DILLON RESERVOIR RECREATION CAPACITY ANALYSIS

PreparedBy:RPIConsulting InPartnershipwith:SummitCountyOpenSpaceandTrails  

December2012 



DillonReservoirRecreationCapacityAnalysis 

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Contents
Contents........................................................................................................................................................2 ExecutiveSummary.......................................................................................................................................3 Capacity.........................................................................................................................................................7 OverviewofExistingRecreationalFacilities................................................................................................. 8 SpecialEventsCalendar.............................................................................................................................. 10 RecreationPathUsagePatterns................................................................................................................. 13 TrailCapacity...............................................................................................................................................16 ReservoirCapacity......................................................................................................................................21 CampingCapacity ........................................................................................................................................23 OnͲSiteObservationofBikingEvent........................................................................................................... 24 RecommendationsforRecreationPathEventPermitting.......................................................................... 26 RecreationPathEventApplicationCheckListandRouteMaps................................................................29

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Executive Summary
Purpose
This report describes the baseline capacity and use occurring on the Recreational Pathway System around Dillon Reservoir (rec path) and analyzes how special events affect the rec path's capacity to provide residents and visitors with a safe and high quality recreational experience.  This report also supplies Summit County Open Space and Trails with tools to mitigate capacity issues associated with special events that utilize the rec path. In addition to the recreation path capacity analysis, this study alsoprovidescapacitybenchmarksforboatingandcampingatDillonReservoir.

Recreation Path Capacity Analysis
With the Dillon Dam section already accommodating over 65,000 users in 2010, there is strong and growing demand for rec path activities.  More than half of all rec path usage occurs on Saturday and Sunday,withonly48%oftotaluseoccurringonweekdays.70%ofrecpathuseoccursinJune,Julyand August.   Meanwhile, the majority of special events occur on one of the 15 weekends between Labor Day and Memorial Day. 20 of these events occurred during that period from midͲJuly through lateͲ August. Based on typical use patterns, the consulting team employed a level of service (LOS) analysis to determine the baseline functionality and quality of experience on the rec path around Dillon Reservoir for various times during a year, week or day.  The (LOS) analysis accounts for speed, number of encounters, delays, time between encounters and safety of both bikers and pedestrians.  As service levels decrease the recreation path becomes more crowded, meetings and passing become more frequent, evasive maneuvers become increasingly necessary, and safety for all users decreases as the pathbecomesmorecongested. LOSismeasuredintermsofencountersperhourandisplacedonascalefromLOSA(excellent)toLOSF (failing).   The LOS analysis shows that the rec path offers LOS A most of the time but are already relatively busy during peak hours and peak season.  Currently, the path operates at LOS A except for SaturdaysandSundaysduringpeakhoursandpeakseasonwhenitdropstoLOSB. High use during the peak season means the path cannot accommodate many additional users before service level declines further and for longer periods surrounding the weekend.    For example, during Friday peak hour and peak season, the rec path can only accommodate an additional 8 users per hour before a decline to LOS B, while it can only accommodate 14 more users per hour on Saturday during
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peak season and peak hour before the LOS slips to C, which represents compromised user experience andsafety.

Recreation Path Event Recommendations
Because the rec path is already showing signs of crowding during peak hours and peak season, special events featuring the rec path can push the system into an overͲcrowding status, especially because special events typically occur on the weekends during peak season and peak hours. Special events can have important community benefits, in fact many of the rec path events are hosted by local organizations.However,largereventscancompromiseregularuserexperienceandsafety. Toprovidecriteriaforbalancingspecialeventusewithregularrecpathuse,thisreportprovidesSummit County Open Space and Trails with a Recreation Path Scoring System and applicant checklist that are intendedtohelpimplementthefollowingrecommendationsaboutrecpathspecialeventpermitting: Since the rec path is wellͲused by locals and visitors and the LOS analysis indicates that the paths are alreadybusywithlimitedexcesscapacitybeforeservicedeclines,theconsultantteamrecommendsthat Summit County Open Space and Trails set aside two eventͲfree weekends per month, from Memorial Day to Labor Day, during which events will not be allowed on the Summit County Recreational Pathway System (particularly during peak hours).  This will allow Summit County residents and tourists to enjoy the rec path without encountering the crowded conditions associated with special events during the very short warm weather season in themountains. Summerrecpatheventsarefrequentandthecommunitymaybeclosetosaturationduetothenumber of large events. Large rec path events, those involving 750 or more participants, tend to feature mostly outͲofͲtown participants,createcongestedconditionsonthepaths,andrequireahigherlevelofimpact mitigation.  Smaller events with less than 750 participants tend to be geared more towards locals, generatelesscongestiononthepathandaregenerallyshorterinduration. This report recommends encouraging events to schedule during the offͲpeak, shoulder season (after Labor Day and before Memorial Day). Rec path use is much lower during the shoulder seasons so there would be less traffic congestion and offͲseason events will spur economic activity during the slow time
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of year for local businesses. Future events, particularly large events should be encouraged during times of year, day and week when excess capacity exists on the rec path and extra activity will not decrease recreationalpathservicelevels. Scheduling events on weekdays would also help alleviate capacity issues related to large special events. Less rec path use occurs during weekdays, as a result scheduling events on the weekdays would avoid crowding and congestion.  Summit County is typically less busy during peak season weekdays, so in addition to having less impact on the pathway system, these events would be a welcome boost during theslowerpartsoftheweekforlocalbusinesses. A final option would be to encourage events to schedule outside the peak use times; before 10 am or after 4 pm. 68% of combined rec path usage occurs during peak hours, with hourly volumes peaking at over 200 users per hour during peak season. This means that there is more capacity for special events duringoffͲpeakhours.

Capacity Benchmark for Boating and Camping
ThisreportalsoexaminesusagepatternsandfacilitycapacitiesofcampingandboatingfacilitiesatDillon Reservoir. Camping and boating facilities are not currently experiencing overcrowding issues however this report provides Summit County Open Space and Trails with planning tools to help manage camping andboatingrecreation. The Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) developed boating capacity ranges as part of the Water Opportunity Recreation System (WROS).  The system is designed to help planners and managers understand their resources, and make informed management decisions. The guide is structured around the following categories: Urban, Suburban, Rural Developed, Rural Natural, SemiͲPrimitive, and Primitive. Dillon Reservoir’’s 3,300 acres could support between 30 and 3,300 boats depending on which class reservoir managersdecideisappropriate. While boating does not appear to be a major capacity issue, it is advisable to define the opportunity spectrum that best fits Dillon Reservoir and monitor boat traffic appropriately. If traffic levels were to exceedopportunityspectrumthresholdsinthefuture,mitigation/managementmaybecomenecessary. July and August are also the busiest months for camping in the area around Dillon Reservoir. According to the Forest Service, campgrounds reach full occupancy on July and August weekends. During July and August, average campground occupancy exceeds 50%, peaking at 58% and 56%. Occupancy rates are considerablylowerinMay,JuneandSeptember.Itappearsthatcampgroundsareatcapacityduringthe weekends at the height of the summer season.   This is to be expected for a destination like Summit County and reaching capacity boosts user fees to help defray the cost of maintaining the campgrounds.
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Atthistimeitdoesnotappearthatthereisadearthofcamping,particularlywithadvancedreservations availableforthosewhoplanaheadtobesuretheyhaveasite.

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Capacity
Whether it is a park, a rec path or a baseball field, recreation capacity reflects the total number of participants thata particularfacilitycanaccommodateinagivenperiod. When useatafacilityexceeds capacity, the quality of the users experience decreases.  Because virtually everyone has had an unpleasant experience with crowded facilities, all capacities are meant to act as thresholds. Within the threshold,crowdingisminimizedandoutsideofwhichcrowdingbecomesinconvenient,unͲpleasurable, and potentially compromises public safety.  Regular users have all probably had the experience of walking on a rec path that is over capacity with too many hikers and bicyclists. This condition creates delays, potentially unsafe conditions, lack of parking at trailheads and results in an overall diminished experienceforallusers. This report presents capacity analysis for Dillon Reservoir’’s rec path system, camping and water recreation resources.  However, the primary focus is on rec path related capacity issues because the majority of large special events require significant use of the rec path system. Unlike the camping and water recreation facilities, the rec path system is generally available to all users, does not require membership or specialized equipment and usage time is often short. The campgrounds and marinas at Dillon Reservoir are managed by independent organizations with wellͲdefined management plans and definite capacity restrictions based on available facilities; the limited amount of boat slips and camp spacesisfinite.Thesedistinctionsarenotasclearwithregardtotherecpath. 

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Overview of Existing Recreational Facilities
Camping
Forest Service concessionaires manage six campgrounds at Dillon Reservoir.  There are 325 total campsites at the reservoir including two group sites that can host up to 100 people. Sites cost between $16 and $23 for single sites and $90Ͳ$195 for the group campsites at the Windy Point Campground. All campgrounds have restrooms and potable water.  There are also RV specific sites with 39 sites with electrical hookups and 16 sites with water hookups.  The campgrounds are primarily used from MemorialDaythroughLaborDay,andreachfulloccupancyonallweekendsinJulyandAugust.
Figure1.DillonReservoirCampgroundInventory  PeakOne PineCove HeatonBay Prospector Lowry WindyPointGroup Sites 79 32 81 107 24 2 Fee $18 $16 $18Ͳ$23 $17 $17Ͳ$22 $90Ͳ$195 Facilities Restrooms,Water Restrooms,Water Restrooms,ElectricalHookups,WaterHookups,TentOnlySites Restrooms Restrooms,ElectricalHookups, Group sites support up to 100 people, Restrooms, Picnic Tables, Group Fire Ring, Water Spigots, Pavilion w/ BBQ, Serving Tables, DishwashingSink

Source:USForestService,SummitCountyOpenSpace

Rec Path
There are 12 miles of paved rec path around the reservoir, which are part of a 55Ͳmile Summit County Recreational Pathway System providing connections to Dillon, Silverthorne, Frisco, Summit County, Keystone, Breckenridge, and Vail.  The Dillon Dam rec path runs along the southwestern, north and westernsidesofthereservoir,theKeystonerecpathrunsthroughtheDillonNaturePreserveandalong the northwestern boundary, and the Swan Mountain rec path runs along the southeast side of the reservoir.

Boating and Marinas
DillonReservoirhasover3,200surfaceacresforseasonalmotorboating,sailing,canoeingandkayaking. Reservoir use regulations prohibit personal watercraft and water contact activities.  Two full service marinasserveasthemainportalsforreservoiruse.TheDillonMarinaislocatedatthenorthendofthe reservoir and is a full service marina providing 281 slip sites, a boat ramp, refueling services, summer and winter storage, a store, and a restaurant. The Frisco Marina is located on the southwest shore of
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the reservoir and is a full service marina with boat storage, rentals, a restaurant, a boat ramp, and 168 slipsites.Forboaterswithoutslips,thereservoirhassixͲdayusemooringsandtwoboatramps.

Parking
The 11 primary parking lots at Dillon Reservoir have 555 total parking spaces, and can accommodate 1,770 daily users.1 Eight of the parking lots are in close proximity to the rec path system providing 481 spaces. The largest parking lots are at the Frisco Bay and Dillon Marinas, and include spaces for boats andtrailers.
Figure2.DillonReservoirCampgroundInventory  SnakeRiverInlet SapphirePoint PineCoveCampground OldDillonReservoir GibersonBayFishingPoint FriscoByMarina DillonMarina DillonDamOverlook DickeyAnglerAccess BlueRiverInlet HeatonBay Total
Source:USForestService,SummitCountyOpenSpace:

Spaces 27 20 32 15 18 236 143 10 15 27 12 555

RecreationPathProximity Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes 

Hunting and Fishing
Fishingisallowedfromthesurfaceandalongmostoftheshoreline.EachyeartheColoradoDepartment of Wildlife stocks Dillon Reservoir with 50,000 rainbow trout.  There are ten primary fishing access points and ice fishing is allowed during the winter months.  Waterfowl hunting is permitted at Dillon Reservoirduringthedesignatedhuntingseason. 

 
1 

Figuredoesnotincludecampgroundusers.AccordingtoColoradoStateParks,theaveragevehiclevisitingthereservoircarries3.19people.

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Special Events Calendar
The majority of special events at Dillon Reservoir require use of the rec path. Bike races and tours are the most common and have the largest number of participants and attendees.  Bike tour events, including the Triple Bypass, the Courage Classic, and the Bicycle Tour of Colorado can draw between 1,500 and 4,000 participants.  The USA Pro Challenge bike race brought 10,000 spectators to Dillon Reservoir in a single day to watch the race. Additionally, every year the Avon Walk for Breast Cancer attracts between 1,300 and 2,000 people to the reservoir. These large events have the greatest impact on the reservoir’’s rec path.  Other events such as the Lake Dillon Challenge, America’’s Cup, and Adventure XͲStream races draw only a few hundred people and do not require extensive use of the rec path.
Figure3.DillonReservoirEventSummary  AprilthruMemorialDay MemorialDaythruLaborDay LaborDaythruNovember
Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace

Average#ofEvents 1 7 0

NumberofWeekends 7 15 12

AverageAttendanceFromEvents 600 11,700 0

The majority of special events occur on one of the 15 weekends between Labor Day and Memorial Day. Between 2009 and 2011, these weekends hosted 28 special events.  As a method of tracking event activity of over time, this analysis assigns a number to each weekend.  20 of these events occurred between weekends 9 and 14, or roughly between the last weekend in July and the last weekend in August.Weekends11and13hadthemostspecialevents,hosting10eventsbetween2009and2011.

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Figure4.CumulativeNumberofEventsHeldonWeekends2009Ͳ2011(MemorialDaythroughLaborDay)

Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace

Onaverage, aspecialeventwillgenerate970participants.Weekend7(first orsecondweekendinJuly) andweekend14(lastweekendinAugust)hadthehighestaverageweekendattendancerates,theTriple Bypass Ride typically occurs on weekend 7 and weekend 14’’s high average is a result of the 2011 USA Pro Cycling Challenge.  In the past three years, no special events were scheduled on weekend 6 (last weekendinJuneorfirstweekendinJuly)andweekendeight(secondorthird weekendinJuly).Figure6 (nextpage)presents2009Ͳ2011specialeventschedulingandattendance.
Figure5.AverageEventAttendancebyWeekend(MemorialDaythruLaborDay)

Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace 

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Figure6.2009Ͳ2011WeekendEventCalendarwithEstimatedAttendance(MemorialDaythroughLaborDay) 
Month WeekendNumber AdventureXͲStream AmericasCup LakeDillonChallenge AdventureCycling AvonWalkforBreastCancer BlueRiverCentury BobGuthrieRide CourageClassic Sonnelap AdventureCycling AvonWalkforBreastCancer BlueRiverCentury BobGuthrieRide CourageClassic Sonnelap CORockyMountainBikeTour LakeDillonChallenge TripleBypass AdventureXͲStream AdventureCycling AvonWalkforBreastCancer BobGuthrieRide CourageClassic Sonnelap TripleBypass USAProCyclingChallenge LakeDillonChallenge BicycleTourofColorado June 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 July 8                             9 330 10 11 12 August 12 14 72 100 60 15

2,000 300

450 2,000 160 60 400 500 2,000 140 150 75

2009

2,000

2010

4,000 250 1,300

60 500 2,000 150 10,000 75

4,000

2011

1,500

Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace

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Recreation Path Usage Patterns
It is important to examine when the rec path is used to determine specific times when capacity is exceeded, leading to decreased user experiences.  Averaging use over the entire season is not very useful because it does not specifically identify when capacity issues arise.  This section examines monthly,dailyandhourlyusagepatterns.

Seasonality and Peak Hours
The rec path at Dillon Reservoir has a definite seasonal use pattern.  It is  generally unusable in the wintermonthsduetosnowyandicyconditions.TherecpathbeginstoexperienceregularusageinApril and this usage continues, depending on first snow, through the end of November. Peak usage on the rec path occurs between June 15th and August 15th. Usage is further broken down into peak hours and functional hours because use rates are closely related to time of day. Functional operational hours are definedasbetween6:00AMand9:00PM.Peakhoursaredefinedasbetween9:00AMand4:00PM.

Annual, Monthly, Weekly and Daily Usage Patterns
During the 2010 and 2011 seasons, trail counters were placed on each section of the rec path. It was observed that most of the usage occurs on the Dillon Dam rec path, which experienced over 65,000 users in 2010 and 39,000 in 20112. The Keystone segment saw over 34,000 users in 2010 and 38,000 in 2011. In 2011, over 14,000 people used the Swan Mountain rec path. 3 It is likely that the Dillon Dam rec path has higher usage rates because of its proximity to Dillon and Frisco and three of the six campgrounds.
Figure7.SummitCountyRecreationalPathwaySystemAnnualUsagePattern2010and2011  Dillon Keystone Swan
Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace

2010 65,058 34,6952 N/A3

2011 39,815 38,550 14,398

Average 52,437 36,623 14,398

Recreational Path count data shows that 70% of usage occurs in June, July and August, where during these months average daily use can total between 600 and 1,100 users. Only 30% of use occurs in the   
2 3 

2011countsarelowerduetoclosureofDillonDamRoadsectionsoftherecreationalpathin2011 2010datanotavailable
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shoulderseasonmonthsofApril,May,September,OctoberandNovemberwhenaveragecombineduse isbetween30and500usersperday.
Figure8.SummitCountyRecreationalPathwaySystemMonthlyUsagePattern  April May June July August September October November
Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace

AverageCombinedUsersPerDay 31 268 690 1,070 646 446 219 85

PercentofTotalUse 1% 8% 18% 31% 19% 12% 6% 5%

More than half of all rec path usage occurs on Friday, Saturday and Sunday, with only 48% of total use occurringMondaythroughThursday.Onaverage,therec pathsectionshadbetween433and460daily users Monday through Thursday and between 542 and 702 daily users Friday through Saturday. During peak season, weekend daily usage averages 1,100 users and can peak at over 2,300. Weekday usage in theoffͲseasonaverages250usersforallrecpathsections.
Figure9.SummitCountyRecreationalPathwaySystemDailyUsagePattern  Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace

CombinedAverageDailyUsage 460 433 459 452 543 702 627

Average%ofTotalUsage 13% 11% 12% 12% 15% 20% 17%

68% of combined rec path usage occurs during peak hours, with hourly volumes peaking at over 200 users per hour during peak season.  Only 32% of usage occurs before 9:00 or after 4:00, where an average of 11 users access the rec path per hour in the off peak hours.  OffͲseason, peak hours experienceanaverage70usersperhour.

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Figure10.SummitCountyRecreationalPathwaySystemHourlyUsagePattern  6:00AM 7:00AM 8:00AM 9:00AM 10:00AM 11:00AM 12:00AM 1:00PM 2:00PM 3:00PM 4:00PM 5:00PM 6:00PM 7:00PM 8:00PM
Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace

CombinedAverageHourlyUsage 7 15 31 47 76 88 81 68 63 53 42 34 24 14 6

Average%OfTotal4 1% 2% 4% 7% 12% 14% 12% 10% 9% 8% 6% 5% 3% 2% 1%  

 
4 

Percentagedoesnotaddupto100%duetosomehourshavingalessthan1%oftotaluse. 15|P a g e  

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Recreational Path Capacity
Level of Service (LOS) standards are used to measure the quality of a facility.  In this case, LOS is measuring the quality of the experience from a biker’’s perspective because 80% of rec path use is cyclingand20%pedestrian.Thebikingmethodologyaccountsforspeed,numberofencounters,delays, time between encounters and safety of both bikers and pedestrians.  LOS is measured in terms of encounters per hour.  An encounter occurs when a bicycle passes a pedestrian moving in the same direction, when a pedestrian meets a biker or pedestrian moving in the opposite direction, or when a bikermeetsapedestrianorbikermovinginoppositedirections.

Methodology
ThisreportusesamethodologydevelopedbytheFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)aspartofthe Highway Capacity Manual to calculate existing rec path LOS.  The equations compute the number of events occurring on a twoͲlane, multiͲdirectional, multiͲuse path.  An event is defined as, ““bicycle maneuvers required by a bicyclist on a path, including passings (same direction encounters) and meetings(oppositedirectionencounters).”” LOSandexperiencequalityforamultiͲusefacilitydiffersbetweenbicyclistsandpedestrians.Thebiker’’s perspectivewaschosenbecausetheSummitCountyRecreationalPathwaySystemisrelativelylargeand it accounts for increased safety concerns due to the increased speeds of bikers. The bicycle perspective is preferable because on a mixedͲuse path, both quality and safety decrease faster from a bicyclist’’s viewpoint.Forpedestrianswhoaremovingatrelativelyconstantandsimilarspeeds,crowdingdoesnot become an issue until it becomes difficult to move.  However, bicycle flow has a higher potential for interruptionbecauseofincreasedandvariablespeeds. Because the rec path is  multiͲdirectional, the analysis assumes equal traffic flow in the primary and oppositedirections.Forthisanalysistheprimaryandoppositedirectionlabelsonlyholdmeaninginside the equation and a primary direction was not assigned to actual travel on the rec path.  The analysis uses a bicycle/pedestrian split of 80%/20% based on information collected by Summit County Open Space and Trails. Figure 11 summarizes the steps and equations used to measure existing service levels fortheSummitCountyRecreationalPathwaySystem.
Figure11.RecreationalPathCapacityMethodology Variable TrailCount PrimaryDirection OppositeDirection Description Number of bicyclists and pedestrians that cross a single pointinonehour Percent of bike and pedestrian traffic moving in primary direction Percent of bike and pedestrian traffic moving in opposite Identifier
a b c

Value/Equation 
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direction Percentoftotaltrafficcomprisedofbicyclists Percentoftotaltrafficcomprisedofpedestrians Number of pedestrians crossing a specific point on the pathinanhourmovinginprimarydirection Number of pedestrians crossing a specific point on the pathinanhourmovinginoppositedirection Number of bicyclists crossing a specific point on the path inanhourmovinginprimarydirection Number of bicyclists crossing a specific point on the path inanhourmovinginoppositedirection Encountersmovinginsamedirection(passing) Encountersmovinginoppositedirection(meeting) Totaleventsoccurringinagivenhour

BikeVolume PedestrianVolume PedestrianVolume (Primary) PedestrianVolume (Opposite) BikeVolume (Primary) BikeVolume (Opposite) PassingEvents MeetingEvents TotalEvents

d e f g h i j k l

80% 20% a(b)(e) a(c)(e) a(b)(d) a(c)(d) 3(f)+0.188(h) 5(g)+2(i) 0.5(k)+j

Source:FederalHighwayAdministrationHighwayCapacityManual

Level of Service
Figure 12 classifies user experience into five levels of service. As service levels decrease the recreation, path becomes more crowded, meetings and passings become frequent, bicycles maneuvers become increasinglynecessary,andsafetyforallusersdecreasesasoverallflowbecomesslower.
Figure12.LevelofServiceSummary LOSLevel A B C D E F Description Open––pedestrianandbicycleflowisuninterrupted,meetingsandpassingsareinfrequent Impeded–– bicyclistsstarttoexperienceinterruptions,passingsbecomenecessary Constrained –– meetings and passings more become frequent, bicycle travel requires frequent maneuvers,pathstartstofeelcrowdedhigherspeedsstarttobecomedangerous Crowded –– pedestrian and bicycle flow slows down, travel on bike becomes difficult due to pedestrianvolume Congested––Biketravelbecomesvery difficult,pedestriantrafficismovingbutslow Jammed––pedestrianandbicycleflowstops,movementbecomesdifficult

Analysis
The analysis uses observed rec path counts from 2010 and 2011 from three locations. Counters were placed on the Dillon Dam, the Keystone section (near the Dillon Nature Preserve) and the Swan Mountain section.  The analysis views the rec path system as a single comprehensive facility with average counts from the three rec path sections. Daily recreational path counts were broken down by hourtoprovidetwoyearsofdaily,hourlydata.Theequationdescribedinfigure12wasappliedtoeach average hourly count to calculate the number of passings and meetings occurring each hour.  The number of total events indicates the hourly service level for any hour on a specific day. Figures 13Ͳ17 presentexistingLOSontherecpathforpeakandoffͲseasonduringfunctionalandpeakhours.
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Figure13.TotalSeason(April––November),FunctionalHours(6:00AM––9:00PM)  Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday TotalUsers/Time Period 222 148 143 137 143 178 250 AverageUsers PerHour 15 10 10 9 10 12 17 Total Encounters 15 10 10 9 10 12 17 Beginning LOS A A A A A A A AdditionalUsers/Hour toLOSDowngrade 24 29 29 30 29 27 22

Source:FederalHighwayAdministrationHighwayCapacityManual,SummitCountyOpenSpaceandTrailsPathCounts

Figure14.OffͲSeason(AprilͲJune14th––August15thͲNovember),FunctionalHours(6:00AM––9:00PM)  Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday TotalUsers/Time Period 137 87 82 77 83 104 140 AverageUsers PerHour 9 6 5 5 6 7 9 Total Encounters 9 6 5 5 6 7 9 BeginningLOS A A A A A A A AdditionalUsers/Hour toLOSDowngrade 30 33 34 34 33 32 30

Source:FederalHighwayAdministrationHighwayCapacityManual,SummitCountyOpenSpaceandTrailsPathCounts

Figure15.OffͲSeason(AprilͲJune14th––August15thͲNovember),PeakHours(9:00AM––4:00PM)  Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday TotalUsers/Time Period 98 61 59 55 59 76 101 AverageUsers PerHour 14 9 8 8 8 11 14 Total Encounters 14 9 8 8 8 11 14 BeginningLOS A A A A A A A AdditionalUsers/Hour toLOSDowngrade 25 30 31 31 31 28 25

Source:FederalHighwayAdministrationHighwayCapacityManual,SummitCountyOpenSpaceandTrailsPathCounts

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Figure16.PeakSeason(June15th––August15th),FunctionalHours(6:00AM––9:00PM)  Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday TotalUsers/Time Period 377 272 258 239 235 295 437 AverageUsers PerHour 25 18 17 16 16 20 29 Total Encounters 26 18 17 16 16 21 30 Beginning LOS A A A A A A A AdditionalUsers/HourtoLOS Downgrade 14 21 22 23 23 19 10

Source:FederalHighwayAdministrationHighwayCapacityManual,SummitCountyOpenSpaceandTrailsPathCounts

Figure17.PeakSeason(AprilͲJune14th––August15thͲNovember),PeakHours(9:00AM––4:00PM)  Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday TotalUsers/Time Period 276 199 189 175 172 217 320 AverageUsers PerHour 39 28 27 25 25 31 46 Total Encounters 40 29 28 26 26 32 47 Beginning LOS B A A A A A B AdditionalUsers/HourtoLOS Downgrade 34 11 12 14 14 8 12

Source:FederalHighwayAdministrationHighwayCapacityManual,SummitCountyOpenSpaceandTrailsPathCounts

TheLOSanalysisshowsthattherecpathoffersLOSAmostofthetimebutthepathisalreadyrelatively busy during peak hours and peak season. Currently, the path operates at LOS A except for Saturdays andSundaysduringpeakhoursandpeakseasonwhenitdropstoLOSB. Averageusefortheentire seasonshowsarecpathsystemoperatingatLOSA.Thesystemcouldhandle 27Ͳ30 additional users per hour on the weekdays, and 22Ͳ24 additional users per hour on the weekends withoutreducingservicelevelstoLOSB. During the offͲseason, the rec path around Dillon Reservoir operates at LOS A for both functional and peak hours. Excess capacity exists on weekends and weekdays and the system could accommodate 25Ͳ 31 additional users per hour during peak hours and 30Ͳ34 additional users per hour without degrading fromitsLOSAstatus. High use during the peak season means the path cannot accommodate many additional users before service level declines further and for longer periods surrounding the weekend.    For example, during Friday peak hour and peak season, the rec path can only accommodate an additional 8 users per hour before a decline to LOS B, while it can only accommodate 14 more users per hour on Saturday during 19|P a g e  

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peak season and peak hour before the LOS slips to C, which tangibly compromises user experience and safety. During functional hours in the peak season, the rec path can only accommodate an additional 19Ͳ23 users per hour on the weekdays and 10Ͳ14 users per hour on the weekends.  Weekdays can only accommodateanadditional8Ͳ14usersperhourbeforeserviceleveldecreases. 

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Reservoir Capacity
The Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) developed boating capacity ranges as part of their Water Opportunity Recreation System (WROS).  The system is designed to help planners and managers understand their resources, and make informed management decisions. The guide is structured around classifying lakes into the following categories: Urban, Suburban, Rural Developed, Rural Natural, SemiͲPrimitive, and Primitive. Figure 18 describes each classification. For the purposes of this analysis SemiͲPrimitive and PrimitivearenotincludedbecauseofthescaleofdevelopmentinproximitytoDillonReservoir.
Figure18.WROSClassificationSystem Classification Urban Suburban Rural Developed RuralNatural Description found in extensively developed and populated cities, water resources are highly channelized, greatdealofmanagement,recreationisveryextensive found on the fringe of an urban area, water resources are highly channelized, prevalent management,diverseandprevalentrecreationuses found beyond metropolitan area and suburban development, may be located near "bedroom" communities, development is common in a pastoral setting, recreation is developed but not veryprevalent found a considerable distance from metropolitan areas, natural features are predominant, recreationexistbutarelimited,managementislimited

Source:BureauofReclamationWaterOpportunityRecreationSystem

Figure19.BoatingCapacityRange(Acres/Boat) Class Urban Suburban RuralDeveloped RuralNatural
Source:BureauofReclamationWaterOpportunityRecreationSystem

Acres/Boat(High) 1 10 20 50

Acres/Boat(Low) 10 20 50 110

Based on the ranges in figure 19, Dillon Reservoir’’s 3,300 acres could support between 30 and 3,300 boats depending on which class reservoir managers decide is appropriate.  Because the ranges for suburban and urban are relatively large, WROS provides a capacity range decision tool (figure 21). The guide instructs managers to, ““Circle the descriptor that best matches the situation. The preponderance oftheanswerswillindicatewhichpartofthecapacityrangemaybemorereasonable.”” Itshouldbenoted,thatthereareatotalof449totalslips,sixͲdayusemoorings,andboattrailerparking atbothmarinas.
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Figure20.BoatingCapacityRangeDillonReservoir Class Urban Suburban RuralDeveloped RuralNatural
Source:BureauofReclamationWaterOpportunityRecreationSystem

AllowableBoats(High) 3,300 330 165 66

AllowableBoats(Low) 330 165 66 30

Figure21.WROSCapacityRangeDecisionTool  Typicalsizeofboats Typicalspeedofboats Diversityofboating 1.differenttypesofboats 2.differenttypesofboats 3.differentSpeedofboats Boatervisitationpattern Levelofboaterstewardship/civility/respect forresourceandotherusers Shorelineconfiguration BoaterdestinationorpassͲthrougharea Extentofsensitiveresources/potentialfor impact Compatibilitywithadjacentrecreation/nonͲ recreationallands Islands/shallows/hazards Historicpublicsafety record/accidents/complaints/conflicts Levelofboater management/rules/information/education/c ompliance Low Low Low Simple/predictable High Simple/circular PassͲthrough corridor/intransit Low High Infrequent Infrequent High Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Mixed Medium Moderate Occasional Occasional Moderate High High High Complex/ unpredictable Low Complex/meandering Destinationarea/ overnightarea HighRange Low Frequent Frequent Low Low(MoreBoats) <15feet <10mph MidRange 16to25feet 10to25mph HighRange(Fewer Boats) >25feet >25mph

Source:BureauofReclamationWaterOpportunityRecreationSystem

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Camping Capacity
Campground concessionaires and the Forest Service have the final authority on regulating camping at Dillon Reservoir, however, for this analysis it is important to examine camping capacity and existing usage.Accordingto2011campgroundusagereports,theaveragecampingpartywas3.2people.Using this per camp site estimate with the 325 nonͲgroup campsites, plus the two 100 person group sites yields a total nightly capacity of 1,230 6 Nightly capacity is multiplied by the number of days per month tocalculatetotalmonthlycapacity.7 July and August are the busiest months for camping as well as rec path usage. According to the Forest Service,campgroundsreachfulloccupancyonweekendsinJulyandAugust.Onaverage,usageexceeds 50%, peaking at 58% during July and 56% during August.  Usage rates are considerably lower in May, June and September. Very little camping activity occurs in May when less than 1% of total capacity is used.JuneandSeptemberexperience28%and25%usagerates.
Figure22.DillonReservoirCampingCapacityandExistingUsage(2011)  TotalMonthlyCapacity(people) TotalMonthlyStays(people) %Used RemainingCapacity WeekendCapacity
Source:SummitCountyOpenSpace

May 32,683 61 <1% 99% Yes

June 31,629 8,796 28% 72% Yes

July 32,683 19,057 58% 42% No

August 32,683 18,143 56% 44% No

September 31,629 8,046 25% 75% Yes 

 
6 7 

Totalcapacityroundedtothenearest10 MonthlyCapacityisadjustedtoallowfor1dayperweekforsitecleaningandmaintenance. 23|P a g e  

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On-Site Observation of Biking Event
The consulting team and county staff witnessed the 2012 Triple Bypass, a 3,000 rider bike tour that utilized the Dillon recreation path system on July 14, 2012 and again on July 15 and made the following observations:

x x

Most of the 2,000 riders who participated on July 15 rode through the rec path between 8 am and11:30am. This level of traffic on the rec path resulted in significant crowding, particularly in narrow reachesofthepathsuchasalongtheDillonDamRoad.AlthoughtheTripleBypassisnotarace, itdoesresultinhighspeedcyclingonmanystretchesoftherecpath. There were dozens of nonͲevent recreational users on the path during the event, and many appeared to be having difficulty navigating the crowded pathway. At several locations, users seeking relief from the crowded conditions left the path and rode on the road as an alternative route.

x

x

Most of the nonͲevent rec path users did not begin using the path until after 10 am.  Before 10 am, there were only intermittent nonͲevent users.  This reflects the peak and offͲpeak hour rec path use analysis containedinthisreport.

Most event participants appeared to be riding conscientiously, but the consulting team did witness one accident among event participants.  A state patrol car and ambulance were onsite in less than two minutes after the accident. The EMS system was very effective,buttheaccidentwasareminderthataneventofthismagnitudecanbeasafetyriskto participantsandotherpathwayusers.

x

x

The safety and security presence during the event appeared to be more than adequate. There were several Colorado State Patrol motorcycle officers riding among the participants on the pathways and there were numerous patrol cars on the roads and at critical intersections. Event
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organizers had course marshals at every intersection and location where the route changed direction. One concern was that some of the marshals were unsupervised minors that did not appearengagedinthesafetymanagement. 

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Recommendations for Recreation Path Event Permitting
Recommendations:
Based on the results of the capacity analysis and the onͲsite observation of a large bicycle tour, the consulting team offers the following recommendations about event permitting on the Summit County RecreationalPathwaySystem: x SetasidetwoeventfreeweekendspermonthfromMemorialDaytoLaborDayduringwhich eventswilltypicallynotoccurontheSummitCountyRecreationalPathwaySystem.Thiswill allowSummitCountyresidentsandtouriststoenjoytherecpathforabouthalftheweekendsin thesummerwithoutencounteringspecialeventsduringtheveryshortwarmweatherseasonin themountains. 750ormoreparticipantsisconsideredalargeeventandeventsofthissizeneedtodemonstrate thattheymeetaminimumscoreof3intheRecPathEventScoringSystembelow.Events smallerthan750participantstendtobemorelocalizedandgeneratelesscongestiononthe pathandtendtobeofashorterdurationsotheywillberequiredtoprovidelessmitigationthan largerevents. EncourageeventsoccurringduringtheoffͲpeakseason(afterLaborDayandbeforeMemorial Day).Summereventsarefrequentandthecommunitymaybesaturatedwithlargeevents.Rec pathuseismuchlowerduringtheshoulderseasonssotherewouldbelesstrafficcongestion plusoffͲseasoneventswillspureconomicactivityduringtheslowtimeofyearforlocal businesses. Encourageeventsduringtheweekdays.Lessrecpathuseoccursduringweekdays,whichwould lessencrowdingandcongestion.SummitCountyasawholeistypicallybusyduringpeakseason weekends,soweekdayeventswouldbeawelcomeboostduringtheslowerpartsoftheweek forlocalbusinesses. Encourageeventsthatoccurbefore10amorafter4pm.68%ofcombinedrecpathusage occursduringpeakhours,withhourlyvolumespeakingatover200usersperhourduringpeak season.ThismeansthatthereismorecapacityforspecialeventsduringoffͲpeakours. Coursemarshalsshouldeitherbealladultorteamsofadultsandchildrentomakesurethat minorsarenotleftunsupervisedascoursemarshals.

x

x

x

x x

Summit County Community Benefit Criteria:
In order to receive event approval for events that do not achieve a score of at least three on the Rec path Event Scoring System, two of the following criteria must be met as demonstrated by the applicant usingsoundmethodologyanddata: x x x  Theeventwillnoticeablyandsignificantly,increaseovernightvisitorstaysinSummitCounty duringtheevent. 50%ormoreoftheeventparticipantsresideinSummitCounty. Theeventwillgenerate$30,000ormoreinparticipantspendinginSummitCounty.
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x x EventproceedswillprimarilybenefitcharitiesornonͲprofitslocatedinSummitCounty. EventmediacoverageandotherpublicexposurewillshowcaseSummitCounty'sassets.

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2012

Recreation Path Event Scoring System
RecreationalPathCapacityThresholds ScoringThresholds Score

(1)NumberofParticipants (2)WeekendorWeekday (3)MaintainsEventFreeWeekends (4)SingleDayorMultiͲDayEvent (5)PeakSeasonorOffSeason (6)PeakHoursorOffͲPeakHours TOTALSCORE 

Lessthan750Participants=3Points 750ormoreparticipants=0Points OccursMondayͲFriday=3Points OccursSaturdayandSunday=0Points AvoidsImpactsonEventFreeWeekends=2Points OccursonanEventFreeWeekend=Negative3PointsPenalty SingleͲdayevent=1Point MultiͲdayevent=0Points OccursafterLaborDayandbeforeMemorialDay=3Points OccursfromMemorialDaythroughJune30=1Point OccursfromJuly1throughLaborDay=0Points Occursbefore10AMorafter4PM=1Point Occursbetween10AMand4PM=0Points If total score is not greater than or equal to 3 points, the event is required todemonstratepublicbenefitaccordingtothepublicbenefitcriteria. 

     

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Recreation Path Event Application Check List and Route Maps
(1)Estimatednumberorrangeofanticipatedparticipants:_______________ (2)WeekendorWeekday …OccursOnlyMondayͲFriday …OccursSaturdayandSunday  (3)Istheeventproposedonaneventfreeweekend(seeattachedeventfreeweekendcalendar)? …Yes,itisonaneventfreeweekend …No,itisnotonaneventfreeweekend Entereventdate(s):_____________________  (4)SingleDayorMultiͲDayEvent? …SingleDayEvent …MultiͲDayEventÆHowmanydays?_________  (5)PeakSeasonorOffSeason? …OccursafterLaborDayandbeforeMemorialDay …OccursfromMemorialDaythroughJune30 …OccursfromJuly1throughLaborDay  (6)PeakHoursorOffͲPeakHours …Eventparticipantswilloccupytherecreationpathbetween10amand4pm …Eventparticipantswillnotoccupytherecreationpathbetween10amand4pm  (7)RouteMaps:PleasedrawtheeventroutelegiblyontheattachedRouteMapsusingdarkink.Events that use the recreation path around Dillon Reservoir need to submit both a Large Scale map and the DillonReservoirAreamap.

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