 145-51]. custom" response 271-75). with the polemical (and worthy) intention that in part motivates his work. then I grand wrong. 272) deposit Incest aversion is a neuropsychological and chemical placed within us by the hand of natural selection. In the Darwinian approach. but unavoidable attempts to unstable. in their use. (not the final cies-neutral origins forms) of look to the common. "the the ancient version). It is well worth relativ knowing. Against a radical ethical con ventionalism that denies to morality any natural support. especially ism. inclined [most] human beings to feel moral disapproval for incest. . with those with . says As Arnhart resoundingly on page 266 of Darwinian Natural Right. in is for conjectural. . but not of ends. 270). has been incest has this natural aver intimately associated from early childhood." result is "a good Darwinian explanation of incest avoidance that Socratic insight into the incest taboo as an expression of natural For "Plato [had left] it unclear . why this we sacred taboo arises in the spe first place" (p. for we would then have a synthesis. .Reply Am I mistaken to Arnhart 39 here? Do Darwin or Darwinism fitness offer grounds for qualifying random this conception of the end of variation and selection living things. not human] for existence. grounds are for saying that This is its two for reproductive the adequate principles of end? problem origin. Arnhart presents the valuable contributions of Edward Westermarck and of recent sociobiology (pp. (P. things. which atic. potentially tyrannical of make sense of a mysterious whole and of our place in it.5 But In keeping . that it is partial and not compre am hensive? If so. room of the biologically rooted. Now obviously. provisional. Arnhart opposes claim of Hobbesian philosophers [Freud a was a Hobbesian] learned . and a more natural which there science.

things" and the most shameful of shameful (838bl0-cl. incest is reported to be that it is "hateful to the gods.40 Interpretation unlike "[h]uman beings. set apart from the rest of animal nature? The biological rootedness of our humanity in the of and our kinship that with the other animals must indeed be recognized and researched. did not intend to rationalize away our horror. sufficient reason common opinion about the why we live with the incest taboo? In Plato's Laws."6 genetic risks of Arnhart. But." believe they any other animals. we are beings. If this is the just prevent real problem. and the sole problem. of and by itself. Do we now know. know why they live. of unnatural selection. or self-evolution. see this "Darwinian Natural show Right?. whether we like it "in-between" or not. Let us conclude the and discussion leaves incest with a look at where the Darwinian account. quoted by Arnhart. Similarly. course. the philosophy. case Although the incest taboo is human beings will not a cultural universal. unlike any other animals. but it same must not be forgotten that we are not members of our species way they are members of theirs. unlike any other animals. Thus." als will Now precisely because the taboo is universal. of by itself. according to the Darwinian scientific account. But. to incest is a minority preference. I they agree with Leon Kass that. cannot live unless they Thus we. away our "we say. the noble or the base. attraction majority preference. he thought . by trying of to explain the enormity of incest with arguments only about the inbreeding. incest. as long as they use provoke a deep disgust from others" contraception or of abortion. begin the process pp. are suspicious of those who think that can rationalize horror. I have right to condemn it in others. is there really anything wrong with their enjoyment the sort of sex to they happen to them.) Doesn't fact alone suffice to that. to prefer? As long as they assume the responsibil ity practice evolution-safe incest and don't produce offspring. it is the that "a few develop the aversion to incest that is normal for most people. have myths. through ge netic science. and science. us. "these deviant individu (p. Isn't this where the Darwinian account. with the conception or birth of any offspring resulting a condom. As long no as we make sure to have our without babies. have the power override or the hand of natural selection? (Some even claim that we can now. Each is but a part of one's sexual orientation. leaves us? Therefore. is there any against reason to condemn display our disgust publicly. simply a for the Darwinian reasons indicated. although it's not for me. it's lifestyle choice. and subject Aversion to incest is now to determination according to free (unconstrained) incest choice by indi a viduals." 145-47. through Darwinian science. 273). Won't this to solve the problem? Don't we. the real cause of incest aversion has nothing to do with the gods or the shameful. because my old aversion lingers on. It has to do only with the production of biological offspring unfit for further common to all organ reproduction "in the Darwinian struggle for existence" isms. p. religious beliefs. to discriminate them? The incest taboo should be reformed. 270). why not from incestuous interfere with intercourse? Use Get an abortion.

Reply
he
was

to

Arnhart

41

grounding it normatively in nature. But rationalizing away is Darwinian scientific account does by virtue of the peculiar and

what the modern

typically

(post-seventeenth-century)
pacities and operations.

type

of

For

since the

causality Darwinian

that it places behind the human ca
account

is species-neutral, it

that the real (as opposed to merely apparent) causes of my desires and aversions are common to other animal species, and not specifically human.
must conclude

What is
appear

distinctively depravity
I do
not

human is my incest

conscious apprehension of the objects that
and my choices, e.g., the per se dysgenic consequences. But those

to me to be the causes of my emotions
of

shameful

regardless of

objects are revealed
causes

by

Darwinian

science to

be

projections or side effects of

that

reproductive

consciously apprehend and fitness that is a goal common to

that aim per se
all

simply

at the

organisms,

an end

which,

unlike the noble and the relation

base,

elicits neither praise nor

to human virtue and vice
1177al414

blame, and has little (Nicomachean Ethics, 1103al0, 11 15bl2,
see that the apparent

1151M9,
of

17). Thus enlightened, I
the problem of

depravity

incest is only the "Darwinian Natural
(too

per accidens cause of
Right?"

my aversion. This is problem 3 of hidden-hand causation, even in the

things closest to us, our own passions and purposes (pp. 135-36).
ment

Next I

com

briefly)

on the work of

Leon Kass,
Kass
a

and then conclude on

the question

of cosmic

teleology.

It

seems to me

wrong to

call

Darwinian,

since

I do

not

believe he
sees

would agree

that the Darwinian

principles are comprehensive.

Kass

both

the common biological and the specifically human, and gives each its due (see especially The Ethics of Human Cloning, pp. 24-31). In viewing the biological roots of our humanity in light of the distinctively human, he corrects Darwin
and goes

beyond him. In his

conclusion of

The

Hungry Soul,
and

Kass

speaks of

our orientation to

"the beautiful, the good, the true,
excellent philosophical

the

holy"

(The

Hungry
The

Soul,

p.

231). In Kass's

writings, references to mystery
science as part of the truth.

are not uncommon. crucial question

Kass
could

can accept

Darwinian

is,

Darwinian

science accept

Kass?

I

conclude

by

returning to the

subject of cosmic or comprehensive

teleology,

or more sion that

correctly,

ultimate principles.

I have

conveyed

to Arnhart the impres
so that the order of was not

I think "natural

right requires a cosmic

teleology
met

the whole

universe supports

human

goodness"

(p. 269). This be

tion. Consider: could such a

requirement ever

by

human
this

reason?

my inten (See To

Strauss,
answer

quotation

5.)

Did Aristotle think that he had
read

met

requirement?

this question, we must
passages

the most beautiful

in the Aristotelian
kinds
of

Parts of Animals, 644b22-645a27, among corpus. There we learn that differ

ent classes of phenomena or certainty. about

being

are

known

with

different degrees

of

Specifically,
things.
of

we can have greater certainty about the biological than

the astronomical, although the astronomical beings are greater in rank

than the

living dignity

There is

a

tradeoff between the certainty of knowledge and
we

its

object.

It is true today that

live among

plants and animals

42

Interpretation

and are connatural to the whereas the stars

latter,

and thus can

know them

with

high certainty,
origin of

(on

whose spectacular processes we now
not

know the
mention

life depended) are too big to get into a laboratory, universe itself. Cosmology, whether philosophical or physical, is always conjec tural and uncertain, and I believe Aristotle understood his own to be so as well.
to

the whole

(See

also

Topics, 104bl

18,

on

the certainty of

arguments

the universe.)

My

point

in "Darwinian Natural

Right?"

for the eternity of was twofold: (1) The

questions about

the ultimate principles of the universe

what might

they be?
open-ended

and

their

possible relations
now

to conceptions of the human good
must

is

domination,
study.

through genetic science, our work?
of the

be kept

open

for

(2) Plato's Idea

Good,

the

noble or

beautiful, Artistotle's Intellect

exemplify necessary ence on praxis defensible
other.

attempts

to make theoretical life and its

against the claims of

moderating influ domination in one form or an is
a post-sec

(Regarding

natural

teleology,

remember

that the Republic
requires

ond-sailing
whole

work.)

This

premodern

intention

an

account

of
not

the the

unavoidably highest being.

conjectural and

less than

certain

in

which man

is

In his response, Arnhart (p.

quotes the passage

from "Darwinian Natural
of

Right?"

147) in

which

I

cite the

following

line from "The Profession
good man orders

Faith

of

the

Savoyard

Vicar"

in Rousseau's Emile: "the

himself in

relation

to the whole, and the wicked one orders the whole point, again,

in

relation to

himself."

My

is

much

is simply that a premodern understanding of this general type (there latitude) is part of defending the notion that we have ends prior to

whereby to limit our transcendent powers of domination (see also The Hungry Soul, p. 78). Tellingly, Arnhart ignores my concern about domination
choice

my reference to Descartes on the infinity of human will, and wonders in stead if I am perhaps employing esoteric writing by using Rousseau, a very modern thinker. No no esotericism is needed or intended here; I picked Rous
and seau's

formulation because it is
I have
a problem

concise and

beautiful.
account.

Finally,
is

in my

own

trans-Darwinian

If the

whole

mysterious

(Strauss,
in

quotation

6),

or even

incomplete,

how exactly

are we

to

order ourselves

relation to the whole?

I

conclude with another quotation

from Strauss,

who quotes

Thomas Aqui

nas, who paraphrases

Parts of Animals, 644b32-645al:

Philosophy
uine

is essentially not possession of the truth, but knowledge of a fundamental question, thorough

quest

for the
of

truth.

.

Gen

than blindness to
nied

it,

or
of

indifference to it, be that indifference
quod potest

understanding or blindness

it, is better
accompa

by

knowledge

the answers to a vast number of peripheral or ephemeral ques

tions

or not.

Minimum

haberi de

cognitione rerum

altissimarum, desid-

erabilius est quam certissima cognitio quae

habetur de

minimis rebus.

(Thomas

Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I,

q.

1,

5)7

a.

Reply
NOTES

to

Arnhart

43

1.

Larry Arnhart, "Defending
response

Darwinian Natural

Right,"

Interpretation, 27,
Right?"

no.

3

(Spring 2000):

263-77, in

Richard F Hassing, "Darwinian Natural Interpretation, 27, no. 2 (Winter 1999-2000): 129-60. For my comments on E. O. Wilson's Consilience (New York: Alfred
to

A. Knopf, 1998), 2. The
ed., Final

see

Academic Questions, 12,

no.

1 (Winter 1998-99): 6-8.

material

Causality
pp.

in the preceding two paragraphs is discussed in detail in Richard F. Hassing, in Nature and Human Affairs (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America
and

Press, 1997),

211-56.

3. Note that in Natural Right
right teachings (pp. 146 ff.); I 4. I discuss Strauss
Human Affairs,
pp.

History
over

Strauss distinguishes three types
differences in
order to simplify.

of classic natural

am

glossing

on natural science

in my Introduction to Final

Causality

in Nature

and

10-22.

Arnhart continues to focus solely on Strauss's Introduction (see also Natural Right, p. 166), concluding to the dualism that, in Arnhart's words, "rejects the comprehensive naturalism of the (p. 263). But Strauss premodern exponents of natural right such as Aristotle and Thomas
Aquinas"

spent

far

more

time with Plato and Socrates than with

Aristotle,

and

"Socrates

was so

far from
.
.

being
light

committed

to

a

specific

cosmology that his knowledge
truth,
of the whole.
whole"

was

knowledge

of

ignorance

.

knowledge

of the elusive character of the

Socrates, then,
6). The

viewed man

in the

of the mysterious character of

the

(Strauss,

quotation

account of

the Idea of

the Good in Plato's Republic is perfectly

compatible

with

Strauss's

statement.

I believe that the
of

Idea

of the

philosophic

Good is conjectural, uncertain, problematic, but necessary for the self-consistency life. See the concluding paragraph of this reply.
poses

5. Leon Kass

the problem with greater equanimity in The
p.

Hungry

Soul (Chicago: The
openness

University
(in the

of

Chicago Press, 1999),
of

78: "Can

we

successfully

guide our

indeterminate

realm

action)
also

awareness)?"

See

by some of the discoveries of our receptive openness (in the realm of Hungry Soul, p. 196. The awful fact of Nazism (see Arnhart on Heidegger,
have
a problem that no other species

p.

277)

shows that we

has.

6. Leon R. Kass

and

James Q. Wilson, The Ethics of Human

Cloning (Washington,
p.

DC: The

American Enterprise Institute

Press, 1998), pp. 18-19. 7. What is Political Philosophy? (Glencoe, IL: The Free Press, 1959),

11.

.

unless profess or renounce this or that religious depriving him injuriously those privileges and advantages to which. 28. any more than as un in physics or geometry. No. that it tends also INTERPRETATION. of course. Abraham Lincoln Professor Lowenthal fails to state understand that the separation of church and is not the same as the separation of religion and politics. Constitutional of or public The Framers knew ian disputes minority nize that no constitutional government was possible as long as sectar animated political government requires that the acquiesce in the decisions of the majority in the sense that they recog is in the legitimacy rule on majority majority rule." and state. or any man. that therefore the proscribing any citizen worthy fices of trust opinion. in to corrupt common with his fellow citizens.Reply to Lowenthal Edward J. and that those who did so braved the arm of Jehovah that when a nation thus dared the friend of that Almighty every nation had cause to dread His wrath. Vol. This is a point that is made by a Tocqueville in the and one that was thoroughly must understood by the Founders. Jefferson argued Freedom. But no religious minority sectarian issues. The recognition of the rights for will ever accept of conscience thus a precondition of constitutional government because it establishes the basis for the the political his "A Bill for friendship that is necessary Establishing Religious Constitution. 1 . Thomas Jefferson [Jefferson] supposed there was a question of God's eternal justice wrapped up in the enslaving of any race of men. is the public confidence by laying he of upon him an incapacity of being called to of and emolument. Fall 2000. but it the of their political institutions. Erler California State University. he has a natural right." The principal task of the Founders. In first famous passage. And the be no "religious as a understanding of separation "Qualification to any Office life. rule was to create constitutional government and secure the conditions of for the law." penned some ten years before drafting of the that our civil rights have no dependence our opinions on our religious opinions. They believed that this Founders' Test" could not be done without a separation of church was that there should Trust. citizenship. San Bernardino Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God. Tocqueville part wrote that "[r]eligion in America be regarded as takes no direct government of society.

I should have cited similar arguments from the Founders. never between indicating that they believed there was any inherent Christianity and republican government based on the In some philosophic principles of natural right. and they fulfilled their task admirably. however. Lowenthal. Lock" for more than a half century. notably for relying the rationalism" Declaration." unity of Christianity teaches the equality and but it certainly was not a question in the minds of the colo nial ministers. Here. verse. it had already been of solved on the political level would have been Agitation this question could have threatened moral consensus that and supported both the Revolution the Constitution. between the morality of the Decla biblical morality. religion were Religion and the mo the job of the preachers. One outstanding example should suffice: In 1780 the Reverend Samuel Cooper remarked in a widely circulated sermon. externally with a mo profess and nopoly of worldly honours and emoluments. and the public was suffused with the notion of the engaged in a compatibility of true religion and right reason. but on the the debate never level of morality. as Lowenthal does. those conform to it. (emphasis original) who will This statement was ones fully accepted by the Christian ministers or at least the "Lockeanized" who believed that the separation of church and state was was a no less a dictate of New Testament theology than it dictate of reason and natural right." It may be question in Lowenthal's "mind mankind. as could may be not. Protestant ministers had been basing their sermons on "the great Mr. sense. undermined the basis for moral on ity that republican government requires. that . The Founders were regime debate. the agreement of Christianity" and the doctrine of natural rights could not have been more complete. It already was unnecessary for the public opinion was Founders to convince those who were convinced: virtually rality derived from contradiction unanimous on the question of political morality." Lowenthal thus refuses to understand the Ameri cans of founding generation as they understood themselves. rather. But incompatible. Professor Lowenthal is cepted ity" correct when of he argues that the was a Christianity of that ac "a rational philosophy human rights" "Lockeanized Christian 1776 could and that without this transformation "the Americans of [not] a have accepted a document like the Declaration whether Independence. the doctrines of the Decla reached ration and those of revelation that it surely "Lockeanized level. by bribing. Lowenthal chides me ministers Christian "writing at about the time of the Declaration" who saw no ration and necessary contradiction.46 Interpretation the principles of the very religion it is meant to encourage. Professor Lowenthal "Enlightenment argues that the principles of of the the Founding. and reason and revelation occupied the same moral uni claims that this agreement was insufficient and that neither side saw the potentially corrosive effects of the Declaration's reliance on "reason the philosophy. For them to have opened the theological-political question when unwise.

man and the universe." Moreover. never phrase "sacred I believe that John Quincy Adams came to the heart of the matter than Lowenthal when. and of binding upon men. and that upon they come from him "who hath whose part of blood all nations to dwell the face of the of earth. is by the laws of nature and of nature's God. both in documents and private letters. in his introduction Adams explicitly argued that of to the Memoirs of Reverend Elijah the Declaration was the Lovejoy (1838) logical conclusion of the "progressive advancement the "Christian system of morals" which included the idea that "life. No in the founding generation thought that rights were incompatible with stood cal. a satisfaction to observe such everlasting maxims equity confirmed in the sacred oracles. and of course presupposes the existence of a God. one internal mark of their divine origi made of one nal. are legion. and the idea that the protection of individual rights was in tension with the existence of the common good was never expressed by the Founders. however." instead oppressing any the oppressor. moral obligations. however. notes. of just and unjust. and a rule of right and wrong. The Declaration wise provided a foundation for one obligations that might have other been lacking of in Christianity. and punish This is. . rights were always under in terms the laws of nature where rights and obligations were recipro This reciprocity is certainly the basis of the social contract. preceding all institutions of human society government. among rights. the Declaration "makes ("all no mention of the advent of sin and the "Creator. he the principles of the Declaration in the fol lowing terms: "All this." a host of colonial ministers. this is the way the colonial I believe the Founders.. The idiosyncratic view of rights was the product of the Progressive "re- . I challenge Professor Lowenthal to find one statement to this effect.Reply We want to us Lowenthal 47 not. It is. The not Declaration appeals to an eternal order and an economy of nature that is." man. sanctifies only those governments that and restrain vindicate the oppressed. The Declaration the Bible share the same assumptions about God.") and "Divine of Providence. the theology fall of of Protestant Christianity. .. Whatever minds of a more sophisticated structure and may conclude. in his Jubilee of the elaborated Constitution (1839). then certainly compatible with monotheistic religion. public State ments to the contrary." a creation men are created equal God" . Madison. authority his family. understood the issue. indeed. Wilson tired of the closer Washington. if identical.. As Lowenthal Christ and in no way depends on But the Declaration does mention a . None of the Founders viewed rights as idiosyncratic preferences divorced from duty or moral obliga tion." The reference to "Nature's was a way of speaking God that would and appeal to all religions certainly all monotheistic religions. and Jefferson. ministers. of course. rights of all liberty and mankind the pursuit of happiness were inextinguishable (emphasis original). a special revelation from heaven to teach that men are born equal and of free. the moral ruler of the universe. Hamilton..

Americans are "one by virtue of the people" People. But "organic vigilance" while "manly not was required to guard against was dangers to the law. principle of or "fated. the most ancient and the most history. ahistorical sense of American After all. Equality was not a principle of natural right but a fated fact." I do believe the Founders thought there equality rightly understood which made It almost goes without saying that the founders in any way historicists. That all regimes face dangers. the Founders readily admitted.) The Declaration. and they recognized that republics faced unique dangers that required peculiar vigi lance. as a statement of natural was superfluous. But the Founders viewed equality of as a regime principle product of a statement of natural right not a fated fact or the mere history. equality is opposed to liberty." Lowenthal equality must seems to endorse the idea that a regime based on natural a human egali- inevitably degenerate into headlong slide into permissive tarianism. saw as but it is not any part of the "rational liberty" which the Founders the product of social contract.48 Interpretation that Lowenthal founding" justly decries." This is somewhat ingenious the argument but fails on Tocquevillian right. and politics was always subordinate to the mores of the people. grounds." anything in the its degredation inevitable were not Lowenthal the praises what he describes as "Tocqueville's attempt . Toc found it irrelevant and undoubtedly must have been surprised by the those who insisted that it was the principled foundation of social politics. The decision for equality most and democracy had been decided permanent by history: "it is the that is to be uniform. Tocqueville taught that forces produced poli tics.. Tocqueville demonstrated great foresight about many American . It is the modern followers into a of Tocqueville who see equality and of rights as necessarily demanded degenerating by demand for equality the of results. for example. Equality as a regime principle is defensible on the grounds of Founders." has nothing to Regime questions had been were irrelevant for Tocqueville because the triumph the of democracy decided by deliberately queville impersonal albeit providential forces of history.. not was uninterested Americans. no this defense is original-intent jurisprudence. to conceal Declaration" because it a was a "document of the philosophical Enlighten ment. fact that they are "the good 1835. Tocqueville in understanding the American Founders as they understood themselves because his principal audience was the French aristocracy. When viewed as a sociological fact rather than a principle of natural rights right. Rather than concealing the Declaration because of its destructive influence." the people both in their moral capacity ("one people"). (See Madi son's Essay "On Sovereignty. Tocqueville's aspects of is surely to abandon original-intent jurisprudence. In Tocqueville's view Declaration. speaks of capacity ("the good People") and their political Indeed." tendency and found in do It is the result of a "providential march" with natural right or with "the principles of human nature. There is To accept defense analysis of regime principles on Tocquevillian grounds.

The Civil War is more revealing anything a ground America's soul than chronicled a by Tocqueville. The kind of value relativism eroded revelation promoted by the Holmes-Brandeis school of jurisprudence has no the principles of the Declaration less than "liberation These religions no theology" has weakened America's main stream religions. Lincoln's "politi religion" cal was fully anticipated by Jefferson. nature and natural means a revolution of fortune.Reply politics. an exchange of supernatural situation. at without the been possible. regarded for morality that was otherwise missing? Jefferson as "the most distinguished politician of history. that is. Who can fail to hear the echoes of this powerful statement in Lincoln's Second Inaugural? It may be true that Lincoln had greater need of such rhetoric but it would be difficult to deny that his direct source was Jefferson. Both the Declaration and mainstream forces of in have suffered under the onslaught of the historicism and positivism. cannot sleep for the considering numbers. longer exhibit the manly spiritedness that . I believe Lowenthal fails to the appreciate one fact of American politics: That decline in the belief in the hand in hand with the principles of the Declaration of Independence has that a restoration of the princi of religion religions gone decline of religion ples of the Declaration both public and private is necessary for a restoration of the role life." Are we to understand Lincoln literally? Did Lincoln Or did he understand understand as the work Jefferson's Declaration "politician" as mere rationalism? it of a in the that widest sense of the term? call I believe an argument could and easily be rhetoric made Lincoln's for a "political religion" his powerful on in the Second Inaugural were anticipated by Jefferson in the Notes source of State of Virginia. Lincoln certainly recognized that the rhetoric of redemption came directly from Jefferson: the his own And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis. about least not Declaration the Civil War would not have in the form it took. whether the Declaration was to remain the "sheet anchor" of American republicanism. to Lowenthal 49 particularly the centralizing tendencies of the administrative state. He But he thought it would take the form of slave rebel lions against masters. is among possible events: that it may be come probable by interference! The Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a contest. even predicted civil war. Clearly. Tocqueville could not have predicted that in America a civil war would be fought among the master class over the morality of slavery. These forces of as supports modernity have succeeded in undermining both reason and for moral and political life. religion" Did Lincoln tion and add a religious element provide "political to the Declara thereby of Lincoln. a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are of the gift of God? That they are not to be violated but with his wrath? Indeed I trem ble for my country ever: that wheel of when I reflect that God is just: that his justice only. our course.

thus exhibiting what Strauss called an natural "unmanly contempt for politics. and in the Aristotle's that natural right is a part of right. subordinate political right to right. The defense spirit of of constitutional government must always contention be undertaken political right." Lowenthal certainly does not make that mistake. Mere intellectuals. Leo Strauss once wrote that "wisdom requires constitutionalism" constitution and even to the cause of and unhesitating loyalty to a decent (Liberalism: Ancient Modern. on the other hand. in full recognition of the comprehensiveness of political This is certainly the spirit that animated the statesmanship of Jefferson Lincoln. 24). that is. p. foundly . but I continue to believe that the Founders understood the theological-political problem more pro than he is willing to admit.50 Interpretation forth in support of the the colonial ministers summoned Declaration of Indepen dence.

If one trusted in Providence and chose to de-emphasize the dangers of irrational ism that sometimes postmodern quarters. proved not so the emergence and development of modern thought represent a dreadful decline and cataclysmic loss. From the fore although rule this conclusion. Hillel Fradkin. evidently wished to destroy the infamy root and branch. Karen C.12 The main current of modern political thought might be very altogether misleadingly described. spective of a more postmodernity. No. replaces Nietzschean and Marxist best programmatic hostility with tolerant incredulity lurk in at worst and at with openness and receptivity. as follows: from the more-or-less skepticism (combined with profound respect for the enormous potential political utility of religion) of Niccolo Machiavelli. 28. nevertheless is held in distinct and clear view and can in the life of the wise. End of and the Philosophy J. too. a movement with a view to roughly but not its relationship to religious concealed. Lacking postmodern thought. But the infamy easy to eliminate on the one side. John Milton and Soren Kierke in the eyes of the person of faith. but rather to say that all things are joined to false things can and that these so resemble each other that no mark of identification going not be certain purposes of judgment and agreement. Hagner. gratitude Paul R. Heinrich Meier. Cicero De natura deorum 1. Armour remarks on a previous and Marcus Brainard earned sincere for their thoughtful draft. and Baruch Spinoza to the open animosity of Karl Marx and Friedrich Nietzsche. Francis Bacon. Harvey Lomax University of Memphis To be true sure I am not disposed to for see nothing as true. Fall 2000.Carl Schmitt. Warm Professorship in the Philosophy Department of the University of Heidelberg Bradley Foundation and the University of Memphis generously aided thanks are due to those institutions and particularly to Professors Hans-Georg from the and Gadamer. and on the other the so-called end of philosophy marked the transition from modernity to its upstart successor. it is perceived. one might even view key ele- A Visiting Research and research grants this project. interpretation. results: much is credible or probable that. Thomas Hobbes. Vol. ground for antagonism toward religion. unsympathetic faith. . If we should leave aside for the moment the various exceptions one could take to this sweeping who characterization of gaard modernity spring to mind we might observe that among others. seen any principled from a per faith.

Truth?." What is "IV. the ultimate . the and the conclusive proof that throughout his life Schmitt's political theory remained first foremost a political declares: "To be sure." The chapter or titles follow: "I. In the third chapter of that the paradox of the full title."2 (forgive me) a religion. Morality. through his chosen king. to the pathbreaking Carl " Schmitt. political recalls theology and political philosophy.3 controversial is the sequel and und lengthier "Der companion volume German jurist. Four Chapters the treatise Schmitt unriddles [Lehre] of Sovereignty.4 Begriff des Politischen. . nay.6 of God alone." as a "II. 'idea' primarily a doctrine or After the 1991 a morals or even publication of event. the royal laws state. the actor who the laws in time of dire emergency (p. or and Political Philosophy. "Four Chapters on the Distinction between Political to Theology tion. "All pregnant concepts of modern political science are secularized and jurisprudence [Staatslehre] in terms who concept theological fends this generalization not only on the basis of the historical development of these concepts but also of their systematic structure (Politische Theosovereignty? logie. or the Epimetheus.volume interpretation insight of Schmitt. it is a historical Schmitt's Glossarium. p. Revela Christian Who Is Not in the with Me Is Against and History. irrefragable apart verification. the atheism of philosophers (967c-d). merits sustained atten tion. The Lesson of Carl Schmitt. God alone. has the capacity miraculously to suspend the laws of nature. For me Christianity is not . Leo Strauss date. Schmitt looks back to the ostensibly naive age when Rene Descartes could write Mersennes that God established the laws of nature and. more the "distinction" so a delicately spoken of subtitle of turns out to be precisely contest. Carl Schmitt. an epochal if not eternal battle the giants.52 Interpretation history's ironic cure ments of postmodernism as non for that scandalous phenome decried by the poets in Plato's Laws." As the chapter titles already hint. the ultimate sovereign of the universe. For example. Me. subtitled The subtitle on inevitably Doctrine Schmitt's Political Theology. and now largely regarded as in Europe. did portray the unfolding of modem thought as a dreadful decline and cataclysmic loss. I have Schmitt theology. 13). based in faith in divine not changed. namely why a jurispruden require tial topic like sovereignty should rubric of political investigation under the disconcerting He de theology." "III. or One's Own Question Figure. which is not an my the Son of God. it became virtually impossible Quite which intelligently from the to resist a scholarly thesis buttressed by such manifest. Intellectual historians owe to Heinrich Meier's authoritative two. both for the principal issues and for their treatment. as Meier's main work The subtitle reads. to suspend holds We recognize as sovereign whoever makes the ultimate has the power decisions in the life-and-death crisis. significant and increasingly recognized around the world as one of the most influential political theorists of the twentieth century. My freedom regarding ideas is unlim contact with revelati ited because I a remain in historical event: the incarnation of but center. original. 51). Politics.

. "there is 'wooden no such thing as a Christian philosophy. 50 and more generally 49-57). If Meier appears reluctant to raise analysis of and doubt thought a cudgel in defense cal of of modernity. he nevertheless accepts Schmitt's rule of implicit. contrary to Georg W. He confronts ogy and political articulating Schmitt that philosophy. Without God. pp. Meier's exam loses sight of the question of tyranny and its alternative. that is iron. No pp.' simply Kierkgaard's Either-Or But there is derives in also no phenomenological theology reputation no small part from his recognition of this and of a his endorsement of a simultaneously self-aware and self-forget ting leap preserves faith beyond reason. F. This concluding on the assertion echoes the spirit of Kierkegaard. healthy distance (for instance CSLS. p. 66- 121). Schmitt pp. legem (Authority. let us cast a glance sentence of the book. Despite the insobriety of his extremism (not to speak of dark shadows on his character and his actions during the Third Reich). pp. and subject to the naked will. pp. sovereignty entails a radical challenge to modern politics that has to be taken seriously. force us moral-political . of a funda mental. Hegel's system amounts to rank atheism. There is no middle ground between authority and philosophy. grasped that underneath the sometimes lation can occur except at the expense of one or the other. Schmitt's devils. With the Four Chapters Political of Theology so ination Schmitt never conspicuously included in the landscape. inter alia. Lesson. still more radi challenge. does Meier forget the central query final (p. sovereign of and the End of Philosophy 53 the human race. Schmitt misleading theological language. like Schmitt Kierkegaard. Lesson. project Herculean one to fuse the truths of religion and the truths of philosophy Schmitt. Hegel's in the mendacious end teaching the modern state at as the embodiment of reason human beings find themselves the mercy. logie. 2 makes Nor. even if humanity's God. for Hegel puts humanity. 146 and CFLS. Between no truth. Lesson. between to ask whether our political theol obliterate would Yet Meier's study does. who in Either-Or insisted right and wrong. provides the divine right of kings to legislate or legitimately and to act lawlessly. and by a distinction.. Autoritas p. of tyrants (Politische Theologie. in other words notwithstanding on all superficial rhetoric of progressives about the popular will or the general will. As Martin Heidegger notion . 124). Ibid. pp. into the place of synthesis of reason and reve putative 14-15). contrast.Schmitt. as the subtitle of chapter clear. 64-65. the 66. (Politische Theo only representative be Hegel himself. non Veritas facit pp. lines Schmitt implies that these earthly not tyrants resemble fitting tormenters for those who seek paradise in the realm of the flesh. cf. inevitability Hegel. namely to the human reason itself.7 into body of absolute knowledge so offended Carl Like Kierkegaard. by 81-96. Meier. makes the law. 112. Inter auctoritatem et philosophiam nihil est at the medium 173. expresses a it.9 Schmitt readily concurs. 60- 66). guiding choice between Of course Kierkegaard's inten whose tion becomes intelligible only in the light of. Meier. what is truth? Before adverting to each chapter in turn. that Schmitt could raise against real and potential tyrants.

Meier the age self- all Schmitt's major writings. miracles. MORALITY Behold. or New York. . an astute and deft analysis or a purpos ive organization is able to remedy the incommodity. . Right had become might. The achievement of vast. in Berlin. Above all. which strange. . . and grace. They wanted heaven on earth. characterized as the capitalistic. . They understand . as the age of transport. are in everything enthusiastic about nothing. from the general preoccupation with means and calculation.54 Interpretation the predicament necessitates forsaking or transcending of mere faith in reason. Theodor Daubler/Heinrich Meier. should . and animates principal endeavors throughout years. p." They . . a heaven that is really supposed to be here on earth. the enemy that lives within you strives to kill Christ. of technology. Schmitt's shows. 1 Moral outrage. relativistic age. business that annihilates the . taste. the most important had already been secularized. mystery. heaven as the result of trade and industry. mechanistic. thing. and club chairs. a heaven in love not which the holy book would be the timetable. 2. meaning. the the means over the end. their scholars register in history. Paris. A general substitution and forgery of values . other and invites us to ponder our central concern in this essay how anything than faith can lie at the bottom of philosophy or political philosophy. business universal such the superbly of functioning feel his means to some pathetic or senseless end. material wealth. in men's own souls every Wherever something does not go completely smoothly. the wretched multitude . It bubbles boils. beauty. truth. they had "made" so much that was "make" the tower of an generally acknowledged correctness. or organization. automobiles. why they things earthly heaven? After all. good ganization. was Men in have become terested poor devils. fulfillment. loyalty. calculability. figure. to Hieronymus. contemporary life is characterized by its god- . a heaven with swimming facilities. which reduces everything to a berance formula of its consciousness and admits of no mysteries and no exu of the soul. emotion. age What in arouses Schmitt's indignation? With revulsion he describes the very which he and we live. . [Usefulness was and harmfulness took the place of horrific. a pacifist dominated their souls. "business" does seem to be its trademark. prove themselves to be children of this spirit. as Indeed. and lacks greatness. individual that priority he does not even arose nullification. . Christianity. or . in sometimes unadorned but his more often cloaked. Lesson. Even the poor of this age. Fourteenth Letter The enemy is our own question as a Heliodorus. in nature." The confounding The modem world magic. "they know everything and . good and evil. They did not want a God of astonishing. and believe nothing.

Schmitt's indignation derives from this to defend the seriousness of single origin.12 Mikhail Bakunin.Schmitt. "his the moral (ibid. to with respect to which all "only the certainty of a power that radically surpasses every human capacity for arbitrariness: control can guarantee the moral emphasis which who own resolution puts an end the certainty of the God accordance with demands obedience. Meier. for instance as the promoter of peace and security. one faith grounded in selfin the reality of God.). longs for a world in which the Either-Or is everlastingly inscribed. God" surprising Bakunin crafted the Schmitt's the term as an armament one under the banner of Satan. Of course.14 adroitly "political theol clashes with another arrogation. 7-9).'5 Schmitt. law" rules absolutely. the human against embodiment of faithlessness and and rebellion God. Schmitt steals the weapon and it ogy" in the cal. between "two irreconcilable armies. hierarchy. indignation defends and pre no longer just an emotion but a sacrosanct obligation and a signature of good character. And the polemic against Satanic unbelief serves the heart of reality (ibid. as his dangerous enemy. reality that reality that he. moral Moral man. politi intellectual battleground is ineluctably one of One creed always against the context of faith. 11). Considering that the battle between a in good and evil translates into the cosmic struggle between God and ever. His need aims at a a him completely that he is unable to comprehend. 4). in his need for absolute validity. Modernity's progres produces himself is an insurrectionist. He uses the expression Bakunin's war to suggest that the eventual moral. most Satan. security for undis with the doings dealings. a Promethean attempts to "New who arrogantly dethrone the Almighty God of the Bible (P- 5). security from increase and divine turbed and human and encroachment upon existence. bourgeois life. earthly paradise. how Bakunin. ruin" security goes to can "Only a certainty fulfill Schmitt's longing. security from any interference enjoyment of his possessions. For the Devil poses his worst threat in of dastardly dis guises. lessness. "security for his private life and limb. filled . the other life-and-death struggle. Seduced by the promise of security." the bourgeois closes his heart to divine revelation (pp. in which the fundamental good and evil will no "New Man God" who longer have any role (p. and judges in decision" his (p. the other under the sign of wields (p. too. Schmitt understandably does not regard his overt rival. if defending becomes the seriousness of moral choice is itself a moral duty. and camp of its maker.). functions opposed as 13 to all order. 9-10). albeit a dramatically differ human from the bourgeois. has ent one a deep-seated need for security. the whether human or revolutionary divine. 8). source of authority con cept of political in the war theology (pp. for a reality in which the conflict of ulti is mate opposites grasps irrevocably and anchored for man. The Providence between sive and the End of Philosophy 55 willful planning of hubristic human beings aims to replace divine choice with a secure.

. Humility 19 admixture of humility. the all that and concealed of sin. 11-12) In as order to examine Schmitt's on political possible. sublime enjoyment of art and the in limitless subjectivism. So as not to turn hubris. and the human grace of virtue from the or perhaps even the. between. 16). in beautiful. pride forget that all good things derive solely is thus a. 18). nied as the indissoluble interconnection . 84-88. Without humility.56 Interpretation with emotion. consists upon the of original (pp. cardinal Martin Luther. He shares Nietzsche's insight that if order." their metaphysical framework Christian morals would eventually the political. into links inextricably with. The original sin in ment rather impudent desire to live according to his own reason and judg than to obey God (pp. 12-13. aston ishingly. 14. matters is the sublime source score from which the tragic reality descends. guilt. for Schmitt doctrine man's depends. The to an optimal that demand 18 obedience acts as the mother and guardian of all the virtues moral virtues do not offer. can approach and that can fill him with holy reverence. To the political theologian (pp. faith hope (pp. 81). who calls humility "the supreme (p. 17-18). Certainly forces of the Christian must summon courage to wage perilous wars against the of evil and a fortiori to avoid paralysis in the face of the coming or Day Judgment. moral need. the mysteries it poses can only under its sublimity. Yet in contrast to the courage of Nietzsche. he can thus treat genuine the political theologian as the quintessential moral human sume that everyone passionately interested in morality being. and salvation. "all social sin collapse.17 Moreover. and original sin especially the philosopher. will courage needs a swell. cites Christian (Matthew 18:4). punishment. Moral man longs for tragedy. all forget or deny and try to evade the Either-Or of the grave moral decision between (pp. 14. agents. II)?16 Schmitt's fight deprived against the entombment of God remains inseparable from his struggle to preserve of Christian morality. good and evil obedience can For contemplating is not obeying. in contemplation. theology as fairly and penetratingly Remarkably. and Heidegger. 19). 16-17). and he conceives of the world of in its image as fate and dispensa meaning. as in Plato and Aristotle. the aestheticist. humility holds the crucial position in Schmitt's God heavy being will (p. fitting means human condition. mysteriousness is as a rule de to the For the (Pp. Unraveling however.20 Meier virtue" "virtue" . but impose instead meek obedience absolute commandments (p. tion. Proverbs 3 :4-6). Luther goes on to disclose a potentially unsettling paradox that inheres in humility: "man never knows less about humility/ than when he is properly humble Proper humility never knows that it is humble/ for whenever it were to know it/ so would it become arrogant by viewing the 21 same beautiful virtue Can a that excludes self-knowledge be truly virtuous? Whatever the answer. the courage of the political theologian stands and Plato. judgment.15). and only through human beings find their salvation. The romantic. Meier focuses its pristine core. But why as fervently longs for revelation (p.

the the gravest threat dangerous it becomes (p. would first have to of the world conquer . Concentrating his attention on Carl Schmitt's theological politics . The expressed Christian has what a duty humbly natural to comply with God's will as in history. 21). The commandment to act in history binds only obey with courage. taken at traditional norms and satisfies face value. as the conqueror of all enmity. POLITICS You ous. In this way Schmitt "discovers" duty (ibid. and therefore no longer between Christ his own Antichrist" and (p. Those who "mankind" to deceive us. 23). Meier. Glossarium. to be sure. 25). true the 22-23). for ultimately we make our historical choices blindly in struggling to answer each individual's unique call (pp. moral with all his strength. few of the conventional disciplinary expectations. 24-25).e. that war and politics defini tively belong to the past. attitude and the End of Philosophy 57 toward history. . 19-20)." more moral its convictions. enmity will be seri The Lord . and we can Schmitt's speak of name of moral-political wish stance is explicitly antihumanitarian. call their enemies the enemies of the human race. 20-21). us unconditionally. and conse quently take their warfare to inhuman extremes. The religion. They engage in an imperialism in the humanity. the world. totam furibunda per raged through the whole city. 218 The first and best of all victories is the victory of oneself over oneself. the what political theologian can the Satanic for could it is.Schmitt. Then. the more this false religion appeals to Christian more "values. will try to exterminate you. Plato Laws 626e Meier's defies the treatment of politics and of political philosophy. with tooth and nail (see assurgit Jeremiah 14:13-16. hope. Here Schmitt aims his animos ity not only at Marxism and the French Revolution but at all political actors who try to subvert God's rule more by absolutizing mankind in a new faith (pp. theologian therefore has a moral obligation to unmask and destroy the pretender. This Satanic cloaked political force poses in disguise. But how? expose By this Antichrist his enemy.): to defend the Thus the fire political historical calling and his sacred. The in amity or even brotherly making love. But God wills through history eludes all reason and all human foresight (pp. "The Antichrist establish lastingly promise of peace and only if he succeeded in convincing men that the security has become reality. Luke 12:51-52). the true foe his rule of both God and man (pp. p. the new pseudoreligion of humanitarianism resembles and i. and above all humility. Sic flamma urbem. Carl Schmitt. No law can inform us about the counsel of divine Providence (p. that men no longer need to distinguish between friend and enemy.

domain. on p. Meier seems the willfully to ignore rule? most of long-acknowledged." Now to this seemingly informed. Far from according with its separate domains. "Ironia est. the economic domain. Thus the concept protects the politi cal as having its own autonomous domain (pp. not private ones. As Meier points out. we have to wonder why he knowingly breaks Does Meier of still wish away from the beaten path. autonomous domain. Meier painstakingly edition of traces the metamorphoses of concept of the political through the three editions of the book with proffers In the first Concept. to shift our priority? attention away from subtitle of put the standard issues to an inquiry higher Perhaps the the chapter on politics identifies that query as the one Pontius Pilate to Jesus of Nazareth shortly before the Crucifixion: What is truth? (John 18:38). Meier indicates in all seriousness that Schmitt's most profound contri bution may lie in his (ibid. The treme degree of with a relativism of a the political has separation" now become "the most ex intensity bond or "liberal philosophy culture" of (p. arms. where. and how. The enemy a potential group of human beings The enemy edition. vital questions. Now one can reach the essence of of a political from any domain. of conception of the political as essentially self-knowledge the foregoing. Yet this question of truth could appear extremely abstract and unpolitical.58 and Interpretation in particular on the difference between friend and enemy. . who gets what. 27). Who should What is the best regime? What is justice? What powers and prerogatives can the governors legitimately exercise. politi that. and in the task of rightly distinguishing between friend enemy" and (cited 26). the moral good and ugly defines the aesthetic domain. He denies that the only one. and power. and the task spoken of requires self-definition and thus self-knowledge. lost. Mindful Schmitt's that title. In the second though. It revolves around not truth but "effectual affairs truths. and between profitable and unprofit comprises a able. when.)."22 If you want to speak of truth. The friend-enemy distinction defines the and political as the distinction between beautiful evil. the specified behavior presumes knowledge of enmity. worldly view of political plains the political as of a offers a salutary corrective. Notwithstanding dash of irony. as a unit. Schmitt the distinction between domain friend just and enemy as a simple criterion to delineate and preserve the independent domain between of politics. poses an objective threat of physical killing. Schmitt's for public enemies only. Martin Lu ther's brief elucidation of Pilate's quizzical retort to Jesus reads. and what rights and liberties should remain in the hands of the people? with the great thinkers of Duly noting Meier's demonstrated intimacy the ages. "The edge political seems not but in a precise sense only to be based to be on knowledge and to promote knowl a knowledge" (p. 27-29). you are Politics concerns money. For Schmitt ex "in a behavior determined by the real possibility consisting war. in the clear knowledge of one's situation that is determined in this Schmitt's political theology way. 29). presents concept allows threat in battle to another such totality. Schmitt cal occupies drastically alters the original concept.

And national and the End of Philosophy political 59 human life." harnessing wholly. the political now includes civil as well as foreign wars. rhetorically "It grasps men A good touchstone of the political character of a practice of lies in the the oath. Continuing along this line in the third and final to edition. the political stems from the agonal actor's ignorance his acutely For the dispute over the meaning of war is part and parcel of the struggle for . tales warrior's of sound and a fury destined to end in self-ruin. In particular. the killing. 35-36).23 political theology It Released from all natural standards. "But thereby the decisive step is taken to reveal that the political is the total for an interpretation. The decision decision" to who my friends and enemies shall be constitutes "the absolute my own life (p. 34). crusades. anywhere" is able to penetrate emerges as political a power that can break into whole man everything life because it evil. the true sense of which community therefore consists in man's commit changes ting himself tude differs wholly" (quoted at ibid. the most extreme confronts him with the greatest and compels as him to identification" make (p. cf. The dire emergency makes the political about emergency" the individual (pp. p. whereas the political self-understand dedication to higher cause can result in the deepest ing and personal fulfillment. 29-34).. and religious perse have every claim to the designation (p. not suffice for the political after all (pp. kept free and every to be substantial classification. The in the second and third editions of Concept agonal. culminate in the disclosure that the political atti from the The soldier who sees war as a mere contest par takes of the agonal attitude. the political present everywhere. in contrast. Schmitt exclaims. 39-49). as a necessary means higher ends of dominion. religious groups cutions qualify as political actors. anytime and (p. objective threat of physical not of the political. Meier the at once the basis of Schmitt's political theology The and prepares ground for a signal redefinition of political inferiority of of the agonal to political role. as Schmitt has it in mind and 'ontological-existential' as of his requires. The is authorita only the alliances and enmities of nations in inter relations. The sion of agonal actor and wholeheartedly affirms war as the natural expres theolo to the coming to be passing war as The political actor or political gian.Schmitt. 37-38). and holy wars. To the political thinker. does away. 35). meaningless hos tilities. 113). One political not far from involving finds the only between potentially hostile peoples but wherever two individuals join forces against an enemy (pp. By crystallizing the superiority articulates of the political to the agonal. order. Schmitt holds every grouping "determined by the dire authoritative for association be political. Schmitt's new "political" focus on the degree of intensity of an association or dissociation severs the connection of the political to the community and allows the concept to float freely. Napoleon's horse to a very un-Napoleonic carriage. Meier. and peace (pp. the political can encompass all regions of tive. 33). the agonal fighter mindlessly traps and loses himself in brutal. regards a divine trial. The "grasps the faces him with his most important decision. "Politics is destiny. So the life-and-death battle. 32).

while the latter trusts and unpolitical on the other. 43).). and peace. "oriented toward the possibility of the life-and-death bat One urgently requires both self-knowledge and the capacity to distinguish rightly between friend and enemy (p. the disagree war is a quarrel over what is right. ment over the meaning of out of a Like many other political altercations. and maintains that political philosophy issues in the victory of knowledge over faith. as false to be defeated (pp. for political theol ogy knows itself to be grounded in faith and wants precisely this grounding." one's way. the supreme human question is the way to live. the Socratic philosopher directly addresses the claims of political peak of philosophy. Convinced of the truth of his specific faith. misled faith (p. The Socratic denies this charge. prophets including unpolitical and political philosophers alike. Both rest in faith. and political theology rules out the very possibility. Measured by self-knowledge.60 Interpretation order. political Success hand will establish a great divide between and political philosophy on the one unpolit philosophy theology blind to the necessity for philosophy to justify itself. Each find an an But one typically encounters mandments. So the agonal lack of self-knowledge position collapses (p. Yet this or claim would seem vain and proud" empty unless the Socratic can demonstrate the un- . what he become and what remains denied to him and to become. of course. Political theology "unpolitical" "natural" Socrates aclitus. Political philosophy tion. alike reject the "unpolitical. can philosopher hope to achieve a truly philosophic justification for the philo In one stroke political Only by sophic enterprise. only by becoming political. political philosophy relying on man's capacities. For ical philosophy remains in the power of God Almighty. of the decision can about what he wants to be and what he does not want to be. of God and of men. political answers to this question remain unalterably opposed to one theology appealing natural to divine revelation. dominion. They exemplify "false or dangerous. But their another. The former trusts in the reliability of unaided human reason. "The sphere of the political thereby becomes the place of man's knowledge of himself. Now this must pivotal question of what swer. In the context of this conflict the political as philosopher can treat the question "how should I live?" deeply ble. is right applies to each human being. philosophy of Her moralphilosophy to Unlike the Pre-Socratics. political theology comes to sight as vastly outstripping unpolitical philosophy. ready answers in the form of clashing com In this awkward situation one must somehow real find tle. cal philosophy must supply both the politi defense and the rational foundation of the philosopher's mode of existence. ical philosophy to the cal theology and elevates polit For both political theology and politi right philosophy. the makes the philosophic comprehensively as possi way of life itself the prime ques and challenging the philosophic life. of the insight into what he is and what he ought to be. philosophy and Schmitt agree in opposing all putatively from "natural" metaphysics. 40). 41). Therein lies the rank of the political political" (ibid. 41-43). the political theologian regards all competitors." The Socratic turn involves a shift political inquiries about virtue and right.

a mote in his own eye. Needless to say. introspected heart.Schmitt. understanding and and fol meeting society all form a salutary unity? Who. Yet the enemy who grasps from self-deception. for my myself self-deception inheres in solitude. in mutual tion." opposed. without quibbling and distinctions between the the most important or between must the intrinsically good and utilitarian "that be defended here would now" (pp. for example. But how on earth could one disprove the divine sublime. In other words. can never overcome objective this danger. 43-45). really consummates the mandate of the Delphic oracle. The friend is "whoever affirms and . Intensity of commitment in enemy is automatically both most urgent and most important. and only brother be can enemy.e. the I perplexing problem of self-deception. to skeptical inquiry be over and philosophic contemplation. At this point no my enemy. I know identity by knowing Schmitt and cannot be deceived can save me enemy I define myself. Who power of recogni existentially" can qualify. for in longer means defining my by "enemy" merely whoever threatens to kill me. 48-51). Schmitt adds that Cain's slaying of Abel sets the history of the enemy? "[0]nly Abel" mankind into motion and that this history still continues. the historical task must be most urgent and goods fulfilled. these distinctions have the utmost significance alone. the political philosopher or the theologian. the deepest "know yourself? When meditating on self-knowledge in Ex Capitivitate Salus: Erfahrungen der Zeit 1945/47. i. The call and commandment of God must answered and obeyed. in the quest for self-knowledge on the level of human wisdom Schmitt's faith in the guiding hand in the the exalted status of of God in the intensely political history gives him confidence life. source of revelation or refute the and the End of Philosophy 61 truth of political theology. Left to myself alone. as having the objective my brother can place me in question. under this conception. but rather the one who. stood remains achieves history make the enemy the objective power that conquers The political character of the collision with the enemy so under crucial. Meier complains that this account leaves both one's face of the objective individual already Schmitt's good sional nature and at human nature unexplored. Schmitt does notice. but through faith Schmitt has arrived a certitude about "one's own" that cannot be shaken. and take pains to address. 46). Scrip tural revelation and self-deception. the of one's theologian plausi bly contend that answering lowing the highest impulses needs of political irrefutable call of God. own" reluctance us" to subject the meaning of for to of rigorous investigation results in "truly one's a disappointingly and "truly one-dimen notion friendship (pp. reflecting Schmitt's through action wholehearted conviction that as "man his destiny alone. Meier. 46-48). Adam and Eve had two sons: Cain and my my (quoted on p. Certainty in divine Providence elevates my own historical task to a high metaphysical rank. forces me into a confrontation that grasps me "wholly and (pp. insistent human longings that engen could not the political der receptivity to it?25 On the contrary.

The Schmittian community will participating tolerate no havens for alien thinkers who might cool the flames of fanaticism with the salubrious with the waters of a orating psychic detached sobriety or freshen a stultifying atmosphere breezes that emanate from the love of invig wisdom. The enemy reveals him attacking. including human possibility of participate (pp. coming into "Creation out of being of the world to say that it nothing" has no other meaning than p. "For and political decisions even the mere understanding. to make the origin of the world incomprehensible. appears to retain the key position and thus my own identity." 176 says Gottfried von Leibniz on behalf of religious faith in them. "The mysteries. 51-52). Why not assert instead that the real friend gently me exposes endure my dearest prejudices as untenable. is based only on p. while the friend has no significant the enemy. Glossarium. p. sharing and (quoted 61). The best and clue of all to the killing of Abel until the Last Judg identity of the "absolute 3:15. must negate On the subject of negation. 53-57). Glossarium. The case of Cain and Abel. via the struggle with the evil enemy.62 Interpretation me" confirms (quoted on p. in the intensest possible. Carl Schmitt. and therefore the entitlement to on existential political rightly knowing in discussion and " . This illustra tion also underlines the momentous role of hubristic rebellion against tined to animate the human ment God." his Theodicy. In a the believer the end Schmitt treats the political community essentially faith. 58-65). Cain's ruthless murder of Abel bears witness to the power of evil that launches history. our most vital. Yet exactly that ugly or civil beginning be queaths to us. the fallen god Lucifer. In more concrete political achieves the peak of "great politics" in the religious war against as terms. des enemy" story from the hence most (pp. was created out of nothing. unself-righteously compels and to the pain of perceiving my ignorance me my other vices as defects. 51). For of God there is nothing to he said. by for Schmitt. false faith. I I am. the prime enemy of God and mankind alike. to make judgments. of fratricide limits war. . The ings members of the truest political community share community of deeply in the bless reason of a truth that transcends everything human. enmity is Genesis where the serpent for corrupting the heart of Eve. This vignette puts us onto the trail of the ultimate source of evil. challenges mightily?2 to reform At any the enemy self.28 REVELATION It is of course no explanation of the . uplifting task. God punishes political. "allow of explanation to the extent necessary to believe . for my own good. further shows that Schmitt's concept of enmity respects no of law or of justice. rate and. 212 He "God" who says wishes to deceive. my negater. in order to be what function (pp.

In Schmitt's to the the honest philosopher would have to con of fess to a of access to Being or the philosophic prospect of unintelligibility the whole. Reason inclines to view con tradiction as the definitive mark of not invalidation. yet multifarious contradictions. the essence of life things. restive. for the at To it mildly." one might prefer to leave these topics to the "presumptuous worse foolhardy" (Prince XI). warns us that it is all to have an unworthy opinion of God than not to believe at all. Meier. but without accepting revelation human . with other than to become totally receptive to the truth economy. is per verse. has sung or ever will sing not of it it deserves" (247c). To be sure. as the self. that the anti- great thinker empirical in Berlin had forgotten faith The philosopher's naive. Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus concedes that "we fash ion god without having either seen him or adequately perceived him in thought" (246c-d) yet and admits that "as for the as place above the heavens no poet . "but one cannot con them and cannot render comprehensible how happen. labyrinthine exploration of revelation in political theology virtually forces us to emulate their worthy model. contrary. 88). and the will would construct a philosophic system betrays lack of integrity. reality. core (albeit put the price of some scholarly precision eyes of the existentialist. self-contradictory. the advocate theology can of political plausibly add to his arsenal at by taking advantage of certain existen "insights' tialist theses or sake of the polemic). Schmitt suffering in the human Kierkegaard. are woven into the fabric An existentialist modern apply this criticism of incorrigible reason to ancient. . "Faith in revelation promises effective protection nihilism" against the danger of (p. but that same also causes philosophy to take flight from philosopher's Or as Nietzsche expressed reason it less politely. of and of all other cosmic becoming. Bacon.30 Yet four great thinkers did summon the fortitude to deal with this difficult subject matter.Schmitt. To support the case for religion in the modern world. universe When Hegel made to whistling along the edge of reason's his heroic effort to subsume the whole objected under philosophic logic. Becoming. Daunted further by Machi avelli's maxim to remain silent about things that "subsist by superior causes to which the mind does and reach. and Meier's extensive. philosophy philosophy no can less than to be said Apart from the natural sciences. and grimness of the death. finally. of experience. he ceive and the End of Philosophy 63 qualifies this reassuring remark by adding. the self-immolation and self-renewal. . Only poetry and religion can begin to capture the beauty and horror. modern largely to amount crowded graveyard. Kierkegaard sardonically existence. Here Schmitt endorse from the heart hopeless lack well as Kierkegaard and. least but not only in the might psyche. in the life its defies rational description or comprehension. even the foe Nietzsche. elusive. so circumscribed. that humanity has no viable option of God's word as revealed in both Scripture and experience. the isolation of the dominant place of understandably concludes. the scarcely disguises the remarks of view will to render the world intelligible to to a will a to master the world. faith in the power of reason may give wings to grand speculations."29 they Speaking in a similarly cautious vein.

or mosque. 11. order and meaning for me if. How the unbeliever mount a remotely credible assault against this mighty cannot can fortress? If what can philosophy reasonably disprove the existence of God or life after death. Romans 9:15-18)? (More tendentiously and with Schmitt specifically in mind. from intolerant. to a reli one can directedness. of potential. access gious community. despite his power. Matthew 20:15-16. unlimited including to preserve capacity at every moment to overrule every moral princi the innocent life of a child (Genesis 22:1-10)? How can religion provide a clear moral-political allows horrendous injustices his I and cruelties direction if. interpretation and revelation. a sense of transcendence. I have no entry to or his plan? How can faith support morality if as a God has the ple. varied. and splendid. cf. above petty selfishness and attaining the one's highest Only by through rising faith can one encounter afterlife. ideological freedom to gain the bounties of the synagogue. sustain a philosophic refusal to accept the truths of religion? philosopher will Perhaps the skeptical base intransigent unbelief not dence in the autonomous moral intelligibility of.64 Interpretation can never gain a sound orientation of beings for their individual and common lives. self-knowledge. Augustine's pleas for Christian tolerance just as Jesus tolerated Judas Iscariot. and merely on confi possibility of happiness in. and recalling St. is true (Jeremiah can cosmic 23:15. a universe in which and God's love is the wellspring of the commandments and of the moral law the bedrock-solid guarantee that righteousness will ultimately prevail. In another age. mains ever silent about political preferences Isaiah 46: to take 7)? How pride can gain self-knowledge through faith if faith forbids me in my virtues? How. how can I distinguish a religious community guish from tyrant an almighty God who holds in the end is to do his own that insists on universal participation in beliefs that have an no direct empirical Less tendentiously. a capital crime. faith through God's grace. merely naming all these questions could have incriminated one of blasphemy. belief in God political offers cosmic order and meaning. only through can one anticipate bliss in the the omnipo Faith alone offers security of a universe governed tent God of boundless love and concern for each of us. at the secular world but also on a series of all events. many. To political theology. Matthew 24:5. the holy. God to occur without interference and re (Jeremiah 12:1. support for morality. church. and eternal life. The blessings faith are wonderful. without indulging in escapist flights of fancy. if I do not have to sacrifice any of my intellectual camp? warrant or rigorous rational basis. can I benefit from the transcendence of a God whose being is so fundamentally differ ent from mine that a it reduces to an impenetrable mystery?31 How can I distin me entirely at his heavenly unfathomable will mercy and whose only principle (Exodus 33:19. God and 24)? How belief in God yield conception of the mind of lowly mortal. redemption from sin. challenging queries that the faithful cannot answer to the skeptic's satisfaction. With faith live in awareness of the highest truths and have hope. the which and somewhat reticent or which Meier does not spell them out: of How can we know 14:13 revelation. I can hardly .

as Schmitt does. dooms me to fall back into sinfulness time and time again? of Why to would a God love create an eternal hell of ghastly. and if s inscrutable will for my fate after death. Lest Schmitt and Meier constantly remind we take this grave however. hang from the in the balance. 8:7. Antichrist the when Christ confronts and defeats the parousia. it" With the truth of revelation at issue. triumphantly contest at all lightly. Luke 18:19). battle. 73." the unbeliever and rebel against God. with party. 12:30. ineffable unshaken experience that religion irrespective of the cleverest rationalistic objections. of an association or (quoted on p. the future of humanity. for Schmitt this fight represents the political peak prior to the occurs in simultaneous fulfillment of faith and perfection of great politics that 66-68). and 10:31. mature be meet vital needs lievers. help of divine grace. can if my very nature I hope for self-respect. much less for redemption from sin. to or retaliate against and the Socratic who engenders such potentially unsettling doubts to the faithful misguided. speak of and the End of Philosophy even with the 65 faith as the precondition for those benefits. I Corinthians 1:19-20). To us of the political nature of the say nothing cal of one's own existence and identity.32 Still.33 clashing horns with the "existential mortal against combat. quite a few may wish. of a bond or separation.) How. Proverbs 9:10. the hearts and minds of the and politi youth. claiming the laurels of victory. This defined as fight to the death of embodies the peak of politics "the most extreme dissociation" degree intensity 68).Schmitt. Meier makes clear that Schmitt's global declaration. excruciating torments years or so punish human beings forever for nature? living seventy according to their God-given Finally. censor in their faith. in For "whoever does Matthew not decide for the truth religious of faith decides (p. The political theologian and the political philosopher may well agree that eventually the winner and an speculative controversy over revelation concludes with a clear each unambiguous loser. Matthew the best human inherently partakes of being merits eternal bliss. knowing through long and embodies lofty. Meier. if of aside the question whether emphasis on an unknown afterlife at nihilism the expense of the empirical world not even (cf. (pp. not dialectical 53:1-6. leaving 22:32). Psalms wonder. "the whose will political is the total. as political theology would have it." implies the existence of a personal deity imposes demands upon all . Political theology behold the philosophy cannot rest content to stand upon the shore and see ships window of a castle and tossed on the sea or to peer spectacle of must armies. threatens to corrupt the youth with sophistical ruminations: not the beginning of wisdom inquiry. More precisely. unedifying. fear of the Lord is (I Kings 3:7-12. will perhaps generally remain. if indeed because (for "no one their sinful nature all earn is without guilt before God. the believer lock enemy. if even honest faith and heartfelt repentance consequently I depend entirely on how much consolation or other net the afterlife? God' only precede new episodes of sin. Luke 11:23)." purgatory or damnation Exodus 34:7. from my dreadful does awareness of gain obtains Upon encountering this truths battery of skeptical questions.

." require absolute obedience i. natural reason and "liven[s] his life based judgment alone" on own resources. and original sin. an egocentric reversal. 69-77). Yet Schmitt "atheism. he does so nature ily as an anthropologist trying to explain human but as a political and theolo gian who of promoting resist it. following puts his own (p." "nihilism" and of medieval and (a fortiori) modern phi losophers.66 Interpretation persons other. only be HISTORY God is . by Sin. we should not overlook a common. the almighty God of down to the smallest detail. of s commandment in the Sermon on the Mount (pp. because his call is drowned by the voice of one's own willing and wishing. Schmitt follows Tertullian in sharply dividing between philosophers and Christians. the Fall. lesser and who intervenes in the choice affairs of the and world. because vealed truth of living they deviate from the re Christ (pp. To both political theologians. man's "realization of his being himself in In moral language. In "the and only case that matters. with both intellectual promise and deadly risk for philosophy (pp. Jean-Jacques Rousseau is though era in the Christian Schmitt's philosophic enemy par excellence when he pits the natural goodness of man against essentially become self-sufficient. The political demands on a human being. "faith can judge the choice of the philosophic existence only as an act of the dom of the man who denies his subordination to self-founding free (quoted on ibid. but "the revelation. his most personifies original sin villain and presents the worst threat to the social order? who This is the philosopher. Denial recognition of of original God's sin. Christ Antichrist. then. and implications: many may feel called. 85). will thread with profound chosen. Rousseau's natural goodness entails whole. Who. undermines social order." ubiquity interprets this Rousseauan natural the of the theological." reserves his strongest words for the "ego- armoring. and impious repudiation. 96-97)." namely the political between God Satan. ubiquity of the political versus the unqualified can make speaks of the potential ubiquity of the theological. 94-95). always does far-reaching life-and-death theological. . the impossibility out really understanding the moment as The unknowability of God God's call. sovereign example authority opposing those modem for by endorsing theories evolution. 97-99). Schmitt the and the theological coincide. the Socratics of antiquity are but "patriarchs of the heretics" (pp. be made into of an object of our behavior. Meier goodness as the natural capacity to one's a self-centered pursuing benefit with as little damage to Jesus' others as possible. Notwithstanding these and other acute divergences between political theology elitist and political philosophy.). 77-84). As Rudolf Bultmann God" it. cannot . but few the truth can make one free.e. Schmitt faces us with a stark choice be tween faith and disorder (pp. In particular. however. not primar Thus when Schmitt insists on man's natural wickedness.

or of those events. 159-60). Only long after the fact (if at all). miraculous event. because those great implications (pp. biblical God. e.. each human being's actions. that the (2) span times. be held Romano Guardini. onto in faith and dimly sensed in hope. (3) Providence. the 88). history the almighty. centrally and decisively towards the incarnation of God in Jesus. to Schmitt. Sections 8-9 The prophecy will not be clear until it has been fulfilled.Schmitt. until then it can only p. who refrains from caviling the point. the scholarly study a pedant would complain about the anachro history. Nor do the much tragedians of antiquity. time. Meier. which each According torically ments. Perhaps only and basing on the modern notion of history in a scriptural source that lacks against both the term Schmitt political the precise concept. It or science of nism of stands at a great distance from historiology. over a distinct of time. devoid of God's overall wisdom and lacking clairvoy ance into God's special plans for a particular age. begins and ends with his is oriented towards a particular event over which . history places the sternest demands upon us and understood simultaneously beckons with the bears no resemblance to the have most extravagant promises. History so cyclical views of world events espoused or by ancient philosophers such as perspectives Empedocles atheistic by moderns such as Nietzsche. "Faith we in revelation learn from Friedrich Schleiermacher. There can be talk of God only on the basis of revelation. omniscient. Rudolf Bultmann. politics. no power of the world has any control: in the case of Christianity it is oriented Christ" (p. 468 Religion. judiciously Schmitt's peculiar historicism implications of Some and emerge in Meier's expli- . To the political theologian. culminating in contemporary events in human being. occurs at one or a series of miracles at specific God's direction an of the course of all things throughout all grand eschatological finale. such as the provenance of God in man. and (4) the swirl of time.. have presupposes in common with theological history. represent always performed anticipations in a his unique situation. and the revelation can be heard only in faith. and the End of Philosophy . at best blind of command Always tailored to the even respective historical milieu.g. must choose a personal des tiny. Theologische Encyclopadie. for the Fates have more power and foresight than Zeus him self.34 Absolutized religiously. tory. 67 Within my human possibilities I cannot find God at all. 122-23). Der Herr. can mere mortals weigh human doings circumspectly (pp. and revelation as united in history. with the wisdom of hindsight. these commandments require our compliance creatures though at the time of decision we Epimethean have to guess about their content and ramifications. continuing revelation of that event. not even Aeschylus. from the Virgin Birth to the Second Coming. everything essential is essentially historical. Political theology conceives morality. In its religious manifestations. readily grasps the relies: multiple meanings of history on which theology (1) a unique. Meier.

68 Interpretation 1938 book on the Leviathan and of criticizes cation of the Schmitt's Hobbes's political activities during tics as the Schmitt predictably destined to collapse for lack of Nazi era. Schmitt stretches . including believers could despise him as a for proto-Antichrist. Schmitt of unrecognized with his Christianized "Hobbes" piety who. 128). political Leviathan in order to guarantee peace and security (pp. At any rate. and and others indeed. 124-25). forcible Christianization of other lands and peoples (pp. the avoid the wars. Schmitt assimilates the Hobbesian state into his Christian God" view of history by i." i. should Why the philosophers? In Schmitt pay such tribute to Hobbes. divine. (p. pression that unity that ex he himself favors Hobbesian supremacy of political over religious authorities. Yet Schmitt atypically honors Hobbes as a genuine teacher. "call" weaken but rather reinforces the case looking to provided of course that he has faith. however. Hobbes's greatest While thus nurturing the and to him alone. "Hobbesian" to be "Jesus is the Christ. which is the reverse type of autocratic unity. as 151. the seventeenth-century movement led by from Christian theology toward systematic natural sci away "the strongest and most consequential of all spiritual turns in European describes. Hobbes wishes to restrain the Antichrist. Hobbes does tacitly identifies answers the call pate. to the challenge of his age and for obedience to commandments that he can only blindly antici Hobbes's incapacity to see the repercussions of his even such terribly wayward errors that some teachings." a confession faith that.e. 102-20 the most important of and 174). (p. he 100). 118 rises and nn. Schmitt's eyes. to bloodletting of religious wars. of barbaric history to Hobbes is humanity's need. 123principal anticipation of 24). 104). Hobbes's specific political response to his "call" partakes of historical truth in that the Hobbesian state that guarantees without peace protects the truth of Christianity a right itself becoming truly religion Christian. at bottom Schmitt uses Hobbes to point quietly to Schmitt's real desideratum. He Hobbes ence as history" deplores. though surrounded by enemies. does not him as a model Christian. and his desire. 152). referring to the State as a "vehicle of secularization. Excused only by his good intentions a hasread- ignorant. Schmitt sentence even takes the liberty of declaring to (pp. misL. 125-27). embraces the rationalist of Malmesbury as his brother and friend (p. a man while dear to Schmitt.35 authoritarian poli support "metaphysical. Hobbes inadvertently becomes his tener of evil and a servant of the Antichrist (p. above all of confessional civil His the inarticulate commandment is his advocacy of the modern. Concretely. for in preparing the ground forces of the Schmitt the major defect in Hobbes's not to accelerate politics consists for bourgeois life (pp. among endowment as a political theorist is his advocacy of the restoration of the soc 1 and civil isted in ancient times. the cessa tion of of feuding means "the end of the old peace of and the end of crusades. humble obedience. Meier its alerts us when Schmitt turns deaf the ear to Hobbes's inconvenient claim that the sovereign public has the to ban Christian and mandate denunciation.e. Still. 105). in a spirit of them. namely theocracy (pp." Regrettably. not subscribe 121.

For how can anyone consistently respond admirably to inarticulate commandments that become lucid only choices have been made? Thus Schmitt has a long after the relevant handy. reveal how little repentance even this remark contains. Most the time we enslave ourselves to the opinions others have of us and the world. we approach try to abstract entirely from every divine call. opinions changeable from era to era and shaped and . by characterizing Hobbes's Protestant put an end sion of secularization as the completion of the as reform of the Church. In particular. 129). nearly all of human existence can still reveal itself as inauthentic: our beliefs and customs. 131-32). 133-34). and to judge the suitability in his ability to his Hobbes's historical "answer" Hobbes understands A than radical historicism that fancies it will always understands past thinkers better they understood themselves to excuse collaboration with easily summon the retrospective ingenuity the National Socialists. inasmuch seems to the Leviathan systematically papacy. our modes of thought. typically with our occur at a superficial of level that keeps us far out of touch humanity. and to the monopolis tic ecclesiastical claims of the Roman have been gives definitively historicized of With that tour de force. participation in building the Third Reich. and in part as un inevitably uninformed by the superhuman perspicacity requisite for making impeachable moral choices. so does not Schmitt's faith himself about the utter insignificance of all his decisions him to deceive throughout his life (pp. ers' and the End of Philosophy 69 deci imaginations. favorable that his actions cannot in any way alter the outcome history. shortly after World authentic. and behavior. geois liberalism and thereby delay the reign of the Antichrist.Schmitt. and anti-Jewish diatribes as harmonious with his political theology (pp. he knows from the ultimate. True. 134-170. as "bad. in favor and strains their credulity. Schmitt does not bother to investigate what Hobbes considered his altogether crucial dispute ancient philosophy (pp. and His idiosyncrasies could all too easily distract us from the larger theme of the issue from the other side history and authenticity. not just from 1933 to 1945. namely Christ's compel victory over the Antichrist. Faith ascertain in history Schmitt confidence "call" the question of how even with without really delving into himself. he never expresses public repentance. For how a good life? Also. 88-92)? But let us not dwell too long on psychologi further If exacerbated by personality traits of Carl Schmitt. what the right outset of decision is." War II Schmitt does describe his behavior in general. 122. unworthy. and yet Aside from that brief comment. he live except perhaps in hindsight. The words "and authentic. He can his actions in part as arguably necessary to undermine bour himself an authentic "justify" moreover. cal perplexities pp. speech. Far graver is the impossibility of means of ever can discerning. Schmitt reveals that he views his membership in the Nazi Party." By calling Christian Epimetheus. "Hobbes Christianized" (p. CSLS. Meier. Yet what protects him against the obvious danger of self-deception? The problem is not only that all-purpose excuses quickly tend to lose their credibility. almost infinitely adaptable exonerating any kind of misbehavior. however.

The variety of moralities finds a parallel in the variety of phies (cf. philosophy because he fails to appreciate in philosophic writings for well more visible teachings Had he distinguished between the that historical tions that what palpably far transcend the limitations of the day. pp. naively and fatally rests on faith (p. 12-13. Introspection and reflection can then bring glim into the fragility the "thrownness" and of their existence and their being and of Being. 31). Meier inquires what it is that deconstruction affirms. If one accepts self- the soundness of the foregoing far from self-evident assumption knowledge involves the or amounts to awareness of radical precisely one's rootedness in largely irrational. Heidegger's CSLS a Schmitt's.37 of Jacques Derrida's interpreta Politiques de I'amitie. beings ticity.e. history. On the other which hand. he circumstances always affect and the might partly hidden inten have rediscovered lies mostly radical concealed under all the visible metamorphoses of philosophic thought: the essential constancy of philosophy (DB. Derrida speaks of "the process of interpretation" deconstructive (i. From Meier's perspective. standards of right and wrong derive must from the ebb and flow of historic dispensations and allow of no ultimate rational philoso ultimate justification. 37). Taking him at his word.36 escape tyranny and Only banality while in touch with such the mystery of insights do human of conventional life and achieve authen Even the most authentic person must continue to live mainly in inauthen- ticity. casts moral obligation into the same darkness as ment can does its theological which Every that type of political engage none can. Aristotle Metaphysics 1009b33-1010al). 85 n. p. however. 48. the very term "deconstruction. 42-43). At events. 33-34. affirmative) (S. individuals suddenly become dissatisfied themselves and their lives. DB. In Heidegger's understanding. Derrida predictably does . be defended. Heidegger misconstrues the history of the pre-Kantian predominance of esotericism over two millennia.70 Interpretation driven by irrational forces as mighty as the tragic Fates. derives from Heidegger and Husserl to overcome all forms of Western metaphysics and all implies the necessity especially Platonism. Heidegger's philosophizing. too? If so. Deconstruction is affirmation. or could the Does history hover in which the background or of postmodern deconstruction- ism. Derrida's substantial book on the poli As Meier recognizes. Derrida's willingness to expand on brief treatment themes like politics and and suggests a certain attractive friendship sharply distinguishes him from Heidegger kinship to the Platonic Socrates. like that of the Pre-Socratics. Atheistic historicism cousin. All thought has its source in irrepressible flux rather than a in reason or eternal truth. pp. Moreover. and we fail to ask what and who we are. For Heideggerian authenticity alone cannot provide any basis for morality." Derrida uses to and describe his inter pretive approach. in the end means Meier presses Heidegger for a justification of his way of life and hears only silence. though. two be brought to converge? Meier includes in the second section of his Epilogue to the expanded edition of tion of Schmitt in tics of friendship. and not only because the crops must be tended and the children be fed. with mers Sometimes.

He notes that Derrida identifies his or the connection of impor and philosophy" tant concern as "the question of friendship philosophy (ibid. Toward that from nature. Meier attempts to re.). that gives way to (S.). . politics of friendship has a theological or a philosophical bent (CSLS. 179).. founders no such on these shoals and is hurled down to its of 'truth. a (Truth is like gleefully to drive traditionalists to distraction.) Undistracted. deconstruction task to an uncompletable (ibid.. Meier hospitality" objects that the movement of history (ibid. and politics indeed "is justice" law has always moved in this direction.. Yet "absoluteness" what can warrant this ness and this "holiness" other than the absolute not require holiness of God almighty? Does Derrida's decontructionism character of revelation to insure the that includes progressive history for towards a universal friendship above all God's friendship man? Meier does most not rest content with these reflections. 172-73). derives from justice. obligation to the other 174). . including end those of nationality. 178). 171). Derrida other" speaks p.and de-construct Derrida's understanding of himself. discourse. The heterogeneity" future.). preserve "the remote proximity . Athens and Jerusalem towards deconstruction" (ibid. which limited the circle of friends. of the "absolute law and the "holiness and of the 176). To of provide a ground for the duty. In the evidently to contribute history as progress justice.Schmitt. but woman has no essence and is unfathomable. Derrida advocates a new democratic politics of friendship that overcomes past restrictions. truth towards a universalization of friendship. "The singularity of the historical moment allows Derrida to know the moving principle of history. Thus and of course philosophical ruin. The two and his sophic life correspond to the political community founded in Plato's Republic duty priority over pleasure. 51. Thus the deconstruction that strives for the (quoted on democracy The history of the of future is just. Meier. He pursues this aim by asking whether in the end Derrida's p. Cf. and entails the infinite ibid. but it is because that abysmal detour of the truth [ecart abyssal Woman is but one name for that truth" untruth of de la verite] that untruth is [S. establish any duty. Aristotle Metaphysics 1009bl 1-12. Though gives friendship" noticing that in his version of "philosophic Derrida justice and Meier even goes so far philosophic delights of conversation with Socrates the in sharing aspects of friendship vis-a-vis politics and the philo friends.. Justice takes priority alone cannot even over (ibid.' There is thing as the truth of woman. italics "the added). 51]. pp. The which duty to strive for this unachievable democracy (ibid. p. [namely] most important respect. In contradistinction to all previous politics of friendship. blinded. to imagine the deconstruc- tionist actively . pp. p. be above all the handmaiden p. 39. deconstructive democracy clude no one separate convention moral will sport an "infinite and ex must seek from its fraternity. He also considers the separation of nature from convention as make visible possibly part of a massive philosophic experiment intended to the nature and limits of friendship as (p. Meier wonders whether deconstruction might perhaps of philosophy. not and the End of Philosophy style to protect truth" 71 his answer directly but employs a somewhat inscrutable meaning. woman.

what should we now as the heed lesson of Carl Schmitt the conflict and Heinrich Meier? The reason and cardinal political- philosophical philosophic theme between revelation requires priority.. 141-52. to depict vice in such a way as to by (Theodicy II. B. Politische Theologie zwischen Agypten und Israel (Munich: Carl Friedrich von Siemens Stiftung 1992) p 13 n. 165. and guard against self-destruction a groundless faith. In a flourish. of history in the oldest and most recall main purpose of narrative. "Was ist Politische Theologie? Einfuhrende Bemerkungen zu einem umstrittenen Begriff in Jan Assmann. 148). Schmitt expert Ernst-Wolfgang Bockenforde. inquiry. Metzler. 14. historiography? Suffice it to that "the ordinary sense. See note 4 below. Carl Schmitt's Glossarium" Freiburg . history as Leibniz's sober judgment wisdom and virtue arouse might well repugnance" history. and perhaps not only a wag.. finally. B. that the truest deconstructionism might be not progressive history but political philosophy. 1988. emphatically political issue of the NOTES und "Der Begriff des Politischen. eds. 1998). smile. in his unforgettable closing image Meier intimates with and not without a and the speech. 1994). Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal (special issue) 17 (1994): 32532. 2d. Its be regarded as fulfillment Leibniz's aspirations on a variety of levels. The Being means of encompasses. Citations Carl Schmitt. examples. 2. Leo Strauss " enden (Stuttgart: Lesson of Carl Schmitt: Four Chapters on the Distinction between Political Theology and Political Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Glossarium. skillfully and reliably translated by Marcus Brainard as The . which Being. Meier. a law professor at the and University of pp. translated by Marcus Brainard as "The Philosopher as Enemy: On in Pierre Adler. should consist of teaching and further. among to be human and things. 283. 1998) and Die Lehre Carl Schmitts. Aufzeichnungen der Jahre 1947-1951. See CSLS. Carl Schmitt. pre-eminently the inquiry into what it therewith into the political-philosophical justification other the life. Vier Kapitel zur Unterscheidung Politischer Theologie und Politischer Philosophie (Stuttgart and Weimar: Verlag J. even though that conflict remains the question of does not exhaust philosophy's question of proper concern. p. What. 1 Carl Schmitt.72 Interpretation dialogical community that accomplishes the founding of that city in other words. But. Marcus Brainard. Leo Strauss und "Der Begriff des refer to the second edition and will begin with the initials CSLS followed by page numbers. only by taking its bearings from Socratic insurrection. But philosophy the can achieve clarity as about that question and itself. enlarged ed. 1991). and Dirk Effertz. In Memoriam David Rapport Lachterman. Hereafter The Lesson of Carl Schmitt be cited without mention of the title and within parentheses in the text of this essay.38 philosophic So the question of Being does retain its status as the compre hensive larger question of philosophy. all well worth pursuing in a much longer study Meier. as describe Meier's two-volume tome goal could The Lamentable the History of and Tragedy of of Carl Schmitt. A wag. just as of poetry. to conclude a first dip into deep waters. Metzler. ed. Eberhard Freiherr von will of Politischen' Medem (Berlin: Verlag Duncker und Humblot. 3. Zu einem Dialog unter AbwesVerlag J. also p.

.. and of Leo Strauss. so inscrutable in his intentions. reviewing among other things the English translation of ignores the message writ large in the Glossarium and takes 6 (December 1998): 830-54. 35). 1992). and essays in his editions der Evolutionsbiologie (Munich: Piper Verlag. where Meier demonstrates that Schmitt's book and no. pp. including his Glossarium. which "Standing far covers all of above is Heinrich Meier's It shows Meier to be 'musical' a theologically Schmitt's writings. Friihe Schriften (1997). The Hidden Dialogue. "Descartes has a theological grounding for his to Christian reliance on the mercy of . John McCormick's essay in Political Theory 26. 1984. 6. The 'old' thought received its tasks and yardsticks via the limits in tasks which and it found itself The 'new' thought establishes its own new and immeasurable itself. Philosophy and Gerhard Kriiger's introduction to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's Hauptwerke (Stuttgart: Alfred Kroner Verlag. (For that matter. Gesammelte Schriften. von einem Essay iiber die Rhetorik Ferdinand und die Intention des Werkes sowie einem ausfuhrlichen Kommentar (Paderborn Verlag Schon- ingh. 2. p. says. 1977). viii-xvi. on Hobbes is a work of political article theology (The Lesson of Carl Schmitt. particularly the comment on page 43. Die Denkbewegung Leo Strauss. however. What in Descartes to reinforce the theologians might well turn out to have the opposite implication. "The exceeding of human limits cartes. Lilla Enemy initially Note new approached Meier's exegesis mistrustfully. 123-32. xiii). being" sovereign bodiment and privatization of thinking to voice self would not be possible (p. no notice whatever of Die Lehre Carl Schmitts. Philosophie und Geselz ed. Carl Schmitt in der no. of Zur Diagnose der Moderne (Munich: Piper Verlag.. 1985). especially. and so abys human being cannot take his bearings by God." known writings and reconsider some edition of that have been 4. confidence to Mersennes that the purpose of his Meditations is to arguments "on behalf of belief certain advances Meditations mathematical physics. God" itself: he thinks of God as so inconceivable." Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Note especially the following in Kriiger's Einleitung: "The of 'new' 61. Mark Lilla's 8 "The (May 15. The first CSLS appeared in English ' as Carl Schmitt of and Leo Strauss. 4th lian Apologetikum 47.. other published Chicago Press. the rest 1997): 38-44. Meier's work has forced everyone to take a second look the assumptions underlying Schmitt's betterignored. Verlag Duncker und Humblot. One would also have to consider own his thrown upon and is pushed away establish a Cartesian. 100-121. Metzler. "On and the Issues of Politics (Chicago: University Descartes' Method" in Politi thought [of Descartes] is 'own' a conquest of the given world that serves as material for the creative erection of one's world-view. is famous for his diplomatic in toto is borne by the exertion of a new self-reliance that can only be understood as a counter (p.). 1990). Heinrich Meier's Harvey University writings include Discours sur I inegalile/Diskurs iiber die Ungleichheit.Schmitt. Die Lehre Carl Schmitts. Die Geschichte der Philosophie die Intention des Philosophen (Stuttgart: of Die Herausforderung Verlag J. Politische Theologie. xii).. Die Religionskritik Spinozas und zugehorige Schriften (Stuttgart: Verlag J. 4th und ed.. July 11. 1997. it knows its only the yardstick to be its own. 1996). See. study. cal p. trans. Dis- als Fluchtpunkt Werks. Discourse on p. one could implications of the Englishman's description in Christian Doctrine of Socrates as human being and in the Seventh Prolusion of Plato's life of philosophizing with his . Metzler. placed. The 'radical' the six teenth century were not permitted that questioning entirely openly and on this point behavior" Des (ibid. 1958). reader of Schmitt (Walter Benjamin was another) surface of who hears the deep religious chords sounding beneath the at his seductive prose. 1988. pp. 1. the atheism resources" Descartes' in the divine that appears ancient writers had employed with a wholly contrary aim. of Liberalism." 174). overwhelming. pp. Cf. 1996) and vol. "[The] disem unless at the same time its philosophers of character as one of God's creatures were put into question. Kritische mit Lomax (Chicago: deutscher Edition des integralen Textes Obersetzung. Tertul- Chicago Press. (Berlin: 5. xiv). Meier. B. J. but mally imperious in his decrees that the thinking (p. 51. in New York Review of Books 44. 1995)."in my there are good reasons for many private conversations with Carl Schmitt interpretation" adopting Heinrich Meier's kussion: Politische Theologie ("Auf den seines Weg zum Klassiker. 3d ed. the first edition of Meier's Carl Schmitt. B. even wonder about the the wisest in assessing the theologies of the aforementioned Milton and Kierkegaard. Ibid. Cf. 274-90. 1997). but found the evidence in its favor .. Joseph Cropsey. vol. a and the End of Philosophy 73 former justice and of the opinion in view of German Supreme Court privy to Schmitt's most candid remarks. Moreover.

1952). and Spi (p. 171-72. Is the moral person who remains moral as a means See Xenophon Oeconomicus xx. See Lesson. "In the desperate leap into faith the human being as instead of standing before the nothing (boredom. 84. 1871). p. 140-41. In Politische Theologie. G. . cf. Adeimantus injustice contends worthiness of justice hinges on the existence of gods who punish and reward and justice (365d). Or would it be fair to say that Plato's Socrates tries to save morality by transforming it through greater self-understanding? "It becomes a question whether what Aristotle calls moral virtue is not. The Danish theologian two versions of "the one thing needful": government and eternity. . 13. p. reported et 13. Schmitt calls Bakunin "the theologian of the (italics added).' stand the Creator of being (p. (Munich and Leipzig. 1959). Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung. 43. 14. Drei Studien iiber die Elemente. in fact.) 7. 19." pp. See Leo Strauss. Quoted in Lesson. Yet by that reasoning the choiceworthiness of justice consists in the gratification of the selfish desire of the individual for happiness. out of nothing. 1747) attacks the unfaith of the philosophers from Epicurus to Gassendi. . 1 1 Theodor Diiublers "Nordlicht. In note 10 Meier identifies the model Schmitt follows in his hexameter Prometheans (Eripuit fulmen caelo nova verse against the spatia fulmina mittit/Eripuit caelum deo. as moral. takes note of Kierke gaard's effort guishes offers to transcend individualism (cf. Lesson. and 48-A9) and thoughtfully distin will of respects in which Kierkegaard's teaching is is not political. In any event. IL: Free Press. Meier first de Mazzini anti-theological" 1923). in the bulk of the Republic and pointedly in the ninth book. would even seem to the support of divine judgment in afterlife. W. 5). 1950) and Politische Theologie II. Vier Aufi siitze (Cologne. pp.74 Interpretation friends as most happy and delightful. 1978). Hobbes. F. Der Begriff des Politischen (Berlin. "Kierkegaards Sprung in den in Scimtliche Schriften 3. CSLS. See one of the most daring and pp. Submission to the God seems to offer the best access to both (pp. 9. fear. 63-65. Here Meier directly quotes Leo Strauss and without citing him. nova Cardinal Melchior de Polignac. p. B. PhUnomenologie des Geistes (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag. pp. 1926). 8. world of ordinary require experience the rain falls on the good an the wicked alike. Only before God can man's also isolated existence annihilated in way" a positive mere 245. 1932. and "Recht und in Tymbos fiir Wilhelm Ahlmann (Berlin. What is Political " Philosophy and Other Studies und (Glencoe Aktuali- IL: Free Press. 1916). CSLS. 'before God. 84. Die Legende von der Erledigung jeder Politischer Theologie (Berlin. as indicated in True. so long as one's devotion to to selfish ends truly moral? . Hegel. pp. to before God be as an Glauben" individual comes. It may help Plato's Republic. 473-564. "Phanomenologie Theologie. Lowith's discussion pp. pp. den Geist die tat des Werkes (Munich. the soul of the unjust man is disordered and there fore unhappy. and Hamburg. 66. Meier surely knows about religious infidels who with considerable warrant regard themselves We can only conjecture that he might in some sense endorse Schmitt's judgment that their a coherent morality lacks divine rule or p. 15. p. virtue" . Imier. p. 25-29. "who in his Anti-Lucretius sive de Deo et Natura (Paris. . 239-55. 1952). 84-92. Die Geistesgeschichtliche Luge des heutigen Parlamentarismus 2d ed. Glaube und Skepsis (Stuttgart: J. Meier refers to Schmitt's Donoso Cortes in gesamleuropaischer Interpretation. p. struit) as noza" politique this valuable discovery in CSLS. 255). Socrates argues that apart from divine rewards and punishments. 1933). Meier cites Politische Theologie. 8 n. 3. 151). merely political or vulgar (Natural Right and History. Rbmischer Katholizismus and politische Form (Hellerau. 84-87 and Lesson. . 1970). 1953]. 24). p. und in Wegmarken. 10. Wissen. 12. 248-54). p. 73. and about the full meaning of the Dane's stress in the Conclud ing Unscientific Postscript on the radical subjectivity of religion and religious categories. Raum" 16. . 1985). 1951). pp. . (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Vitto- rio Klostermann. 2d ed. Given that in the morality the myth of Er. provocative passages of Persecution the Art of Writing (Glencoe. and desperation). An elegant summary can be found in Karl Lowith. foundation to consider or Strauss's that "there and cannot be true justice if there is of no Providence" (Natural Right History [Chicago: University where Chicago Press. He cites Bakunin's La Theologie VInternationale (St. that the choice- 150 n.

Consider. p. n. Micah 6:8. 20. pp. which interest of him in the fortunes from it except others. "How selfish so ever Smith reflects. . Psalms 119:71. 1994). in the negative. one's underlying assumption may well be one of re to the morally good. versus sits 18. p. version of Luther's to heavy German text his in C. 51. rather than humility. Lesson. B. The Devil." be resisted is that opposites ." their happiness necessary to him. 67." by Holy 21. I Corinthians 13:1-13. recommends Satan. to St. Aquinas 5:5). virtues. Muller [Tubingen: J. Cf. for example. cf. Christian morality] as opposites between two chairs. British nephew. ii. Schmitt might plausibly protest without that in their self-reverence both Aristotelian that atheistic Nietzschean nobles divinize themselves any cosmological justification. The Man (Chicago: Rand McNally. S. An Aristotelian might suggest that well-founded self-regard. Meier. . [noble morality [M]odern man . wherever it may lead. for Smith seeks to explain morality man be supposed. 19. "virtue" According "vice" to Ralph Lemer in Themen. never occurs in the book. 131). however. Would this observation not apply just as well to the Muslim religions? Thomas Aquinas. C. The 4-5. and At all events. love connects the simply perfect virtues (Disputed Question on the trans. Romans 13:8. 1984]. Beyond Good and Evil 46. 148. the opening passage in The To help and Theory of Moral Sentiments without at I. one might wonder whether humility has a somewhat analogous function in the Jewish faith (e. is never used. Nietzsche. Rudolf Bultmann sums up the heart of the Christian faith as follows: "It is primarily obedi (Theologische Encyclopcidie.g. divine dispensation. .) Recall that Aris totle glaringly omits piety principle an appeal from his catalogue virtues. Ralph Mclnerny [South "Whether the virtues are connected such that he who has one has mentions that the source of love in Bend. 2. 344. Spirit the man is divine infusion all. 146-48. Nietzsche. and then only in the negative as something not found in Schmitt. 36. Romans and 118 (p. writes that he may never the the the soul of his intended victim. . rewards hard to guarantee without potent. Gay Science 343. no Hebrew equivalent of in the Old Testament. Judaic and p. pp. In reply Meier n. Maimonides' Vorbilder menschlkher Voll- kommenheit (Munich: Carl Friedrich or occurs Siemens Stiftung. 54.. i. 118-19). would probably join Rousseau in raising doubts Rousseau's Discours Nihilism" about the adequacy of sympathy alone to sustain morality. 1 might deserve brief attention. falseness. see Strauss. refused. According and indeed whoever has love (agape) necessarily possesses all the other virtues. sometimes oblique approach. and Persecution. and 17. and John 15:12. ibid. 57 65. Nonetheless. The Case of Wagner. and render it. Eberhard Jiingel and Klaus W. City Meier understandably does not address Adam Smith. does appear once. morality wards remains and the End of Philosophy 75 consciously public spirited. Cardinal Virtues. the commandment of God (Genesis 22: 1-10). nobility is baseless of revelation can and self-contradictory. See Meier's edition of sur I'inegalite. IN: St. for the man has a pure heart and exemplifies all exercise Christian cakewalk. n. him a experienced with such challenges. See. although "noble" "Beautiful" "phronesis" "Besonnenheit. A light. he says Yes and No in the same breath. Satan's corruption of beginning more despair. occurs uncle p. and 352 The Will to Power 1 should and "I. regards this as a Just remind few times of his truly good qualities. Cf. von vol. Beyond Good and Evil 265 and 288) and truly moral man repeatedly enjoys from doing what is right (Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 1120a26-27) require any divine underpinning? (Fittingly. occupies the moral center of the human commit being on a consider of good character who would not even stooping to base actions. ed." moderation. 63." recurring to either a categorical imperative or revelation. Lewis's Screwtape accomplish Letters. Likewise. Article 2. would self-aware Christians have to deceive themselves in order to remain virtuous? Cf. Jeremiah 9: 23-24). though he derives nothing Jean. Nevertheless.Schmitt. the word appears only once in Lesson. Clemen. ed. Augustine's Press. and the man is ours' Following this line of thought. conceivably because he knows that in to prophecy or divine nullify the the most rational reflections about human virtue and the human good: We must follow not rule of reason but. 9. 1964). Cited in Lesson. ence" Mohr. account for Meier's sometimes taciturn. 150. 19. p. "there are evidently some principles in his nature. Nietzsche. 347. p. "Epilogue": "What alone that deceitfulness of instinct that refuses to experience these as Wagner. Or does the question remain whether noble self-respect the immediate pleasure the (Nietzsche.Jacques the pleasure of seeing p. Das Magnificat verdeutschet und ausgelegt. Cf. . 1999].

For that revelation consists in absolute truth that all far transcends unassisted human human discourse. insuperable obstacles of the whole or of Being. Das ist die gantze Heilige Schrift. the achieve the part of the philosopher (pp. on revelation stands minimum. for the political philosopher radically calls into question the nent way life based on skeptical objections inquiry and dialectical Reason reflection and considers all perti demands. and context (48-62). 2179. though. Hans Volz (Wittenberg. 42). the task of justifying the philosophic ment of self-knowledge on life. Biblia. In CSLS Meier debates light on Schmitt's ground for obscuring his religious motives. Luther. 1974). . vol. what if we went so far as to suppose contrary to the human experience of experience (see. 9-13. Lesson. because sacrifice one's autonomy. Reason. All-too-Human II. 218. Yet philosopher's self-justification? Indicted by Revelation. p. refers to the political object. p. See and the will to independence on consult Tertullian Apologeticum 46-47 and and Nietzsche. 159. 75). also Strauss. as gain a vindicatory ruling from itself. Deudsch aufs new zugericht. Friedrich Gogarten revelation as strictly for the sake of argu interpreted by those who have the on Luther in Der Mensch zwischen Gott und Welt [Stuttgart: Friedrich Vorwerk Verlag. Harvey Lomax. 1545. Aware that his readership encompasses the about faithless and the misguided. 85. and (p. In the preface Denkbewegung von Leo Strauss (cited below The term Meier' as DB). Cf. Reason. (1988-89): 216-27. an affirmation of the whole that has cosmic implications? See David Bolotin. p. p. Would no serious nonreligious to knowledge critique of the philosophic life remain viable? Would the philosopher not still have to come to grips perhaps mortality. 9-10)." 8 and 20. and political philosopher comprehend conscious. Friedrich Schiller." Foundations of Inequality Among Men: trans. Revela what about as tion asks to appeal to a tribunal superior to court. NY: Cornell University Press. s contribution in Lesson principally 25. cast a and even shadow come confounding limits on the knowability of one's own self? Would these limitations could the political of nihilism upon the philosopher's whole enterprise? Or philosopher and to regard nihilism as a byproduct of of certain modes of religious thought and imagery. No. it must carry a heavy burden there. justification." Maxims. From the outset of the trial. reason (p. to bow to authority and including and to understand one's capacities is the only way develop one's independent faculties to the fullest. 2. ed. only to have Reason block access to this higher course of our Or does Meier propose that we as it were visit this higher judiciary in the investigations? To take ment and another approach. 43. the Meier. "How to Begin to Study Medieval Philosophy" Political in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism: An Introduction to the Thought of Leo Strauss [Chicago: University of 107) with that rejection of revelation allows of a cogent Chicago Press. p. limitations of DB. Der Verbrecher Ehre ("The Man Who Became a Criminal Because He Lost His Honor"). the mode of philosophical action. "The Discourse Rousseau' Origin the On the Intention of s Most Philosophical Work. Will to Power 1 "Toward an Outline. Plato's Dialogue on Friendship: An Interpretation of the Lysis with a New Transla tion (Ithaca.76 - Interpretation aus verlorener lower level. Schmitt wishes to avoid fruitless the truth of the Christian revelation. 3. 1989]. "Mixed Opinions and sche. sheds 23. Nietz 2 and Human. consists in a new accentuation of the third and fourth aspects and in his specific elabora tion of them with a a view to the challenge of political theology. 215. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. Meier. and pp. trust conceptual contradictions or factual just contradictions of Does ical not the political philosopher in the reliability of human reason as does the unpolit philosopher? Meier of replies in the negative. to see the original decision in favor the philosophic life as that choice totally well boundaries and handicaps. and Persecution. 'interpretation: A Journal of Political Philosophy 16. On truth Antichrist 54 26. a demonstration of untruth presumably experience. arguments. incapacities? Does the animated self-affirmation of the to founded notwithstanding its given that the alternative is to blanket affirmation of all the unavoidable frustrations human existence. p. At seems. 1956]. means proof of either internal. 22. p. for instance. By the standard of reason. perplexing. the necessity of the chapter beyond doubt. to his Die and allows of neither refutation nor apodictic demonstration by 24. J. 1979). the circularity of the political defendant employs reasoning to judge. Meier spells out the "fourfold meaning" of political philosophy.

. who voices his hearty ap in of Karl Lowith's study of "the theological implications of the philosophy of in History. We must close our eyes and. 87). "What Christ says.. Meier. "Of Bacon of course means Lucretius. next to the Bible. The a moral paragraph "Vis-a-vis proofs of the truth of religion. and what (trans. and 11. the scales would be balanced could yield an absolute maintains indeed. and believes in nothing. Rebirth. 70. 267. 30. . After alluding to this and philosophical truth. of Religion. Betrachtungen iiber die Person und das Leben Jesu Christi p. 99. p. Schmitt." from theological. see also pp. his best and. 258." rest. Cf. Luther urges us to be on guard against reason and human thought. See Lesson." When he speaks here of an unnamed poet "who beauti 33. . . Return" or in The Rebirth of Classical Political Ratio 256-57. and Persecution. 261. Meier sermon on vexing length the commentary on considered Simonides in Cruciger edition of Martin Luther's John 17: 1-3. and italics 31. Bacon hastens "to business." to have right thought construes [or] a certain consequently "no human being on knowledge of God without God's has ever been Word" (quoted on pp. lives incarnate" (iii. hold fast to the by Luther Bible." and the End of Philosophy 11 alia 27. cf. 51. The unbeliever. . Cf. crushing the other hand. "It is not possible to grasp the slightest article of earth true" faith able by human a reason or the senses. Regarding knowledge of God and Jesus Christ. you profane Consider also Strauss. "Progress nalism. shares Lowith's conviction "that paganism is not capable of historical thought history" cyclically" because it thinks (quoted at 159-60). Truth. Cf. ques 87-88). Cf. Theodicy. Augustine in his Confessions admonishes. . work. Luther Simonides' procrastination and confessed aporia no access regarding Hiero's tion as confirmation that human reason has so that reason to "God's essence. is in him that he He cannot say or express to no way Socrates perplexed. Plutarch Mor"How to profit by one's See also Lesson. 32." Leibniz a that the validity of on the successful would defense of faith against attacks upon it. Maxims and Reflec sixth aphorism (on piety). 107 n. enemies. See Mark 9:23 Conversations tions." and Goethe. p 120.. p. n. Would Socrates have any place in the just city 29. 28. change during the conversation as Socrates Eckermann "Through faith and reports Goethe's to a painting of Jesus and Peter walking on the waves: most and courage man will with triumph in the difficult endeavors. 213c. 1951). "Of On pp. 7. Every is" attempt to interpret it intellectually what has to destroy It is presumption and unbelief human being wants to determine supplied). without thinking or speculating. proofs that can yield only certainty. Francis Bacon. pp. 159 n. 1. we must tell ourselves. How indeed divine things? proves to (Vergil Aeneid 196: "He . will. Essays. God says what he wants. (Wiirzburg: Werkbund Verlag. if the he wants. then? Christ in his eternal reality. merely of. Essays. Lesson. Goethe. February 12. vi. evidently have to leap a higher hurdle by mounting offense aginst religion to vindicate rejection of faith. The passage unidentified textual reference pass in Lucretius. xi. best of the fied the sect that was otherwise inferior to the Epicureans." eventually reaches the errant conclusion that God is nothing. 61 n. . "Get away. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 1 172al 1-12. away. 12. 263-65. 4. 259. they would be tipped by [philosophic] certainty if they were really persuasive and entirely faith depends in order on objections that compelling." . . 466: "What is the Eucharist. Superstition. Der Herr. which amount to temptations of the Devil. which are based on human traditions and on the elements of this world and not on 255. in whom alone the whole plenitude of men" divinity 173). p. p. 100. "Introductory Essay on the Agreement of Faith with concludes: of Plato's Republic! Reason" 5. Christ. Exodus 3:14. . David Hume. and decision. favorite book. is possible here. "See to it that no one captures you by means of philosophy and inane deceptions. His self-contradiction an awareness what he thinks he has can one express suffers as [religious] little reaction experiences to someone who has never tasted the himself. grasp or know how it could be sin. 1831." 86-88 notice is taken Simonides' of God?" memorable hesitation to expatiate on the cites at question Hiero puts to him. Plato Lysis 210e. 35.. The Natural History Compare further St. Cf. For instance Aeschylus Prometheus in Chains 515-22. . vi. The suffering and death of the Lord in his We it. p. "what is the Cicero De natura deorum i 60. Leo Strauss.Schmitt. 214d. that shall and and must be true whether I or any other human being can understand Otherwise we shall fall into confusion and and (quoted on p. Romano Guardini. . to the truth of civil proval Meaning 34. "Religion Christianity. 1-10. is De Rerum Natura ii. .. Thomas Aquinas Summa theologica i. 8). are to leave it at that [formulation]. sacrifice.

1982). Heidegger. Gesamtausgabe 32 (1980) and Gadamer. 38. 222-46. pp. Les Styles de Nietzsche (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 37. Heidegger. Politiques de I'amitie suivi de L'oreille de Heidegger (Paris: Galilee. Der Leviathan in der Staatslehre des Thomas Hobbes. Gesamtausgabe 2 (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Vittorio Klosteroften make not consider Hegel's or Dilthey's histori here because I take Heidegger's Hans-Georg Gadamer's critiques of them as definitive. 1994). Radical historicism and totalitarianism 1977). to the thunder Derrida. cf. and Beitrcige zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis) Gesamtaus gabe 65 (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Vittorio Klostermann. 1979) simply as S. 221-39..78 Interpretation 35. p. Derrida's worldwide reputation as a master of irony could be said to inspire See Meier. Meier does 8). not exaggerate 1938. ibid. cism under a ruler or rulers believed. p. C. reprinted Cologne: Hohenheim exceeds Verlag.. 135). though of undemonstrated prudence. pp. p. Gesammelte Werke 1 (Tub ingen: Verlag J. 16. I do and cozy bedfellows. 332-411. Mohr [Paul Siebeck]. Esoterically. Sein und Zeit. Grundziige einer philosophischen Hermeneutik. "there is evidence here to expose one of (S. 368-70. 1986). 152-74. B. 244-61. mann. Wahrheit und Methode. pp. matter much and piipstlicher als in the Epilogue (subtitled "A Theological the same spirit. Hegel's Phiinomenologie des Geistes. 224. to enjoy heavenly sanction. Nietzsche's Styles/Eperons. To quote of an enormous laughter" der Papst [a better Pope than the Pope himself). Sinn und Fehlschlag eines politischen Symbols (Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt. to approach his subject or a Philosophical Politics of Friendship?") in . lightning clap . in classifying Schmitt as a historicist: "It atmospheric influences in reflecting on living exhibits human (Donoso to risk Cortes. I shall cite his Spurs. powers to free oneself from all p. 1989).. Schmitt in these two works a breathtaking readiness the extremest tyranny 36. Sein und Zeit. Heidegger.

It could.00. its to It also suggests to leadership which needed perpetuate the success of the "experiment" is the United States of America and the changes it. whether books and legal origins of the American character or.' in prevalent Anastaplo makes twentieth-century legal thinking that may now endanger these contributions through his analysis of the major influ political ences upon Abraham Lincoln's thought and the significance of there are other Lin now coln's own words and actions. Conditions of Freedom (1973) INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional Biography. in the spirit of "dia for readers fully to appreciate their content and the author's intentions. but it is the most public and visible expression of it. with the Constitution. for a complete course on the essence of our readers the character of civic great republican constitution. in the compass of one relatively small volume. Harry Jaffa. 1999). is the a uniquely important book. $35. the author makes his readers. the essential issues American democracy should concern themselves century. 359 pp. as with which earnest students of as we clearly indicate. philosophic. by itself. that is. but logue. from an elevated perspective. It uted should interest all serious students of political principles and aspirations that have formed the American regime and contrib to its long endurance. Present. The Constitution define the regime. I doubt in print which more luminously any interweave the historic. provide the basis soul. INTERPRETATION. by George Anastaplo." cross references) are a treasure of require more than usual insights. Most American does not studies begin. and properly so.American Law and the Past. both profound and enter intellectual diligence. Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Fall 2000.2 begin the twenty-first demands upon While his text is lucid The book's and engaging. Biography (Lanham. voluminous footnotes (with labyrinthian taining. No.. Sheppard George Anastaplo. 28. Vol. and Future of the American Regime Harrison J. 1 .

Indeed. I have elsewhere referred to Professor Anastaplo as "a magnificent American. In my view. stand up for them least when attack upon them directly affects. or seriously threat affect. also not only to consideration of my critical judgments about the but to an appreciation of the genesis of the book itself. Rosa Parks to be Dr."3 The reader may. our revolutionary Founders their sacred honor" their "lives. This is based and upon consideration of the unique political genius of this country's Founders of coln. and. are highly book. What the Founders equal was not the called the "self-evident" truth that all men are created only fundamental political principle articulated in the Declara tion. the sheet anchor of American republicanism" (Lincoln-Douglas Debates. risk or cost ens to at being willing to life. properly infer that I regard Anastaplo as an American hero. of and pendence. the example and writings of George Anastaplo have made possible it for me to continue the legal profession or practicing law without becoming a dyspeptic cynic losing about faith in the nobility of its place in the Ameri can regime. coln: and other seminal political in Abraham Lin A Constitutional Biography. disclo past by the reviewer to assist the For the thirty-three years." to the Declaration of Inde to be 'The United was States America. The reasons for this high regard. their fortunes. THE REVIEWER'S BIAS The sures claims made in this essay for the book reader's under review require some evaluation of them. there is willing to be an fore. having an ap of what this country's essential political principles and aspirations even at some personal are. in terms of how its signers put themselves at risk. second. "willing" Americans. The the political preciation of principles and aspirations from an ap determination necessary from the first to secure the of the American Revolution. is of course. even at personal cost or risk. October 16. The significance of that principle is. One of those principles. Some fashionable histor second criterion proceeds risked ical revisionism notwithstanding. Abraham Lin Declaration of Independence. subject to interpretation. and its influ example of a person who ence on the character and objectivity of this review. one's own The first are criterion presupposes that this country's principles and aspirations presupposition discoverable. the United States documents examined their faithful Constitution. In the view expressed here. "that all men are created as was regarded by Abraham Lincoln "the leading principle. to defend the principle on a reasonable interpretation were also of it. however. 1854). to be preciation "willing" to be an American means. first.80 Interpretation I. it was not the . for example. a luminous bearer of this country's heritage. the first document publicly by subscribing declaring this country equal. Jr. by risking the consequences of disobeying laws that violated the egalitarian principle. and one "willing" to be an American who is prepared." and stating the principles upon which it founded. relevant. and the intelligibility the heir. Martin Luther King..

be intimidated by this atmosphere. in the example of Revolution has found the germ chapter . the "right of any and people" to "throw off. and the American Regime 81 The riskiest principle was the right of revolution "inalienable" itself. To do so examiners would. Air Corps to fight the threats to freedom posed willingness to defend the by by enlisting in the Army the Nazi regime and by serving strated with distinction. if anything. reaffirming said the importance of the right of revolution. Anastaplo's may. repeatedly that the right of revolution. was the great world "charter freedom" of . While generally es undogmatic political chewing such classifications himself. liberty." liberty 24) George Anastaplo may first have demonstrated his liberty of mankind when he was a very young man."4 stance liberal. . When Anastaplo graduated (first in his class) from the paranoia was at Oath" University a Chicago Law School in was the 1951. . Anastaplo appealed this decision himself all the way to the case United States Supreme Court. is "the of world. This McCarthy a public era. But." The Declaration and of Independence. and the mere suggestion in forum that a person Anastaplo refused to had revolutionary Communist ties or leanings could ruin a career. the people to alter or to abolish it. it is the . their existing stead as form "a of government. which we may hope and lieve. have been to join the Illinois Bar in a conspir acy to violate the the United States Constitution. . mankind. 1. the bar examiners refused to admit him to prac tice law in Illinois. while still a young adult. governments are instituted among men. right of free speech guaranteed by the First Amendment to For this country's principled adherence by Anastaplo to the letter and spirit of this founding documents. Lincoln. Subsequent authority. and to institute new government. he conspicuously demon of his willingness to be an American even more directly.S." (McPherson. 366 U. revers- In Re Anastaplo. claim: and happiness" was the antecedent for a more decisive That to just secure these rights. a to establish such other in its be choose" they may to liberate the was sacred right right. Cold War time when the its most intense. 82 (1961).American Law most critical one. he insisted the American often. to grow and expand into the universal p." or perhaps even "con He nevertheless declined to become a member of the Illinois State Bar when his admission was conditioned upon right of revolution as articulated qualifying his acceptance of the in the Declaration of Independence. He lost his in a 5-4 Supreme Court decision. "The Second American Revolution. effectively . be characterized as "classically servative. that whenever any form of govern ment becomes destructive of these ends. in his opinion. right of deriving their powers from the consent of the governed. a "Loyalty had become widely accepted part of both fed eral and state public administration. to revolutionize. Asser the pursuit tion of in the Declaration of our rights to "life.

a majority the justices of the United States Supreme Court have chosen not to follow . in prevalent American legal practice. If we are to pass on that heritage We freedom. State Bar of U.S. 607 [1967]). For record shows that Anastaplo not American Bar. ethical. from time to time. this related in public regard unlikely to be used today. Too many men are being driven to become government-fearing and time-serving because the Government is being permitted to strike out at those who But that walk of are fearless enough to think as they please and be halted if we are to keep faith with the say Founders what they think. "nobility" a United States Su of Court Justice without could speak of the "glory" and the legal pro fession is characterizations are change explained in detail below. emphases must not afraid to be free. added) The preme reader is invited to irony.S. citing United States of v. 1 15. This trend must of our Nation and pass on to fu ture generations of Americans the great heritage of freedom which so much they sacrificed great to leave to of us. replenished with lawyers like these.82 Interpretation the Court's ruling in Anastaplo. 389 U. It shows.S. (366 U. be we must return to the original language of the Bill of Rights. As for the legal profession directly to the practical abandonment. in 1961. 589. 82. 385 U. has vindicated his position and makes it of admission unlikely that any political test may now be imposed as a condition ing law in any state of the United States: see Baird v. and patriotic course has many of the qualities that are needed in the only that Anastaplo has followed a high moral.S. It is . but have also that he combines to stand these more common virtues with the uncommon virtue of courage most by his principles at any cost.S. such men as these who profession will profession of the law. his in all of the activities of life. v. majority opinion in Baird. . of the Regents. government-fearing and degrade it. Such consider the fact that. Justice Black. To force the bar to become is the present trend. not only in the legal profession but in almost every life. 258. 6. was one of the dissenters in the Anastaplo case. The choice is clear to me. 1 (1971). Robel. i. of the moral and political principles illuminated in Abraham Lincoln: his for A Constitutional Biography. Justice Black's dissent in the Anastaplo the of case and subsequent opinion majority in the Baird case demonstrate that. . 266 [1967] and Keyishian author Board Justice Hugo Black. time-serving. His dissenting opinion concludes with the following This words (Black's footnotes omitted): case illustrates to me the serious consequences to the Bar itself of applicants not afford ing this the full protection of the First Amendment to its for admission. 401 Arizona. a 5-4 decision with the majority opinion by Mr. The legal greatly honored the lose much of its glory if it is not constantly of a group individuals is to humiliate thoroughly orthodox. holding that "The First Amendment's protection of association to practice prohibits a State from excluding beliefs" a person from a profession or solely because he is he holds certain a member of a particular political organization or punishing him because (401 U.

very much influenced by what I have learned from Professor in Anastaplo during the past quarter century about the philosophic enterprise political general and the particular origins and character of American institu unlike him.American Law the clear and the American Regime and 83 letter and spirit of our Declaration of Independence federal Consti tution. It was inspiring as my first reading. I first learned of the Anastaplo course. 347 U. who however. truly the walk. to indicate that Lincoln's statesmanship was a reflec unique character of the American polity. of Plato's Apology. for further examples. in which we both partici I approach review of We have been friends and ever since. Board of Education. view With respect to the character of its author. and Korematsu v. United States. Edwin M. therefore.5 public and private practice and by the conclusions I have reached about our legal and governmental institutions as a result of those experiences. II. in this reviewer's judgment. Stanton. I therefore felt it to be years a great privilege Professor Anastaplo himself ten the nial celebration of pated. years. the profoundly American. THE CHOICE OF LINCOLN AS SUBJECT OF THE BOOK Now he belongs to the Ages. Declaration of later. walked has. my Constitutional Law nearly as in 1966. 214 (1944). 537 (1896). in Reading Justice Black's dissent from the per spective of one who aspired to be an American lawyer was thrilling. He uses the term in an sense as Aristotelian well.S. Consider in this connection. perhaps most influenced by my experiences as a lawyer in both tions. therefore. dramatizing him for his meet speech to the Athenians who were prosecuting to philosophical inquiries. when I was a law student. of of political principles and aspirations which most I hold as expressive the American character at its best. however.S. been a practicing lawyer for over thirty My approach to this book is. v. at Ohio University's bicenten Independence. with which The ideas the skepticism this book are. as that character may be discerned in principles embodied in legislative and other documents composed . Socrates' as a student of philosophy.S. of Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional Biography. partially case remedied by an act of congressional reparation. at Lincoln's deathbed When Anastaplo subtitles his book a "Constitutional Biography. who has chosen not to be admitted to the bar. 323 U. In matters author George Anastaplo. reversed by Brown v. Plessy Ferguson. judicially politically reme died. I have." he is not referring derstanding tion of the only to how Abraham Lincoln's political life was based upon his un of the written United States Constitution. I this book as the work of a man has demonstrated in his life choices a profound understanding. 483 reversed or and their decisions have had to be (1954). and heroic championship. 163 U.

278). and taking renewed in Lincoln's own words and deeds: 1. The Northwest Ordinance 4. The Fourth of July Message to Congress 14. the how they helped to form Lincoln's they illuminate the precedence Lincoln prudence with which views on gave slavery in the United States. the "new birth of for which Lincoln called in his Gettysburg particularly in created the popular mind. shape ing Lincoln's political thought. 40). 11. The Common Law 7.6 equal" as a cornerstone of the Along phy" the way. The Second Inaugural Address 17. how to preservation of Union. Anastaplo Northwest Ordinance shaped . 14-16). His how the of analysis of the of 1787. The Declaration of of Independence: An Introduction Independence. an authoritative indication "the original constitutional stance expressed toward slav (p. He shows. Abraham Lincoln's Legacies these elements of Lincoln's "Constitu Anastaplo's tional analyses and synthesis of Biography" shape them into a coherent whole.. On Rights and 2. particularly . offers a series of unusual insights. Slavery and the Federal Convention and of 1787 5. the Address significantly re-established. The First Inaugural Address 13. moral how it may have judgment of the American and community" "the enduring (p. most importantly. including. in addition to explication of those elements of the "Biogra we would most expect to see (i. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 12. . The Gettysburg Address 16. good sense and Anastaplo's reflections chapter on Tocqueville likewise limitations of provides original and edifying on the possible Tocqueville's analyses. in particular. The titles of the book's threads Anastaplo sees as principal indicate the cloth forming the fabric of our American constitution. chapters 1. The Declaration Duties 3. Southern 9. As other writers have also noted. for ery" example. The Emancipation Proclamation 15. John C. the he moved toward abolition. meaning of the principle that "all men are American constitution. chapters the Declara tion of Independence.84 Interpretation and after both before the Constitution. The "House Divided" Speech 11.e. shows ordinance decisively this country as . The Illinois' Abraham Lincoln Poetry Abraham Lincoln 10. Calhoun the Organization of Government 6. 2. Alexis de Tocqueville and s of Democracy Slavery on in America 8. and what we may yet have to preservation freedom" learn from Lincoln's statesmanship about what is most essential to of our constitution.

. (Prologue. as and the American Regime of 85 they proceed from a shallow His chapters on Calhoun It would and understanding Lincoln's poetry read philosophy chapter on and educa provide additional unex pected contributions.) III. Collection. [0]ne can proceed. The Lincoln's poetry in chapter 9 is deeply moving.American Law insofar tion. 155-56). emphasis original) Three are points essential announced to an appreciation of the book's treatment of its subject here in by Professor Anastaplo. . 344). and are constitutional which I have again. [T]his Collection pp. and less of Abraham specific response Lincoln" (pp. . . In them I law to address issues in American his returned again and tory. . 9. and in turn illuminate. 8). in observations about current affairs. THE AUTHOR'S TREATMENT OF HIS SUBJECT Anastaplo terms this work a "book-length dialogue" (p. 264) concluding made but were only betrayed the disingenuous (if not hypocritical) in both the leadership not Founders' American principles. whatever order one prefers recom which through this mended. although tie the on chapters . 198. together. First. illuminated by. to reflect readers actively to en "dialogue" carefully upon the many questions . (This in to the contrary views of Pro fessor Harry Jaffa. as quoted at p. Although Abraham Lincoln's are political life. attempt to follow in Lincoln's tracks to this somewhat extent: all of the discussions col prepared lected here (adapted specific occasions to this dialogic context) were and by me for between 1961 1998. it their of provides novel sensitive regard insights po into Lincoln's litical personal sensibilities and possible effect on his deepest aspirations. and announces his . These issues . Anastaplo's treatment this subject may be a unique contri the factors that influenced themes are the moral and bution to the Lincoln literature. Anastaplo declares that he needed dence to apply those principles to secure continued heroes" "would prefer to see more made of the American regime. be difficult to most his Calhoun thus whom Anastaplo calls "perhaps the political ominous counterpart without far to Abraham Lincoln in American that the rebel thought" (p. . political philosophy. as reader. 1. While assigning "to Lincoln a very high place in the pan theon of American constitutional (p. and it. Anastaplo invites text. could well be subtitled A Dialogue Prudence. its underlying statesmanship and political principles that animated his the nature of the pru vitality in America's future constitution. my more or less chronological order is Considerable overlapping is to be found in the extensive notes. In addition to the it demonstrates for Lincoln the man. in gage the true Socratic with the tradition. the formal subjects of the book. arguments they for secession and the analysis of language they used in forming the southern confederacy.

Anastaplo's understanding of prudence (and his observations about its presence or absence in the conduct of contemporary political affairs). implications. It has given him an almost oracu lar foresight in the diagnosis and prognosis of controversial political matters as they and arise. or at least as fine a practitioner of it as we institutionalized" have perhaps had in government in this Country" (p. whom he calls "a model of prudential judgment. The celebrated law school for truth. This is the virtue Anastaplo obviously admires most in Lincoln. He readers to reach their own conclusions on the critical issues he own opinions may be inferred from fundamental matters. prudence 344). in particular the abolition of slavery. is central to appreciation of this book and his political writings in general. in concluding to the excerpts from the Prologue quoted above. This gift to readers is not tendered out of intellectual timidity but follows from Anastaplo's profound reverence for the process by which intelli Anastaplo's the work as a whole." substance of this rare kind of synthesis may be the most important thing about the book. and American constitutional The law. in a sense. in the student and which a law school professor sophistical browbeats a student with questions to demonstrate the professor's resourcefulness and to "toughen up" school method training in is a vicious effect advocates for the adversary role such law promotes.7 Second. gent human beings pursue philosophy: the love of wisdom earned and by delibera tive inquiry enriched by one's own personal experiences method insights. The notes to his chapter on Lincoln's Gettysburg Address go so far as (p. Ethics Government [Athens: Ohio University Press. He declares in footnote 473 on page 331: . encourages raises. Anastaplo informs the reader that the book interweaves American history. political philosophy (broadly understood).) His analysis of Lin coln's approach to the most sensitive issues of his administration. highest goals was his There is taplo does another point about the not announce at book's treatment of its subject which Anas its beginning. Anas taplo's use of the Socratic method used is in sharp contrast to the so-called Socratic in some law school instruction. (See especially Anastaplo. coln's prudent essence of is almost a mathematical demonstration political of how Lin the advancement of this country's greatness. it follows a model of the legal inconsistent with Lincoln's (and Anas taplo's) to view of what the profession should be and threatens foreseeable injury perpetuation of the political institutions to which Lincoln devoted his states manship. partly with the end in view of helping to illuminate "current affairs. say that "A good constitution is. The American Moralist: On Law.86 Interpretation as well as their philosophical and political he explicitly poses. But his views are not offered dog in the most particularly matically. the author advises the reader of the political virtue he holds in the highest regard: prudence. 203). As explained travesty of the search profession further below. Third. 1992].

of course. social. a reflection he evidently freedom. . Bk I. drama tized 2400 years ago in Sophocles' and the community.8 of current most Perhaps the the individual basic and enduring question of political philosophy. AND REVERENCE FOR THE LAW Every and community of some kind.American Law and the American Regime 87 Rhetoric means. Antigone. concerned with both Ameri ad and constitutional liberty in his consideration of the character and objects of the historic. It rises at times to an almost poetic pitch deeply (for example. . no footnotes: that is. . Politics. thought. aspects of nearly identified with achievement of the Anastaplo is. . 2000. Chaps. . qualifications. 1 2 If Anastaplo's dominant is the concern moral and political principles of the secure achievement of what in this book is an understanding of the American constitution. philosophic. and the ." erty") being more closely associated with release more from external restraints. The determination of what is just is the principle of order in political society. A full understand ing of the author's readers (perhaps at substantiation. dresses "are illuminated by. This is suggested on the nature of highest political by the content of the Epilogue slavery and human liberty. and in turn can regime and how the issues he illuminate" observations about these dimensions affairs. every community is established with a view to He who is unable to live in society. and the latter ("Positive Liberty") greatest possible self-realization. or who has no a State is some good need . and documented evidence are neither necessary or useful. evidence" IV. 257-62). a "first (and that often on the substantia reading" run) suffices for most people. must be either a beast or a god . As Isaiah Berlin's famous essay Two Concepts of Liberty indicates. is the just relationship between This question most commonly arises in dem of ocratic times and places in the course between liberty and equality when conflicts assessing the balance to be struck between them arise in specific polit a public television chan- ical. in its examination of coln's own poetry). sustained tion. of reason and But Anastaplo is strain most of all concerned with the "rhetoric" declines to for typical rhetorical effects. and economic contexts. The text of Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional and a pleasure affect some readers Biography is both intellectu Lin ally engaging that may to read. On June 23. REASON. and Excerpts from Aristotle. because he is sufficient for himself. his ultimate concern considers the (and personal) good: (pp. one may distinguish and with the former ("Negative Lib between the terms "liberty" "freedom. may therefore require its a second reading) to consider Anastaplo's "qualifications documented in 533 footnotes. REVOLUTION. and book's content. in practice. .

. will be fragmented along lines of race." indicates its purpose. nationality of origin. and the notions the documentary "heroism" subject believed in the sent an martyred of herself (who evidently sincerely her acts) unfortunately no longer repre vignette. the National Institute for Dispute Resolution isolated. House of Representatives Subcommittee Judicial Administration (May 19. Turbu Intellec lence and rapid change is likely to characterize the 1990's decade. The a "protester" was presented as a possible whose "role model" dissent. John Murley has Politics and morality cannot cratic republic. racial.S.9 The NIDR church conclusions foreshadowed the of abortion activities of private militia groups. But a demo Re any other. The the show's or and the broadcaster. more than publican be separated in any political community. the film producers. .S. even under a well crafted Constitution cannot be expected to . continuing program This particular program whose title. ethnic. civil disobedience. government. kinds of civic terrorism arising from different social. . culture. The U. Madeleine on Crohn. wealth. possibly. directly and by implication. for attitude of political example. religious." In the course of the interview. . Address Before tual Property and the U. subject at a there was not the slightest suggestion by the show's host except.88 nel Interpretation broadcast an edition of a View. "revolutionary" former penal status was char acterized as that of a "political prisoner." was an of producers of a documentary film titled "Out: The Making A The film tells the story of a woman who was imprisoned for fourteen years for planting a bomb in the United States Capitol. 1992). of host. Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional and cultural view Biography is an important book in part because it illuminates. sponsored a six-month study part of conflict in the United States and issued a report which concluded in that Conflicts more will remain a kind of growth industry in the 1990's. "Independent interview with two Revolutionary. depends on the character of its citizens. for his their twice asking the producers whether they if considered not "role model" that the woman's actions were. written: Referring to Anastaplo's thought on this matter. or even a rare. contemporary American In 1990. . age and interests so that the "melting concept will be replaced by one of the "mosaic pot" society. sistent with a conscientious regard simply criminal. in protest of United States military policies in Grenada of and Lebanon." and increasing polarization may occur between various groups. and other bombings. political. burnings clinics. for individual human rights "nonjudgmental" least incon and a form of dissent far outside responsible political avenues available to her in this country. points during the decade of the nineties. regime that the bases for the kinds of misunderstandings of our American lead to such episodes. "value-free" including.

are truly self-governing and truly free "only when they know in the they are doing" which includes possessing a self-awareness grounded recognition that competence. if the expectation. Anastaplo that Lincoln's in the handbill implies that if a set of opinions . "there absolutes. moderation. consistently exercised political restraint in order to advance the principles of our rootedness of sacrificing the Union. despite his own very strongly held personal antislavery views. for example. possi Enlightenment influences in the political thought of Lincoln extended Founders. 76-77). identify and promote morality.American Law prosper when a people's character and and the American Regime sound. Some doctrines. ble Classical and the and and particularly in his notes. The American people. in decisive not respects. that "Lincoln the seems been. points out. . pp. deny also of the government to vitality. Lincoln. should be threat enduring both the right and the ability cuts at the root of standards of good and may be posed bad." and unlimited Referring to the text of a handbill of religious by Lincoln suggests in 1846 to rebut allegations of statement his lack faith. 172-73. they should not scoffed at." Anastaplo discusses throughout the book. self-restraint and civility are necessary to decent and sus added) tained self-government. page 348. The in his understanding of human nature (which largely follows the Enlightenment understanding of the Founders) is in sharp and postmodern notions of legal contrast to more "politically American constitution and achieve abolition without Lincoln's politics correct" "realism. "however he could be in his political (p. community (P. a child of Enlightenment. are no be immune from The most serious criticism. Or his that the . (Murley." the government "to identify and promote dispute his of account of the political principles that gave One may not as easily birth to the United States argument America and animated Lincoln's statesmanship. legal scholars. 89 habits are no longer the government to promote such soundness. and the are no now dogmatic convention that. For Lincoln. there practical deep division between career" morality politics. as a guide to political and life. especially those known as 'legal Anastaplo's tracing of Lincoln's political career demonstrates Lincoln's ac ciples of right and realists'" ceptance of the paramount importance of prudent moral reasoning. Such by a any doctrine that insists there which can doctrine. It is the duty of [Anastaplo] main what tains. 132). of continuous published progress. in law and politics. not was no dogma tism. emphasis The critical implications of these propositions for contemporary affairs are indicated by Anastaplo's observation that "An emphasis upon the enduring prin wrong shared by Americans is not fashionable today among (pp. 246) One may of agree or disagree with Anastaplo about ways in which it is the role morality. it seem." nominalism. dedicated to the hope. should be harmful to the morals of would the community. His discussion in to have note 492.

is positive Analyzing that the philosophical implications of these views. written or as quoted and cited v. legal realism. 304 U." Black & White Taxicab Co. the question of the status of natural right at least in this Country" is today the key issue in legal (p. In opinion. say.) in note 154. in the twentieth cen scholars. contemporary jurisprudence has looked to law "not as the product of reason with a view to justice. views education and jurisprudence... Anastaplo argues ing ley. In his discussion of the to Douglas debates of 1858 (p. law implied in Holmes's common could and the p. Brown & Yellow Taxibody of See also Co. But law. in effect. Holmes rejected as a placed by a famous dissenting judges "fallacy illusion" and the idea that might be able to discern. Anastaplo identifies the underlying philo sophical question that may divide those who understand the enlightened charac ter of the American regime as conceived stood by its Founders (and one can as Lincoln under them). be looked at as sufficient repositories of such power" (Mur In contrast to the view of dissent. value-free social science.. also cited (Emphasis Erie Railroad Co. and moral noting that. and a more perva sive moral sense. 255). page 283. and relativism to which intellectuals have been routinely subjected cism of in the twentieth century" (p.S. 171). States 168). enduring principles forming the substance of the common "If there were such a transcendental body of law outside of obligatory States might be there cab within it unless and until changed by statute. 276 U. as when he says: "An emphasis upon the enduring principles of right and wrong shared by Americans is not fashionable today among legal Responsibility for abandonment by American lawyers. 64. than the more sophisticated. law: through reason.S. existentialism. 533-34 (1928). 73f. positivism. but rather as merely the exercise of sovereign power. unwritten. and those who do not: "Indeed." tury. in his criti relativism. Anastaplo appears to worth credit most ordinary Americans with more practical wisdom.90 Interpretation examined documents in Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional institutions were understood Biography demon and the strate that our political by Lincoln Founders depend for their vitality upon the necessity for "reason and nature [to] be justice" and thereby determine the proper balance be looked to in establishing Lincolntween liberty and equality in particular matters. as a Anastaplo understandably Lincoln's "conservative legacy . which [1938]. that all law. 518. the any particular State but Courts of the United right is no such in using their independent judgment as to what it was. law. by Anastaplo. of Anastaplo partly faith in the vitality of the principles which guided Lincoln is at the door of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. Tompkins. It is legal realism. Anastaplo regards the Court's role in expounding the law as . added. proclaimed. 171). v. bar rier against that massive assault by positivism.

19. added) . 128-33.S. The Constitution of 1787. 341 that a name. that the Declaration of Independence remains People. nature made." founding instrument. that Americans have greater need to be explicitly reminded to day of this principle [of the it right of revolution as stated in the Declaration of Inde em pendence]. courts It is a question about the working way that reason and nature may be looked to in establishing justice. than at any other time in their history. (P. Anastaplo goes on to suggest that well harm It may be . is more certain a in modern society than the principle that there are no abso phrase. bring size the community along. . Reason looks to (instead of will looking to desire) in declaring the rule that is to be followed. and phasis all that implies. It is salutary to not empha they do pp. and reforming "a free human beings. doing case-by-case.American Law a question about and the American Regime by 91 the very nature of law and how justice is to be arrived at . 18-19)." of enabling a Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court to write that Nothing lutes. and in such a way as to on their own. Anastaplo observes that It is curiously indicative ments of of our own equivocal attitude toward the founding senti this republic that the deservedly celebrated 1954 United States Supreme Court decision striking down mention public school desegregation in this Country failed to assuming that such segregation represents a denial of the principle that the all men are created equal Declaration of Independence. Anastaplo is then so bold as to urge upon his readers the proposition that The "principle selves absolutes" that there are no or is not one to which men can pledge them in forming indeed the our nature of It is as a reminder of absolutes. relying instead findings on the much more questionable and far less elevated of social science research. the enduring standards of the community. 19) done Considering the implications for the American polity of the potential by legal realism and nominalism. a standard has meaning only when associated with the considerations which gave birth to the nomenclature. (Pp. United States. 494. Dennis v. (P. U. p 168) Holmes's dogmatic dissent is related to the modern dogma "nominalism. (Murley. Anastaplo. 508 (1951). simply make it. 19) Prefacing this quoted statement. something that common-law courts have always been thought of as most adept in The common law is a way of applying. even as reforms are being here that common-law judges discover the law. (P.

he quickly adds: The right of revolution implies an insistence upon the supremacy of reason in hu man affairs. As the following American explains. evidently. conduc ing more essentially to the ends history of former times tells us. January 27. 1838. . "was the task to which Abraham Lincoln.92 Interpretation And. While ever a state of feeling. in our of the year 1865" (p. and let the old and the young. vain will be every ef fort. to subvert our national freedom. Anastaplo refers years" to it as "Lincoln's great speech of (p. and likely. 128) and relates it to Lincoln's guiding political objectives: "The perpetuation of our political institu Anastaplo writes. . or even. the grave and the gay. may consider these the victims of their own ignorance or lack of education. Illinois. citizens and sible and an increasing number of alienated politically irresponsible forms one motivated groups who but politically active fail to distinguish between respon to express their grievances. the rich the poor. cal religion liberty. shall univer sally. very generally prevail throughout the nation." and like postmodern understanding intellectual . to decide deserves their continued consent. With of political action some charity. or whether the administration of which is becoming was destructive of the ends for it was estab lished: to secure our rights to life. To whom else are the people of this whether our form of government country reasonably." his Vandalia grandson of the of Revolution. to "legal "nominalism. added) Among a number of other references to this speech in his text. enforcing. it is potentially the most tragic consequence for constitution that the shift from an Enlightenment realism. such as this. Let reverence for laws become and the politi of the nation. not But such apologies cannot as who reasonably be made perhaps should be made for those have taken upon themselves the duty of enacting. and the pursuit of happiness? Abraham Lincoln keenly aware of the in the administration of our law to keep our necessity for justified public faith liberties secure when he said: We find ourselves under the government of a system of political of civil and religious . note omitted). institutions. a devoted tions. of upon all sexes and tongues. whether the exercise of governmental powers remains our government just. ("The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions. sacrifice un ceasingly its altars. and colors and conditions." the law. (P. liberty. adjudicating. or practicing American law." Address Before the emphasis Young Men's Lyceum of Spring field. 20) There are. to look. . can be said to have dedicated himself from the days when his youth in Springfield he was not yet Lyceum until the thirty of he spoke on this subject to the Young Men's hour his assassination on Good Fri day. administering. 230. and fruitless every attempt. the than any of which the .

and But the among the American as surveyed and explicated people. they are checked and stopped counselors. I question whether democratic institu and long be maintained.1 deepest laid pillars of our American constitution. but without this admixture of lawyer like sobriety tions could subsist with the democratic principle. operating in conjunction with the economics contemporary legal practice. principles embodied relate to the moral and political in our . V. fundamental laws. THE PRESENT STATE OF OUR AMERICAN CONSTITUTION In his Majority" analysis of factors contributing to "Mitigations in of the Tyranny of the in volume 1. and to the aristocracy by habit taste. "The new nation on this continent most all the wonder of the world ripen power (p.American Law fashions of and the American Regime 93 mentioned by Anastaplo. Tocqueville identifies additional factors in American political and social life which. of maintenance of the "spirit religion" free press. business did increase in proportion to the power of the sion or carried people. When the American of their people are intoxicated by pas by the almost impetuosity away by invisible influence of their legal the ideas. of Democracy America. in Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional Biography. 232). When it was less than half its present age. Its peaceful transfers of into a major world power one political from faction to another for more than two centuries are is a political achievement without prece dent. chapter 16. what . principles which made . voluntary private associations. The profession of the law is the only aristocratic element that can be amalgamated without violence with the natural elements of democracy and be ad vantageously and permanently combined with them. has made it increasingly difficult for citizens who come into contact with our legal system to maintain that "reverence for the laws" of which Lincoln free spoke as the foundation for perpetuation of the political institutions of a people. of I cannot public believe that a republic could not hope to if the influence lawyers in . I am not ignorant of the defects inherent in the character of this body of men. I have often inquired of myself. . . the "tyranny of the and other potential excesses of democ These include: trial by jury.. . they may be looked upon as the connecting link between the two great classes of society. in his opinion.. Ours is the in enduring democratic republic ever to known history. Alexis de Tocque ville wrote: Lawyers and belong to the people by birth and interest. Lincoln himself wondered at our constitution's endurance: I have never had a feeling of ied in the Declaration politically that did not spring from the sentiments embod Independence. may also operate to perpetuate majority" democratic liberties by checking racy.

It was that which time the weights should people of this country. in essence. epigraph Anastaplo to chapter 1. 1992]. responsibility for a moral duty. not alone to the hope to the world for all future time. It rests on our un derstanding our and support for the moral foundations of constitutional democracy .) Anastaplo follows Lincoln's the view that our written Constitution is. [Cambridge.. and have an equal chance. relates 6) summarized Dworkin directly the moral imperatives by Rutherford to judicial interpretation of our written Constitution: There is nothing revolutionary about the moral reading [of the Constitution] in prac tice. [T]he enjoyment of individual freedom and progress of human liberty are not inevi . Rutherford has observed: one the key to endurance of the America regime as we The future of American government still rests on public opinion. a just order. .94 Interpretation great principle or idea it was that the mere matter of the separation of the kept this confederacy so colonies from the long together. ability as moral It is indeed the self-imposed ethical or moral foundations of government that change mere obedience to the coer cive powers of government into a sense of consensual rights. James H." and secure Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity" remains think of Indeed. . has fortified Anastaplo's Rutherford's views with his assertion that The American ideal the most of government not only under law but under principle as well is important contribution our Freedom's Law: The Moral MA: Harvard history Reading of the p. . or human (Rutherford. further embodiment of this principle into our government's organic law. "constitution" presently may see such belief as the essence of the American in its broader sense. to a large degree. So far as American lawyers and judges follow any coherent strategy of interpre Lawyers and ting the Constitution at all. As Dr. thoughtful analyst of our American constitution. establish . Speech for Washington's Pennsylvania. the common good. has given to political theory. The Moral Foun dations of United States Constitutional Democracy [Pittsburgh: Torrance Publishing Co. American Constitution (Dworkin. on our willingness and agents place our free will within ethical constraints. 1996]. . This is the sentiment embodied in that Declaration his of Inde pendence. 7) another and Ronald Dworkin. p. February 22. They to are contingent. It was not some mother land. 1861. Continued justified belief commitment general by the people of this country in our Constitutional promote "to . insure domestic Tranquility the blessings of the Welfare it. . but that in due that all should gave promise be lifted from the shoulders of all men. (Quoted Birthday by at Independence as Hall. and ability to communicate and preserve such an understanding effectively. Philadelphia. Justice. they already use the moral reading. table. University Press. but thing in the Declaration giving liberty.

and generally followed in the prac tices of most American lawyers. schools a law school aims to help students develop an practical wis view. more difficult for Americans to maintain that "reverence for the laws" Lincoln demo evidently thought was practically indispensable to preservation cratic of our liberties. most and how to fight an opposing point of view with uncompromising technical Like law schools then no and now. they are schools to help promote It's no wonder that American lawyers have become. Not in my three years of there ever a discussion of how a practicing lawyer can school taught me help advance these great no quarter ideals. lawyers. instinctively only be . schools are profitable conflict. and human study freedom. the less favorably they look most laws. and public executives today. for resolving conflict harmoniously. and judges. skill. It seemed to me then as now that help advance once justice."12 Given the contrast between the as nature of our Amer Lincoln followed it. peace. dom. the mercenary This is longer merely irritating. that the current prevalent model of legal practice constitutes an essential abandonment of the moral and political principles which have formed tional our constitution as explicated in Abraham Lincoln: A Constitu Biography}1 My experiences as a lawyer during the past thirty-three years have persuaded me that it is a model which is not only inappropriate to condi one tions of twenty-first-century American democracy. treat the Constitution stract oral requirements that can applied to concrete cases through no real option expressing fresh so. counselor. Instead. . makes it conceived ican constitution as the Founders it. mine didn't require that students learn how to negotiate. human insight American law you wanted not schools or the ability to deal empathetically with are exactly the kinds of institutions of civil war opposing Law you would create if to promote kind instead of civil peace. For the fact is. in highly in- . law given or how to argue aggressively. country. this is to be expected. This no model has been by our for hire. with taken. The lawyer as to be the the gun model of the profession in this warrior. The model of legal wholly practice promoted in American law schools. problem-solver and planner used replaced of most people. I have a summarized published the basis for this troubling conclusion as follows. But law was school was a shock to me. in the eyes bad jokes. judgments argue. in widely opinion editorial: When I way went to law school.American Law judges. I believed that being a lawyer was not only a good to earn a living. the legal profession. judges. they have but to do (Pp 2-3) In the ment day-to-day affairs of the people of this of our country. The present reality people have with lawyers. and as most Americans sense it. but of our which now may threaten to tear apart the fabric part of American constitution. conciliator. Even today. but a good the main purpose of being a way lawyer is to to live. in moral and the American Regime as 95 ab their day-to-day As I work. we meet our govern in the administration contact with public more contact us in is that "the upon critically in situations that bring administrators.

State Bar of Arizona. in his thoughtful book.15 about. at an institutional low. But he is not the kind most Americans have access today. been "lawyer-statesman" considered the professional ideal. 433 U. calls upon the lawyer who it not just to acquire a set of engages intellectual skills. Stimson. (P.. The Lost Lawyer: Legal Profession (Cambridge. The kind of lawyer of was lawyer to whom whom Tocqueville writing has.S. for the vanishing ideal of the lawyer-statesman seems to me quite 380) Ever since the United States Supreme Court struck down state bar prohibi tions against lawyer advertising in Bates v. its happening was seen as a potential threat to our by American lawyer-statesmen: Henry who served L. in high government positions under six presidents.96 Interpretation dividualistic. 363) in our schools and the older forces firms lawyer-statesman is today so besieged by hostile and courts that its restoration now seems nearly its hopeless. law has moved increasingly from a professional to a business Long before this constitution came model.. it has become downright dangerous. (P. but to develop certain charac ter traits as well. profession and its most accomplished members and progressive have proven among all the at lawyers. In this the lawyer- book. help increase the chances that our American fu will bright its promise. wrote passionately of . 1993). traditionally. Kronman describes statesman and laments the progressive extinction of in today's legal "market": The decline of the lawyer-statesman ideal has [thrown] It the professional identity of lawyers into doubt. 350 despite prophetic warnings of four dissenting Justices. MA: Harvard Failing University Ideals of the Press. Dean of Yale University Law School. (P. (P 368) profession as a whole will awaken to the emptiness of great resurgence of [T]he likelihood that the condition and that there will be a support. . the practice of (1977). He is termed a by Anthony Kronman. have helped to To most forces in history. along with his intellect and forces him to The lawyer-statesman ideal poses a challenge to the person. It his affects feel as well as think whole in certain ways. the twentieth century doyen of the modern corporate attorney. increasingly fragmented The American legal themselves to be can society. 354) an The lawyer-statesman ideal is adopts ideal of character. we need to as a do what we can to encourage resto peacema ration of the model of the American lawyer Abraham Lincoln ville placed was among the best of the kind of lawyer in whom Tocque and his hopes for preservation of a healthy balance between of liberty equality in the American democracy. and this helps to explain view why it is capable of offering such a deep But personal meaning to those who ideal of the their professional responsibilities in its light. level. Ameri provide hope for ture better life to be as the as world. going back a civilizing least to Thomas Jefferson.

it is now practice to generally recently thirty relatively find lawyers representing opposing parties who are willing to engage in candid. Lincoln wrote: Discourage litigation. Linowitz. ("Real situations. pp. lawyers now generally rely upon costly legal techniques to "ad vance" "situations" their cases. in the light of economical reason and common sense. No Contest: Corporate Lawyers and The Perversion of Justice in America [New York: Random House. expense. good faith discussions about the merits of the claims and defenses involved obtained as as years rare without first undertaking client and completing protracted formal procedures. 1996]. Persuade your neighbors to compromise whenever you can. and waste of time. the lawyer has a superior opportunity of being a good man. p. Lincoln's rent prudent view of legal practice can help directly legal system to illuminate our cur legal affairs. to determine quickly what the real issues in the matter are or might be. 1850." merely servants of business the future of our liberties would be gloomy in (Ralph Nader and Wesley J.On Active Service in War and Peace. In contrast to the customs of legal ago. statistics collected in Sheppard. Instead of addressing efficiently. There will still be business enough. Smith. Point out to them how the nominal winner is often a real loser in fees. p. The they encounter them in Betrayed Profession: Lawyering at the End of the Twentieth Century [New The lack of intrinsic necessity York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 240-41. in ostensible preparation for trial. in terms of the interests. for such legal practice." involved (see the nn. These unnecessarily litigious "discovery" practices and abuse of the formal techniques are prudent directly advice to Abraham Lincoln's own stated views on the a way to practice contrary law." people don't find they find themselves in situations. 128. almost all the economic incentives are on the side of that protracted procedural wrangling. "I felt. . In the letter written on July 1. Lawyers don't encounter Sol M. 1994]. commonly on the basis of majority of all lawsuits factors ascertainable at are an early stage "American of the procedures Principles. to a young lawyer seeking about conduct of his practice.American Law and the American Regime and 97 the necessity of the American lawyer to be a defender of the laws Constitution. )16 parties' statistics for disposition of litigated cases. their clients in cases. As critics of our present have accurately ob served: . The great settled without a trial." Particularly lawyers' where third-party payment of fees is involved. 6 and of 7). is indicated by the themselves in cases." he wrote in . As a peacemaker. xvii) Accelerating growth in size of law firms since the 1950's has concomitantly to increase attorneys' increased law firm clients' overhead and operated need to subordinate efficient resolution of member and associate problems to the for each firm his and her "billable hours. "that if the time should ever come when this tradition come faded out and the members of the Bar had be deed.

a stumbling block to all those who in after times might seek to turn a free people back into the hateful paths of despotism. in our society of increasing diversity." upon state pre constitution). is it. is: "I solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California. The general character of attorneys with the American legal education today fails to provide fledgling knowledge necessary to carry out their oaths. Indeed. then the practice present condition of American legal may be seen as no less than a disaster to the letter and spirit of our Constitution as explicated in Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional Biography. not going far to conclude that this threatens internal subversion of our constitution in menace a more rity of In 1857. thank God. 6068). lawyers alike as dysfunctional and in need of reform. Lincoln the immediate way than the dangers of the Communist our Republic as perceived during the Cold War? stated to the secu his view of the meaning and objects of the implicit constitutional principle that "all men are created equal" expressly articulated in Declaration of Independence: The authors of that notable instrument did not mean to assert the obvious untruth. for resolution. visible. sec. so that the en of it might follow fast as circumstances should permit. art. cultural and observers. members of the professional class who should. . conflicts brought to reasonably liberties) are. that all were then enjoying . and that I will faithfully discharge the duties Act and of an ability" attorney and counselor at law to the best of my knowledge and (California. serve as the secular ministers of American democracy (promot ing that "reverence secure for the laws" as our "political religion" Lincoln thought would our civil exacerbate.. 4. The California State Bar it the first of the makes "Duties and of Attorney" of "To support the Constitution laws of the United States this State" (Sec. habituated to help foment and reconcile and harmonize. The consequences of for the character of our civic life are painfully too In terms foreseeable consequences. 16) admission Lawyers in every state of the United States are required to take an oath to the bar to uphold the United States Constitution (and their ability. rather than them instead. .. . The consequence is that. State Bar Act. up it is now proving itself. that they were about to confer it immediately forcement set upon them. is in disarray. They meant to Its authors meant it to be. The generally accepted character of American legal practice today fatally impairs the ability of practicing lawyers to do so. and p. through the model of their practices. commentators. They knew the pronea standard maxim for free society. commonly to "the best of their knowledge and scribed The form of oath for California attorneys. for example. They as meant simply to declare the right. 6067). Smith. nor yet. (Nader courts and government agencies are increasingly seen by the public. that equality. to the bar are still to education and If the constitutional oaths lawyers take upon admission be taken seriously. perhaps.98 Interpretation It is no secret that the legal system .

prudence can be understood to mean the practical application of intelligent principles properly in the light of observant common sense and the particular circumstances we litical action. promote is. whether a powerful popular majority or an influential content To the extent that members of the American legal profession themselves with exercise of their power to enact. to be seen as a tyrannical serving the unduly interests of the powerful. the prevalent model of legal education. nut and they of meant when such should re-appear this fair land and commence their vocation one they should find left for them at p. differ about what prudence requires at present constitution. to enforce. may always increase domestic security erty. the rights upon which our Constitution is founded. of not in the light of reason. In 'Tyranny" is the exercise of power without reason. in at least one requiring po important respect. VI. no person writing today who can speak. is likely. by the light of reason. enforce. ence the expense of civil lib (This is. in my opinion. of justice. for the good. 1857. for the common good. or in disregard of a free society. or apply the interpret. A powerful government. Nor views do I differ from his of prudence to concerning the its objectives. over time. why Lincoln thought that would secure our civil proposition continued widespread a government "rever for the laws" liberties. administer. at least hard to crack. including the to revolution. in all major respects. and prevalent American practices of lawyers. both from . common an unreasonable law. advocate. responding unjustly to legitimate at grievances. (Quoted 18) it. may now be seen to pose such dangers. And the the people democratic at republic becomes the exercise of self-interested will tyranny (ulti and seek mately right their expense). as ours to the and that all men are created equal. This is to say that its members expect the guided law to serve as a generally reliable instru Justice justice.American Law ness of and the American Regime 99 in prosperity to breed tyrants. is bound also to measures that will avoid the reasons foreseeable dangers to the security of its objects. to the establishment to the security of our liberty well. however. and toward the more aware good. central importance of the exercise help ensure perpetuation of our constitution and best promote progressive achievement of If. then I believe may. the reading it by Anastaplo in Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional Biography. For just discussed. they adopt the stance of tyrants.) But as dedicated. elite. ment of no one is supposed to be above the law or beneath its notice. the more likely be incentives to recall. Springfield Speech June 26. no doubt. to help secure the future vitality of our There is. common of a law. not promulgated edict Holmes's dictum notwithstanding. ANASTAPLO'S PRUDENCE IN THE PREMISES: A CRITIQUE My given to reading of our American constitution is.

170-71) legal It is education a political The character of "academic" question. 158) And again. (P.100 Interpretation study. (in footnote 154) the fact that "scholars are not apt to appreciate these days the "profound implications" of the difference between Chief Justice John Marshall's understanding Justice Holmes's. almost definitively. the root reasons for the present legal system. upon anything begin to restore both of our constitutional can be done amongst us encountering such political discourse. among things. what if (in an age of supposed great communication) to our public speakers and their audiences to a level both worthy heritage and necessary for our political health. A proper political education (under is sub legal education) presupposes. My of our own experiences as a lawyer persuade me that Anastaplo's constitutional analysis discloses. critical in America today is no longer simply an question of the highest order. richly reward ing. to be too much tempered by passion for the philosophic dialogic method. While mentioning. upon a proper ed which ucation sumed for political purposes." by which one may be guided even as one being "practi (Pp. enduring standards cal. it is uncertain whether intelligent scholars are given appropriate access to affect of the common law and readers lay who are not how these profound implications may them. the inference from the statement just quoted is clear: Ameri- . understanding other is. Yet even well-motivated readers may find it disarray daunting to discover his quences. he points out: The judgment Lincoln displayed the use of rhetoric with respect to both the formulation that of policy is and depended upon a sound . Commenting the Lincoln-Douglas debates. . with greater experience and authority than George Anastaplo the measures that publication of about the significance of our American constitution and taken from time to time to defend it. 263) presents the reader with a laby- labor of cross-references likely to discourage even generally reflective from wanting to go further along a path which is. Anastaplo remarks: One cannot the high quality of help but wonder. Anastaplo's seems to may have to be his knowledge however. even more An important illustration in Anastaplo's references unnecessary obscurity may be found to the education of lawyers. that is. that there are (as we have seen). for example. now raising issues concerning the future security of our Constitution and healthy endurance of the American regime. cally the starker conclusions that follow from his insights as to the present state of our constitution and the dangers to its continued vitality. With knowledge of what really takes place in our law schools. in fact. rinthian readers essential conclusions or understand their most momentous conse The book's very first footnote (p. to which he refers both of on obliquely and directly from time to time. too great a reluctance to state explicitly and unequivo me.

un "dialogic" like its typical law philosophic spirits.American Law can and the American Regime 101 law schools do not executives to exercise sound presently prepare our future lawyers.) But if it is the future Constitution. that unless American lawyers become well educated in the significance of quences our But in Constitution. properly be in significant jeopardy. as persuasively education and practice as possible. the critical need for reform and candidly in the educa and practice of American lawyers? As Anastaplo shows us. judges. . remain and public officials. he sound character of the asserts that American be . Does not Anastaplo's at any interest in human freedom advocate. does not prudence concerned. and continues to give so much. in his youth. however. sacrificed so much in its defense. tion rather therefore require him to write more politically than merely intimate. well on the other people." Anastaplo suggests in another p. ("[P]erhaps we need to be reminded. in practices that tend to subvert it. . fortified are by other "hostile forces" Dean Kronman describes in his book. secure and advance the principles and aspirations of our American Isn't now the critical and opportune time actively to promote. to exposition American constitution. as pointed out greater need to "It may today" that Americans have stated be explicitly reminded in the Declaration of Independence "and of the right of revolution as all that it implies. principles that that system is jeopardized basic in the thought and actions of those by abandonment of its most directly responsible for main Socrates abandoned poli taining them. a guaranteed liberty of our constitutional system. is authentic and The permissible conduct of such philosophic enterprise potentially stimulating to has Anastaplo's analyses been show. is rightly perceived to 100. judges. Anastaplo. Anastaplo's obliquity may proceed from his belief in deliberative inquiry as the means for attaining what may be the highest human excellence and also in his faith in our nobler human intuitions. judges. 19). likely to lead them to engage As I have suggested. narrow self-interests. Anastaplo's Socratic method. over. context. hand. and. school corruption. More states his continued faith in the above. one pregnant with conse for Anastaplo's deepest concerns. important as this. and rather than sustained detachment? given so Anastaplo has much. tics when he concluded that the character of the Athenian democracy did not it safe for him to politically active. make our lawyers. that it may seem (or be) churlish of me to fault him for failing to of our compromise what defense Socrates in preference may be his highest good by seeming to follow the model of to Lincoln. reformation of of preservation of our American legal in the interest liberties? . and sublime. why leave it to inference? The fact is. their ignorant. and a matter as public executives. than own ultimate other time in their history" (p. "that there may be in mankind an innate openness to the of our Constitution with which we are understood. Lincoln had an almost unerring sense of timing in the prudent pursuit of measures designed to constitution. and public judgment in what they do as lawyers." that dictate some form of salutary political action by informed citizens as most need ful.

The Great Ideas Today [Chicago: Lie. . p. The Great Ideas Today [1994]." violence with police measures calculated Se curity homa measures already adopted in major federal facilities employed following major the Okla City bombing We no are now similar to those in United States their govern took airports. . but does it mentality subordinating individual liberties to the need for security that is likely to increase in scope and significance with increases in domestic violence? not suggest a VII. While recently entering a building myself. (William T. 1989].. Adler ed. alienation between American access of citizens and for to granted longer enjoy the easy and must. to be subjected electronic searches office federal before entering federal offices.. diversity and complexity of the lawyer's work simply reflects American law as a political institu tion [b]ecause of the kind of society twentieth-century Americans have con structed for themselves. another twentiethput century lawyer-statesman consists of it. 231) in prudent restraint upon Until relatively recently.102 Interpretation much At least this ness is clear: Prevention through of the escalation of domestic fractious- into increasing far more violence appropriate changes more in the model of legal education and practice would be far faithful to the spirit of our constitu tion. economic. "On Legal Practice and Education . See also Braithwaite. in the interest to government offices we once permit ourselves security." This is in itself trivial incident. Thus the . CONCLUSION: THE LIKELY FUTURE OF OUR AMERICAN REGIME We Americans law. . "About half the practice of any decent lawyer stop" (as quoted telling in Linowitz. they're damned fools. members of the legal profession generally exercised American litigiousness. Serious of the consideration must now be given to the implications for the future taken place." in Mortimer J. Braithwaite. at the Present Time." Encyclopedia Britannica. The phrases "There ought to be a and "I'll see you in court. as professional model. would-be clients that p. and social problems into lawsuits. I overheard the security officer say to a man caused a off: security alarm to go better than to dress that way if you were coming whose metal belt "You should have known a here. risking further ment. and should 4)." can be a feisty people. American regime of the change that yielded has now legal practice has progressively to a business . De Tocqueville Americans' noticed over a temperamental inclination to turn political. our and Posterity." may be peculiarly American in temperament: chosen to American lawyers work in a society that has century ago thoroughly legalize itself." likely to secure "the blessings of Liberty to ourselves and than having to depend upon the government to respond to such to "ensure domestic Tranquility. "Why Lawyers Mortimer J. p. As Elihu Root. Adler ed. 54.

American Law Is it not unreasonable to suppose and the American Regime 103 that the success of our American experiment to date has endurance been a mere accident of history? Is it not far more of this democratic republic is attributable to a likely that the deep and accurate understanding by its Founders of human nature. as do I. Even noble though many students continue to enter law school with aspirations. that might better suggest how to bring leadership we that about? The chances are that if we do not to influence the we character of our adopted a new find such Lincolnesque legal institutions before it is too late. and the pursuit of likely bound happiness" to be critically influenced under our system of rights? by what we see in those to whom we must look. to freedom. those laws. But is it Lincoln. American law as schools in effect they can to discourage such aspirations "unprofessional. the security of the people of our great of our American constitution is ulti mately in the hands democratic republic. to perhaps even compel. Reading written Abraham Lincoln: A Constitutional same could Biography (and other books spirit) help inform those among us who are willing to Americans now have for lawyers has at its most disdain that the be Americans in the root their prevalent incapacity what to understand and abide as by their oaths to support the Constitution in mulgation of such they do lawyers and public officers. The wider pro knowledge could." If lawyers as a class are still in any respects considered an it is probably as a powerful elite regarded with general opprobrium. rather than Socrates. "aristocracy. one of which we and say: "vain will be every effort." subvert our national ." merely naive and disdaining to encourage replenishment of the profession with lawyers like Anastaplo." profession its nobility lawyers like [George much of its glory if it is not constantly replenished In the judgment of most Americans. to are not members of the legal profession in the best position help liberties by prudently helping to harmonize increasing will with conflict among Justice Black lose pointed out in his Anastaplo dissent that 'The legal and Anastaplo]. liberty. fruitless every attempt. even if they are also perceived as to protect or advance individual self-interests as legal elites are not. in contemplation of the need both to advance our nation's enduring aspirations and also to guard adequately against its weaknesses and vices? As our Founders knew. necessary and useful Reprobated peo time. usually treated kindly by democratically inclined to the injuries such elites are causing to the common good. not future lawyers the model of and public officials do their constitutional duty. But are not the measures to "life. of may find that may be unable to have kind constitution. in turn. in whom we are Anas taplo generally places to take to protect our rights faith. better enable. and members of the American legal narrow profession their inglorious and self-seeking do what have already lost their nobility by their tyranny of technique. over ples awakened advocates. for the secure our us? enforcement and secure preservation of In our diverse society.

Lincoln . to this conclusion Practice. similar in their "interweavings" history. "axioms" of theorems and axioms of democracy. the Declaration means what . at he will be forgiven if he retains for himself only the immortal lines (Inferno. Portraits. and perhaps as finally. March 3. and of them seemed he who triumphs. "American Chicago Law Journal 28 (Winter 1996): 237.." taplo wrote. 'Then he Verona through the open back. Leo the Straussians. McPherson. Lincoln's use of the term may also be expressive of what he considered to be the democracy: "He liked to talk of the 492. 1789): "The preservation of from George Washington's First Inaugural Address the sacred fire of liberty and the destiny of the Republican model of government. 1 1. 121-124). of By we accepting the have been Gettysburg Address. Anastaplo's ties. e.g. . as a way itself without people overthrowing it." men are created equal. Murley eds." "proposition" is considered by Anastaplo in light. 1990 (Brisbane. Its motto was the Professor Anastaplo) who championed human rights or world peace at some last sentence of Justice Black's dissent in the Anastaplo case (dis this review): in the "We must not be afraid to be free. describing an exhibit of photographs Americans personal cussed of The Hellenic Journal. in the or "this nation. 5. and "Legal Education and the Future of the Republic. Taking his leave of legal practice following the Court's decision in In Re Anastaplo. equal" language in the Declaration commented: would was "a self-evident (Anastaplo. produced in the U." with a and summary of his positions Strauss. Thomas Jefferson likewise whether United States then "in the full tide of successful was experiment. p. "What would a prominent senator of lie" Lincoln's time. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution (Oxford: Oxford of University Press. Garry Wills's Pulitzer Prize-winning book." 3." In his First Inaugural Address was March 4. but covering a 1991). much smaller portion of the terrain explored by Anastaplo." epigraph to chapter 2. affirmed that the Civil War in liberty and dedicated to the testing that all proposit endure. staked on the experi on ment entrusted to the hands of the American said that the people. and then have hurled him into the (Anastaplo. Anas on a issues in Kenneth L. April 15. published in Vital Speeches of the Day. that the "created p.S. not he who 146-47: "The green cloth loses. the assertion by John Pettit." 7. e. 159-61. are justly considered as deeply. 1998. chap." The exhibit. and influential. inter alia. Lincoln's men are created correcting the Constitution its concept of a single changed." speech to the San Francisco Yale Club. 1999). See. Harrison Sheppard.S. "Positive Negatives: People Behind the June 21. p. Murley. pp. "In re George by John A. in 1991. As to this heresy.R. 1992). any nation conceived Gettysburg Address.g. 1801. Ukrainians. Lincoln have happened if he had it in old Independence Hall? The door-keeper have taken him street" by the throat and n. 344). See. Wills. CA). law turned teachers and judges alike He trusts xv. it determines how told us Declaration. and James M. in the the profession final paragraph of his Petition for Rehearing: "Petitioner leaves in the hands the career he might have had.'" Quoted in Murley. comparing them to Euclid's'propositions'" (Wills. said 18). "The Declaration words of Independence: On Rights and Du includes quotation of the following (April 30." Abraham Lincoln. 1998. See the description of Anastaplo as a "liberal variety of specific political and Straussian. Simon & Schuster. and (including body of risk.. Gettysburg Address has become an authoritative ex the American spirit as authoritative as the since Declaration [of we read the Independence] itself. 4. Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America (New York: Touchstone. 174). pression of perhaps even more at pp. . I have Principles and most the fully stated my own views leading Evolving Ethos of American Legal Loyola University in Sheppard. For of most people now. Deutsch John A. law. dedicated to a proposition. it means." conversion in his to a Gettysburg Indiana Address the Declaration's "self-evident" truth that "all of equal. (Lanham. received national attention there. the American Regime Anastaplo. and political philosophy. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p.. 6. could "long 2.104 Interpretation NOTES 1. of another exile of lawyers. stopped his rascally breath awhile. 179. Russians. and seemed like one of those who run for the fields.

in professional standards of American legal practice. . 12. light other. profession. and law students throughout the United States (and a Justice of the United States Supreme Court). 1993. in Sheppard. 125-34). p. 389). Chief Justice Burger criticized the majority opinion as 'solution' solve" [to problems created by restraints on lawyer advertising] which opting "for a Draconian (433 U.. Problem. 350. Justices Powell. pp. "American p.S. Constitution. in quoted in this review. selected by happenstance on the day the note was drafted. e." ences among diverse American groups. Court's 15. identifying. "The Preamble has usually been regarded as a rhetorical flourish that adds nothing to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution. n.. The written edition of The Washington Post to in many newspapers throughout the responses "Cashing in Conflict." on by readers." and defence. 246. is not the sort of expression that the Amendment was (433 U. For a comparable and the of American Regime political 105 of treatment chap. their has increasingly evident. of the relationship Lincoln's thought to the idea freedom. 13. See also. poll released on A2. 9.S. Posterity. "Preamble. it is clear that within undefined limits today's decision will effect profound power in the practice of law. Justice Rehnquist's dissent was based partly on the ground that the First Amendment Court had given to lawyers' protection the commercial advertising regarded was misplaced: "I continue to believe that the First Amendment speech provision. 10. as officers of the and the authority of the respective States to become oversee the regulation of the profession have been weakened" (433 U. August 27.g. reporting incidents of violent expression of differ see Principles. Democracy in America volume 1. chapter 16 as to trial by jury. Cited and quoted in Sheppard. "Lincoln and pp. 350. Rehnquist. See Tocqueville. 406). intellectual interest. Anastaplo reads the Constitution by the light of on each . Stewart. reporting results of a 1993 American Bar Association Principles. judges. 37. 2000. The supervisory of the courts over members of the bar. chap. 2. do ordain and establish this Constitution as a coherent of Constitution for the United States whole whose parts throw Anastaplo. citing Anastaplo. however truthful adopted to or reasonable protect" it may be. in Order to form a more perfect Union. chapter 11 as to a free press. the for the common our Blessings of Liberty of to ourselves America. . 1996." sources cited to the Kronman and Linowitz books the past on the decline. and headlined: "State Bar Should . for (in its Reynolds Holding. See Anastaplo's fuller treatment of the Preamble in the comprehensive ends People' established' . . 3). including many lawyers. 3. 1996 (republished in the and "Cashing in Conflict." McPherson. Consider. June 5. is demeaned I would hold quite simply that the by invocation appellant advertisement. 350. whose entire text is as United States. nor moral ity without faith"). 165. The quoted phrases are follows: "We the People and secure of the from the Preamble to the U. 13-25. The Amendments to the Constitution. the Preamble explains why 'We the 'ordained and the Constitution (Murley. 390). promote the general Welfare. The Washington Post. 19." following United national weekly States). 1993.American Law 8. William Carson. Liberty. See the addition p. volume 2. and the Author's Introduction as to the spirit of religion ("[LJiberty cannot be established without morality. chapter 12 as to private voluntary associations. in which Justice Stewart joined. viewed for centuries as a learned courts. 11." Commentary (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. who treats the the Pream ble. p." San Francisco Chronicle. edition of the San Francisco Chronicle. prescience Since these concerns were expressed nearly a quarter of a century ago.S. Justice I believe will only breed more problems than it can conceivably Powell's dissent.. legal columnist opening paragraphs of an article written by for the the San Francisco Chronicle. 1989). declared that "Although the Court appears to note some reservations changes . The Constitution of 1787: A n. as to religion. establish provide Justice. The text of this note includes a list of items in the July 16. 252. recent authoritative writings on thirty years or so. insure domestic Tranquility. and Chief Justice Burger dissented in part from the ruling. chapter 15. or long by this Court as a sanctuary to protect for expressions of public importance advertisements of goods and services. 43-64. For Anastaplo.S. unanimously expressed agreement with the characterization of legal education and practice it summarized. "Lawyers Have More Than Image August 28. edition section. n. "American p. May 21. published in the Chronicle's "Sunday" example the Sunday. attaches signal importance to the words found in the Preamble. during 14.

Louis D.S. or perhaps a lawyer on to be disbarred in California." he continued. getting arrested for burglary moves have been enough to propel [a named lawyer] out of these or other absurdly irresponsible the legal fraternity in California. Speaking on the approach lawyers should take. resulted This judges themselves practice of to as "moral turpitude" in the lawyer's from the law in California for two served as years. Ambassador the term "lawyer to the Organization of American States. and was 16. the lawyer should occupy a more judicious (and judicial) role. for the to serve the best interests of their clients. It's amazing. referred dangerous. at least initially. Mr. filing frivolous appeals. none endangering children." not would Reynolds began. Linowitz Chairman of Xerox Corporation of formerly coined U. Supreme Court) said: "Rather than acting as a hired gun for the client. Lying of judges.S. "how many to of the most blatant transgressions never result in a voided bar card. at Brandeis (who situation" his confirmation hearings his nomination to the U. as quoted by David Luban. just decided by by the State Bar Court's not review department. and become the 'lawyer for the situation'"." ." The then recounted in detail the evidence of suspension found by the state bar judges. His suggests that the system of column case. "what it takes for do the trick. as disciplin ing California lawyers is the unethical actions what merely weak.106 Interpretation on Crack Down California Lawyers": "I'm sure. 721. though. Law. "The Noblesse Oblige Tradition in the Practice of 41 Vanderbilt Law Review (1998): 717. it's the lawyer just summarized. I suppose murder the head with a very bonking a judge heavy law book.

of him to write great Ravelstein subject at the age of eighty- four. Fall 2000. and. Vol. explain his own art. He to Bloom than a for his novel. so. in short. But Bellow can't get the politics right. and a Nobel prize. though: In might also Bellow's depiction most perspicuous criticism of Bloom criticizing him. Ironi cally. 28. or. Power from the memory of Bloom's friendship. Allan Bloom. detail his own failed marriage and his presently successful love life. vi + 233 pp. more to the point. Johnson. Bellow Ravelstein. too. wrote a character sketch of be cured. As Erasmus and of a pushed and portrayed Thomas More. he misses what was great about Bloom his ideas. and. he thought Bellow needed a sharpened insight into his fellow men. Bellow limit himself to recording the thoughts. elaborates to be in touch with politics why Bellow badly in needs "not local or or machine understood politics. To be sure. . Bellow devoted friend who records the allowed duty fame personality and ideas of a man whose won't looms over a generation of conservative scholars. it is this assessment which shows cessful as a memoir of why Bellow's newest novel is unsuc Bloom. Saul Bellow is too introverted to assessment of the author whom understand politics. nor even national politics. 2000).. Bloom's persona. In an important moment of self-consciousness about his approach to interpretation. $24. rooted of our Bloom was a psychologist in the classical sense the word.Book Review Saul Bellow. he must write a novel. Saul fictionalize and elegize his deceased friend colleague. Ravelstein (New York: Viking Penguin." politics as Aristotle Plato the term. but nature. Bellow have misses a delicious oppor tunity." in privacy and should be restored to commu The subject of Bloom's life might cure Bellow of selfwas stuck might provide a absorption. an Bellow turns his and artistic energies to illustrious teaching career. nity. most besides. that asks to write is Allan Bloom's his biography. he ostensibly find the first. miss the obviously biogra- important thing about the man for whom he writes his book. support from his wife. owes more a promise made enable to write Bloom's biography all of these. Abe Ravelstein. dinner-table conversations. No. Bellow and lasting tribute to one of the influential insightful thinkers of our times.95. tantrums. could or Boswell bothered himself the depicted Dr. and ruminations of Bloom though. his friend. he might and he hoped that if Bellow "He thought I Bellow writes. maintains Bellow. Travis Curtright University After of Dallas eighteen novels.

but does not. Where Bloom Mark obsessive-compulsive him simply homosexual Bellow gives Shake his readers. however. his slow deterioration." kinds of distinctions The having to do with prodigality illiberality." with modernity's transformation into what Bloom called "souls without The difficulty never relates appears more most Bloom's magnanimity and eros. magnanimity Chick confesses: and meanness. Bellow's persona Chick celebrating the wild international and financial success of Ravelstein's book. and raw sexual appetite. Ravelstein is divided into three accompanies Ravelstein to Paris." "I didn't him One wishes he had gotten never Ravelstein started. in real life. The part is probably meant as a tribute to the special friendship Bellow and Bloom shared. parts. want to get attributes of the great-souled started. Bellow concludes with a much- third lauded description of Bloom dressing himself in give his favorite eccentricities before delivering death. will as the decadent. If he had." up Bloom's a creature like Ravelstein to and obsession "magnanimity" eros. puddings. but Bellow confused gives such an example on in his depiction in teaching Bloom. "You don't easily emphasizes or our Throughout. Bellow rather than that he prefers Boswell's own approach Macaulay's essay on Boswell's Johnson to describing Johnson." weakness for Macau may see Bloom in his idiosyncratic eating habits. is that Bellow it to anything of intellectual substance. I have I have since read never many cured sober criticisms of never wanted Macaulay's Victorian cured of excesses. "Macaulay exhila with rated me with his version of the Life. This fusion of Bloom's ideas magnanimity and eros with Bloom's foi of bles and moral aberrations constitutes the most disappointing flaw Bellow's . incontinent. Bellow becomes controversial by revealing Bloom's contraction of AIDS. and eventual death. hospitals. Bloom's for the and expensive European "What does this Lanvin jacket have that your Chick wants to ask Bellow's persona twenty others Ravelstein." an epitaph. considers the great soul of such characters as and speare's penchant Antony most in Love beautiful Friendship. Bellow "loss of longing. is not the kind of example Bloom mischief to would have Aristotle. Thanks to him I on we still see poor convulsive the street and eating spoiled meat and my Johnson touching every lamppost rancid Thanks to Bellow. and human love in overly dramatic parallelism. Bloom's The Closing of the American Mind. then Chick might have learned that Aristotle included the qualities of our modern stereotype of homosexual dressing and on the habits in his consideration of the magnanimous man: Flamboyant. Bellow writes about clothes. primping be found used of parading dress. unfamiliar with Bloom's scholarly works. The result is that Bloom with like a Nietzschean rather than a follower of Strauss." in Abe's head there and man. inasmuch as Bellow portrays his own bout with death. bought by men to attract the "sexy streets of Paris. I view suspect that readers. But been to be lay. They In the first. the 'anfractuosity' of Johnson's mind.108 Interpretation writes phy. In the second. Chick knows "perfectly well that were all haven't. are overall decadence.

just now. Either the of reader should 109 believe that Bloom's personal life is a statement his ideas or that Bellow never grasped the message of Bloom's writings even after all his years of teaching his with him. what Occasionally. spirited records Bloom's fascination "eros" with and "spirited- ness" men who are erotically charged mean an incarnate. which for the most summaries of reminded of part center on their own fears of death. the nastiness of the napkin after he had used it.Book Review book. artistic The redeeming part of the novel is not Bellow's depiction of Bloom. More than anything else. Bellow ested them. the wine bite and a confession to the floor. grudges. the pieces of cooked meat scattered under the sprayed out when pawed he laughed . too. Bellow's to give in to the bourgeois. splashing." writes that he is not interested in Bloom's ideas. at a wisecrack. or the eros mitigation of new human eros through marriage. crumbling. Objecting to Abe's table manners would be caricature continues pettiness" of (pp. Although Bellow as throughout that Bloom's focus is magnanimity and eros in an ancient philo relationships with sophical sense. and even perused Plato's . fessional serts his students. As in the essay. . ody studied Aristotle's distinction between Phrygian effects on Mixed Lydian mel treat- and their corresponding the soul. like Bloom himself. Bellow meant critique the artist something of Bloom's ideas read have Bloom's better than anything Bloom himself had written. his ability to place the reader ruminations on in Bloom's apartment. In reading preoccupations. Bellow's personal until he exhausts unpro Bloom's gossiping. In distinguishing high-mindedness from the petty minded. It is Bellow's eye for detail. Bellow's own death far more poignant than anything he gives Ravelstein able to capture to muse on. flat personalities of moder nity. both are too gross a contradiction for a coherent story. I want to avoid In the snippets of Bloom's thought which Bellow does document. courses rejected after one table. statement of conservative refuse philosophy for Bloom. ." Bloom's "most important I could not help being ship. Bellow continues cartoonish depiction the of Aristotle's great-souled man of the great soul concerned with eros. but the style of Bellow's writing. Bellow takes up Bloom's eating habits. "But I am not inter in presenting his ideas. "Faculty wives knew that when Ravelstein came to dinner would face a they big cleaning job afterward the spilling. 37-38). transmitting through the life which marriage be in children. Bellow young. Bellow's Bloom seems to favor the ecstasy the ordinary. excessive drinking and smoking. These youths. the reader wonders what is great souled and loving about any of Bloom's behavior. I of modem music in The Closing of the American and Mind. sexual ragings. and defiant. less of a Socrates and more of an Alcibiades. Bloom is shown as more of a romantic than a Straussian. prove which delights the is reader. There he suggests Bloom's essay on Romeo and Juliet in Love and Friend two human solutions for death: transcendent experiences and of eros through sex within stows over philosophy sex.

the per Ring. Bloom is too bright for his death. like Bloom himself.110- Interpretation in the education of portrait ment of music effect of his guardians. accessory or mood music. Bellow out the The cast and orchestra are pouring Italian Maiden in Algiers. in the his music once provided him. the scintillating conversations and trenchant observations ple the ideas of Bloom given over an espresso for exam are now tucked away. who escaped captivity to imagery brilliantly conveys that somehow and nest where they would. away. In vision of Bloom from beyond the grave. having many instruments serenading him. bathing ecstasy Bellow's art will probably captivate followers of Bloom into reading his that he escapes it with book even as he frustrates them by deconstructing and embarrassing a man they once admired. the anecdotes. He likes the haps he relishes . to comedy and bandstands. Unfortunately. . . He street with carries them down into the him. Bellow are adds the perfect senti mental symbol: the shrubs surrounding Ravelstein full of parrots brightly Bel our colored. into enigmatic mystery. He loses himself in sublime music. but Ravelstein takes Nietzschean view. (Pp. that Bloom is somewhere. carried world. favor and . a music in 232-33) into a snow-covered so which many ideas musicians are in dis solved. Better volume of so Bizet and Carmen than Wagner to the maximum. but none of it has the poetic a Bellow's of what music means to the soul of writes that Bloom. . This is dress a ing able music. his powerful set turned And attendance. As Ravelstein walks street. reflecting these ideas in the form of feeling. low's laughing birds.

Sowenig der Autor die Philosophie als eine Politische Philosophie? 2000. die Aristophanes in den Wolken am vorsokratischen Sokrates ubt. Lebensweise begreift. METZLER Philosophie? handeltvon einer philosophischen Politik der der Freundschaft und von Notwendigkeit der AuseinHeinrich Meier Warum andersetzung mit deranspruchsvollsten Alternative der Philosophie. B. ^^ VERLAG ^^ J. gibt Heinrich Meiers Miinchner Antrittsvorlesung eine Antwort auf die Frage. Warum ^ VERLAG^ Politische J. brosch. sowenig versteht er die Politische Philosophie als ein Feld im Garten der Philosophie.-/sFr Sie ist vielmehr. eine so lautet seine These.de . 40 Provinz im Reich der Kultur. da die Philosophie einzig in der Politischen Philosophie zur Vollendung ihrer Reflexivitat zu gelangen vermag. weshalb die Philosophie die Wendung zur Politischen Philosophie vollziehen mul5. 10- engl. METZLER Postfach 10 32 41 D-70028 Stuttgart www.metzlerverlag.Was ist Politische Philosophie ? Heinrich Meier Warum Politische Philosophie? Ausgehend von der politischen Kritik.und Fragerichtung.B. die fiir die Philosophie einen Unterschied im Ganzen begrundet. eine besondere ISBN 3-476-01802-4 Wendung. sondern als eine Seiten. Anderung der Btick. DM 10-/0S 73.

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