# Failure Theories

Predict capability of materials to withstand the infinite combination of non-standard loads Failure: Behavior of a member that renders it unsuitable for its intended function. Static loading (no impact, fatigue nor surface wear)

How much distortion is too much ?

World War II tanker broken in two by a brittle fracture. Impact loading. Can promote brittle fracture of usually ductile material . Low temperatures. Sharp notches. despite the normal ductility of the used steel.

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Normal-Stress-Theory (W.M. engl. Rankine 1802-1872.Max. scientist & educator) simplest Failure occurs. when greatest tensile stress exceeds uniaxial tensile strength.J. + + τ + σ2 Sut σ Suc Sut + σ1 Suc Sut No Failure occurs within these bounds No Failure occurs within this area Suc Principle Mohr circles σ1 –σ2 plot Correlates well for brittle fracture .

Max. when maximum shear stress exceeds shear strength in uniaxial tension test.A. + + oldest τ Syt + σ2 Sy No Failure within these bounds Sy + σ σ1 Sy σ1 − σ 2 = τ max = 2 2 No Failure within this area Principle Mohr circles σ1 –σ2 plot Correlates well for ductile yielding . Coulomb 1736-1806. Shear-Stress-Theory (C. French scientist) Also called: Tresca Theory or Guest’s Law Failure occurs.

when distortion-energy in unit volume (arbitrary load condition) equals distortion-energy in same volume for uniaxial yielding..: E= ε with spring rate k= P ⋅y 2 P2 U= 2⋅k P2 ⋅ L U= 2A ⋅ E P2 u= 2A 2 ⋅ E σ2 u= 2E ε⋅σ u= 2 3-D: u= ε1 ⋅ σ 1 ε 2 ⋅ σ 2 ε 3 ⋅ σ 3 + + 2 2 2 . Distortion-Energy-Theory (Maxwell 1856 Engl.-Octahedral-Shear Theory Failure occurs. Energy stored in a spring U= P y A ⋅E axially loaded bar: k = L U per unit volume: u = (V = A ⋅ L ) P stress: σ= A δ stress-strain rel.Max. best Mises 1913 & Hencky 1925 Ger../US) Also called: Max. Hueber 1904 Pol.

Distortion-Energy-Theory uσ = ε1 ⋅ σ 1 ε 2 ⋅ σ 2 ε 3 ⋅ σ 3 + + 2 2 2 uσ = 1 2 2 σ1 + σ 2 2E [ δ 1 νδ 2 νδ 3 − − E E E δ νδ νδ with 3-D stress-strain rel.Max. ε 2 = 2 − 1 − 3 E E E δ νδ νδ 2 + σ 3 − 2ν σ1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3 σ1 ε 3 = 3 − 1 − 2 E E E ε1 = ( )] actual average difference with 3-D averaged stress: σ av = 2 3σ av [1 − 2ν ] uav = 2E σ1 + σ 2 + σ 3 3 Distortion energy ud = uσ − uav 2 2 2 1 + ν ⎡ (σ1 − σ 2 ) + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) + (σ 3 − σ1 ) ⎤ ud = ⎢ ⎥ 3E ⎣ 2 ⎦ Simple tension test: ud = 1+ ν 2 Sy 3E σ1 = S y Sy > σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ1 )2 2 .

Max. Distortion-Energy-Theory 3D: Sy > σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ1 )2 2 2D: (Juvinall p254) .

0-6.1) Problem P6. 11 April .8 (6.6.Homework Read Chapters 6.5 .28 (b) only Due: Monday 03/28/05 Exam Monday.

Failure Theories Example: σ1 = 35 ksi σ2 = -25 ksi Steel Sy=100 ksi Sy= σ1 = Load Point Shear Diagonal 1. Normal Sress Th.S σ1 − σ2 < Sy gy r e En he . h T 2.7 1.9 σmax< Sy Load Line St re ss Th . ax M σ12 + σ22 − σ1σ2 < Sy . M Sy= ax on i t or t is D .9 ar Max. σ2 = .