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18K views17 pagesThe High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important
facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere.
In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-
frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF
heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in the
D region ionosphere and leads to modulated condu
ctivity and a time-varying current which then
radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of
effective radiated power modulated at frequency of
2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation
generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as
the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes,
Cyclones
and strong localized heating. http://users.elo.com.br/~deaquino/ELF%20Earthquakes

Apr 04, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important
facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere.
In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-
frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF
heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in the
D region ionosphere and leads to modulated condu
ctivity and a time-varying current which then
radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of
effective radiated power modulated at frequency of
2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation
generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as
the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes,
Cyclones
and strong localized heating. http://users.elo.com.br/~deaquino/ELF%20Earthquakes

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

100%(1)100% found this document useful (1 vote)

18K views17 pagesThe High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important
facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere.
In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-
frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF
heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in the
D region ionosphere and leads to modulated condu
ctivity and a time-varying current which then
radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of
effective radiated power modulated at frequency of
2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation
generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as
the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes,
Cyclones
and strong localized heating. http://users.elo.com.br/~deaquino/ELF%20Earthquakes

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

You are on page 1of 17

High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating

Fran De Aquino Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil. Copyright © 2011 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere.

In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-

frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in the

D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then

radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes,

Cyclones and strong localized heating.

.

Key words:

PACS: 94.20.-y ; 94.05.Dd ; 91.30.Px ; 91.30.Nw; 92.60.Qx

Physics of the ionosphere, radiation processes, Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Storms.

1. Introduction

Generating electromagnetic radiation at extremely-low frequencies is difficult because the long wavelengths require long antennas, extending for hundreds of kilometers. Natural ionospheric currents provide such an antenna if they can be modulated at the desired frequency [1-6]. The generation of ELF electromagnetic radiation by modulated heating of the ionosphere has been the subject matter of numerous papers

[7-13].

In 1974, it was shown that ionospheric heater can generate ELF waves by heating the ionosphere with high-frequency (HF) radiation in the megahertz range [7]. This heating modulates the electron’s temperature in the D region ionosphere, leading to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current, which then radiates at the modulation frequency. Several HF ionospheric heaters have

been built in the course of the latest decades in order to study the ELF waves produced by the heating of the ionosphere with HF radiation. Currently, the HAARP heater is the most powerful ionospheric heater, with 3.6GW of effective power using HF heating beam, modulated at ELF (2.5Hz) [14, 15].

ELF

This

paper

shows

that

high-power

radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the lower ionosphere, such as that produced by the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and strong localized heating.

2. Gravitational Shielding

The contemporary greatest challenge of the Theoretical Physics was to prove that, Gravity is a quantum phenomenon. Since General Relativity describes gravity as related to the curvature of space-time then, the quantization of the gravity implies the quantization of the proper space-time. Until the end of the century XX, several attempts to quantize gravity were made. However, all of them resulted fruitless [16, 17]. In the beginning of this century, it was clearly noticed that there was something unsatisfactory about the whole notion of quantization and that the quantization process had many ambiguities. Then, a new approach has been proposed starting from the generalization of the action function ^{*} . The result has been the derivation of a theoretical background, which finally led to the so- sought quantization of the gravity and of the

^{*} The formulation of the action in Classical Mechanics extends to Quantum Mechanics and has been the basis for the development of the Strings Theory.

2

space-time. Published with the title “Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity”[18], this theory predicts a consistent unification of Gravity with Electromagnetism. It shows that the strong equivalence principle is reaffirmed and, consequently, Einstein’s equations are preserved. In fact, Einstein’s equations can be deduced directly from the mentioned theory. This shows, therefore, that the General Relativity is a particularization of this new theory, just as Newton’s theory is a particular case of the General Relativity. Besides, it was deduced from the new theory an important correlation between the gravitational mass and the inertial mass, which shows that the gravitational mass of a particle can be decreased and even made negative, independently of its inertial mass, i.e., while the gravitational mass is progressively reduced, the inertial mass does not vary. This is highly relevant because it means that the weight of a body can also be reduced and even inverted in certain circumstances, since Newton’s gravity law defines the weight _{P} of a body as the

product of its gravitational mass

local gravity acceleration , i.e.,

by the

m

g

g

P

=

m

g

_{g}

(1)

It arises from the mentioned law that the gravity acceleration (or simply the gravity) produced by a body with gravitational mass

M

g

is given by

g =

GM

g

r

2

(2)

The physical property of mass has two distinct aspects: gravitational mass m _{g} and inertial mass m _{i} . The gravitational mass produces and responds to gravitational fields; it supplies the mass factor in Newton's famous inverse-square law of

r

is the mass factor in Newton's 2nd Law of

Motion

gravity(

2

) . The inertial mass

F

(F

= GM m

g

g

= m a

i

) . These two masses are not

equivalent but correlated by means of the

following factor [ 18]:

⎧

⎡

2

⎤

⎫

m

⎪

⎛Δ p ⎞ ⎟

g

⎢

⎥

=

⎨

1

−

2

1

+ ⎜

−

1

⎪

⎬

(3)

⎜

⎟

m

⎢

m

c

⎥

⎝

i

0

⎪

⎠

i

0

⎪

⎩

⎣

⎦

⎭

Where

is the rest inertial mass and

Δp is

m i0

the variation in the particle’s kinetic momentum; c is the speed of light. This equation shows that only for _{Δ}_{p} _{=} _{0} the gravitational mass is equal to the inertial mass. Instances in which _{Δ}_{p} is produced by electromagnetic radiation, Eq. (3) can be rewritten as follows [18]:

⎧

⎡

2

⎤

⎫

m

⎛

2

⎞

⎪

n D

g

⎢

⎜

⎥

r

⎟

=

⎨

1

−

2

1

+

−

1

⎪

⎬

(4)

⎢

⎜

3

⎟

⎥

m

ρ

c

i 0

⎪

⎝

⎠

⎪

⎣

⎢

⎦

⎥

⎩

⎭

Where

n

r is the refraction index of the

particle; is the power density of the

D

electromagnetic radiation absorbed by the

particle; and _{ρ} , its density of inertial mass.

From electrodynamics we know that

dz

ω

c

v =

=

=

(5)

dt

κ

εμ

r

r

r

⎛

2

⎞

⎜

1

+

(

σ ωε

)

+

1

⎟

2

⎝

⎠

where

k

is

the

real part of the

r

propagation

vector

k r (also

called

phase

r

constant );

k =

k

= k

+

ik

; ε , μ and σ,

are

r

i

the electromagnetic characteristics of the

medium in which the incident radiation is

;

;

propagating

(

, where

ε εε _{r}

=

0

ε=

0

8.854

×

− 12

10

F /m

μ μμ _{r}

=

0

4

μ=π×

0

7

10 ^{−} H / m).

From (5),

refraction |
n |

by |

r ^{=}

we c v , for σ

see that the index

>> ωε ,

of

is given

n r ^{=}

μσ

r

4 f

πε

0

(6)

Substitution of Eq. (6) into Eq. (4) yields

3

⎧

⎡

⎫

2

⎤

Van Allen belts

m

⎛

⎞

g

⎪

⎢

μσ

D

⎥

⎪

⎜

⎟

χ

=

=

1

−

2

1

+

−

1

(7)

⎨

⎬

⎢

⎜

⎥

m

4

πρ

⎟

cf

i 0

⎪

⎢

⎝

⎠

⎪

⎥

⎩

⎣

⎦

⎭

It was shown that there is an additional

effect - Gravitational Shielding effect -

produced by a substance whose gravitational

mass was reduced or made negative [18].

This effect shows that just beyond the

Outer

belt

Inner

belt

0

3600km

6600km

Earth

substance the gravity acceleration

g

will be

1

reduced at the same proportion

χ

= m

m

,

g

i 0

1

i.e., g

(

is the gravity acceleration

Magnetic

1 = χ

g

,

g

1

axis

before the substance). Consequently, after a

second gravitational shielding, the gravity

will be given by

g

2 = χ = χ χ , where

g

g

Fig.1 – Van Allen belts

2

1

1

2

χ

is the value of the ratio m m for the

g

i0

2

second gravitational shielding. In a generalized way, we can write that after the nth gravitational shielding the gravity, , will be given by

g

n

g

n

=

χ χ χ χ

1

2

3

n

g

dependence of the shielding

effect on the height, at which the samples are

placed above a superconducting disk with

, has been recently

measured up to a height of about 3m [ 19]. This means that the gravitational shielding effect extends, beyond the disk, for approximately 20 times the disk radius.

radius

The

_{D} = 0.1375

r

m

3. Gravitational Shieldings in the Van Allen belts

The Van Allen belts are torus of plasma around Earth, which are held in place by Earth's magnetic field (See Fig.1). The existence of the belts was confirmed by the Explorer 1 and Explorer 3 missions in early 1958, under Dr James Van Allen at the University of Iowa. The term Van Allen belts refers specifically to the radiation belts surrounding Earth; however, similar radiation belts have been discovered around other planets. Now consider the ionospheric heating with HF beam, modulated at ELF (See Fig. 2). The amplitude-modulated HF heating

wave is absorbed by the ionospheric plasma, modulating the local conductivityσ . The

current density

0 radiates ELF

electromagnetic waves that pass through the Van Allen belts producing two Gravitational Shieldings where the densities are minima,

i.e., where they are approximately equal to density of the interplanetary medium near Earth. The quasi-vacuum of the interplanetary space might be thought of as beginning at an altitude of about 1000km above the Earth’s surface [20]. Thus, we can

assume that the densities

respectively, at the first gravitational shielding S _{i} (at the inner Van Allen belt) and at S _{o} (at the outer Van Allen belt) are

the

interplanetary medium near the Earth [ 21]).

j = σE

ρ

i

and

ρ

o

≅

ρ ρ

o

i

≅

0.8

×

20

10

−

kg m

.

−

3

(density

of

The

parallel

conductivities, ^{†}

σ

0i

, respectively at S _{i} and S _{o} , present

values which lie between those for metallic conductors and those for semiconductors

[20], i.e.,

two Gravitational Shielding, according to Eq. (7), we have, respectively:

. Thus, in these

and

σ 0o

σ

0

i

≅ σ

0

_{o} ~1

S

/

m

χ

i

=

⎧

⎪

⎨

⎪

⎩

1

−

⎡

2

⎛

⎞

⎢

⎜

4

D i

⎟

2

1

+

4.1

×

10

⎢

⎜

⎟

f

⎢

⎝

⎠

⎣

− 1

⎤

⎥

⎥

⎦ ⎥

⎫

⎪

⎬

⎪

⎭

(8)

^{†} Conductivity in presence of the Earth’s magnetic field

4

d ~ 100km

Outer Van Allen belt

S

o

6,600 km

3,600 km

S

Inner Van Allen belt

i

ELF radiation

~10× d ~1,000km

m air

g’ sun

E

g

Electrojet Electric Field, E 0

100km

σ

D

60km

−

3

ρ

<

0.01

kg m

.

air

ELF – modulated

HF heating radiation

30km

−

3

ρ

~ 0.7

kg m

.

air

_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{2} _{–} _{I}_{o}_{n}_{o}_{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{c} _{G}_{r}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{S}_{h}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{s} _{-} The amplitude-modulated HF heating wave is absorbed by the

ionospheric plasma, modulating the local conductivity σ . The current density

0

j =σ E

0

0

(E _{0} is the Electrojet

_{E}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c} _{F}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{d}_{)}_{,} radiates ELF electromagnetic waves (d is the length of the ELF dipole). Two gravitational shieldings

(S _{o} and S _{i} ) are formed at the Van Allen belts. Then, the gravity due to the Sun, after the shielding S _{i}_{,} becomes

=χ _{o} χ _{i} g _{s}_{u}_{n} . The effect of the gravitational shielding reaches r d km

g’ _{s}_{u}_{n}

~ 20 ×

D

=~ 10 × ≅ 1,000 .

5

Sun

to

Earth,

1

AU),

g = 9.8m/ s

2 and

and

2

− 3

2

= −

GM

r

=

5.92

×

10

m / s

,

is

the

g sun

sun

se

⎧

⎡

⎤

⎥

⎫

2

⎛

⎞

gravity due to the Sun at the Earth.

⎪

⎢

⎪

⎜

4

D o

⎟

χ

=

⎨

1

−

2

1

+

4.1

×

10

−

1

(9)

⎬

o

⎢

⎢

⎜

⎟

The

gravitational potential energy

f

⎪

⎝

⎠

⎥

⎥

⎪

⎩

⎣

⎦

⎭

m

air

where

related to , with respect to the Sun’s

center, considering the effects produced by

the gravitational shieldings S o and S i , is

P ELF

D ≅ D ≅

(10)

i

o

S

a

E

=m r g−χχ g

(

)

(14)

p

air se

o

i

sun

is the ELF radiation power, radiated

P ELF

from the ELF ionospheric antenna; is the

area of the antenna.

Substitution of (10) into (8) and (9)

leads to

S

a

Thus, the decrease in the gravitational

potential energy is

(1

)

Δ

E

=

E

−

E

= −χχ

m

r

g

(15)

p

p

p0

air se sun

2

o

i

⎧

⎡

⎤

⎫

2

⎛

⎞

P

⎪

⎜

4

ELF

⎟

χχ

=

⎪

⎨

1

−

2 ⎢

1

+

4.1

×

10

− 1

(11)

o

i

⎜

⎥

⎥

⎪

⎬

⎪

Substitution of (11) into (15) gives

⎢

⎟

S f

a

⎢

⎝

⎠

⎥

2 ⎫

⎩

⎣

⎦

⎭

⎧ ⎡

⎧

2

⎪

⎪

− ⎨ ⎪ −

⎛

⎞

⎢

P

⎤

⎥

⎥

⎫

⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎜

4

ELF

⎟

Δ

E

=

⎨

1

1

2

1

+

4.1 10

×

− 1

r g

(16)

⎬

⎬ m

p

⎢

air se sun

⎜

⎟

4. Effect of the gravitational shieldings S i

and S o on the Earth and its environment.

S f

⎪

⎪

⎢

⎝

a

⎠

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎩

⎣

⎥ ⎦

⎭

⎩

⎪ ⎭

The

HF

power

produced

by

the

Based on the Podkletnov experiment,

previously mentioned, in which the effect of

the Gravitational Shielding extends for

approximately 20 times the disk radius ( ) ,

HAARP

transmitter

is

P

HF = 3.6

GW

modulated at

f

= 2.5Hz

. The ELF conversion

efficiency at HAARP is estimated to be

r

D

−4

~ 10

%

for wave generated using sinusoidal

we

gravitational shielding S i extends for

approximately 10 times the dipole length

can

assume

that

the

effect of the

amplitude modulation. This means that

P

~ 4

kW

ELF

Substitution of

P

~ 4

kW

,

f

= 2.5Hz

and

d ). For a dipole length of about 100km, we

can conclude that the effect of the

gravitational shielding reaches about

(

ELF

S a =

(

)

2

10

2

100,000

= ×

1

10

m

into (16) yields

− 4

19

Δ E

~10

m

r

g

~10

joules

(17)

p

air se

sun

1,000Km below S i

(See Fig.2), affecting

‡

This

decrease

in

the

gravitational

potential

therefore an air mass,

, given by

m air

energy

of

the

air

column,

ΔE

produces

a

p ,

m

=

V

=

air

ρ air

air

decrease

Δp in the local pressure p ( Bernoulli

(

− 3

)(

=

~ 0.7

kg m

.

100,000

m

)( 2

30,000

m

)

=

~ 10

14 kg

(12)

The gravitational potential energy

related to

, with respect to the Sun’s

m air

center, without the effects produced by the

gravitational shieldings S o and S i is

principle). Then the pressure equilibrium

between the Earth’s mantle and the Earth’s

atmosphere, in the region corresponding to the air

column, is broken. This is equivalent to an

increase of pressure Δp in the region of the

mantle corresponding to the air column. This

phenomenon is similar to an Earthquake, which

= m

r

(

g

− g

)

(13)

E p0

air

se

sun

liberates an energy equal to

ΔE

p (see Fig.3).

11

where,

r

= 1.49 ×10

m

(distance from the

se

^{‡} The mass of the air column above 30km height is negligible in comparison with the mass of the air column below 30km height, whose average density is ~0.7kg./m ^{3} .

6

Curst

Earth’s

atmosphere

Air column

p −Δp

p Core

Sun

Mantle

Earth

Fig. 3 - The decrease in the gravitational potential energy

of the air column, ΔE , produces a decrease Δp in the

p

local pressure _{p} (Principle of Bernoulli). Then the pressure equilibrium between the Earth’s mantle and the Earth’s atmosphere, in the region corresponding to the air column, is broken. This is equivalent to an increase of pressure _{Δ}_{p} in the region of the mantle corresponding to the air column. This phenomenon is similar to an Earthquake, which liberates an amount of energy equal to

ΔE .

p

The

magnitude

E

p

M

s

in

Richter

an

, is obtained

the

scales, corresponding

amount of energy, Δ

by means of the well-known equation:

to

19

~ 10

liberation

joules

of

10

19

=

10

(

5

+

1.44

M

s )

(18)

which gives

with magnitude of about 9.1 in the Richter scales. The decrease in the gravitational potential energy in the air column whose

mass is

kinetic

. That is, an Earthquake

M

s

= 9.1

m air

energy

gives to the air column an initial

E

k

=

1

2

m

air

2

V

0

air

=ΔE

p

,

where

ΔE

p is given by (15).

In the previously mentioned HAARP

conditions, Eq.(11) gives .

Thus, from (15), we obtain

(

1

−

χχ

o

i

~ 10 ^{−}

)

4

Δ E

p

~ 10

− 4

m

r

air se

g

sun

(19)

Thus, the initial air speed

V

0

air

is

V 0 air

≅

10 − 4

g

r

sun se

~10

2

m

/

s

~ 400

km h

/

(20)

This velocity will strongly reduce the pressure in the air column (Bernoulli principle) and it is sufficient to produce a powerful Cyclone around the air column (Coriolis Effect).

Note that, by reducing the diameter of the HF beam radiation, it is possible to reduce dipole length (d) and consequently to reduce the reach of the Gravitational Shielding, since the effect of the gravitational shielding reaches approximately18 times the dipole length. By reducing d, we also reduce

the area , increasing consequently the

value of

(See Eq. (18)). This can cause

an increase in the velocity

On the other hand, if the dipole length (d) is increased, the reach of the Gravitational Shielding will also be increased. For example, by increasing the value of _{d} for _{d} _{=} _{1}_{0}_{1}_{k}_{m} , the effect of the Gravitational Shielding reaches

, and can surpass the

approximately

surface of the Earth or the Oceans (See Fig.2). In this case, the decrease in the gravitational potential energy at the local, by analogy to Eq.(15), is

S

a

χ χ

o

i

V

0

_{(}_{S}_{e}_{e} Eq. (22)).

air

1010km

(1

Δ = −χχ

E

p

o

i

)

mr g

se sun

(21)

where is the mass of the soil, or the mass

of the ocean water, according to the case.

ΔE , in the gravitational

m

The decrease,

p

potential energy increases the kinetic energy

of the local at the same ratio, in such way that the mass acquires a kinetic energy E = ΔE . If this energy is not enough

m from the soil or the

is

to pluck the mass

ocean, and launch it into space, then

converted into heat, raising the local

temperature by

be obtained from the following expression:

ΔT , the value of which can

m

k

p

E

k

E k

N

≅Δ _{T}

k

(22)

where |
N |
is |
the number of atoms in the |
||||

volume |
V |
of the |
substance considered; |
||||

k = |
1.38 |
× |
10 |
−23 |
J / K |
is |
the Boltzmann |

constant. Thus, we get

T

Δ ≅

E

k

(

1 −

χχ

o

i

)

m r

se

g

sun

Nk (

=

)

nV k

=

(

1 −

)

χχ ρ

o

i

r

se

g

sun

nk

=

(23)

where _{n} is the number of atoms/m ^{3} in the substance considered.

7

In the previously mentioned HAARP

It was experimentally observed that

conditions, Eq. (11) gives ( )

Thus, from (23), we obtain

1

i

~ 10 ^{−}

4

. ELF radiation escapes _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{t}_{h}_{e} Earth– ionosphere waveguide and reaches the Van

Allen belts [25-28]. In the ionospheric

spherical cavity, the ELF radiation power

density, D , is related to the energy density inside the cavity,W , by means of the well-

known expression:

−

χχ

o

6.4

×

10 ^{2}^{7} _{ρ}

n

Δ ≅

T

(24)

For most liquid and solid substances

n

is about

10

28

atoms / m

3

, and

the value of

ρ ~ 10

3

kg / m

3

(24) gives

. Therefore, in this case, Eq.

D =

c

4 ^{W}

(25)

ΔT ≅ 640K ≅ 400°C

where

_{c} is

the

speed

of

light,

and

This means that, the region in the soil or in the ocean will have its temperature increased by approximately 400°C.

By increasing or decreasing the

P

ELF

frequency, , of the ELF radiation, it is

possible to increase

way, it is possible to produce strong localized heating on Land or on the Oceans. This process suggests that, by means of two small Gravitational Shieldings built with Gas or Plasma at ultra-low pressure, as shown in the processes of gravity control [22], it is possible to produce the same heating effects. Thus, for example, the water inside a container can be strongly heated when the container is placed below the mentioned Gravitational Shieldings.

Let us now consider another source of ELF radiation, which can activate the Gravitational Shieldings S _{o} and S _{i}_{.} It is known that the Schumann resonances [23] are global electromagnetic resonances (a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency ELF), excited by lightning discharges in the spherical resonant cavity formed by the Earth’s surface and the inner edge of the ionosphere (60km from the Earth’s surface). The Earth– ionosphere waveguide behaves like a resonator at ELF frequencies and amplifies the spectral signals from lightning at the resonance frequencies. In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the

f

ΔT (See Eq.(16)). In this

fundamental mode ( is a standing wave

n =1)

W =

1

2

ε E

0

2 . The electric field E , is given by

E =

q

4 πε

0

2

⊕

r

where

q = 500,000C [24] and

Therefore, we get

E

W

D

= 110.7

×

≅ 4.1

/

V

10

/

W

m

− 8

,

J

2

m

=

5.4

/

m

3

,

r

⊕

= 6.371×10

6

m

.

(26)

The area,

is

radiation power is

total

S , of the cross-section of the cavity

2 . Thus, the ELF

. The

Earth-

the

12

S

= 2 r d = 2.4 ×10

π

⊕

m

power

P

=

DS

escaping

≅ 9.8 ×10

from

12

W

ionosphere waveguide,

this value and need to be determined.

P esc

, is only a fraction of

When this ELF radiation crosses the

Van Allen belts the Gravitational Shieldings

S o and S i can be produced (See Fig.4).

S

o

d

⊕

S i

ELF

radiation

Crust

Mantle

Outer

core

Inner

Reach of the Gravitational Shielding

core

~ 10 × d

⊕ = 126 ,000 km

Earth

in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. This lowest-frequency (and highest- intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance

occurs at a frequency

f 1 =

7.83Hz

[24].

Fig.4 – ELF radiation escaping from the Earth– ionosphere waveguide can produce the Gravitational Shieldings S _{o} and S _{i} in the Van Allen belts.

The ELF radiation power densities

D i and

D

o , respectively in S _{i} and S _{o} , are given by

8

and

D =

i

P

esc

4

π

r

i

2

(27)

D

o

=

P

esc

2

4

π

r

o

(28)

where and are respectively, the distances from the Earth’s center up to the Gravitational Shieldings S _{i} and S _{o} . Under these circumstances, the kinetic energy related to the mass, , of the Earth’s outer core ^{§} , with respect to the Sun’s center, considering the effects produced by the Gravitational Shieldings S _{o} and S _{i} ^{*}^{*} is

r

i

r

o

m

oc

E

k

(1

= −χχ

o

Thus, we get

V oc

=

)

m

i

(1

oc

r

se

g

=

1 2 m

oc

2 (29)

V

oc

(30)

sun

−χ χ

o

i

)

r

se

g

sun

The average radius of the outer core

6 m . Then, assuming that the

,

average angular speed of the outer core, has the same order of magnitude of the

Earth’s

,

. Thus, Eq.

crust,

average angular speed

is _{r}

oc

= 2.3 ×10

ϖ

oc

rad

/

s

of

7.29

the

×

10

−5

ϖ

⊕

,

i.e.,

V

oc

ϖ

oc

= ϖ

~

ϖ =

⊕

then we get (30) gives

oc

_{o}_{c} ~ 10

r

2

m

/

s

(1

−

χχ

o

i

)~ 10

−5

(31)

This relationship shows that, if the power of the ELF radiation escaping from the Earth-ionosphere waveguide is progressively increasing (for example, by the increasing of the dimensions of the holes in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide ^{†}^{†} ), then as

equals 1, and the

soon as the value of

χ χ

o

i

^{§} The Earth is an oblate spheroid. It is composed of a number of different layers. An outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. The outer core is made of liquid iron and nickel.

^{*}^{*} Note that the reach of the Gravitational Shielding

_{i}_{s} ~ 10 × d

⊕

= 126,000km _{.}

^{†}^{†} The amount of ELF radiation that escapes from the Earth-ionosphere waveguide is directly proportional to the number of holes in inner edge of the ionosphere and the dimensions of these holes. Thus, if the amount of holes or its dimensions are increasing, then the

power

of

the ELF

radiation escaping

from the

Earth-

ionosphere waveguide will also be increased.

speed

interval, the progressive increasing of the power density of the ELF radiation makes

greater than 1. Equation (29) shows

that, at this moment, the velocity

resurges, but now in the opposite direction. The Earth's magnetic field is generated by the outer core motion, i.e., the molten iron in the outer core is spinning with angular

speed,

, and it's spinning inside the Sun’s

magnetic field, so a magnetic field is generated in the molten core. This process is called dynamo effect.

Since Eq. (31) tells us that the

factor(

) is currently very close to zero,

we can conclude that the moment of the reversion of the Earth’s magnetic field is very close.

V

oc

will

be

null.

After

a

time

χ χ

o

i

V oc

ϖ oc

1− χ χ

o

i

5. Device for moving very heavy loads.

Based on the phenomenon of reduction of local gravity related to the Gravitational

Shieldings S _{o} and S _{i} , it is possible to create a

device for moving very heavy loads such as large monoliths, for example. Imagine a large monolith on the Earth’s surface. At noon the gravity acceleration upon the monolith is basically given by

= g − g

g R

sun

2

− 3

GM

r

=

5.92 10

×

sun

se

the

gravity due to the Sun at the monolith and

where

m/ s

2

g sun

=−

is

g=9.8m/s

2

.

If we place upon the monolith a mantle with a set of Gravitational Shieldings inside, the value of becomes

n

g

R

g

R

n

= g −χ g

sun

This shows that, it is possible to reduce down to values very close to zero, and thus to transport very heavy loads (See Fig.5). We will call the mentioned mantle of Gravitational Shielding Mantle. Figure 5 shows one of these mantles _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{a} _{s}_{e}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{8}

Gravitational Shieldings. Since the mantle thickness must be thin, the option is to use

Gravitational Shieldings produced by layers of

g

R

high-dielectric strength semiconductor [

When the Gravitational Shieldings are active the

22].

9

Mantle

8

χ

g

Sun

g

8

χ

g

Sun

g

(a)

(b)

High-dielectric strength

semiconductor

dielectric

metallic

10μm

100μm

foils

~ 1 mm

Cross-section of the Mantle

V

(c)

Set of 8 Gravitational Shieldings inside the Mantle

~

ELF

f

Fig. 5 – Device for transporting very heavy loads.

It is possible to transport very heavy loads by

using a Gravitational Shielding Mantle - A Mantle with a set of 8 semiconductor layers or more (each layer with 10μm thickness, sandwiched by two metallic foils with 10μm thickness). The total thickness of the mantle (including the insulation layers) is ~1mm. The metallic foils are connected to the ends of an ELF voltage source in order to generate ELF electromagnetic fields through the semiconductor layers. The objective is to create 8 Gravitational Shieldings as shown in (c). When the Gravitational Shieldings are active

χ 8 , in such way that the gravity resultant upon the

.

monoliths (a) and (b) becomes

the gravity due to the Sun is multiplied by the factor

g

R

=

g

− χ

8

g

. Thus, for example, if _{χ} = −2.525 results

g

0.028m / s

2

Sun

R =

Under these circumstances, the weight of the monolith becomes

2.9

×

10 ^{−}

3 of the initial weight.

10

gravity

factor , in such way that the gravity resultant

.

χ = −2.525 the result is

the

due to

χ

8

0.028m / s

2

the

Sun is

multiplied by

g

R

= −χ

g

8

g

upon the monolith becomes

Thus, for example, if

.

R = the weight of the monolith becomes the initial weight.

Sun

g

Under

these

circumstances,

2.9

×

10 ^{−}

3

of

6. Gates to the imaginary spacetime in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide.

It is known that strong densities of

electric charges can occur in some regions of

the upper boundary of the Earth-ionosphere

waveguide, for example, as a result of the lightning discharges [29]. These anomalies

increase strongly the electric field in the

E

w

mentioned regions, and possibly can produce

a tunneling effect to the imaginary spacetime.

The electric field will produce an

E

w

electrons flux in a direction and an ions flux in an opposite direction. From the viewpoint

of electric current, the ions flux can be

considered as an “electrons” flux at the same direction of the real electrons flux. Thus, the

current density through the air, , will be

j

w

the

double of the current density expressed

by

the well-known equation of Langmuir-

Child

3

3

3

4

2 e V

2 V

2

V

2

− 6

j = εε

=α =

2.33 10

×

(32)

r

0

2

2

2

9

m

r

r

r

e

where

ε

≅ 1

for the air;

α=

2.33 ×

10 −

6 is

r

the

called Child’s constant;

r , in this case, is

the

distance between the center of the charges

and the Gravitational Shieldings and

S

w1

S w2

−

15

m)

−

16

(see Fig.6) (

r =

2 (

1

1.4 10

×

= ×

7

10

m

); V

is the

voltage drop given by

where

V =

E

w

r

=

σ

Q

Qr

r

=

2

ε

0

2

ε

0 ^{A}

(33)

Q is the anomalous amount of charge

in

the

region

with

area

A ,

i.e.,

σ =

Q

A

=ησ , η

is

the

ratio

of

Q

q

2

−

10

2

proportionality, and

σ =

q

4 R

π ≅

9.8

×

10

C/ m

q

is the normal charge density ;

q = 500,000C

is

the

( q

the area _{A} ). By substituting (33) into (32), we get

total

charge[ 24],

then

Q =ηAσ =ηq

q

n

n

= Aσ

q

is the normal amount of charge in

3

⎛

Qr ⎞

2

⎜

⎟

3

3

⎜

⎟

V

2

2

ε

A

2

α

⎛ Q ⎞

2

⎝

0

⎠

j

= 2 j =

2

α

=

2

α

=

⎜

⎟

(34)

w

⎜

⎟

2

2

r

r

r

2

ε

A

⎝

0

⎠

Since

E

=

σ 2ε

and

j

= σ E

,

we can

w

Q

0

w

w

w

write that

3

⎡

3

⎤

2

α

⎛ Q ⎞

2

Q

3

4

3

⎢

⎥

σ

E

=

j

E

=

⎜

⎟

=

w

w

w

w

⎢

⎜

⎟

⎥

r

2

ε

A

2

ε

A

⎝

0

⎠

0

⎢

⎣

⎦

⎥

3

5.5

3

5.5

3

5.5

(

)

α

ασ

0.18

α ησ

0.18

Q

0.18

Q

q

=

=

=

=

1.5

5.5

5.5 r

1.5

5.5

1.5

5.5

r

ε

A

ε

r

0

0

ε 0

16

5.5

=

2.14 10

×

η

(35)

The electric field has an oscillating

E

w

component, , with frequency, , equal to

E

f

w1

the lowest Schumann resonance frequency

f 1 =

7.83Hz

. Then, by using Eq. (7), that can

be rewritten in the following form [18]:

⎧

⎡

⎫

m

3

μσ

E 4

g

⎪

⎪

⎢

−

27

r

⎤

⎥

χ =

= 1 −

2

1

+

1.758 × 10

1

(36)

⎨

⎪

−

⎢

3

m i

⎩

ρ 2 f

⎣

⎥

⎦

⎬

⎪

⎭

we can write that

m

⎧

⎡

⎫

3

4

g

⎪

⎨

⎪

μσ

E

−

27

⎢

rw

w

w 1

χ

=

=

1 −

2

1

+

1.758 × 10

−

⎤

1 ⎥

w

2

3

⎢

w

1

⎪

⎬

⎪

(37)

ρ

f

m i ⎩

⎣

⎥ ⎦

⎭

By

substitution

of

Eq.

(35),

= 1

,

μ rw

− 2

3

ρ

= ×

1

10

kg / m

and

f 1 =

7.83Hz

into the

w

expression above, we obtain

χ

w

=

⎧

⎩ ⎨

1

−

2

⎡

⎢

1

+

7.84 × 10

−

5.5

10

η

⎣

−

1

⎤ ⎥ ⎦

⎫

⎭ ⎬

(38)

will be

decreased by the effect of the Gravitational

Shieldings

following expression

, according to the

w2

The

gravity

S

w1

and

S

below

S w2

(

g

−χ χ

w

1

w

2

g

sun

)

where

χ =χ =χ

w

1

w

2

w

. Thus, we get

11

Ionosphere

Region with much greater

concentration of electric charges

σ

σ

q

Q

S

r

w1

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

S

w2

A

E

w

Upper boundary

of the

Earth-Ionosphere waveguide

km Earth-Ionosphere waveguide

60

Reach of the Gravitational Shielding

~10 X d

R

g

g

−χ χ

g

g

w

1

w

2

sun

d

ground

Fig. 6 - Gravitational Shieldings

and

produced by strong densities of electric charge in the

S w1

S w2

upper boundary of the Earth-Ionosphere.

12

⎧

2

g

⎫

⎪

⎨

⎪

⎧

⎡

⎫

− 10

5.5

⎤

sun

1

−

1

−

2

1

+

7.84

×

10

η

−

1

⎬

⎪

⎬

g

=χ

g

⎣

⎢

⎦

⎥

⎨ ⎩

⎭

g

⎪

⎩

⎭

where

⎧

2

⎪

⎨

⎪

⎧

⎡

⎫

− 10

5.5

⎤

g sun

χ

=

1

−

1

−

2

1

+

7.84

×

10

η

−

1

⎬

⎢

⎨ ⎩

⎣

⎦

⎥

⎭

g

⎩

⎫ ⎪

⎬ (39)

⎪ ⎭

In a previous article [18], it was shown

that, when the gravitational mass of a body is

reduced to a value in the range of

+ 0.159m

i

to

− 0.159m

i or

the

local

gravity

(g) is

reduced to a value in the range of

to , the body performs a transition

to the imaginary spacetime. This means that,

if the value of

range 0.159 < χ < −0.159 , then any body (aircrafts, ships, etc) that enters the region - defined by the volume _{(}_{A} _{×} _{~} _{1}_{0}_{d} _{)} below the

Gravitational Shielding , will perform a

_{χ} given by Eq.(39) is in the

+ 0.159g

− 0.159g

S

w2

transition to the imaginary spacetime. Consequently, it will disappear from our Real Universe and will appear in the Imaginary Universe. However, the electric

field , which reduces the gravitational

E

w1

mass of the body (or the gravitational

shieldings, which reduce the local gravity)

does not

the Real Universe. Consequently, the body

returns immediately from the Imaginary Universe. Meanwhile, it is important to note that, in the case of collapse of the

wavefunction of the body, it will never

accompany the body; they stay at

Ψ

more come back to the Real Universe.

in order to

obtain _{χ} in the range of 0.159< χ < −0.159 the

value of _{η} must be in the following range:

Equation (39) shows that,

127 .1 < η

< 135 .4

is

then it must be increased

by about 130 times in order to transform the

region

Shielding , in a gate to the imaginary spacetime. It is known that in the Earth's atmosphere occur transitorily large densities of electromagnetic energy across extensive areas. We have already seen how the density of electromagnetic energy affects the

, below the Gravitational

Since

9.8

the

10

−

10

normal

2

charge

density

σ≅ ×

q

(A

C/m

× ~ 10d )

S

w2

gravitational mass (Eq. (4)). Now, it will be

shown that it also affects the length of an object. Length contraction or Lorentz contraction is the physical phenomenon of a

decrease in length detected by an observer of

objects that travel at any non-zero velocity

relative to that observer. If is the length of

L

0

the object in its rest frame, then the length

L , observed by an observer in relative

motion with respect to the object, is given by

L =

L

0

2

2

=

L

1 −

V

c

0

γ

()

V

(40)

where is the relative velocity between the

observer and the moving object and the speed of light. The function _{γ} (V )is known as

the Lorentz factor.

be

written in the following form [18]:

V

c

It

was

shown

that

Eq.

(3)

can

⎧

⎡

⎤

⎥

⎫

2

⎧

⎡

⎤

⎫

m

⎪

⎛Δ p ⎞

1

g

⎢

⎜

⎟

⎢

= −

⎨

1

2

1

+

−

1

= ⎨ ⎪ 1 −

2

− 1

⎪

⎬

m

⎢

⎜

⎟

m

c

⎢

2

2

⎥

⎥

i

0

⎪

⎝

i

0

⎠

⎥

⎥

⎪

⎬

⎪

1 − V

c

⎪

⎣

⎩

⎣

⎢

⎦ ⎭

⎪ ⎩

⎦

⎭

This expression shows that

2

⎛Δ p ⎞ ⎟

1

1

+ ⎜

=

=γ

() V

(41)

⎜

⎟

m c

⎝

i

0

⎠

By substitution of Eq. (41) into Eq.(40) we

get

L 0

L 0

L =

=

(42)

γ

() V

2

⎛Δ p ⎞

1 + ⎜

⎟

⎜

⎟

m

c

⎝

i 0

⎠

It was shown that, the term,

Δ p

m

c

, in the

i0

equation above is equal to

Wn

ρ

c

2 , where

r

W is the density of electromagnetic energy

absorbed by the body and

refraction, given by

n

the index of

r

c

εμ r r

⎛

2

⎞

n

=

=

⎜

1+

(

σ ωε

)

+1

⎟

r

v

2

⎝

⎠

In the case of σ >> 2πfε ,

W = σ 8πf E

(

)

2 and

2

n

=

c v

=

μσ 4π

c

f

[30]. Thus, in this case,

r

Eq. (42) can be written as follows

L

0

L =

(43)

⎛

3

μσ

⎞

−

27

r

4

1

+

1.758 × 10

⎜

⎟

E

⎜

2

3

⎟

ρ

f

⎝

⎠

13

Note that

E

= E

sin ω .The average value

t

where ϕ is the gravitational potential.

m

2

2

Then, it follows that

for

E

is equal to

1

E

because E varies

2

m

2

2

2

⎛Δ p ⎞

⎛Δ p ⎞

V

2

ϕ

sinusoidaly (

E

is the maximum value

2

m

⎜

⎟

=

V

= 2

ϕ

and

⎜

⎟

=

=

⎜

⎟

⎜

⎟

m

m

c

2

2

⎝

⎠

⎝

⎠

c

c

i

0

i 0

for E ). On the other hand,

E

= E

2

.

rms

m

Consequently, the expression of T becomes

4

4

Consequently we can change

E

by

E

,

rms

and the equation above can be rewritten as follows

L

0

L =

(44)

⎛

3

μσ

⎞

−

27

r

4

1

+

1.758 × 10

⎜

⎟

E

⎜

2

3

⎟

rms

ρ

f

⎝

⎠

Now, consider an airplane traveling in a region of the atmosphere. Suddenly, along a

distance of the trajectory of the airplane

L

0

arises an ELF electric field with intensity

and frequency . The

Aluminum density is

. According to Eq. (44), for the airplane the

its conductivity

and

E

rms

~ 10

5

V m

.

−

1

f

~ 1Hz

3

kg m

.

−

3

×

10

7

S m

.

−

1

ρ =

is

2.7

×

σ=

10

3.82

5

distance is shortened by . Under

L

0

2.7

×

10 ^{−}

these conditions, a distance of about

L

0

3000km will become just 0.08km. Time dilation is an observed difference of elapsed time between two observers which are moving relative to each other, or being differently situated from nearby gravitational masses. This effect arises from the nature of space-time described by the theory of relativity. The expression for determining time dilation in special relativity is:

T

=

()

T

γ

0

V

=

T

0

2

2

1

−

V

c

where is the interval time measured at the

T

0

object in its rest frame (known as the proper

T is the time interval observed by an

time);

observer in relative motion with respect to the object. Based on Eq. (41), we can write the expression of T in the following form:

2

T

⎛Δ p ⎞

0

T =

= T + ⎜

1

⎟

0

⎜

⎟

2

2

m c

1 − V

c

⎝

i

0

⎠

For V << c , we can write that

Δ =

p

m

1

2

2

= m

gr = m

ϕ

⇒ V =

m i

0 V

i

0

i

0

2

i0

_{V} and

2ϕ

T =

T

2

ϕ

0

=

T

1 +

0

2

2

2

c

1 − V

c

which is the well-known expression obtained

in the General Relativity.

Based on Eq. (41) we can also write

the expression of T in the following form:

2

⎛

3

⎛Δ p ⎞ ⎟

μσ

⎞

− 27

r

4

T

=

T

1

+ ⎜

=

T

1

+

1.758 10

×

⎜

⎟

E

(45)

0

⎜

⎟

0

⎜

rms

2

3

⎟

m c

ρ

⎝

i

0

⎠

f

⎝

⎠

Now, consider a ship in the ocean. It is

;

When subjected to a

uniform ELF electromagnetic field, with

made

ρ =

7.8

of

×

10

steel

3

kg m

.

−

3

(

μ

r

).

= 300

;

1.1

σ= ×

10

6

S m

.

−

1

3

− 1

intensity

=

1.36

×

10

V m

.

and

E rms

frequency

f = 1Hz , the ship will perform a

transition in time to a time T given by

⎛

3

μσ

⎞

−

27

r

4

T

=

T

1

+

1.758 × 10

⎜

⎟

E

=

0

⎜

rms

2

3

⎟

ρ

f

⎝

⎠

= (1.0195574)

T

(

46 )

0

If

T 0 =

January,1 1943,

0h

0 min

0s

then

the

ship

performs

a

transition

in

time

to T = January,1 1981,

0h

0 min

0s .

Note

that the use of ELF ( _{f} _{=} _{1}_{H}_{z}_{)} is fundamental.

the

electromagnetic

uniform, must remain with the ship during

T . If it is not

uniform, each part of the ship will perform transitions for different times in the future.

the transition to the time

being

It

is

important

field

E

to

rms

note

,

that

besides

On the other hand, the field must remain with

the ship, because, if it stays at the time ,

T

0

the transition is interrupted. In order to the electromagnetic field remains at the ship, it is

necessary that all the parts, which are involved with the generation of the field, stay

14

inside the ship. If persons are inside the ship they will perform transitions for different times in the future because their conductivities and densities are different. Since the conductivity and density of the ship and of the persons are different, they will perform transitions to different times. This means that the ship and the persons must have the same characteristics, in order to perform transitions to the same time. Thus, in this way is unsuitable and highly dangerous to make transitions to the future with persons. However, there is a way to solve this problem. If we can control the gravitational mass of a body, in such way

that

= χ m , and we put this body inside

m g

i0

a ship with gravitational mass

≅ M

,

M g

i0

then the total gravitational mass of the ship

will be given by ‡‡

= M + m = M +χ

m

M g(total)

g

g

i0

i0

or

M

χ

g total

(

)

m i 0

=

= +

1

(47)

χ ship

M i 0

M i 0

Since

⎧

⎡

⎫

2

⎤

M

⎪

⎛Δ p ⎞

⎪

g

⎢

⎥

=

= 1−2 1+

⎜

⎨

⎟ − 1

χ ship

⎢

⎜

⎟

⎥

M

M

c

i

0

⎪

⎝

i

0

⎠

⎬

⎪

⎢

⎣

⎦

⎥

⎩

⎭

we can write that

2

⎛Δ p ⎞ ⎟

3

−χ

ship

1

+ ⎜

=

⎜

⎟

M

c

2

⎝

i

0

⎠

Then it follows that

2

⎛Δ ⎞

p

⎛−

3

χ

⎞

ship

T

=

1

+ ⎜

⎟

=

T

⎜

⎟

T 0

⎜

⎟

0

⎜

⎟

M c

2

⎝

i

0

⎠

⎝

⎠

(48)

(49)

Substitution of Eq. (47) into Eq. (49) gives

Note that, if (50) gives

T

⎛

= ⎜ 1 −

T

0

⎝ ⎜

χ

m

i

0

2

M

i

0

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ (50)

⎠

χ = −

0.0391148

(

M

i

0

m

i

0

) ,

Eq.

T = T (1.0195574)

0

which is the same value given by Eq.(46).

^{‡}^{‡} This idea was originally presented by the author in the paper: The Gravitational Spacecraft [30].

Other safe way to make transitions in the time is by means of flights with relativistic speeds, according to predicted by the equation:

T

=

T

0

2

2

±

1 −

V

c

(51)

With the advent of the Gravitational Spacecrafts [30], which could reach velocities close to the light speed, this possibility will become very promising. It was shown in a previous paper [18] that by varying the gravitational mass of the spacecraft for negative or positive we can go respectively to the past or future. If the gravitational mass of a particle is positive, then t is always positive and given

by

t =+t

0

2

2

1

−V c

(52)

This leads to the well-known relativistic prediction that the particle goes to the future

if

. However, if the gravitational

mass of the particle is negative, then t is also

negative and, therefore, given by

V → c

t =−t

0

2

2

1

−V c

(53)

In this case, the prevision is that the particle

In this way,

negative gravitational mass is the necessary condition to the particle to go to the past.

goes to the past if

V → c

.

Now,

consider

a

parallel

plate

capacitor, which has a high-dielectric strength

semiconductor between its plates, _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e}

following characteristics

;

. According to Eq.(45), when

the semiconductor is subjected to a uniform

ELF electromagnetic field, with intensity

μ

r

=1

10

4

;

σ=

S m

.

−

1

3

kg m

.

−

3

ρ =

10

5

−1

= 10

V m

.

( 0.1

KV

/

mm)

and frequency

E rms

f = 1Hz , it should perform a transition in

time to a time T given by

⎛

3

μσ

⎞

−

27

⎜

r

⎟

4

T

=

T

1

+

1.758 10

×

E

=

0

rms

⎜

2

3

⎟

ρ

f

⎝

⎠

= (1.08434)

T

(54

)

0

However, the transition is not performed, because the electromagnetic field is external to the semiconductor, and obviously would not accompany the semiconductor during the transition. In other words, the field stays at

15

the

performed.

time

T

0

,

and

the

transition

is

not

7. Detection of Earthquakes at the Very Early Stage

When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates outwards in all directions. The energy travels through and around the earth as three types of seismic waves called primary, secondary, and surface waves (P- wave, S-wave and Surface-waves). All various types of earthquakes follow this pattern. At a given distance from the epicenter, first the P-waves arrive, then the S-waves, both of which have such small energies that they are mostly not threatening. Finally, the surface waves arrive with all of their damaging energies. It is predominantly the surface waves that we would notice as the earthquake. This knowledge, that, preceding any destructive earthquake, there are telltales P-waves, are used by the earthquake warning systems to reliably initiate an alarm before the arrival of the destructive waves. Unfortunately, the warning time of these

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