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Chemical Bonding

E-mail of tutor : wes_56 @ hotmail.com ; Name of tutor : Wesley Chong ; HP : 92215412 Contents: Ionic Bonding Covalent Bonding and co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding The shapes of simple molecules Bond energies, bond lengths and bond polarities

Intermediate Bonding Types Intermolecular forces, including hydrogen bonding Metallic bonding Bonding and physical properties Solid state

Introduction The chemical bond is a central force between atoms. It is crucial and central to all aspects of chemistry. To be more precise, a chemical bond is a force of attraction that holds two or more atoms, ions, molecules of these together in general: Ionic bond : formed between oppositely charged ions in giant ionic substances Covalent bond : formed between atoms in a simple/giant molecular substances *** Metallic bond : formed between cations and delocalised sea of electrons in a giant metallic substances Van der Waals forces : formed between molecules in simple molecular substances Hydrogen bond : formed between molecules in simple molecular substances involving H atom of a molecule with neighbouring N/O/F-H molecules

Schematic diagram of the various types of bonds and forces of attraction:

Why do atoms become ions or molecules through the formation of chemical bonds? To achieve stable noble gas electronic configurations. In other words, atoms/ions bond together to achieve Stability.

Ionic Bond

Ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction that exists between the cations and anions in a giant ionic lattice structure.

Key concept : Transfer of electrons from metal atom to non-metal atom to form ions

Recap to draw the dot and cross diagram of MgCl 2.

Strength of ionic bond is Proportional to charge of ion Inversely proportional to ionic size of ion Eg. MgO CaO

Covalent Bond

Let us look at the electronegativity of common elements: F > O > Cl > N > Br > I > S > C > H = P > Si > Al > Be > Al > Be > Mg > Ca > Li > Na Trend:

Covalent bonds are formed in a simple/ giant molecular substance when: Atoms of non-metals share valence electrons to form molecules Electrostatic forces of attractions exist between the nuclei and the shared pair of electrons between atoms in a simple/giant molecular structure

We can use dot and cross diagram to depict the formation of a covalent bond for a simple molecular substance using the steps: Step 1:

Step 2 : CCl4 CO2 :

The central atom is usually the one written first (except H) in the chemical formula. Step 3 : arrange the remaining electrons of each atom in pairs and check that each atom achieves the noble gas electronic configuration where possible. Be can have less than eight valence electrons after bonding in exceptional cases. In other cases, the central atom may have more than eight valence electrons.

Eg. PCl5

Only elements from period 3 and above (eg. P, S and Cl) have d orbitals to accommodate electrons for chemical bonding and hence can EXPAND BEYOND OCTET STRUCTURE. Eg. Carbonate ion :

Odd-electron species: Some molecules contain an odd number of valence electrons, so they cannot possibly have all their electrons paired. Such species are called radicals and are very reactive. Most odd-electron species have a central atom carrying an odd number of valence electrons, eg. Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Coordinate (dative) bond Coordinate (dative) bonds are formed in a simple molecular substance when : Both the electrons in a covalent bond come from only one of the atoms. Once the bond is formed, it is identical to any other covalent bond. To form a dative bond, the donor group must have a lone pair of electrons in its outermost shell while the acceptor group must have a vacant orbital(s) in its outer shell, which are able to accommodate the lone pair of electrons from the donor. Lone pairs are non-bonding pair of electrons which are under the influence of only one atom. Eg. NH3 + H+

Al2Cl6

Covalent Bond strength Strength of covalent bond is Proportional to bond order of covalent bond (ie. No. Of bonds between atoms) Inversely proportional to bond length of covalent bond (ie. Distance between the nuclei of atoms) The stronger the covalent bond, the higher the bond energy.

Shapes of molecules VSEPR Basic rules of VSEPR theory: Electron pairs (bond pairs and lone pairs) ***** are arranger around the central atom in a molecule as far apart as possible so as to minimise repulsion between them. Lone pair exert greater repulsion than bond pairs with the result that the extent of repulsion between lone-pair-lone-pair > lone pair-bond pair > bond pair-bond pair

Shape of molecules in detail: The basic shape around the central atom in a molecule is determined by its total number of electron pairs (bond pairs and lone pairs) arranged in a way to minimise repulsion. A multiple bond is considered as one effective electron pair. The actual shape around the central atom in a molecule is determined by its number of bond pairs (not lone pairs) upon deriving its basic shape. See the next page for the various shapes of molecules.

Eg. CH3+

SO42-

Polarity of Molecules A molecule is non-polar if it has: Non-polar bonds only or polar bonds (between atoms of different electronegativity) arranged symmetrically such that the dipole moments cancel off. Overall dipole moment is zero

A molecule is polar if it has: Polar bonds arranged unsymmetrically such that the dipole moments do not cancel off. Overall dipole moment is not zero.

Egs. Of symmetrical and unsymmetrical arrangements of bonds: Symmetrical arrangement Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral Square planar Unsymmetrical arrangement Bent Trigonal pyramidal Distorted tetrahedral T-shaped Square pyramidal