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Castor Oil Information

Common Name Botanical Name Country of Origin Parts Used Extraction Technical Data

Castor Oil Ricinus communis India Seed Expressed

- Castor CofA

Castor Oil The plant is a native of India and the fixed oil is obtained by expression from the seeds. It is used mainly used for hair conditioners treating conditions such as dry or brittle, damaged hair or hair loss. This is a very thick oil with a slight but prominent odor and slightly sticky texture. It is also often used as an emollient and skin softener, and medicinally as a treatment of gastrointestinal problems, lacerations and other skin disorders such as psoriasis. It is also found in many commercial skin care products. When it is used in the manufacture of soap it forms a clean, light-colored soap with a stable lather, which dries and hardens well, it is free from smell, and has been recommended for medicinal use. Use in addition to other carriers at around 10% of the total oil. Considered safe in normal applications. 1 year to 2 years. If kept properly in airtight container, Should be refrigerated after opening. Cautions - Considered safe in all normal applications. Olive

Botanical: Olea Europaea (LINN.) Family: N.O. Oleaceae

History Description Constituents Medicinal Action and Uses Dosage Adulterants Other Species ---Synonyms---Olea Oleaster. Olea lancifolia. Olea gallica. Olivier. ---Parts Used---The oil of the fruit, leaves, bark. ---Habitat---Asia Minor and Syria. Cultivated in Mediterranean countries, Chile and Peru, and South Australia. ---History---The high position held by the Olive tree in ancient as in modern days may be realized when it is remembered that Moses exempted from military service men who would

work at its cultivation, and that in Scriptural and classical writings the oil is mentioned as a symbol of goodness and purity, and the tree as representing peace and happiness. The oil, in addition to its wide use in diet, was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples, while the victor in the Olympic games was crowned with its leaves. Peppermint Essential Oil Common Name Botanical Name Country of Origin Parts Used Extraction Peppermint Essential Oil

- Mentha arvensis
China Flowering herb Steam Distillation

General - Peppermint is a hybrid perennial plant; 1-3 feet tall; the erect, square, branching stem is tinged with reddish-purple (not green as in Spearmint) and has opposite, dark green, ovate to lanceo-late, serrate leaves. Auxiliary and terminal spikes of small, purple (violet) flowers in loose, interrupted terminal spikes, appear from July to frost. The entire plant has a very characteristic odor, due to the volatile oil present in all its parts, which when applied to the tongue has a hot, aromatic taste at first, and afterwards produces a sensation of cold caused by the menthol it contains. The whole plant has the characteristic smell of menthol. The plant is found throughout Europe, in moist situations, along stream banks and in waste lands, and is not infrequent in damp places in England, but is not a common native plant, and probably is often an escapee from cultivation. In America it is probably even more common as an escapee thanSpearmint, having long been known and grown in gardens. Uses - Peppermint essential oil, Mentha arvensis, has a fresh, minty and slightly camphor like scent. It has an energizing effect, and is often used to reduce mental fatigue and improve concentration. Peppermint massaged over the abdomen relaxes the muscles to help in the digestion of heavy meals and relieves flatulence, cramping, nausea, and specific disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Peppermint, as warming oil, is found in most liniments to relieve painful muscle spasms and arthritic conditions. Helps relieve itching from ringworms, herpes blisters, scabies, and poison oak or ivy. Vapor balm rubbed on the chest helps clear sinus and lung congestion.

Thyme, Garden

Botanical: Thymus Vulgaris (LINN.) Family: N.O. Labiatae

Description Cultivation Constituents Medicinal Action and Uses ---Synonym---Common Thyme. ---Part Used---Herb.

The Garden Thyme is an 'improved' cultivated form of the Wild Thyme of the mountains of Spain and other European countries bordering on the Mediterranean, flourishing also in Asia Minor, Algeria and Tunis, and is a near relation to our own Wild Thyme (Thymus serpyllum), which has broader leaves (the margins not reflexed as in the Garden Thyme) and a weaker odour. It is cultivated now in most countries with temperate climates, though we do not know at what period it was first introduced into northern countries. It was certainly commonly cultivated in England before the middle of the sixteenth century, and is figured and described by Gerard. Lemon

Botanical: Citrus Limonum (RISSO.) Family: N.O. Rutaceae

Description Constituents Medicinal Action and Uses Preparations and Dosages Substitutes and Adulterations Other Species ---Synonyms---Citrus medica. Citrus Limonum. Citronnier. Neemoo. Leemoo. Limoun. Limone. ---Parts Used---Rind, juice, oil. ---Habitat---Indigenous to Northern India. Widely cultivated in Mediterranean countries.

---Description---The name Limonum is derived from the Arabic Limun or Limu, which in its turn probably comes from the Sanscrit Nimbuka. There are several varieties of Citrus medica, only

differing in the character of their fruits. The principal ones are the lemon, citron or cedrat, and lime. Lanolin

Botanical Name: Description: Lanolin is a natural emollient obtained from sheeps wool and removed with no harm to the animal. Lanolin has been used since the beginning of time to heal dry, damaged skin and well known to be one of the most effective emollients, offering true moisturization. In days past we were all forced to stop using Lanolin due sensitivity issues. It was common knowledge that it was a severe contact allergen. This was due to the purification process, which was accomplished through chlorination. It was that process that caused the sensitivity. With today\'s technology it is being purified with oxygenation, which minimizes the threat of sensitization. The CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review) Board Expert Panel has evaluated the scientific data and have concluded that Lanolin products, including Hydroxylated Lanolin, are safe for use in cosmetics and personal care products. This ingredient is especially recommended as a co-emulsifier when using the primary CSL (Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate) in a water-in-oil system where you want the oily feel in your finished product. This is important when you want to make those very thick, high butter, creams and struggle for stability. The combination of HydroxyLan and Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate will solve those stability issues. Uses: Baby Products, Hair Products, Balms, Conditioners, Shaving Products, Make-Up Products, Sun Products, Lip Products, Body Products, Scrubs, Emulsions

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VOLATILE OILS AND FIXED OILS (A) VOLATILE OIL (i) Volatile at room temp. Usually obtained by distillation. (ii) Often evaporate and do not leave greasy spot. (iii) Can not be saponified. (iv) Complex mixtures of stereoptenes and eleoptenes. (v) High refractive index. (vi) Optically active. (B) FIXED OIL i. Not volatile at room temp.

ii. They can be obtained by expressional method e.g. butter sunflower oil, soyabean oil. iii. Leave spot. iv. Can be saponified. v. Esters of higher fatty acids with glycerol. vi. Low refractive index. Optically inactive. SUNFLOWER OIL The oil obtained either by milling or extracting with organic solvent the seeds of Helianthus annus Linn. (Family Compositae). Description: Sunflower oil is pale yellow, with a bland and agreeable taste. Constituents: Palmitic acid 6.4%, stearic 1.3%, arachidic 4.0%, behenic acid 0.8%, oleic 21.3%, linoleic acid 66.2%. Physical and chemical characteristics: Refractive Index at 40 C 1.466-1.468, Acid Value: 0.6, saponification Value: 188-194 Iodine Value: 125-136 slightly soluble in alcohol, miscible with benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, Riechert Meissl No. 0.5. Action and uses: Food, salad oil and for making hydrogenated products. Used in making paint, varnish and soap. The oil is easily digested and does not raise the cholesterol level in the blood. Posted by The Pharmacist at 10:07 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL SAFFLOWER OIL Safflower oil is obtained either by expression or extraction from the seeds of Carthamus tinctorius Linn. (Family Compositae). The plants are annual herbs cultivated in India and Egypt. Description: Safflower oil is pale yellow to yellow oil with a characteristic odour and bland taste. It thickens and becomes rancid on prolonged exposure to air. Constituents: Fatty acids present as glycerides, are palmitic acids 6.4%, steric acid 3.1%, arachidic 0.2%, oleic 13.4% Linolenic acid 0.14-0.13%, Linoleic acid 76.6%. Physical and chemical characteristics: Specific Gravity at 25C 0.910-0.915, Refractive Index at 40 C 1.4690-1.4692, Acid Value: 1.09.7, saponification Value: 82.5-86, Iodine Value: 140-150, solubility: soluble in usual oil and other fat miscible organic solvents. Riechert Meissl No. Below 0.5. Action and uses: Safflower oil is edible oil, because of its high contents, unsaturated safflower oil has been given to patient with hypercholesterolacemia, and safflower oil may cause diarrhoea. Posted by The Pharmacist at 10:07 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL SESAME OIL Sesame oil is obtained by cold expression from the seeds of Sesamum indicum Linn, (Family Pedaliaceae). The plants are indigenous the Asia but cultivated in Africa, West Indies, East Indies and United States. Description: Sesame oil is a pale yellow limpid liquid, with a slight pleasant odour and sweet taste. Constituents: Oil consists of glycerides, the fatty acid of which are oleic (48%) and linoleic acids (37%) and small proportions of stearic (5%), palmitic (8%) and arachidic acids (2%) are also present. The

unsaponifiable fraction of sesame oil comprises of sesamin and sesamolin, which have synergistic action. Physical and chemical Characteristics: Refractive Index at 40C 1.465-1.566, specific Gravity at 20, 0.916-0.919, Acid Value: not more than 4, Iodine Value: 103-112, saponification Value: 188-193, solubility slightly soluble in alcohol, miscible with ether, chloroform and light petroleum and insoluble in water. Identification tests shake 2ml of the oil with one ml of the oil with one-ml hydrochloric acid containing one per cent sucrose. A red colour is produced. Action and uses: Sesame oil is used as solvent for intramuscular injections. It is also used as nutritive, demulcent, emollient and laxative agent. Relatively it is stable, therefore it is employed as solvent for certain steroids and other oil soluble drugs administered in oily vehicle. Posted by The Pharmacist at 10:06 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL MUSTARD OIL Mustard oil is obtained by cold expression from the seeds of Brassica juncea Hook (Family Cruciferae). The plants are annual herb indigenous to Asia and Europe and cultivated in temperate climates in many countries. Description: It occurs as a brownish yellow or golden yellow oil with a characteristic odour and pungent taste. Constituents: The oil contains glycerid4es, the fatty acids of which are erucic, oleic, linoleic acids along with small quantities of saturated acids. Physical and chemical characteristics: Refractive Index at 40C 1-446-1.467, specific Gravity 0.914-0.920, Iodine Value: 96-110, saponification Value: 168-180, solubility: soluble in alcohol, miscible with ether, chloroform and light petroleum, insoluble in water. Action and uses: Mustard oil has mild rubefacient property, and employed in massages and in liniments. Posted by The Pharmacist at 10:05 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL SWEET ALMOND OIL Almond oil is obtained either from sweet almonds or bitter almonds, which consists of ripe seeds of different varieties of prunus amygdalus Batsch (Family Rosaceae). Almond trees are cultivated in the Mediterranean countries, Asia Minor and California. Description: Sweet almond oil is pale yellow oil with a slight characteristic odour and a bland nutty taste. Constituents: Sweet almond oil consists of glycerides, the fatty acid constituents of which are chiefly oleic acid and smaller amount of linoleic, myristic and palmitic, and palmitic acids. Physical and chemical characteristics: Specific gravity at 25, .0910-0.915, Refractive Index at 20C, 1.470-1.473, Acid Value not more than 2, Iodine Value 95-102, sponification Value 188-196, Almost insoluble in alcohol (95%), miscible with ether, chloroform and light petroleum, benzene insoluble in water. Action and uses: Almond oil is nutritive, demulcent and emollient, it is also used in the preparations of cold creams , hair lotions and other toilet articles. Posted by The Pharmacist at 10:02 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL CORN OIL (MAIZE OIL)

Corn oil is obtained from the embryos of zea mays linn. (family gramineae). Plant is an annual herb indigenous to S. America and cultivated word wide. Description: Corn oil is pale yellow oil with faint characteristic odour and taste. Constituents: It consists mainly of glycerides of oleic acid (19-45%) and linoleic acids (34-62%) and smaller quantities of myristic (0.1-1.7%), palmitic acid (8-12%), stearic acid (2.5-4.5%) and arachidic acid (0.5%) lignoceric (0.2%). Physical and chemical characteristics: Refractive Index: at 4C, 1.464-4.468, specific gravity: .914-0.921, Iodine Value: 102-128, saponification Value: 187-193, Acid Value: 2-6, Solubility: very slightly soluble in alcohol, miscible with ether, chloroform and light petroleum ether. Riechert Meisesl No.0.5. Action and uses: It is an edible oil and because of its high contents of unsaturated fatty acids maize oil has been given as a constituent of diet instead of oil and fats with high concentration of saturated fatty acid in patient to reduce high blood cholesterol level. Corn oil is used as solvent for injections and as vehicles for pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. Posted by The Pharmacist at 10:01 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL Peanut oil Peanut oil is obtained from the seeds (Ground nuts) of Arachis hypogaea Linn (Family Leguminosae). The plant is an annual herb with imparipinnate compound leaves. It is native to Brazil and cultivated in Southern United States, Gambia, Nigeria and other localities with similar climates. Description: It occurs as a pale yellow oil with a slight nutty odour and bland nutty taste. Constituents: Oil contains mainly of oleic acid (56%) and linoleic acid (26%) with small quantity of palmitic (8%), stearic (3%), arachidic (2%), behenic (1%) and lignoceric acid (1%). Physical and chemical characteristics: Specific Gravity 0.916-0.920, Refractive Index at 40, 1.4625-1.4645, Riechert Meissl No. 0.2-1, Saponification Value: 188-196, Iodine Value: 65-95, Acid Value: not more than 4, Solubility: almost insoluble in alcohol, miscible with carbon disulphide, chloroform, ether and light petroleum. Identification tests: boil 1g sample or oil under reflux for 5 minutes with 5ml acetic acid and 50ml alcohol. Warm until the solution in clear cool slowly and note the temperature at which turbidity appears. This should not be lower than 37 C for Good Arachis oil. Action and uses: Peanut oil closely resembles to olive oil both as regards physical and chemical properties. It is used as vehicles in emulsions, liniments, and plasters soap, ink making and hydrogenated vegetable oil. Posted by The Pharmacist at 10:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL OLIVE OIL Olive oil is expressed from the ripe fruit of Olea europaea Linn. (Family Oleaceae). Plant is a small evergreen tree up to 10m in height. Cultivated in Mediterranean countries and U.S.A. Description: It is pale yellow or greenish yellow oil with a slightly but not rancid odour and a characteristic taste. Constituents: Olive oil mainly consists of oleic (83%), with smaller amounts of linolenic (4%), palmitic (9.5%), stearic (2%) and arachidic acid (0.9%).

Physical and chemical characteristic Specific gravity at 20; 0.910-0.915; Refractive Index : at 40, 1.4605-1.4635, Saponification Value: 190-195. Riechert Meissl No. 0.2-1, Iodine slightly soluble in alcohol miscible with ether, chloroform, light petroleum, acetone, carbondisulphide. Action and uses: It is emollient, nutrient, demulcent and laxative. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:59 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL LINSEED OIL Linseed oil is obtained from the dried ripe seeds of linum usitatissimum Linn. (Family Linaceae).the plants are cultivated in temperate regions around the world. In the preparation preparations of Linseed oil, the seeds are first crushed to break the seed coat, and then crushed seeds are subjected to hydraulic pressure and the fixed oil is removed by expression. Description: It occurs as a yellowish brown oil, with a faint characteristic odour and a bland unpleasant taste, gradually thickening on exposure to air it darkens in colours, acquires a pronounced odour and acrid taste, and a thin film of the oil dries to a hard, transparent varnish. Constituents: Linseed oil contains glycerides, the chief unsaturated fatty acids of which are linoleic (15%), isolinolenic (65%). The saturated fatty acid includes myristic (2%), stearic (2%) and palmitic acid (4%). Physical and chemical characteristics: Specific gravity: at 20, 0.924-934, refractive Index: at 40, 1.4725-1.4750. Acid value: not more than 5, Iodine Value: 170-200, Saponification Value: 187-195. Identification tests: place a drop of oil on a slide and leave to evaporate in air, oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid produces a hard varnish on drying. Action and uses: Linseed oil is used internally as a laxative but due to its disagreeable taste it is rarely given internally. In veterinary medicine it is administered as a purgative for horses and cattle. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:56 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL CASTER OIL Caster oil is a fixed oil obtained from the seeds of Ricinus copmmunis LINN. (Euphorbiaceae). The plant is an annual in temperate climate, or a tree, attaining the height of 15 meters in the tropics. The fruit is 3-celled spiny capsule each cells containing an ovoid albuminous seed. The plant is indigenous to India, Brazil, Russia, Europe, U.S.A., and various parts of Africa. Preparation: Castor oil is prepared by passing the seeds through a decorticator having rollers with sharp cutting edges which beak the testa but do not injure the kernel, then testas are separated by means of sieve and compressed air, and kernels are subjected to pressure. The yield of cold pressed oil obtained by hydraulic pressure represents light coloured, good grade where as the remainder solvent extract yield a darker lower grade. Description: Castor oil is a pale yellowish or almost colourless transparent, viscid liquid. It has a faint mild odour and a bland, followed buy a slightly acrid and usually nauseating taste. Constituents: It consists chiefly of triglycerides of ricinoleic acid (80%). It also contains small amount of other glycerides, the fatty acids of which include oleic (70%), linoleic (4%) stearic (2%), hydroxystearic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics: Specific gravity at 20, 0.963-0.964; optical Rotations Index: at 40, 1.4965-1.4730;

saponification value: 177-178; Iodine Value: 82-90; Acid Value: not more than 4. Reichert Meissl No. 144-150; Solubility: Soluble in 2-5 parts of 90% alcohol, miscible with dehydrated alcohol, ether, and glacial acetic acid. identification tests: Mix sample of castor oil with half and twice the volume of petroleum ether. Note that while this is miscible with the former it is insoluble in the latter. Action and uses: It is a purgative and its action being exerted in 4-8 hours. It is given in acute diarrhea particularly due to food poisoning. Castor oil is emollient and is used in preparations such as zinc and castor oil ointment, sterilized castor oil (sterilized by dry heat) is soothing application when dropped into the eye after removal of foreign bodies, is used as an oily vehicle for eye drops. Toxic Effects: The administration of castor oil by mouth, particularly in larger doses, may produce nausea, vomiting, colic and severe purgation. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:54 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL COTTON SEED OIL The refined oil obtained either be expression or solvent extraction from the seeds of cotton plant, Gossypium herbaceum. Linn. and other species of Gossypium (Malvaceae). The plants are shrubs or small trees, which produce 3 to 5, celled capsules containing numerous seeds. The important sources of cottonseeds are U.S.A., Egypt, India, Pakistan and S. America. The cottonseed, after ginning off the fiber, is decorticated, cleaned of hulls, the kernels steamed and pressed to yield cotton seed oil. The oil thus obtained is turbid and reddish in colour, it is then refined by filtering, decolorizing and Winter chilling in order top remove Stearin. Description: It is pale yellow or yellow, odourless or nearly odourless oil with a bland nutty taste, it is a semi drying oil. Constituents: It consists of glycerides, the fatty acids of which are linoleic acid (39%), oleic acid (33) palmitic acid (19%) stearic acid (2%), arachidic acid (0.6%) and myristic acid (0.3%). Physical and chemical characteristics: Specific Gravity: c.915-0.925; Iodine Value: 103-115 Saponification Value: 190-198; Refractive Index at 40, 104645-1.4655 Acid value not more than 4; Solubility: Almost insoluble in alcohol, miscible with carbondisulfide chloroform, ether and light petroleum. Identification tests: Mix equal quantities of the oil sample, amyl alcohol and one percent solution of sulphur in carob disulphide in a test tube. Heat on boiling water bath for a few minutes cottonseed oil gives a red colour. Uses: Cottonseed possesses the nutritive and emollient properties. It is employed pharmaceutically as a vehicle for a number of injections. The oil is used for the preparation of hydrogenated vegetable oil and in the manufacture of soap. Toxic Effects: Reactions occurring soon after the intravenous administration of cotton seed oil emulsion include pain in back or chest, fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, tachycardia, raised or reduced blood pressure, delayed reaction show mild anemia, defects of clotting, and bleeding from gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of Toxic Effects: Immediate reaction of the intravenous administration of cotton seed oil have been recorded to be treated with the intravenous administration of hydrocortisone sodium succinate 50gm and promethazine 50 mg. Heparin may be administered to aid the clearance of fat from the

circulation. Precautions: Cottonseed oil emulsion should not be given to patient suffering from liver diseases or blood dyscrasias. It should not be given during pregnancy. It should be administered with care to the patient suffering from impaired respiratory function or gastric ulcer. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:46 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL CLASSIFICATION OF FIXED OIL Fixed oils are some times classified into three groups, on the basis of their ability to absorb oxygen from air. Drying oil When exposed to air undergo oxidation and form tough hard film e.g. linseed oil used in paints and varnishes. Non-drying Dont oxidized, do not form tough film, not used in paints and varnishes, olive oil, almond oil. Semidrying oils. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:43 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL METHOD OF OBTAINING FIXED OILS, PROPERTIES, CONSTITUENST METHOD OF OBTAINING FIXED OILS: Most of the fixed oils and fats are obtained by expression from plant or animal tissue. The material is first ground and then subjected to hydraulic pressure and to heat when necessary. first expression is called virgin. Some oils are extracted by the use of volatile solvent. Animal fats and oil are obtained by the process known as rendering which consults of heating the tissues until fat melts and separates mechanically. PROPERTIES: -1. They are greasy to touch and leave spot on filter paper. 2. They are all lighter than water and insoluble there in, but soluble in ether, chloroform and other water immiscible solvents. 3. When purified, they are nearly colourless and of a bland odour, and taste with very little distinctiveness. 4. When heated strongly they undergo decomposition with the production of acrid, inflammable vapours, and when ignited they burn with sooty flame. Acridity is due to the formation of Acrolein (propenal). 5. They have propensity to undergo hydrolysis to yield glycerol and fatty acids. CONSTITUENTS: These glycerides, 1) Olein 2) Palmitin 3) Stearin, are common to many fixed oils. Olein, is glyceryl trioleate [C3H5 (C18H33O2) 3] liquid at ordinary temp. Palmetin is Glyceryltripalmtate [C3H5(C16H31O2)3] solid at ordinary temperature (m.p.60). Stearin is glyceryltristearate [C3H5 (C18H35O2) 3], solid (m.p. 71). Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:40 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL CHEMISTRY OF FIXED OILS Chemically fixed oils are glycerides of fatty acids. General formula


CH2-O-CO-R Triglyceride CH2-O-CO-R CH -OH CH2-OH Mono-glyceride CH2-O-CO-R CH-O-CO-R CH2-OH Di-glyceride 1. If R, R, R are same = simple glycerides results. 2. If R, R, R are different = a mixed glyceride results. 3. The glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids are liquid. 4. The glycerides of saturated fatty acids are solid. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:37 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL IMOPORTANCE OF FIXED OILS Fixed oils and fats are important products used pharmaceutically, industrially and nutritionally. INDUSTRIALLY: Manufacturing of detergents, soaps, paints, and varnishes and as lubricant. PHARMACEUTICALLY: -1. As vehicle = peanut oil, seasam oil is used as solvent in the preparation of certain I/ M injection. 2. As stimulant, cathartic, purgative e.g. castor oil. 3. As emollient for ointments, liniment creams and other preparations e.g. almond oil, coconut oil. NUTRITIONALLY: Others like corn oil with its high contents of unsaturated fatty acids is suggested in diet instead of fixed oil or fats having high saturated fatty acids to reduce high blood cholesterol level. OCCURRENCE: Vegetable oil and fats may occur in various parts of the plant but a general rule, seeds contain larger quantities of fats and oils than do other plant parts. Seeds are the usual source of fixed oils. Few examples are cottonseed oil, linseed oil, sesame oil, hemp seed oil, coconut oil castor beans, almond etc. Other plants parts also yield considerable amounts of fixed oil e.g. pericarp of the olive, in certain fungi e.g. ergot. Fat is a characteristic food material from animal e.g. lard. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:35 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VOLATILE OILS AND FIXED OILS (A) VOLATILE OIL (i) Volatile at room temp. Usually obtained by distillation. (ii) Often evaporate and do not leave greasy spot. (iii) Can not be saponified. (iv) Complex mixtures of stereoptenes and eleoptenes. (v) High refractive index. (vi) Optically active.

(B) FIXED OIL i. Not volatile at room temp. ii. They can be obtained by expressional method e.g. butter sunflower oil, soyabean oil. iii. Leave spot. iv. Can be saponified. v. Esters of higher fatty acids with glycerol. vi. Low refractive index. Optically inactive. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:29 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: FIXED OIL WHAT ARE FIXED OILS AND FATS FIXED OILS These are the oils, which are obtained from various plants or animals. These are called fixed oils because they can not be distilled with out being decomposed. These are the esters of higher fatty acids such as oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. PROPERTIES: 1. They are bland, non-irritant. 2. They leave a greasy mark on the paper. 3. They form soap with alkalis. 4. They are odorless and taste less. 5. Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvent and in cold alcohol. 6. They are non-volatile. 7. Have usually few pharmacological actions. WHAT ARE FATS: Fixed oils, which are solid at ordinary temperatures commonly, are called fats. Example is Lard. (Remington-P-388). Fats are natural esters of glycerol and fatty acids. All the three OH group of glycerol are esterified in fats therefore they are known as triglycerides. Fats used in pharmacy are Lard, Wool fat, Theobroma (cocoa butter). OXIDE VOLATILE OILS EUCALPYTUS B.O Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere. Family Myrtaceae. P.U Dried leaves. Constituents: It contains colourless or pale yellow oil which is about 6%, having an aromatic odour, spicy cooling taste, containing 70% of cineole C10H18O, d- pinene and other terpenes, resins, a bitter principle and tannin, eucalyptic acid, Ca-oxalate etc. Uses: It is used as carminative, expectorant, rubifaciant, antiseptic, and diaphoretic (agent intended to induce sweating). Ester Volatile Oils A wide variety of ester occurs in volatile oils. The most common are the acetates of terpineol borneol and geranial. Other examples of esters in volatile oils are allyl isothiocyanate in mustard oil and methyl salicylate in wintergreen oil. ANETHUM B.O Anethum graveolens. Family Umbelliferae. P.U Dried ripe fruits. Constituents:

The fruit yields about 3-4% of volatile oil, which should contain from 43-605 of carvone. It also contains limonene. Uses: Carminative, Flavouring agent. ROSEMARRY B.O Rosmarinus officinalis. Family Labiatae. P.U Flowering tops. Constituents: The fresh material yields about 1-2% of volatile oils containing esters (0.8-6% calculated as bornyl acetate) Uses: The oil is an ingredient of soap liniment. Used to impart good smell to the formulations. And in perfumery industry. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:05 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: VOLATILE OILS Phenolic ether volatile oils. A no of phenolic ether occurs in volatile oils such as anethol from anise and fennel, Safrole from sassafras etc. ANISE B.O Pimpinella anisum Family Umbelliferae P.U Dried ripe fruit. Habitat: Found in Asia, Egypt, and Greece. Constituents: Anise contains volatile oil (1-3%), consisting of about 80-90% of anethol; fixed oil, Caoxalate crystals, proteins, and sugars. Uses: Anise is used as carminative, flavouring agent, condiment and stimulant. FENNEL B.O Foeniculum vulgare. Family Umbelliferae. P.U Dried ripe fruit. Habitat: Found in Asia, South Europe etc. Constituents: It contains volatile oils about 1-4% the chief constituents of which are anethole (5060%) and fenchone. Uses: It is used as carminative, stimulant, and flavouring agent. NUTMEG B.O Myristica fragrans Houttuyn Family Myristacaceae. P.U Dried ripe seeds. Habitat: Found in Molucca Island. Constituents: It contains volatile oil, 8-10% that contains myristicin and safrole. It also contains a narcotic principle pinene, camphene and traces of eugenol along with starch and proteins. Uses: It is used as stimulant, carminative and flavouring agent.

Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:04 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: VOLATILE OILS PHENOLIC VOLATILE OILS Phenols present in volatile oils are of two types. 1. These which are present naturally. 2. These produced as a result of destructive distillation of certain plant product Important phenols present in volatile oils are eugenol, thymol and carvacrol. CLOVE B.O Eugenia caryophyllus. Family Myrtaceae. P.U Dried flowering buds/ unopened flowers. Habitat: It is indigenous to Molucca. Constituents: About 14-21% of volatile oils comprises of Eugenol, acetyleugenol. Sesquiterpenes (a- and b-caryophyllenes), gallotannic acid, vanillin and Ca- oxalate etc. Uses: Clove is used as stimulant, aromatic carminative and as a condiment. It is the most stimulating and carminative among all the aromatics. It is used for the emesis, nausea in the form of infusion or powder. Oil of clove is powerful irritant and antiseptic. It is also used as local anesthetic and often being applied for decaying teeth and has been used with success for bronchial asthma. THYME B.O Thymus vulgaris. Family Labiatae. P.U Dried leaves and flowering tops. Constituents: It contains thymol, carvacrol, cymene, thymene and d-pinene. Uses: It is used as antispasmodic, carminative, stimulant, and condiment in flavouring of meat and fish dishes. Posted by The Pharmacist at 9:02 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: VOLATILE OILS KETONE VOLATILE OILS

1. Monocyclic ketone terpenes: e.g. Menthone, carvone, piperitone, pulegone and diosphenol. 2. Dicyclic ketone terpenes: e.g. Camphor, fenebone and thujone GUM CAMPHOR B.O Cinnamomum camphora (L) Nees Family Lauraceae. P.U wood of stem and root is used for distillation of camphor. It is also produced synthetically. Habitat: Plants are found in China, Japan and Taiwan. Commerce and production: Camphor is produced synthetically from turpentine.
HCl Sodium acetate

Pinene ---------------------- Bornylchloride ------------------------ Bornyl acetate Bornyl acetate ----------- Isobornyl acetate

Isobornyl acetate ------- Hydrolysis ------- Isoborneol -----Oxidation-------- Camphor The best yield of camphor is obtained from trees of 50 years old. Young branches and twigs are chopped up which are placed in wooden still, covered with 6 inch layer of earth. It is heated in an iron pan placed under the wooden still. Second end of wooden still is connected with a bomber tube which opens into a tub made of wood. One tub is placed over the other. Water accumulates in lower and sublimation of camphor is deposited on the lower surface of upper tub. After full circulation the sublimation is removed. It requires about 12-hours to distill one complete still of camphor 20-40 lbs. Of chips are required to get 1 lb. of crude camphor. Properties: It is white crystalline colourless and transparent material. It has characteristic odour and pungent aromatic taste, which is followed by a sensation of cold. It volatilizes at ordinary temp. natural camphor is dextro-rotatory and synthetic product is almost optically inactive. Constituents: Main constituent is a ketone having formula C10H11O. Uses: It is internally used as a mild antiseptic and carminative. It is employed externally in the form of spirit or liniment as a rubefacient. It is also used in the manufacture of celluloid and peroxy plastics. SPEARMINT B.O Mentha spicata Family Labiatae. P.U Dried leaves and flowering tops. Constituents: Oil of spearmint contains carvone limonene, phellandrene and esters. Uses: Carminative, Flavouring agent, used in chewing gum. CARAWAY B.O Carum carvi Family Umbelliferae P.U Dried ripen fruit. Constituents: Contain volatile oil, carvone, limonene, dihydrocarvone, fixed oils and tannins. Uses: Stimulant, carminative, condiment, flavoring agent. BUCHU B.O Barosma betulina Barosma crenulata Family Rutaceae. P.U Dried leaves. Constituents: It contains volatile oil with peppermint like odour containing diosphenol. Uses: Used as disinfectant for urinary tract in cystitis, for inflammation of prostate gland, used as diuretic and antiseptic. Posted by The Pharmacist at 8:57 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: VOLATILE OILS ALDEHYDIC VOLATILE OILS

These may be classified as 1. Acyclic: e.g. Geraniol, Neral, and Citronellol.

2. Cyclic: e.g. Cinnamaldehyde, Vanillin, and anisaldehyde. CINNAMON There are two varieties; Saigon cinnamon B.O Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Ceylon cinnamon B.O Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Family Lauraceae. P.U Dried inner bark of the shoot. Habitat Saigon cinnamon in China, Japan and Indonesia. Ceylon cinnamon in Ceylon, Srilanka. Commerce: The fresh seeds are sown in seedbeds. The plants are than arranged with about 6-10 ft. apart. When they are six months old, about 5-6 shoots are then allowed to grow from the stump and kept straight by pruning. The young stems are then cut down to a few inches about the ground and allowed to form stools from which adventitious but arise. These buds develop into adventitious shoot, which lengthens at the rate of about 1m per year. When the shoots are about 2m long they are cut down during the rainy season and brought to the shade where leaves and small twigs are removed. The outer bark is then is then scrapped off with curved knives. Longitudinal incision of about 6-8 inch is made, through the soft inner bark carefully, to the cambium line and the inner bark is removed with care from the hard wood as quills. A long stick of compound quills is then formed by placing 712 soft white quills together to form a tube about one yard long and then rolled by hand, placed on mats and then allowed to dry successively for three days in sun and three days in shade. During drying the original white colour of the bark turns into a yellowish brown or weak orange colour. The quills are then made into bundles and tied with split bamboo. The quills are chiefly rolled, composed of 712 or thinner layers of inner bark which are often 1m long. The bark is 1mm thick. The outer surface is light yellowish brown to weak orange, smooth longitudinally, striated and showing circular or irregular brown patches. Inner surface is light yellowish brown to weak orange with faint longitudinally striation, CONSTITUENTS: Cinnamon contains volatile oil about 2% containing Cinnamic aldehyde, cryophylline, resin mucilage, starch, tannins and ca-oxalate. USES: 1. Aromatic 2. Flavoring agent 3. Carminative BITTER ORANGE PEEL: B.O: - Citrus aurantium SWEET ORANGE PEEL: B.O: - Citrus sinesis LEMON PEEL: B.O:- Citrus limon Family: - Rutaceae P.U :- Dried outer part of pericarp of ripe fruit. CONSTITUENTS:Bitter orange peel: 2.5% of volatile oil, vit. C and flavonoid glycosides, hesperidin and neoheperidin. Sweet orange peel: - Volatile oil having d-limonene dicyclic aldehyde, methyl anthranilic acid and flavouring glycosides along with hesperidine. Lemon peel: - lemon peel contains not less than 2.5% of volatile oil. Lemon oil contains terpenes moity, d-limonene, citral, citronellol and ca-oxalate. USES: 1. Carminative 2. Aromatic 3. Flavoring purposes. Posted by The Pharmacist at 8:48 PM 0 comments Links to this post


Alcohols found in volatile oil may be classified into three groups. 1. Acyclic Alcohols: Methyl, ethyl, isobutyl, isoamyl, hexyl and higher aliphatic alcohols are present in volatile oils but they are washed away during the process of steam distillation as they are soluble in water. However any volatile oils contain acyclic alcohols of terpene nature such as geraniol, linalol, litronellol etc.

2. Monocyclic alcohols: Among the monocyclic alcohols, the important ones are a-terpenol, menthol.

3. Bicyclic alcohols: Borneol is bicyclic terpene alcohol from borneo camphor. 4. Sesquiterpene alcohols: This group includes zingiberol. PEPPERMINT Syn Lambmint, America mint. B.O Mentha piperita Family Labiatae. P.U Dried leaves and flowering tops. Habitat: This plant is found through out the country along the stream banks and wasteland areas. It is cultivated in some parts of America and Europe. Constituents: About 1% of L volatile oil containing 78% of free menthol and up to 20% of menthol combined as ester, resin, and tannin and with acetic acid. Uses: Carminative, stimulant, and as flavoring agent. From its carminative and stimulant properties, it is valuable in certain forms of dyspepsia and is also used in flatulence and colic. Peppermint water and spirit of peppermint are official preparation of B.P. Oil of peppermint is a powerful antiseptic and has local anaesthetic action. These properties make it valuable in the relief of toothache and in the treatment of cavities in the teeth. CARDAMOM B.O Elettaria cardamomum. Family Zingiberaceae. P.U Dried ripened seeds recently removed from capsule. The dried and rip fruit or capsule is used to avoid loss of volatile components from seeds. Habitat: In mountainous distances of India. It is cultivated in Ceylon and near Malabar Coast of India and also cultivated inGuatemala. Production and commerce: The plants are propagated by division of rhizomes or by seeds, planted in nursery beds. Seedlings are then transported in the shade of trees nearly 7 ft. apart. They begin to bear fruit in their third year.

Fruits are gathered before maturity when they start to turn to yellow. Either the entire raceme is cut as in Syria or only the ripen fruit may be cut off with scissors from the stalk as in Ceylon, dried by the sun or the fruits are stripped off and are dried on mats, in several days by aid of gentle fire, heat, cleaned with the help of machines to remove calyx and pedicle. Then graded by sieve, bleached by exposure to dew and sunlight, or imposing to SO2 and steam. Finally dried in the sun. Drug is marketed both as capsules and as seeds. Several varieties of capsules, which are classified into groups, based on their size and commercial source. Based on there size, there are three types. 1. Short, length is 12mm, and is 6mm broad. 2. Short long, L= 18mm, W=6mm. 3. Long, L=30mm, W=4mm. According to commercial varieties seeds are named as. 1. Mysore/Ceylon Mysore Variety: Have cream or pale colour nearly smooth surface. 2. Malabar/Ceylon Malabar Variety: is usually smaller and have a rather darker and less smooth pericarp. 3. Mangalore: resemble Malabar, but are usually more globular and have globular and have a rough pericarp. 4. Alleppy: Fruits are narrower than other varieties, vary in colour from greenish-buff to green. These are considered best for the process of distillation. Constituents: 3-3.5% of volatile oil called cardamom oil containing terpinol, terpinyl acetate, borneol, fixed oil, proteins and ca-oxalate. Uses: Used as carminative, aromatic, condiment, and flavoring agent and for flatulence and indigestion. CORIANDER B.O Coriandrum sativum Family Umbelliferae. P.U Dried ripe fruit. Habitat Cultivated in central and Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region, Pakistan and India. Constituents: It contains 1.8% of volatile oil containing coriander and d-pinene, fixed oil and Caoxalate. Uses: Flavoring agent, condiment, carminative, Aromatic stimulant. Posted by The Pharmacist at 8:47 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: VOLATILE OILS HYDROCARBON VOLATILE OILS CUBEB Syn Tailed pepper. B.O Piper cubeba Family Piperaceae. P.U Dried fully-grown unripe fruit. Habitat Java, Smatra, Srilanka and other parts of East Indies. Constituents: It yields about 10-18% of volatile oil containing terpenes and sesquiterpense, resins, amorphous cubebic acid and colourless crystalline compound cubebin. Cubebic acid is coloured purple red when treated with H2SO4 while cubebin is coloured cherry red with the same reagent.

Uses: Diuretic, Expectorant, Genito-urinary antiseptic. It is used as remedy for gonorrhoea after acute inflammation. It is also used in cystitis, piles and chronic bronchitis. TERPENTINE OIL Syn Oil of turpentine Turpentine tincture Turpentine spirit. B.O Pinus Longifolia Roxb. Pinus roxburghii Sargent. Pinus excelsa wall. Family Pinaceae Order Coniferales Class Coniferopsida. Sub. Division Gymnosperm Tracheophyta (Spermophyta) P.U Oleoresin obtained from plant. COLLECTION: Pinus oleoresin is a normal i.e. physiological product of pine. The amount produced is generally enhanced by injury or by treatment with 50% H2SO4. It is secreted in plant tissues in specific cavities or resin ducts. These ducts are frequently located directly beneath the cambium in the sapwood marked by a distinct layer of secretary cells. This is called resinogerious layer, secrete the resin into the cavity through a thin circular integument. The cavities are themselves formed either in a schizogenous or lysigenous fashion. These are anastinosing in nature. When one of the passages is open as in wound from a distance. The acid treatment crumpled the thin walled parenchyma. This permits the duct channel to become larger providing a more rapid flow of oleoresin and two methods of collection have been used; 1. Box method. 2. Cup and gutter method. BOX METHOD: It is very old method, which was previously used in many countries. A large box was cut in the trunk and blaze cut about it. The length of which was increased from time to time. The oleoresin, which was collected in the box, was removed at intervals with a dipper and sent in barrels to the distillery. This method is often baseful causing destruction of most areas. CUP AND GUTTER METHOD: This method with different modifications is used in different countries. A series of V shaped incisions are made in the trunk of the tree of a distance of about one-foot. The bark and young wood being removed so that a blaze or a groove is formed in the trunk. This is usually done early in the year. At the base of incision and aluminium earthen ware cup is fixed in the trunk and two strips of galvanized iron or aluminium are inserted about to deflect the flow of oleoresin into the cup. The length of the blaze is increased and the cups are moved higher up the trees and now grooves are started with the older ones. As the cups become filled, their contents are emptied into the barrels, which are delivered to the distillery where the turpentine oil is removed by steam distillation, and the resin become rosin. CHARACTERISTICS: Turpentine oil is colourless liquid possessing a characteristic odour and taste. It is soluble in alcohol and has a specific gravity of 0.854-0.868 at 25C. CONSTITUENTS:

Turpentine consists of Dicyclic monoterpenes such as d & L a-pinene and camphene. It also contains monocyclic monoterpenes such as dipentene and methyl carbachol and also bormyl acetate etc. USES: Turpentine oil is now rarely given internally. Externally it is used as counter irritant, rubifaciant in lotions, also as mild antiseptic. It is also used as solvent for waxes in the production of synthetic camphor, shoe polishes and furniture polishes. RECTIFIED OIL OF TURPENTINE: It is turpentine oil rectified by distillation from an aqueous solution of NAOH and terpinol oil. Terpinol oil is found by the action of nitric acid on rectified turpentine oil in the presence of alcohol. Rectified turpentine oil and terpinol both are used internally as diuretic, urinary antiseptic, antihermatic, and expectorant. Turpentine oil itself is used in industry as solvent for waxes in the production of synthetic camphor, shoe polish and furniture polish. Posted by The Pharmacist at 8:45 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: VOLATILE OILS CHEMICAL GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF VOLATILE OILS Following are the divisions in which volatile oils and volatile containing drugs are placed. 1. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: e.g. Cubeb, Turpentine oil 2. Alcoholic volatile oils: e.g. Peppermint, Cardamom, and Coriander. 3. Aldehyde volatile oils: e.g. Bitter orange peel, lemon peel, and sweet orange peel. 4. Ketonic volatile oils: e.g. Camphor, spearmint, and caraway. 5. Phenolic volatile oils: e.g. Clove, Thyme. 6. Phenolic ether volatile oils: e.g. Fennel, Anise, and Myristica. 7. Oxide volatile oils: e.g. chenopodium, eucalyptus. 8. Ester volatile oils: e.g. Rose merry oil. 9. Miscellaneous: e.g. Allium, Anthum. Posted by The Pharmacist at 8:44 PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: VOLATILE OILS CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION OF VOLATILE OILS

1. Hemiterpenes: Hemiterpenes are the compounds having 5-carbon atoms i.e. a. Isoamyl alcohol: Found in mentha spp. b. Isovaler aldehyde: Found in eucalyptus. 2. Monoterpenes: These are composed of two isoprene units and have the formula C10H16. Monoterpenes are further classified as a. Open chain or Acylic hydrocarbons. b. Monocyclic hydrocarbons. c. Dicyclic hydrocarbons. d. Tricyclic monoterpenes. 3. Sesquiterpenes: These contain three isoprene units having the molecular formula C15H24. Sesquiterpenes may be; a. Acyclic or open chain e.g. Farnesol. b. Monocyclic e.g. Zingeberene.

c. Dicyclic e.g. Cadinine. 4. Diterpenes: Diterpenes have four isoprene units and have the molecular formula C20H32. Diterpenoid compounds include such resin acids as + and pimaric acid and their isomer, the abietic acid of pine resin. Many diterpenoids (e.g. vit A and gibberellic acid) do not belong to the volatile oil-resin group. Acyclic Diterpenes : Phytol is an unsaturated alcohol, a component of the chlorophyll molecule. Phytol has following formula. Monocyclic Diterpenes: a-camphorene Dicyclic Diterpenes: e.g. Agathic acid found in Agathis alba Tricyclic Diterpenes. e.g. Abietic acid and Pimaric acid Tetracyclic Diterpenes. e.g. Phylleladene 5. Triterpenes: These are abundant in nature particularly in resins and may occur as either esters or glycosides. They may be aliphatic e.g. squalene, tetracyclic or pentacyclic. Tetracyclics examples are Limonoids, sterols and pentacyclics examples are b-amyrin, 4,4-dimethyl sterol. 6.Tetraterpenes: (C= 40) These are mainly cartenoids pigments. The important pigments are orange red and yellow. These are found along with chlorophyll in photosynthetic tissues and are located in chloroplast lamella. The colour of red tomato and the orange are due to the lycopene. Polyterpenoids: These are compounds of many isoprene units e.g. rubber. Rubber is a polyterpenoid product in latex of about 300 genera of angiosperm but only Hevea brasiliensis is used. Rubber is manufactured in Malaysia and Indonesia. This rubber is a cispolymer containing 3000-6000 units. Mixed Terpenoids: Mixed Terpenoids compounds consist of terpenoid and non-terpenoid components other than sugar and fatty acids e.g. Terpenoid glycosides and terpenoid esters. Stereopenes: Another major group of volatile oils is stereopenes or phenyl propanoids. These compounds contain C=6 Phenyl ring with an attached c=3 propane side chain. Many of the phenyl propanoids found in volatile oils are phenols or phenol esters. Some of the famous examples are Cinnamaldehyde, anethole, eugenol, and phenyl ethyl alcohol, anisaldehyde and methyl salicylate. These compounds form of oil in some spp. While in other spp. The hydrocarbon liquid portion predominates. The odour and the taste of ess. Oil is mainly determined by the oxygenated components which are usually soluble in water but more soluble in alcohol. They can further be classified as. 1. Open chain or Acentric. 2. Monocyclic. 3- Dicyclic: SIGNIFICANCE OF VOLATILE OILS SIGNIFICANCE:

Volatile oils have great significance for both the plant and human beings. The exact role of volatile oils in plants is not known. They are produced as a result of metabolism in the plant, however they are said to be important for; (i) Insect repellant due to their specific odour, thus preventing the destruction of flowers. (ii) They also serve as insect attractant, thus helping in cross-fertilization in plants. There are three main uses of volatile oils in human life. (i) They are used therapeutically. (ii) They are used as flavoring agents. (iii) They are used perfumery and cosmetics. Therapeutically: 1. They are used as irritant. When applied to skin it produces dose dependent irritation, which may reach the range of severe inflammation and sometimes blisters as well. 2. They improve local circulation and this property is applied in making lotions and linaments e.g. camphor and turpentine. 3. They act as carminative e.g. oils from coriander, fennel, and cardamom. They improve digestion and appetite is increased. 4. They act as local anesthetics e.g. clove oil (applied to teeth). 5. When given internally it reduces the secretions of lungs, particularly the cough in asthma e.g. menthol in ammonium chloride syrup. 6. Some of them are used as antiseptic, anti bacterial and fungicidal. Eucalyptol oil and thymol (1: 100) are used in the growth of bacteria in foods. 7. They are employed as antihermatic e.g. chenopodium oil.