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POWER POWER ELECTRICS ELECTRICS

INVERTERS
(DC-AC CONVERTERS)

Dr. Adel Gastli


Email: adel@gastli.net http://adel.gastli.net

CONTENTS CONTENTS
1. SINGLE-PHASE INVERTER 2. THREE-PHASE INVERTER

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

SINGLE-PHASE INVERTER
T1

Half-Bridge

Vs/2 Load Vs/2

D1

D2

T2

T1 Vs/2 D1 D3

T3

Full-Bridge
T4 Vs/2 Load D4 D2 T2

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

T1

Half-Bridge
Rules of Triggering
i) KVL ii) KCL

Vs/2 Load v0

D1 i0 D2 T2

Vs/2

T1 & T2 cant be on at the same time Satisfied by D1 & D2


Vs/2 i0 Vs/(2R) T/2 -Vs/2 T v0

Resistive Load
Vs 2 V 1 = 0 . 45 V s V 0 rms =

2V s v0 = sin( n t ) Point of symmetry: A =0 n n 1, 3 , 5


Dr. Adel Gastli DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

f(t)=f(t+T/2): Even harmonics =0


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Purely (or highly) Inductive Load


Vs/2 Imax Imin -Vs/2 v0 i0 T/4 T/2 3T/4 T D1ON T2OFF Vs/2 T2ON Load v0 D1 i0 D2 T2 T1

T1ON

D2ON

Vs/2

T1OFF

Vs dio =L dt 2

Vs di =L o dt 2

i0 Quadrant 2 [T/4, T/2] Quadrant 1 [0, T/4] v0

I max
Dr. Adel Gastli

V = s 8 fL

I min

Vs = 8 fL

Quadrant 3 [T/2, 3T/4]

Quadrant 4 [3T/4, T]

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

Definitions:
Vn rms of the n th harmonic = HF = V1 rms of the fundamenta l

THD =

3, 5 , 7

V
V1

2 n

Measure of closeness in shape between a waveform and its fundamental.


2

DF =

Vn 2 3, 5 , 7 n V1

Measure of effectiveness of reducing unwanted harmonics using a second order attenuation factor 1/n2(second-order filter).
DC-AC Conversion: Inverters 6

Dr. Adel Gastli

T1

Full-Bridge

D1

v0 Load

D3 i0 D2

T3

Vs T4 D4 T2

Control Logic I: Inductive Load T1T2 D3D4 T3T4 D1D2


T/4 T/2 3T/4 T

Same as half-bridge (Vsinstead of Vs/2)

V0 rms = Vs

Vs Imax Imin -Vs T1T2

v0 i0 T/4 T/2 3T/4 D1D2 T

I max =

Vs 4 fL

D3D4

T3T4

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

Control Logic II: Inductive Load

T1 T2 T3 T4 D1 D2 D3 D4 V0

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vs

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 -Vs

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 -Vs

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 Vs

i0should reach zero


Dr. Adel Gastli DC-AC Conversion: Inverters 8

Vs Imax

v0 i0
T/6 T/3 T1D3 T/2 D 3D 4 T3T4 2T/3 T 3D 1 5T/6 D1D2 T

Imin -Vs

T 1T 2

Note that during the periods [T/6 T/3] and [2T/3 5T/6] the inductance current freewheels into the transistors and diodes. Since there are no sufficient resistances to discharge, in a short time, the magnetic energy stored in the inductance, then the inductor current remains constant.
Dr. Adel Gastli DC-AC Conversion: Inverters 9

THREE-PHASE INVERTER
Three-phase Bridge Inverter
180o Conduction 120o Conduction

Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM)


Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverter

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

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Vs 3 2V vbn = s 3 V vcn = s 3 van =

2Vs 3 V vbn = s 3 Vs vcn = 3 van =

Vs 3 V vbn = s 3 2V vcn = s 3 van =

2 3 modes
DC-AC Conversion: Inverters 12

Dr. Adel Gastli

4Vs n n t cos sin + 6 6 n =1, 3, 5,K n 4Vs n vbc = cos sin n t 6 2 n =1, 3, 5,K n vab =

i.e. Vs = 100V VLm1 = 110.2V

4Vs n 7 vca = cos sin n t 6 6 n =1, 3, 5,K n

Note that for n=3,9,15,21,...


Dr. Adel Gastli

vab=vbc=vca=0
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DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

Line-to-line rms voltage

2 vL = 2

2 / 3

V d (t ) 0
2 s

1/ 2

2 = Vs = 0.8165Vs 3

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

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Line-to-line rms harmonic voltage

4Vs 4Vs n cos vLn = cos = 0.7797Vs vL1 = 6 6 2n 2


Phase rms voltage

2Vs vL vp = = = 0.4714Vs 3 3
Dr. Adel Gastli DC-AC Conversion: Inverters 15

/ 3 2 / 3

Only two transistors remain on at any time.

Vs 2 V vbn = s 2 vcn = 0 van =

Vs 2 vbn = 0 van = vcn = Vs 2

van = 0 Vs 2 V vcn = s 2 vbn =

Note: The waveforms of line voltages are the same as the waveforms of phase voltages with the only difference in the amplitudes ( 3Vs/2 instead of Vs/2) and phase angle (+30o).
Dr. Adel Gastli DC-AC Conversion: Inverters 16

2Vs n cos sin n t + 6 6 n n =1, 3, 5,K 2Vs n cos sin n t vbn = 6 2 n =1, 3, 5,K n van =

vcn =
vab = vbc =

2Vs 7 n cos sin n t 6 6 n n =1, 3, 5,K

2 3Vs n cos sin n t + 6 3 n =1, 3, 5,K n

vline = 3v ph
i.e. Vs = 100V V phm1 = 55.1V
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2 3Vs n cos sin n t n 6 3 n =1, 3, 5,K

2 3Vs n vca = cos sin n(t ) n 6 n =1, 3, 5,K


Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation SPWM


fc p= 2 fo
Number of pulses per half-cycle
p 1/ 2

m Vo = Vs m =1

vo (t ) =
Dr. Adel Gastli

n =1, 3, 5

sin nt
DC-AC Conversion: Inverters 18

For the mth pulse:


bn ( m ) =
+ + m + m 1 m m = Vs cos(nt )d (t ) Vs cos(nt )d (t ) + m m

n 2Vs sin m sin n m + m sin n + m + m n 2 2 2


p m =1 p

Bn = bn ( m ) = n 2Vs sin m sin n m + m sin n + m + m 2 2 2 m =1 n

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-AC Conversion: Inverters

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