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For the Periodic Test:

I. Multiple Choice. Gift of the Magi 10 points

Identify what is being asked and choose the best answer. Write your answer on the
space provided.
1. How much did Jim make each week?
A. $30 B. $20 C. $25 D. It varies
2. What does the watch symbolize?
A. value of love
B. value of inheritance
C. value of time
D. value of poverty

II. Character Identification. Gift of the Magi 5 points

Identify the speaker of the following lines. Choose the letter of the correct
answer from the list.
1. "I buy hair," �"Take yer hat off and let's have a sight at the looks of it." --
Mdme. Sofronie
2. �"let's put our Christmas presents away and keep 'em a while. They're too nice
to use just at present. � Jim
3. �Lord, please make him think that I�m still pretty.� -- Della

III. Sentence Diagraming 40 points

III. Research Multiple Choice

In-text Citation, Null Hypotheses
IV. Choose the best null hypothesis by writing the letter on the space before
the number.

C. 1. The Effects of Extra Curricular Activities and Competitions on the Social

Development of Students
a. There is no relationship between extra curricular activities and
b. Students frequently joining extra curricular activities have low self esteem.
c. There is no effect on the student�s social development if he joins Extra
Curricular Activities and competitions

VI. Correcting Errors. Choose the letter of the incorrect part of the reference
VII. Inferring Meanings of Lines/Quotes from Literary Pieces 15 points
The Gift of the Magi and Cask of Amontillado
Identify the values/ social issues that are shown in each of the following quotes
from the short story The Gift of the Magi. Write the letter corresponding to
your answer.
A. Economic crisis D. Unemployment G. Inflation
B. Poverty E. insecurity H. Hope

B. 1. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was
in pennies.
A. 2. The "Dillingham" had been flung to the breeze during a former period of
prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week.
G. 3. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. They always are.

VIII. Reading
The Gift of the Magi
?Plot Summary
On the day before Christmas, Della has only $1.87 in savings with which to buy a
gift for her husband, James Dillingham Young. Flopping down on the couch of their
apartment, she cries�howls, actually. She had squeezed every spare penny out of
household expenses, and still there was not enough for the wonderful present she
dreamed of getting for Jim. Times are tough. Jim�s salary, formerly $30 a week, is
now only $20 a week. Suddenly, Della gets an idea. Whirling about the room, she
lets down her hair. It is one of two prized possessions between her and Jim, the
other being the gold pocket watch handed down to him from his father. A moment
later, Della goes down the street to Madame Sofronie�s shop, where the sign reads
�Hair Goods of All Kinds.� There, Della sells her hair for $20.
.......After shopping for two hours, she finds just the right gift, a platinum fob
chain to replace the old leather strap attached to his watch. It is simple and
elegant, and it costs $21, leaving Della 87 cents. After returning home, she uses
curling irons to give herself a new hairdo, puts coffee on, gets pork chops ready
for frying, then prays that Jim will like her new look.
It is seven o�clock. When he walks in, he stares at her. His gaze is long
and unrelenting. Worried that he is displeased with her appearance, Della tells
him that she sold her hair �because I couldn't have lived through Christmas
without giving you a present.� Jim seems bewildered.
.......�You�ve cut off your hair?�
......."Cut it off and sold it," Della says.
.......�You say your hair is gone?�
.......A moment later, he comes out of his �trance� and enfolds Della in his arms.
Then he takes a package from his overcoat and tosses it onto a table. He tells his
wife nothing she could do would make him love her any less. However, he adds, the
package will explain why he reacted strangely upon seeing her. After opening the
present, she cries out with joy, then bursts into tears. Her gift is a set of
expensive, tortoise-shell combs she had long eyed in a shop window. To comfort
him, she says, �My hair grows so fast, Jim!�
.......Then Della gives him his present. As the reader by now suspects and as the
story confirms, Jim had sold his pocket watch to buy the combs.
.......However, like the three wise men of long ago, Della and Jim had given
perfect gifts. After all, the narrator says, they �sacrificed for each other the
greatest treasures of their house.� What they gave as presents was worth far more
than the chain and the combs.

Exploring specific themes: Sacrifice & Wisdom

Many feel that sacrifice, or giving up something for someone else, is the main
theme in The Gift of the Magi. Both Della and Jim make sacrifices so they can buy
Christmas gifts for each other.
At the end of the story, O.Henry seems to be saying two different things. ��And
here I have told you the story of two
children who were not wise. Each sold the most valuable thing he owned in order to
buy a gift for the other. But let me speak a last word to the wise of these days:
Of all who give gifts, these two were the most wise.�
How were they unwise?
They sold valuable things to buy gifts that they didn't really need to buy in the
first place, because they were truly in love.
How were they wise?
They thought only of the other person and not of themselves when they gavetheir
The Cask of Amontillado

Plot Summary:
The story is narrated by Montresor, who carries a grudge against Fortunato for an
offense that is never explained. Montresor leads a drunken Fortunato through a
series of chambers beneath his palazzo with the promise of a taste of Amontillado,
a wine that Montresor has just purchased. When the two men reach the last
underground chamber, Montresor chains Fortunato to the wall, builds a new wall to
seal him in, and leaves him to die. Wherever Poe got the idea and the impetus for
�The Cask of Amontillado,� this story and Poe�s other short fiction had an
undisputed influence on later fiction writers.

? The story is narrated with the first-person point of view. The first person
allows the author to write in the voice of a particular character - one of the
characters narrates the story. The first person provides total subjectivity and
all the immediacy, intimacy, and urgency of a single individual�s conflicts. The
first person also shows a character�s awareness at telling a story.
? As the story opens, an unnamed narrator explains, �The thousand injuries of
Fortunato I had borne as I best could; but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed
? �The Cask of Amontillado� is told in the first person by Montresor, who
reveals in the first sentence that he intends to take revenge on Fortunato.
? By presenting the story in the first person, Poe avoids hinting at any
interpretation of the action.
Montresor is in control, deciding what to tell and what to leave out.
? As countless critics have pointed out, the nature of the injuries and
offenses is never revealed.
There is no hint as to whom the narrator is speaking or writing, and the �thousand
injuries� and the �insult� committed by Fortunato are never described.
Nevertheless, the narrator contemplates his desire for revenge and his plan to
�not only punish, but punish with impunity�; that is, to punish Fortunato without
being caught or punished himself. Furthermore, he is determined not to act in
secrecy, for Fortunato must know that his pain is handed to him by Montresor.
Fortunato has no idea that Montresor is angry with him�Montresor has given no hint
of it. When Montresor encounters his �friend� on the street one evening during the
carnival season, Fortunato has no reason to be suspicious. Montresor asks
Fortunato to come with him and sample a large cask of Amontillado, a type of wine,
which Montresor has just purchased.
? Theme is the main idea that the writer expresses. Theme can also be defined
as the underlying meaning of the story.
The theme of a story is more than its subject matter, because an author�s
technique can play as strong a role in developing a theme as the actions of the
characters do.
? Revenge is the main theme of the story and the force that drives Montresor
to commit the horrible murder of Fortunato. His first words in the story speak of
it: �The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could; but when he
ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge.� The idea of revenge is repeated several
times in the opening paragraph. In seeking revenge, Montresor is acting out the
motto of his people, as it appears on the family coat of arms, Nemo me impune
? In the last lines Montresor the actor once again becomes Montresor the
narrator, who began the story. Now he reveals that the murder happened fifty years
before. In Latin he speaks over Fortunato�s body: �Rest in peace.�
? The critic John Gruesser believes that Montresor tells the story of his
crime �as he presumably lies on his deathbed, confessing his crime to an old
friend, the You� of the story�s first paragraph who is perhaps his priest.� Even
as he tells the story fifty years later he reveals no regret for his actions.
? Poe was criticized in his own time for depicting a crime with no apparent
motive and a murderer with no apparent remorse.

Poe chooses the words in his story very carefully. The title of the story and the
main characters names were not given by accident. Many times the words or phases
he used gave the reader a clue of what was to follow. He also used double
meanings of words to lead to his sarcastic humor. Analyze the following lines or
scenes from the story.

Foreshadowing - to indicate or suggest something, usually something unpleasant

that is going to happen
Irony - using words to suggest the opposite of their literal meaning

I continued as was my wont, to smile in his face, and he did not perceive that my
smile NOW was at the thought of his immolation.
Foreshadowing- Montresor smiles in Fortunato�s face as he is thinking about
killing him.
The man wore motley. He had on a tight-fitting parti-striped dress and his head
was surmounted by the conical cap and bells.
Ironic- Fortunato comes to the carnival dress like a fool. He is taken for
a fool by going after the amontillado, which leads him to his death.

I said to him -- "My dear Fortunato, you are luckily met. How remarkably well you
are looking to day!
Ironic- Montresor comments how lucky they are to meet. By this chance
meeting Montressor�s plan of revenge begins to take form. Although Fortunato looks
good now, he will be dead by the end of the day.

I passed down a long and winding staircase, requesting him to be cautious as he

followed. We came at length to the foot of the descent, and stood together on the
damp ground of the catacombs of the Montresors.
Ironic & Foreshadowing- It is ironic that he cautions him going down the
stairs when he is planning to kill him shortly. The descending to the catacombs
is a foreshadowing of Fortunato�s fate.

"Come," I said, with decision, we will go back; your health is precious. You are
rich, respected, admired, beloved; you are happy as once I was. You are a man to
be missed. For me it is no matter. We will go back; you will be ill and I cannot
be responsible. Besides, there is Luchesi"
Ironic & Foreshadowing � Montresor tells Fortunato to go back that his health
is precious and that he will be missed if something should happen to him. Yet
Montresor is plotting his death.
The quote �you are happy as I once was� is a foreshadowing of the revenge that is
about to be inflicted.

"The cough is a mere nothing; it will not kill me. I shall not die of a cough."
"True -- true," I replied
Ironic & Foreshadowing �Poe shows his sarcastic humor here. It is ironic that
Fortunato brings up the topic of dying. He will not die from the cough but by
Montresor�s revengeful plan.

"I drink," he said, "to the buried that repose around us."
"And I to your long life."
Ironic � The toast to the dead around them and to Fortunato�s long
life is another sarcastic play on words knowing that Fortunato�s life will be over

"Nemo me impune lacessit."

Ironic �The motto on Montresor�s coat of arms is translated from Latin
meaning: "No one injures (attacks) me with consequences� It is because of
Fortunato�s insults or verbal attacks that Montresor is killing him

Once more let me IMPLORE you to return. No? Then I must positively leave you.

Foreshadowing- He begs him to leave one last time and then states that
he will leave him for good.

�Let us be gone."
"Yes," I said, "let us be gone."

Ironic � Fortunato states �let us be gone� meaning lets go back to

the carnival the joke is over. Montresori states �let us be gone� meaning your
death is approaching.

The Cask of Amontillado

The title of the story is also a play on words for it is this cask, which leads
him to casket.

Fortunato- Fortunato name means Fortunate which he is anything but.


Hypotheses are tentative statements about a given problem. They are stated
in the null form of �no difference� and/or �no relationship� between and among the
involved variables. Hypotheses are applicable for studies that entail testing of
relationships between variables.

Null hypothesis
- is a statement of denial of an attribute, existence, effect or relationship
that should be tested which maybe either accepted or rejected in favor of an
alternative hypothesis expressed in a negative statement.
- is the hypothesis to be tested which one hopes to reject. It shows equality
or no significant difference or relationship between variables.

Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

Signal phrase examples:
In his famous and influential work On the Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud
argues that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious" (page #), expressing in
coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the
"dream work" (page #).
According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and
subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before
emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself (page #s).

How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries

Basic steps:
� Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.
� Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is.
� Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay.
� Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be
quoted directly.
Direct Quotaion
- taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting
- quote when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most
effective means of communicating the point you want to make

Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the

source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed
to the original author.

There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. Often, a short
quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Longer quotations can stand
alone. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have
a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so. You'll find
guidelines for citing sources and punctuating citations at our documentation guide
For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay
called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg:
"The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to
withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so
by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people
happy in the way they expect it to."
Your quotation might end up looking like this:
In his essay, "United Shareholders of America," Jacob Weisberg insists that "The
citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw
from the community. He tends to serve himself badly . . . by focusing his pursuit
of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they
expect it to."
? The ellipses (. . .) indicate that you have skipped over some words in order
to condense the passage. But even this version is still a bit lengthy � there is
something else you can do to make it even more concise. Try changing the last
sentence from:
"He tends to serve himself badly . . . by focusing his pursuit of happiness on
something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to."
"He tends to serve himself badly . . . by focusing his pursuit of happiness on
? The brackets around the word [money] indicate that you have substituted that
word for other words the author used.
? Be sure that "money" is what the final phrase meant

Short Quotations
? If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the
author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by
"p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's
last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style,
especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what
implications does this have for teachers?
? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name,
the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," (Jones, 1998, p.
199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long Quotations
Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of
typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line.
The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones's (1998) study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first
time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many
students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p.

Paraphrase: Write it in Your Own Words

Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words.
A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material
is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of
the source and condensing it slightly.

A paraphrase is...
� Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone
else, presented in a new form.
� One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow
from a source.
� A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a
single main idea.

6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you
envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or
phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version
accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have
borrowed exactly from the source.
6. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can
credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference
to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA
guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p.

Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only
the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to
the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and
take a broad overview of the source material.

Some examples to compare:

? The original passage:
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they
overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your
final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should
strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking
notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
?A legitimate paraphrase:
In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted
material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during
note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester
?An acceptable summary:
Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help
minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).
? A plagiarized version:
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in
too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of
the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to
limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.

In-Text Citations: The Basics

Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense
when using signal phrases to describe earlier research. E.g., Jones (1998) found
or Jones (1998) has found...

APA Citation Basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This
means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source
should appear in the text, E.g., (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should
appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the
material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only
have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text

In-Text Citation Capitalization, Quotes, and Italics/Underlining

� Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D.
� If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all
words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source:
Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns,
pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to
(Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be
capitalized: Writing new media.)
� When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound
word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
� Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric:
The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."
� Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited
collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of
the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
� Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal
articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song
titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds"; "The One Where
Chandler Can't Cry."

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the
author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources,
electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.
Citing an Author or Authors
A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the
parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors'
names within the text and use the ampersand (&) in the parentheses.

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in
parentheses the first time you cite the source.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et
al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Kernis et al., 1993)
In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal
phrase or in parentheses.
Harris et al. (2001) argued...
(Harris et al., 2001)
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title
in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of
books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters
are in quotation marks.
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using
APA," 2001).
Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the
author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as
the author.
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government
agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical
citation the first time you cite the source.
According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in
brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in
later citations.
First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)
Second citation: (MADD, 2000)

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation
includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference
list, separated by a semi-colon.
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)

Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the
last names.
(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by
the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year
to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the
year in the in-text citation.
Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...

Citing Indirect Sources

If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in
your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include
the secondary source in the parentheses.
Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as

Electronic Sources
If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using
the author-date style.
Kenneth (2000) explained...

Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in
your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and
use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").
Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students
succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

Sources Without Page Numbers

When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include
information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an
electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the � symbol, or the abbreviation
"para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, � 5) or (Hall, 2001, para.
5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide
the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in
some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their
browser to locate any passages you cite.
According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

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