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OF HEAT TRANSFER

This chapter is intended to discuss different energy transport mechanisms which are usually classi‘ fied as conduction, convection and radiation. From the second law cf’thermodynamics we know that the heat flows whenever there is a temperature difference, i.e., temperature gradient. The knowledge of the temperature distribution is essential to evaluate the heat flow. The temperature distribution and the heat flow constitute two basic elements in the design of thermal equipments such as boilers, heat exchangers, nuclear reactor cores, etc. Since in nuclear reactors, under normal opemting conditions, radiation heat transfer has limited application, the present discussion will be mainly focused on conduction and convection heat transfers.

1.1 Mechanisms ; Conduction

of Heat Transfer

The conduction is defined as the transfer of energy from one point of a medium to an other under the influence of temperature differences. On the elementary particle level, the conduction is visualized as the exchange of kinetic energy between the particles In high and low temperature regions. Therefore, the conduction is attributed to the elastic collisions of molecules ifi gases and liquids, to the motion of free electrons in metals, and to the longitudinal oscillation of atoms in solid insulators of electricity. A distinguishing characteristic of conduction is that it takes place within the boundary of a medicm, or across the boundary of a medium into an other medium in contact with the first, without an appreciable displacement of the matter. On the microscopic level, the physical mechanisms of conduction are complex. Fortunately, we will consider the conduction heat transfer at a macroscopic Icve! and use a phenomznological law based on experiments made Biot and formulated J.B. Fourier in 1882. This law can be illustrated by considering a simple case, a wal! of thickness L, surface area A and whose faces are kept at temperatures t, and t, as shown in Fig. 3.1. t, is greater than t,. Under these conditions, heat flows from the face of high temperature to the face of low temperature. According to Fourier’s law of heat conduction, the rate of heat transfer in the x-direction through the wall element, tlr, located at x is proportional to: + the gradient of temperature in that direction, dfkir, and l to the surface area normal to the direction of heat transfer, A Therefore, the heat transfer rate is given by:

where k is the constant of proportion3lity and it is called the “thermal conductivity”; it is a property of the materisl. The minus sign appearing in Eq. 3.1 is due to the convention that the heat is taken to be positive ‘in the direction of increasing x and also ensures that heat flows in the direction of decreasing temperature, thus satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. As sketched in Fig. 3 2, if the temperature decreases with increasing x, then the gradient is a negative quantity

3.2

Figure 3.1 Heat flow across a plane wall.

1 HEAT FLOW,

x a Figure

b

x

3.2 Sign convention for the direction of heat in the Fourier law.

and the minus sign of Eq. 3.1 ensures that q, is positive. Conversely, if the temperature increases with increasing x (Fig. 3.2b) the gradient is positive and qx is negative. In either case heat flows in the direction of decreasing temperature. Dividing both sides df Eq. 3.1 we obtain: (3.2)

3.3 where the quantity q: is called the hearflux. The dimension of heat flow rate is energy per unit time, i.e., J/s whereas the dimension of df and dr are Kelvin (K) or degree Celsius (“C) and meter (m), respectively. Consequently, the unit of thermal conductivity is:

I

**and the unit of heat flux is:
**

q: : -

J

smz

or w. mz

**Assuming a linear temperature variation in the wall illustrated in Fig. 3.1, Eq. 3.1 cao be easily integrated: (3.3) to obtain:
**

q:.L - -k(t, - I ,)

or q;=+!z.

(3.4) (3.5)

. .. Since t* > tZ , (;I: is a positive quantity. Therefore, it is in the positive direction. If fz > t,, then q: would be negative and heat flow would be in the negative x direction. Eq. 3.1 or 3.2 give one dimensional form of Fourier’s law of heat conduction. In general, the temperature in a body may vary in all three coordinate directions, i.e., I = f(X,Y, z, 7) where 7 is the time. Therefore, the general form of Fourier’s law is (3.6)

where 2’ is the conduction heat flux vector and ? is the gradient of the scalar temperature field. -a According to Fig. 3.3, qU can be written zs: (3.8) (3.9)

3.4 Comparing equations 3.8 and 3.9 we conclude that:

q: = -&. ax, q; =-kg; q: = 4%

(3.10)

-,, 4. -,I 4. //!!ffl~

-I 4

; g=-kv‘3r -I, q, Y -

Figure 3.3 Three components of the heat flux.

-P-b -9 i , j and k arc unit vectcrs in the X, y and z directions. In the above discussion, the medium is assumed to be isotropic. ’ .’ The thermal conductivity defined with Eq. 3.1 is a property of a material and is determined experimentally. From gases to highly conducting metals, k varies by a factor cjf about 1.5x IC4. The numerical value of the thermal conductivity is an indication of how fast heat is conducted through the material. Thermal conductivity varies with temperature. Only for limited number of materials, the thermal conductivity depends weakly on temperature. In many oihers, rhis dependence is rather strong. Table 3.1 gives the thermal conductivity of selected materials. Table 3.1 Thermal conductivity of selecred materials (at 25 “C if not specified) Material Copper Ahminum Steel Stainless steel, 18-8 Zirconium Uranium metal at 5?0 “C Uranium dioxide at 600 “C k in W/mK 286 204 64 15 13 30 4 Material Uranium dioxide at 1200 “C Uranium dioxide at 1800 “C Water (light and heavy) Air k in WlmK 2.6 2.2 0.611 0.027

the most of the industrial applications involve a hot or cold surface transferring heat to the fluid or receiving heat from the fluid.. 3.4.4 Convection heat transfer to a flow over a heated wall . When the term of convection is used. respectively. The velocity and the tempereture of' the tiuid far from the wall (free stream) are U. However.3. consider a heated wall over which a fluid flows as sketched in Fig. . The temperature of the wall is t. otherwise the heat transfer mechanism becomes a static conduction situation as illustrated in Fig. if the fluid motion is predominantly sustained by the presence of a thermally induced density gradient. sustained by a difference of pressure created by an external device such as a pump or fan. then the term of “natural convection” is used. To understand better the heat exchange between a solid and fluid. 3. For a given TEMPERATuPE HEATED WALL Figure 3. On the other hand.. such as a hot jet entering into a cold reservoir. and t. Conveciion Convection is the term used for heat transfer mechanism which takes place in a fluid because of a combination of conduction due 10 the molecular interactions and energy transport due to the macroscopic (bulk) motion of the fluid itself.5 II. There are also cases of convection where only lluids are present. usually a solid surface is present next to the fluid. the term of “forced convection” is used. If the fluid motion ir.1. In the above definition the motion of the fluid is essential .

forced convection Liquid sodium.000 .3.000 3. with thermal conductivity of the fluid corresponding to the wall temperature and the fluid temperature gradient at the wall. an mcrease in the rate of heat transferred from the wail to the fluid. i. Table 3.0@0-100.4. On the wall. because of the adherence (nonslip) condition the velocity of the fluid is zero.e.1.OOO 10.000-60. The question at this point is that: since the heat flows by conduction in this layer. 3. the velocity of the fluid decreases as we get cIoser to the wall. forced convection Water.) (3. P. the thickness of velocity and thermal boundary layers on the wall decreases. free convection Air or superncated steam.000-100. This is due to the viscous effects of the flowing fluid.-. The unit of h is W!m’K or J/sm’ K. Sir Isaac Newton experimentally focnd that the heat Bux on the w&l! is proportional to (t.2 gives the crders of magnitude of convective heat transfer coefficients.6 stream velocity. the heat must be transferred by conduction at that point. The effect of increasing fret stream velocity on the fluid velocity and temperature profiles close to the wall is illustrated in Fig.s this velocity increases. free convection 5-25 Water.1 or 3. he proposed a law known as Newton’s law of cooling: qc = k‘l(r. Table 3. we calculate the heat transfer by using the Fourier’s heat conduction law (Eq. Thus.2). In other words. . the distance from the wall we travel to reach fret stream temperature decreases.000 3. The consequence of this decrease is to increase the temperature gradient of the fluid at the wall.) : (3.” Similarly the region in which the fluid temperature varies from its free-stream value to that on the wall is called the “thermal boundary c layer. Note also that the temperature gradient of the fluid on the wall increases with increasing free stream velocity.800 ” 300-lS..t. The region in which the */elocity of the fluid varies from the free stream valce to zero is called “velocity boundary layer. forced convection Oil. why do we speak of convection heat transfer and need to consider the velocity of the fluid.2 Order of magnitude of convective heat transfer coefficients Fluid and flow conditions h W/m2 K Air.” Since the velocity of the fluid at the wall is zero.12) where h is the convection heat transfer ccetticient or the film conductance and A heat exchange surface. forced convection Boiling water Condensing steam 15-100 30-300 60-1.11) ~-(fy-L) Introducing a proportionality constant h. 3. The short answer to this qtiestion is that the temperature gradient of the fluid on the wall is highly dependent on the flow velocity of the free-stream.

empiricism and experimentation. E. as illustrated in Fig. a dimensionless factor.5.14) _-. For example. called emissivity is introduced. and on the W/m’ (3. If &=I. This loss of energy is due to the electromagnetic waves emissions (or photons) known as thermal radiation. To take into account the “gray” nature of the real surfaces.57 x 10-s W/m2K4) Eq. Regardless of the form of the matter (solid. and e2 . the convection will be treated by an ingenuous combination of mathematical techniques.13) where r. 3.3. .7 From the above discussion. radiation heat transfer could aiso occur between the hot object and cold chamber walls even if the chamber was filled with a sufficiently transparent continuous medium such as air. the process of convection. Therefore heat flux emitted by the surface is written as: q: = EST: with 0 < a I 1. liquid or gas) this emission is caused by the changes in the electrons configuration of the constituent atoms or molecules.’ pm. The mathematical treatment of the resulting system of differential equations is very complex. is the absolute temperature (in Kj cf the surface and cr is the St~efan-Boltzman constant ((T = 5. If heat is transferred by radiation between two gray surfaces of finite size. and TZr on emittances E. 3.13 applies on!y :o an ideal radiator or “Black body. the rate of heat flow will depend on temperatures r. we conclude that the basic laws of heat conduction must be coupled with those of fluid motion to describe. The ma&urn flux at which radiation may be emitted from a surface is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann law: (3.” In practice. The wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation is comprised between 10-r urn and 10. a hot object placed in a vacuum chamber with cooier walls is observed to loose thermal energy. we obtain an ideal radiator. Therefore. ’ 111. for engineering applications. mathematically.Radiaiion It has been experimentally observed that a body may loose or gain thermal energy in the absence of a physical transporting medium. In the above example. the radiant surfaces do not emit thermai energy ideally~.

energy exchange between concentric cylinders is given by: q.” concentric cylinders when A 1 5 A2 is given by: h.F.Tz) (3.19. = -=--(I-: $+&-I + 7y)(T. we conclude thar the “radiation heat transfer coeficient.21) .=A 1 qr: . 3. the determination of the heat flow rate is rather complicated.) .20) With this approach. we have modeled the radiation heat transfer in a manner similar to convection heat transfer.o(T... is a transfer factor which depends on emittances and geometry. respectively. depends strongly on temperature. is given by: F.lj (3. IfA. From Fig.16) where E. (3.“ . AZ. the radiant net $+A-1 and corresponding heat flux: In many engineering applications.) (3.8 geometry of the system. for Comparing Eqs. and vice versa. while the temperature dependence of the convection heat transfer coefficient is generally weak.? =-A1 &+2($ . It should be noted that h. In such a case the total heat transfer from the surface is written as: q=qc+q.7’.5 it is obvious that some radiation originating from object 1 will not be intercepted by object 2.3.T-24) .17 and 3.19) h. + T. For an annular space between two infinite cylinders or between two spheres F. 3. is the net radiant energy interchange from object 1 to object 2 and F. it is convenient to express the net energy exchange as: qr = hrA(TI . In such a case. In many ergineering problems we may consider simultaneously convection and radiation heat transfer.. Usually we write that: qr =A. and E* are the emissivities of objects i and 2. (3.15) where 4.

Given the introductory nature of this section. This equation will be presented in rectangular coordinates as well as in polar cylindrical and in spherical coordinates. Once this distribution is known. for a given set of initial and boundary conditions. we will establish a general equation for the conduction of heat in solids.Jv.6 system. We will also discuss t~hemost frequently en. ~~. using the energy conservation principle and the Fourier’s heat conduction law we will establish the general heat conduction equation. In the following. consider the solid medium shown in Fig.1 General Conduction Equation In studying heat conduction problems. 1. the heat flux at any point of the sclid or on its surface can easily be determined.2 Conduction Heat Transfer In this chapter. countered boundary conditions. equation. the application of the general conduction equation will only be limited to one dimensional steady state and transient problems. the main objective is to determine the temperature distribution in a solid as a function of space and time. The solution of this equation for a given set of initial md bcundary conditions will allow us to determine the required temperature distribution.2.3.9 1. 3. 7).6 and select within this solid a differential control volume in the shape of a Figure 3. Control volume for conduction analysis in rectangular coordinate . To derive the conduction. using the Fourier’s heat conduction law.

z) is the heat generation rate per unit volume.22) Using the Fourier’s heat conduction law. can be written as: v. Eqs.27) qzk=- ( kfi az> z+&&dydT (3.27. and * Qs internal energy of the control volume u the energy conservation principle applied to the control volume can be written as: (3. 3.10 parallelepiped of dimensions dx. y. da in the r. z.29) where q (x.23) drdzds (3. after using Taylor series expansion and neglecting the terms of second and higher orders. 4. and c and p are the specific heat and specific mass. 3.. z.26. 3.3. I directions as illustrated in the same figure. respectively.28 . Indicating by: qx and qr+m heat entering and leaving the control volume in the x-direction. qu and q. we can write that: qr = -(kg) x dydzdT (3. heat generation in the control volume.+m heat entering and leaving the control volume in the z-direction. .24) (3. = ql(x.+ heat entering and leaving the control volume in they-direction.25) qs+cix = -(kg) tidydzdx (3. z)&dydzdT (3.26) &dzdT (3.28) we can also write that: Q. y. y. qZ and q.

.33 into Eq.22 we obtain the general conduction equation: $(kg) +s(kz) +$(kg) +qM =c&.29-3.31) (3. However.e. 3.33) Substituting Eqs.23-3. Finally for steady state conditions without heat generation Eq.32) (3. Eq. Eq. 3.35 reduces to: (3. (3.) is a thermophysical property of the material and it is called “the thermal diffisivity.35 becomes: (3.11 (3.34) The conductivity.34 it is left in the derivatives. we will assume that the conducting medium is homogeneous and isotropic.38) which is Laplace’s equation . position. 3. 3. If the conductivity is independent of temperature.34 becomes: (3.” This equation is called Fourier‘s equation. k. the thermal conductivity depends only on temperature and because of this dependence in Eq. 3. For steady state conditions.3. Under this condition. the above equation reduces to: (3. 3.36) where a = klcp (m’k.25 and Zqs. 3.35) When there is no internal heat generation. can be a function of space and temperature.37) which is known as Poisson’s equation. i.

7 Control volume to be used with general locai conservation equation. 3. i. property per unit volume of material. and : as the heat generation rate q’“. In the present case. 3.12 Eq. Fig. G= 0.5) repeated here for convenience: ~+V.7 and interpreting ir.J.-S. : generation of property per unit volume and time.=O l aw --t (3.+?. x+V.3. 3. : flow of property per unit of area and time through the control surface bounding the control volume.7) and knowing that: .34 can also be obtained from general conservation equation given in Chapter 2 (Eq.w.39) where w J.e. : flow velocity. sv . the body is at rest. VI & & : as the heat flux. 3..39 : as the internal energy. Considering Eq. we obtain: ‘. Figure 3. pu.40) Using the general form of Fourier’s law (Eq. 2. apu + -t/t q -q’#=o (3.

8. In the following.2 Initial and Boundary Conditions The evaluation of the constants that appear in the solution of the heat conduction equation requires the use of boundary and initial conditions. .8a and spherical coordinate system (r. (r. 3..e. --t ?.43) 1.O) Figure 3.8b. a) Cylindrical. ‘1.z) \ z z Y i 1 .0) defined in Fig. 3. we will discuss the most frequently encountered boundary and initial conditions. . z) defined in Fig.3.B.42) This equation is the same as Eq. t = f(r.2.13 (3. The derivation of the general conduction equation can also be carried out in cylindrical coordinate system (r.40 becomes: . at (3.41) Eq. The resu!ting equations are: z I.8 DitTerent coordinate systems Cylindrical coordinates: (3.z) b) Sphcric~l. 3. $.~+qU’=cpz.q. (r.34.kV. 3.

we obtain: is the prescribed heat flux. Initial conditions In transient heat conduction problems. the heat flux or the heat transfer to a fluid by convection.:i is the conduction heat flux and G: of conduction.9 Prescribed boundary temperature. a function of space or time only.46) where . a function of space and time or. xi ii&=0 + +” -a -a” nl qsd+n2. For example we will specify that at r = 0. Using the Fourier’s law .45) =O (3. lob).z). (3. I. .y. lOa). This temperzture may be uniform and constant. on the boundary surfaces we may specify the temperature. :Oa) yields: or I. This flux may be uniform and constant. 3. If heat is removed from the bcundaly (Fig. 3. The heat flux may be removed from the boundary surface (Fig. 3. The heat flux across the boundaries is specified. 3. 4.x condition . a function of space and time or. 2. 3. Prescribed boundary heat f7u. a function of space only or time only.3. Frescribed boundary iemperature condition ‘The temperature on the boundary surfaces of the body. For example. the temperature distribution in the body under observation should be known prior to the initiation of the transient. the application of the macroscopic energy conservation principle (Eq.14 -. 4 the temperature distribution in the body is given by ~(x.lOa) or supplied to the boundary surface (Fig. r.9. is imposed as illustrated in Fig. 1.x Figure 3.23) to a very thin layer at the boundary (see insert in Fig. The boundary conditions specifies the thermal conditions applied to the boundary surfaces of the body. x=L 2.

47) we obtain: (3 48) Since 72. 3. (3.11. the same reasoning as above yields: If the boundary surfaces are well insulated. .n =q.51) A frequently encountered situation is the one in which the bounding surfaces are in touch with a fluid where heat is transferred from surfaces to fluid or vice versa as illustrated in Fig. i. 3.50 are reduced to: (a ax>s=o 3. a) Heat removal from boundary b) heat addition to bounday Figure 3.3. Convective boundary condition (3. lob). 96 = 0. I= -1 arrd 22 G. the above equation becomes: (3.10 Prescribed heat flux at the boundary. .. 3. Eqs.1 la).52) . the application of the energy conservation principle to a very thin layer at the boundary yields: (3.49j If the heat is supplied to the boundary (Fig.15 .e. If the heat is transferred from boundary surfaces to the fluid (Fig 3.49 and 3.

) x Substituting the ab0v.57) . 3. .54) The above equation with theNewton’s cooling law (Eq. -t.(t.47)) Eq. convection heat flux. 3. Using the Fourier law of conduction (Eq.3. energy conservation principle gives: (3.12) can be w&en as: (3.56) In this case qN is given by: qK = h. 3.16 * x 2) Heat transfer to fluid b) Heat transfer from fluid Figure 3.l is the conduction heat flux and G.52 becomes: (3.56 we obtain: ! k(E) s = h(t.) (3. ” (3.10b).11 Convection at the boundary surfaces I where .53) or .. 3. 3.1.e equation into Eq..55) If the heat is transferred from fluid to the boundary surfaces (Fig.

For example. When two media with conductivity k.” 1. in practice the contact resistance is different from zero. 3. i..1 = I. we dill discuss heat conduction problems where only one dimension is enough to describe the temperature distribution. representing the conductance at the interface by h.1) we obtain: If the contact resistance between the two media is zero. In this case. q. = q:. .. qi2 or using the Fourier’s law of conduction (Eq.2.3 One Dimensional Steady State Conduction In this section. then the temperatures on both sides of the interface are equal. I. .12. However. Interface t Figure 3. the heat flow in a wall of finite thickness in xdirection but infinite extent in they. i.61) The contact conductance will be discussed in details in chapter on “Heat Removal from Nuclear Reactors. the heat flux at this interface for each medium should be equal. and kz have a common interface as illustrated in Fig.17 4. ..and z-directions or heat flow in a long cylinder with angular . 3.tzi) (3.e.e.12 Interface of two medium with different conductivities. Interface of hvo medium with dijferem conductivih. the temperatures on both sides of the interface are related by: q.3. = h&l.

62. and t. 3.64) 1.34.66) x=L t= tz. reduces to CT? -=O (3. 0.43 or 3.2. Plune wall with prescribed boundary temperatures As iilustrated in Fig. 3. sources within the slab. for a constant conductivity. For a one-dimensional steady state conduction heat transfer. Both faces. 3.ectively.3.3. I Conduction Heat Transfer in a Slab I. ‘4 x b Figure 3.65) ax= with boundary condnions: x=0 t= I.13 the wall has a finite thickness (2) but infinite extent.67) . (3.63) Spherical coordinates: (3. located sr x -0 and x = L are kept at specified temperatures I. k = Const. There is no heat . 3.44) are written aS: Rectangu!ar coordmates: (3. (3. . rcsl.62) (3.15 Slab with prescribed temperatures. the general conduction equations (Eqs. sunder these conditions Eq.18 symmetry constitute one dimensional heat transfer problems.

the heat ilux through the layers is constant.14 illustrates a wall of two layers. ductivity are k. 3. Multilayer waN with prescribed boundary temperutures Figure 3. I-espectively. The application of Eq.19 The solution of Eq.65 is: t=Ax+B . The thickness of the walls are L.72) . 3. we wish to determine the heat flux through the wall. and k2 . Application of the boundary conditions allows us to determine the f2-fl -X_ L f(x)=tl+ (3. The outside temperatures are t.68 yields: (3. and the con- Figure 3.14 Multilayer wall. Since the steady state conditions exist. respectively.69) The heat flux through any plane in the wall perpendicuiar to the x-axis can be de:ermined by using the Fourier’s law of conduction: ?’ = &?!.70) Il.70 to layers 1 and 2 yield: tz q” =k2x- - 13 Or fz - t3 = q”p 2 (3.68) A and B are arbitrary constants. = k!l-[z ax L (3. 3. The substitution of these values into Eq. and f3 . values of the constants.3. and L.

Multilayer wall bounded on each side by convectingjLi& Fig.15 iliusrrates a multilayer wall bounded on each side by convecting fluids.75) where K is the cverall heat transfer coefficient. The convection coefficients are respectively h. We wish to determine the heat flux through the wall..ection on both sides. The heat flux through the layers is constant and can be written as: (3.15 Multiiayer wall with con. respectively.II -I3 ii+? s Calling: K=1 Eq. and the temperature of the circulating fluids are I. CONVECTING CONVECTING Figure 3.) (3. The above discussion shows that the knowledge of the interface temperature. 3. 3. is not necessary to determine heat flux through the multilayer walls.3.73 can then be written as: Li.73) q” = K(t. I. ..20 Upon addition of the above equations we obtain: qv=. III. and tn .t.74) (3.$ (3.76) . and h.

80) qs = K(ff.85) The application of the boundary conditions yields: (3. the overall heat transfer coetkient will have the following form: IV.82) If the wall consists of n layers.ff2) Upon addition cf the above equations we obtain: or iI t4 . For a constant conductivity. where -t. 3.67. 3.62 becomes: with boundary conditions given by Eqs.86) .lf2 = 7 (3. Eq.77) (3. The solution of the above equation is: (3.21 (3.3.79) (3.) (3. Plane wall with heat generation mdprescribed boundary temperatures The only difference between this case and the case I is the heat generation in the slab.78) q” = h2(t4 .81) (3.66 and 3.

(3.3.85. one face insulated the other coo!ed by convection.90) (3...22 and E=l. therefore. B=$+$L+fi.16.93) . m (3. V.92) The temperature distribution has. Knowing A and B. the temperature distribution in the slab is given by: . In this case.39) x=L and are given by: _ g . the constants are determined by using the following boundary conditions: Figure 3. (3.44 ax = h[ t(x) .91) A=0 u.16 Plane wall with heat generation. (3.87) I(x)=~[~-(~)*]+(12-II)~+. otre surface insulated the other subjected to convective heat transfer This case is illustrated in Fig. The temperature distribution is given by Eq 3.tf] (3. 3.88) Plane wuN with hear generaiion. the following form: (3.

k(8 t/ax).rf] Eq.23 VI. . This point was examined in details during the discussion of the boundary conditions in Section 1.17 Plane wall with heat generation and convective boundaries.2. x=-L x = I‘ The temperature disrributicn is again given by Eq. 3.r) term. The faces 1 and 2 are located at x = -L and x = L.2.96) (3. is equal to the convective heat flux that enters the fluid bulk.lf] = h/r(x) . both faces of the plate are washed with a fluid at temperature ir The heat transfer coefftcient is h.e. . 3.3. PIane waN wilh heat generation and convective boundary condifions on both faces As illustrated in Fig. h[t(L) . respectively..55 are determined as: A=0 (3. A Figure 3.t/l.94 signify that the conduction heat transfer that arrives to the face at x = L. The same boundary condition at the face at x = -L does not have a minus sign in front of the k(8fla.94 and 3. i. the constants A and B appearing in Eq.17.85 subject to following boundary conditions: x=L x=-L -k& k&y > = b[f(X) . 6. 3.97) The temperature distribution is given by: .95. Heat generation rate is q .T!. Using boundary conditions 3.

This is a multiregion problem that involves two governing equations. .98 .98) Comparing Eqs. Under these conditions. Sx<Lz (3. 3. z+q++ (3. at this point the temperature gradient is zero and there is no heat flux in either direction of x-axis. (3.102) q”’ I for Olx$L.93 and 3.94 and 3. z+-p Cladding: dZtz = o dx* with boundary conditions given by: x=0 (3. we observe that the temperature distributions are the same..93 and 3. Eq. the heat conduction equations are written as: Fuel: d=t. The fuel eiement of a pool type reactor is composed of a plate of metallic uranium of thickness ZL. As seen from Fig.18. This discussion also explains why the temperature distributions given by Eqs. due to the fission of U. is generated in the fuel plate at a uniform rate qV’ The tission energy deposited in the cladding plates is negligible. x = 0.24 qx)=g[1-01 . Determine the temperature distribution in the fuel element. it is more convenient to solve the problem over the half of the fuel element extending from x = 0 tax = LT.. it is more convenient to solve the conduction equation over the half region. The convection hezt transfer cceffrcient and the temperature of the fluid washing the firei element are h and /r . for the slab under consideration between x = 0 and x = L by using the following boundary conditions: instead of using boundary conditions given by Eqs. This tire1 element is illustrated in Fig.18.95.98 also shows that the temperature distribution in the slab is symmetrical. i. the problem has geometric and thermal symmetries with respect to the mid-plane of the ftiel element. 3. When a given case has both geometrical and thermal symmetries about x = 0.98 shows that the maximum temperature occurs in the midplane of the slab. 3. 3.103) for L. i. Indicating by 1 the fuel region and by 2 the cladding region. Heat energy.98 are the same. 3. 3. ’ Therefore. -Lr). 3. placed in sandwich between two aluminum plates (cladding) ofthickness(l.101) . Eq.3.e.e. respectively. ..

103 through 6. (3.18 Fuel element of a pool type reactor (3. 3.’ 2 t.(x)=Cx+D:.102 are given by: . -7 /h / / ~ CLADDING I FUEL 10 4 k-AL X Figure 3.3. ql”L: --+B=CL. we obtain four equations: . 6.109) (3..+D.25 t f h .110) .106) Solutions of Eqs.10 1 and 3.(x)=-F+Ax+B. Combining Eqs.105) (3.107) A=O. 2kl (3.108) (3.104) (3. 1 and r.109.

-kzC = h(CL* + D .3.115) .113) r&z)= --q’. li’io~r~ 3. and that of the outer wall is 1*.114) I. B.13 with in.. C and D.112) ’ The solution of these equations yields the values of A.2. We wish to deter. Long hol!ow cylinder with prescribed temperature on the walls Consider the !ong hollow cylinder illustrated in Fig.t/i. = klC . There is no heat generation within the cyiinder and the conductivity of the material is constant.ler and outer radii rl and rz .19 Long hallow cylinder The application of Eq.3.26 -qP’L. mine the temperature variation in the cylinder wall. .:[p&+&-)]+rf. The temperature of the inner wall is I.111) (3. The temperature distribution throughout the fuel element is then given by: Fuel: f*(X) = fp[ Cladding: 1 ~-(&J-2(~) +*(gy$)(ltj$-)]+” (3. respectively. 3.63 to the present situation yields: (3.2 Conduction in Cylindrical Geometty (3. 1. (3. 3.

27 with boundary conditions: r= rl r = rz ’ The integration of Eq.117) (3.i22) II. Under steady state conditions. the linear heat flux is constant and we can write: Inner surface of the pipe: (3.116) (3. the linear heat flux (or heat flux per uni: length) through a surface located at r can be easily calculated: .127): . -(fz-fl) lnrl In(r2/rl) (3. Heat is transferred from this fluid to the pipe by convection.) ’ B=f. circulates.115 gives: f(r) =Alnr+B where A and B can be easily determined by using boundary conditions: A= [2-fl f = t1 I = tz (3.119) The temperature distribution is then given by: (3.121) Based on the above temperature distribution. Hollow cylinder with convective boundaries on both walIs Fig.3. through the pipe wall by conduction then to the fluid outside again by convection. q =2xk ’ ‘let2 ln(r2h) or I. 3.124) Outer surface of the pipe: .20 is a sketch of a pipe in which a fluid at temperature I. The temperature of the fluid outside is rd What is the linear heat flux through the wall of the pipe. 2rrklln(rzlrl) (3. (3.123) Through the wall (Eq. 3. . -fz = 4. 3.118) In (i-z/r.

3. ” q’= Ql .k.. 4’ = 2n rdh(f2 .1~) or 12.t/2) (3.20 Pipe with convective boundaries.127) where K is the overall heat transfer coefficient and has the following form: (3.124 and 3. this equation becomes: (3.129) . 3. Long Solid cylinder with heaf generation and prescribed boundary iemperature The mathematical formulation of the problem is given by Eq.63.125) Upon addition ofEq. Assuming that the conductivity of the cylinder material is constant.28 Figure 3. -zr+dx 9’ = q/.123.122) III.tJ7 + In(r*h) I ZZT.3.‘n = 27Lqr2hZ (3.125.126) (3. . 3. we obtain: .

134) The temperature distribution is then given by: (3.138) The temperature distribution is given by: .ff] (3. 3.29 The boundary conditions are: r=O r=rO The solution ofEq. (3. I IV.129 is: WC0 dr I= I.+f$a.. Solid cylinder with heat gemration and convective bounaluy condition In this czse the boundary conditions will be: wzo dr r = r0 -k(+g) = h[f(r) . (3.3.136) where tr is the temperature of the convecting fluid.130) . Using the above conditions we obtain for the integration constants A and L?the following: A=0 (3. f(r)=-$r’+Alnr+B The application of boundary conditions shows that: (3. (3.135) ..131) .133) (3. LL=t.132) A=0 n.

136) where t.129 is: “.t/l (3. is the temperature of the convecting fluid.138) (3.131) (3. dlo&J dr 1 = tv (3.133) (3.3. Using the above conditions we obtain for the integration constants A and B the following: A. r(r)=-$r2+Alnr+B The application of boundary conditions shows that: (3. Solid cylinder with heat generation and convective boundary condilion In this case the boundary conditions will be: r=O r=ro -k(~) 4dco dr = h[ l(r) .130) (3.29 The boundary conditions are: r= 0 r=ro The solution ofEq. 3.134) The temperature distribution is then given by: (3.132) IV.70 (3.135) * .139) The temperature disti-ibution is given by: .

ff] dr dr(r)=O dr (3. Heat is generated uniformly in the cylinder at a rate of qw . or .30 (3.142 gives: . To determine the temperature distribution in the wall region. 3. The integration constants are determined by using the above boundary . The use of Eq.142) The solution of Eq.140) ’ Consider the long cylinder sketched in Fig. Determine the temperature distribution in the cylinder at the point where the coolant temperature is rr The conductivity of the cylinder material is constant.132.63 should be solved subject to the following boundary conditions: r=rl r = r2 kdt(r) = h[r(r) . 3. 3.. 3. Eq..conditions.21 Long hollow cylinder with heat generation.3. .21. 3. - perfectly insulated whereas the inner surface at r = rr is cooled by convection.63 is given by Eq. The outer surface cf the cylinder at r = rz is Figure 3.

34 or 3.141 yields: . 3.4 One Dimensional Time Dependent Conduction In this section we will discuss transient conduction problems in a system.. or 3.144 and 3.2.147) 1. These changes will continue until a new equilibrium is ’ .3. For one dimensional geometry these equations reduce to: Rectangular coordinates: (3. The analysis of heat transfer with such an assumpticn is called the “lumped zysfern analysis.146 into Eq. Transient heat transfer ccnditions are achieved when heat generation is suddenly started or stopped.31 I. To determine the temperature distribution within a solid during a transient process. (3.132. Under these conditions. A=$ and Eq. the temperature at each point in the body will start changing. or until an equilibrium temperature is reached between the hot body and the surrounding. we obtain the temperature distribution as: II t(r) = -5? TX + f&&n r + fg($-1) +g(+-+) +r/ (3.44) with appropriate boundary and initial conditions.148) Cylindrical coordinates: (3.144) (3.43. we may assume that the temperature in the body is independent of space and varies only with time. 3. Under this condition.146) Substituting Eqs. or the boundary conditiotx of a heated body are suddenly changed.reached between the energy created in the body and the energy removed from the body. 3. 3. we should solve general conduction equation (Eqs.149) Spherical coordinates: In certain class of ptoblems.” Since the temperature is a function of time . the spatial distribution of the temperature in solid body stays nearly uniform during the transient.

q is positive. The heat transfer from the body to the surrounding is controlled by convection.System with High Conductivi@ Lumped system approach assumesthat the thermal conductivity of the solid object is so great that during a transient heat transfer process the temperature gradient within the object is small. the heat transfer analysis can be easily conducted. the term. 3. G Eq.!’ and A are the volume and bounding surface area of the solid object.v$ dT Eq. I53 is positive and given by: A. .151 becomes: cpV$=-AT.(t-t/). Assuming that the material of the body has a high thermal conductivity..e. constant temperature and a solid object in which heat is suddenly generated and placed in a constant temperature surrounding will be considered.22. two examples that consist the immersion of a hot object in a quenching bath of infinite extent. for all practical purposes.154) . 1. . at a constant temperature tf as sketched in Fig. consequently. 3. heat flows out of the object. If n . i. . Immersion of a high thermal conductivity solid body in a quenching bath Consider a solid body at an initial temperature /i immersed suddenly in a quenching bath of infinite extent.153) They. To illustrate this approach.4. Both cases wig be discussed by using macroscopic energy equation (2. q”dV internal energy per unit mass density unit normal vector to the bounding surface : : heat flux applied to the bounding surface heat generation rate ’ _ Assuming that p.$ =Aq.2.=Ah. the temperature.e. u and q” are constant throughout the solid body . (3. the temperature distribution will be uniform and almost equal to the surface temperature. . i..32 only. where 11 ? ii +” 9 q”’ 2 . q# is constant over the bounding surface of the body and knowing that: pvk.3..4 z .152) (3. Because its simplicity. respectively. 6.e.. if it is negative. i. can be considered as uniform at any instant.” +Vq m (3. Under these con” ditions. * o!4 + j.. the gradient within the body will be small.1 Lumped System Approach. I. in this section the discussion of the transient heat transfer will start with lumped system analysis. heat flows into the object.23) which for the present case is written as: pudV = -j.

the “thermal time constant” for the geomettry under consideration and has .‘f)exp \---$i \ (3.159) The solution of Eq. CPV t/.157) Eq. / f - tf = (ti /Ah .160) or ‘.155 can be written as: de -=dr with boundary condition: ei = tj Ah.3. 3.153) (3.33 QUENCHING FLUID . (3. Therefore.161 The quantity cpV/Ah.. 6.158 subject to initial condition is given by: (3. 3.155) with initial condition: Introducing the following variable change: e=t-rf (3. A Figure 3.153 becomes: (3. There is no heat generation in the body.22 So!id object in an infinite quenching bath. Eq.

” and l/Ah.L.34 _~ the dimension of time.3. we introduced it by multiplying the numerator and the denominator of Eq.e.” The term az/Lf (= aTA2/V2) is known as “Fourier number. is known as the convective resistance. The term h.=S. H-- (3) Bi < 0.VlkA) is known as “Biot number. 3.162 by the thermal conductivity.L. k.” The Biot number is a dimensionless ratio of convection coefficient to thermal conductivity and gives an indication of the temperature drop within the solid body compared to the temperature difference between the solid surface and the fluid.23 Relationship between the Biot number and the temperature profile./k (= h. The ratio of volume to bounding surface area of the body is called the “characteristic length” i. L.164) t T:R I f.l<Bi=l (c! Bi x1 I Figure 3. Let us give a closer look the exponent of Eq.161 and rearrangeit as follows: . a T k Lf’ (3. The numerator of the time constant. 3.1 (b)O. (3.163) h. T.162 becomes: (3.Ar -=--CPV T h.162) with a = k/cp We observe that the time constant does not contain the thermal conductivity. With this definition. 3. is called is called the “lumped thermal capacitance. Eq. cpV. If the Biot number: ..

In turn. 3. 3.5.23b shows that for 0. Fig.1.1. Initially the body is in equilibrium with the surrounding which has an infinite extent.23a shows that when Bi < 0. We wish to determine the variation of the body temperature with time.165) then Eq. 3.) Figure 3. The effect of the Riot number on the . body. The application of Eq. 3.24. I < 3 < 1 both conduction and convection should be accounted for. 3. the conduction process controls the heat transfer. Fig. 6. temperature distribution in the solid body is illustrated in Fig.24 Solid body with heat generation. and it is constant. 3.167) 01 .ff = (t .166) Consider the solid body sketched in Fig. At time zero. p+f)+$ (3. Lumped system approach can also be used in this case to determine the temperature history of the h. the temperature distribution is nearly flat and the con-<e&on heat transfer coefficient is the controlling parameter. heat is sudden!y generated in the body at a rate of qn’ lV/& The conductivity of the material is great and heat transfer from the body to the surrounding is contro!led by convcction only.161 is written as: : . It represents the ratio of heat transfer by conduction to the energy storage rate within rhe body.153 to the present case yields: n.23.tJexp (-BLFo) II Sudden hear genera:ion in a solid body (3.3.23~ shows that Bi >> I. In terms of dimensionless numbers.161 can be used with little error. Fig. The temperature of the surrounding is r.35 (3. The Fourier number is a dimensionless time parameter. (t . Eq. the criterion for the use of lumped system approach is appropriate when Biot number is less than 0. 3. Therefore.

de -=dt where 8 = [ . r. f = I/. the surface temperature of the object.168) Using the initial condition. the temperature of the body becomes: . Therefore.168 is given by: (Ah tl = E exp t--&J \ fi 9 Ah. Therefore. if T = 0.ff .2 Systems with High Su$ace Conductance We will discuss now the systemswhere the convection heat transfer coefficient (film conductance) is very high. ‘c.f/ The initial condition is: .174) The solution of thi. 3. is determined as: Substituting Eq. Under these conditions.148) reduces to: ar a2f iaf a.170) f=ff or Cl=0 (3. B. 3. We will assume that the cylinder is infinitely long and axial symmetry exists.171 into Eq. we obtain for the variation of the temperature with time the following expression: (3.173) 1.’ equation can be obtained by using the method of separation of variables.2.172) . + . 3. a solution in the following fgrm will be sought: . z=o The solution of Eq.3.169) $3 +g (3.. if r + 03. is equal to the temperature of the surrounding fluid.=a ( g+rz 1 (3. (3. In the absence of heat sources and constant conductivity. the constant. for all practical purposes. 3.4.170 and knowing that 8 = 1. and time.k (3.36 “. the heat conduction equation (Eq. - In the above solution.” f = f. Because of the shape of the fuel rods used in nuclear reactors. the transient prob!em will have two independent variables: radial coordinate. we will only consider transient conduction in solid cylinders.

subject to an initial temperature distributionj@ which is symmetrical with respect to the axis of the cylinder.17Sj dr2 The solution cf these equations are: rdr * T(r) =A exp(-h’aT) and R(r) = C~&.181) where B = AC. The temperature diskibution in the solid cylinder is given by Eq. (3.@ r) .175 into Eq. (3. 3. The separation constant is taken to be negative to obtain a negative exponential solution in time. we obtain: (3. 7) = Bexp(-h2ar)J. 3. U. respectively.174.176) h2 is a separation cocstant introduced because of the fact that each member of this equation is a tinction of only one of the variable and that the equality between the members is only possible when both of them are equal to the sameconstant.182) . The solution of Eq.t DY. J.r) . the constant D should be equzl to zero.180) respectively. Consider now a solid cylinder of radius r. 3. and I’.174 is then given by: f(r. Substituting Eq.175 yields two ordinary differential equations: g+A2aT=0 and ai+ld!3+p~=0. What is the temperature distribution in the cylinder as a tinction of space and time. to obtain a meaningful solution to a physical prcblem. with very high heat transfer coeffkient such as seen.37 I@. under boiling liquid conditions. Eq.177) (3. 3. are zero order Bessel fimctions of the first and second kind. 3. Consequently. Since the cylinder is solid. T) = R(r)T(r). Assume that the temperature of the surface of the cylinder is suddenly reduced to 0 “C (or to any other constant temperature) and maintained at that value for all subsequent times. (3.175) I =-x2. is undefined when r + 0. This is equivalent to immerse the cylinder in an infinite jurrounding at temperature 1.3. The constants Baud h are to be determined by initial and boundary conditions.179) (3. for example.18 1 subject the following initial and boundary conditions: r=O 1 =f(r) (3.(hr) (3.

these constants are given by: B = Iz rf(r) J&Mr n I $Ji(k.2. constitutes a set of orthogonal functions. .174 is then given by: t(r.183 to the above solution leads to: f(r) = g &Jo(Lr) Since L’s are defined as the roots of Eq. therefore. The final solution is obtained by substitutingEq. 3 181.) (3.l.184.’ pearing in Eq.(li.38 T10 t=O at r=r.187) as discussed in Appendix III.186) (3.188 intoEq.188) where JI is first order Bessel function of the first kind.m) and each root correspond to a particular solution of Eq.3 System with Finite Internal Conductivity and Surface Conductance In this case both conductances (internal and surface) have finite values. The long cylinder discussed in the previous section is now immersed in a fluid of finite heat transfer coefficient h.r.189) 1. 00 (3. 3.2. be determined by using the properties of the orthogonal timetions. 3.. 3. T) = 5 B. .) = 0 (3. The general solution ofEq.3..‘s ap.3.r) PI=* The application of initial condition given by Eq.185 can. 3. The only difference is in the boundary conditions: 5=0 (3.2. (3.4..186: (3.174..184) This equation has infinite number of roots (A. 3. The constants B.183) The application of the boundary condition given by Eq..185) {J&W)f n= 1.exp (-h$zzt). 183 to Eq. 3. the set of functions: (3. The temperature distribufion is still given by Eq. with n = 1.3 . 3.(h r. According to Appendix III. 3.181 results in: . 3.190) t=f(r) .. J.

we would simply change the reference temperature and write: ’ 8 = t .190. 3.192 becomes: = -)iJl(hr) _ hr. B.Z... 5) = z. 3. 3.3 1. we conclude that the set: (3.195 and III.tf .r) Referring to Appendix III and comparing Eqs.191 leads to: (3.oo) and each rootscorresponds to a particular solution of Eq. The general solution is given by: t(r. This change would give the same result as tf = Cl. with )i = l. we obtain: f(rj = z.32 in Appendix III have the following form: B = ~I~ti4JoWWr ” J%rJ +JXh.39 120 g=+ atr=r. 3. 3. Upon application of initial condition given by Eq. (3. The constants i5’. B.192) Knowing that: aJ&r) ar Eq.195) .191 it is assumed that If= 0. are constants to be determined.J.174. 3. 3..where B.)’ Finally the temperature distribution is given by: .196 can then be determined by using the proper&es of orthogonal functions and according to III. The application of boundary condition given by Eq.r. in Eq..) . 3. .196) ~J&r)~ (3.exp(-hzar) J&r) (3. . This assumption does not affect the generality of the solution.!94) hr JdkrJ “J&r.k The above equation has infinite number of roots (h.191) In Eq.(h.197) constitutes a set of orthogonal functions. If rf were different from zero.193) (3. (3. .3.

To get around of this diffkulty. we still obtain a nonhomogeneous equation. we obtain: (3. The difference between :his case and the two casesstudied above is the sudden heat generation in the solid cylinder. For times f 2 0 heat is generated in this cylinder at a ’ constant rate of q* Wafflm’ The boundary surface of the cylinder is subject to convection with an infinite surrounding at temperzture rf = 0 “C. the mathematical formulation of the problem is written as: The initial and boundary conditions are specified as: 7=0 720 f=f’(r) for OIr<r. The convection heat transfer coefftcient is constant and equal to h.+C=o a? rar k . the temperature should have a finite value at I = 0.(r). Eq. 7) = tk(r. 3. Eq. Determine the temperature distribution as a function of space and time in the cylinder.203) and azts+~dl. Substituting Eq.40 1. Because of the presence of the term q”/k .2. 3.200 is a nonhomogeneous differential equation and its solution can not be obtained by the method of separation of variables. The only possibility toward a solution is that this constant be equal to zero. (3.204) Since the lefl hand side of this equation is a fknction of r and 7 and the right hand side is a tImction of r only.202) _ ka l(r) -=h. 3. 3.4..203 into Eq. If this constant is different from zero..2Oi) (3.t(r) ar r=rO. Under this condition. we will assumethat the solution of this equation has the following form: f(r. for (3.3. the equality of both sides is only possible if they are equal to the same constant.4 System wifh Finite Internal Conductivity and Surface Conductance and Subject to SuaUen Heat Generation A long solid cylinder of radius r0 has an initial temperature distributionf’(r) which is symmetrical with respect to the axis of the cylinder.204 yields two differential equations: 7)+ t.200. Moreover. Therefore.

211 becomes: -/$@ and ar = k.210 and 3.209) h&r.206). (Eq.212) _ kafh(r.(r) 7) ar at r = r.212 constitutes the boundary condition for Eq.207 becomes: ?F=O Eq. 3. Oj =f’(r) . 0) =f’(r) Eq. t) + ht.205. 3.205). 3. 3.214) .201 and 3.f.( r) at r = r0 (3.. 3.213 constitute the initial and boundary conditions for Eq.210) at r=r.207) (3.205 and 3. 3.4 _ g. and Eqs.(r). (Eq.(r) ar at- Since !(r. the boundary condition given by Eq. 3.h(r) = hfh(r. 7) at r = r.208) _ ka hdr.41 (3. (3. 3.7)=ky+ht. Consequently.3. 3. 3.208 can be written as: T20 _ ka thk ar 2) -hrh(r. is given by Eq.206.140withif=I): (3.(r) =f(r) (3. = h th(r. (3.203. 3. and Eqs.212. 3.T).21 I) We can easily see that the above equality is only possible if both sides are equal to the same constant and this constant can not be anything else but zero.206 are obtained by combining Eqs. 3. Eq. and into a homogeneous transient problem for th(r. 0) = fh(r.(r) (3. The initial and boundary conditions for Eqs. Oj + t.206) An examination of the above equations shows that the problem is split into a steady state problem ’ for t. The solution of Eq.3.202: 7=0 T20 t(r. The nonhomogeneity qw/k is included in the steady state problem whereas the transient nature of the problem is included in the homogeneous equation. subject to boundary condition specified by Eq. 3.205.

would be zero andf(r) would (3. r. the steady state temperatures.216) If initially.215) wheref(r) is defined with Eq. t. the cylinder were in equilibrium with surrounding.f(r) be: f(r) = -f. t(r. subject to initial and boundary conditions specified with Eqs.r)=f.3. 3. 7). 3.(r) Under this condition the temperature distribution is given by: f(r.(r)+fh(r. 0) = 0.42 In turn. the solution of Eq.(r).199. is given by Eq. the second term of the equation is nothing else but the development in series of the first term. are subtracted by an amount of fh(r.206. When r = 0. . Therefore t(r. 3.This figure shows thzt at each time. (3.(r). 3. 3. t) to obtain the transient temperature distribution. Fig.25 compares for a given time. the solution tends toward the steady state temperature distribution. the transient temperatures with steady state temperatures.210 and 3.213. Therefore the final solution is: .210. 7. I. this is the initial condition.T)=~[1--(~)2]+~ I (3.217) In the above temperature distribution when 7 + m .

3. =o h’ - Figure 3.43 aoLlD CYLINDER j t.25 Comparison of the transient and steady state temperatures for a given time. 1 .

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