MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE

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Copyright © United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), 2012 All rights reserved United Nations Human Settlements Programme publications can be obtained from UN-Habitat Regional and Information Offices or directly from: P.O. Box 30030, GPO 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Fax: + (254 20) 762 4266/7 E-mail: unhabitat@unhabitat.org Website: http://www.unhabitat.org This Malawi report and project was prepared and managed by the Late Dalitso Mpoola, Costly Chanza, Fred Nankuyu, Hilary Kamela, the Late Marcel Kaunda, Alex Chirambo, Lucky Kabanga, Mavuto D. Tembo, Dominic Kamlomo, and John Chome in Malawi. This report was also managed by Kerstin Sommer, Alain Grimard, David Kithakye, Mathias Spaliviero, and Doudou Mbye in Nairobi. HS Number: HS/112/12E ISBN Number (Series): 978-92-1-132023-7 ISBN Number (Volume): 978-92-1-132526-3

DISCLAIMER
The designation employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries, or regarding its economic system or degree of development. The analysis, conclusions and recommendations of the report do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), the Governing Council of UN-Habitat or its Member States. This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Excerpts from this publication may be reproduced without authorisation, on condition that the source is indicated. Photo credits: © UN-Habitat

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Editing: Design and Layout: Edward Miller Florence Kuria

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SLUMS AND SHELTER GENDER AND HIV/AIDS ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BASIC URBAN SERVICES LAND PROJECT PROPOSALS GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SLUMS AND SHELTER GENDER AND HIV/AIDS ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BASIC URBAN SERVICES LAND 35 37 39 41 43 45 48 3 5 6 8 12 14 17 20 23 26 33

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FOREWORD
According to research published in UN-Habitat’s1 flagship report, The State of the World’s Cities 2010-2011, all developing regions, including the African, Caribbean and Pacific states, will have more people living in urban than rural areas by the year 2030. With half the world’s population already living in urban areas, the challenges we face in the battle against urban poverty, our quest for cities without slums, for cities where women feel safer, for inclusive cities with power, water and sanitation, and affordable transport, for better planned cities, and for cleaner, greener cities is daunting. But as this series shows, there are many interesting solutions and best practices to which we can turn. After all, the figures tell us that during the decade 2000 to 2010, a total of 227 million people in the developing countries moved out of slum conditions. In other words, governments, cities and partner institutions have collectively exceeded the slum target of the Millennium Development Goals twice over and ten years ahead of the agreed 2020 deadline. Asia and the Pacific stood at the forefront of successful efforts to reach the slum target, with all governments in the region improving the lives of an estimated 172 million slum dwellers between 2000 and 2010. In sub-Saharan Africa though, the total proportion of the urban population living in slums has decreased by only 5 per cent (or 17 million people). Ghana, Senegal, Uganda, and Rwanda were the most successful countries in the sub-region, reducing the proportions of slum dwellers by over one-fifth in the last decade. Some 13 per cent of the progress made towards the global slum target occurred in Latin America and the Caribbean, where an estimated 30 million people have moved out of slum conditions since the year 2000. Yet, UN-Habitat estimates confirm that the progress made on the slum target has not been sufficient to counter the demographic expansion in informal settlements in the developing world. In this sense, efforts to reduce the numbers of slum dwellers are neither satisfactory nor adequate. Dr. Joan Clos Executive Director, UN-Habitat
1 UN-Habitat - United Nations Human Settlements Programme

As part of our drive to address this crisis, UN-Habitat is working with the European Commission and the Brussels-based Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group to support sustainable urban development. Given the urgent and diverse needs, we found it necessary to develop a tool for rapid assessment and strategic planning to guide immediate, mid and long-term interventions. And here we have it in the form of this series of publications. The Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme is based on the policy dialogue between UN-Habitat, the ACP Secretariat and the European Commission which dates back to the year 2002. When the three parties met at UN-Habitat headquarters in June 2009, more than 200 delegates from over 50 countries approved a resounding call on the international community to pay greater attention to these urbanization matters, and to extend the slum upgrading programme to all countries in the ACP Group. It is worth recalling here how grateful we are that the European Commission’s 9th European Development Fund for ACP countries provided EUR 4 million (USD 5.7 million at June 2011 rates) to enable UN-Habitat to conduct the programme which now serves 59 cities in 23 African countries, and more than 20 cities in six Pacific, and four Caribbean countries. Indeed, since its inception in 2008, the slum upgrading programme has achieved the confidence of partners at city and country level in Africa, the Caribbean and in the Pacific. It is making a major contribution aimed at helping in urban poverty reduction efforts, as each report in this series shows." I wish to express my gratitude to the European Commission and the ACP Secretariat for their commitment to this slum upgrading programme. I have every confidence that the results outlined in this profile, and others, will serve to guide the development of responses for capacity building and investments in the urban sector. Further, I would like to thank each Country Team for their continued support to this process which is essential for the successful implementation of the Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme.

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FOREWORD

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
The Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme is an accelerated and action-oriented urban assessment of needs and capacity-building gaps at national and local levels. It is currently being implemented in over 30 countries in the Africa, Caribbean and Pacific Region. The programme uses a structured approach where priority interventions are agreed upon through consultative processes. Its methodology consists of three phases: (1) a rapid participatory urban profiling, at national and local levels, focusing on governance, local economic development, environment, land, shelter and slums, gender and HIV/AIDS, basic urban services, and proposed interventions; (2) detailed priority proposals; and (3) project implementation. The Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme in Malawi encompasses a national profile, as well as profiles for Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba cities, each published as a separate report. This report constitutes a general background, a synthesis of the seven themes – Urban Governance and Financial Management; Local Economic Development; Land; Gender and HIV/ AIDS; Environment, Urban Disaster Risk and Climate Change; Slums and Shelter; and Basic Urban Services – and priority project proposals.

GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Malawi has made significant strides towards participatory democracy since attaining multiparty democracy in 1994, through increasing support to civic education, affirming the rights and obligations of Malawi citizens, and furthering an understanding of the democratic process. The Malawi government is committed to improving justice, rule of law, and internal security as the core issues of democratic governance. The institutions providing these services, though, face challenges that lead to poor justice delivery, especially for the vulnerable and marginalized. These challenges are legal, institutional, systemic, infrastructural, procedural, and human resource-related3.

LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
More than 80 percent of Malawi’s population depends on farming in the rural areas, while in urban areas administration, wholesale and retail trade, marketing, social and community services, and construction provide the main economic activities. Agriculture and related activities account for more than 30 percent of the gross domestic product, with about 60 percent of the total exports coming from tobacco alone. Public investment is seen as a key factor in the development of the local economy4. Women in Malawi contribute significantly to the country’s economic and social development. The hospitality and tourism sector continues to grow, and Malawi continues to demonstrate remarkable growth in the number of tourists despite the adverse impacts of the global economic downturn.

BACKGROUND
Malawi is one of the least developed countries in Africa. It had a population of 13 million in 2008, which was predominantly rural (85 percent) and which at a rate of 2.8 percent between 1998 and 20081. The four major cities accounted for 77 percent of the urban population in 2008. Malawian urban centres are the engine rooms for government administration, agri-business and general business, industry, commerce and finance, transportation, and the informal sector. Malawi’s annual urban population growth rate is among the highest in Africa, at 4.7 percent in 20082. Urban poverty stood at more than 25 percent in 2008; 64 percent of urban residents in the major cities lived in unplanned settlements and slums, with little access to basic urban services. The rapid urbanization rate is posing a major challenge to government at all levels and other stakeholders. An integrated approach to these urban challenges can lead to a reduction in urban poverty; there is a need for open discussion, transparency, and the inclusion of all urban stakeholders.

LAND
Land is the most basic resource available for social and economic development in Malawi and its proper management and administration is fundamental for ensuring equitable access to all citizens5. Most of the land in Malawi remains under the customary tenure system, but the status quo is changing as customary and public land is being changed into private land (freehold and leasehold)6.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

3 1 2 National Statistical Office (2009), Population and Housing Census Main Report 2008. National Statistical Office (2011), Spatial Distribution and Urbanisation Report 2010. 4 5 6

United Nations Malawi (November 2010), Malawi Country Assessment Report 2010. African Economic Outlook (2010), Malawi Recent Economic Developments and Prospects. Malawi Government (2002), Malawi National Land Policy. UN-Habitat (2010), Malawi Urban Housing Sector Profile.

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Land is administered and managed by several players: the Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, the Malawi Housing Corporation, the city councils, traditional leaders, and private entities. Serviced land for low-income housing is scarce, forcing most people in the urban areas to get land in unplanned settlements using customary practices. Land management policies and regulatory frameworks have been reviewed or formulated in response to the challenges.

Most of the housing stock in Malawi is constructed through self-help initiatives, and individuals use their own resources10. Most houses are traditional and semi-permanent; about 21 percent are permanent. Nationally, most houses are owner-occupied, while in urban areas the difference between owner-occupied and renting is small11. Rapid urbanization is one of the major contributing factors to slum growth.

GENDER AND HIV/AIDS
The Malawi government fully recognizes that gender equality is a globally recognized human right and that empowerment of women is an integral part of achieving the Millennium Development Goals7. Progress has been made in addressing gender and HIV/AIDS issues. The government has made consistent efforts to bring the national HIV prevalence rate down to around 12 percent from about 21 percent. Urban areas have a higher rate than rural areas8. HIV prevalence is projected to reach 6 percent by 20159 .

BASIC URBAN SERVICES
Potable water in Malawi is supplied by three regional water boards and two city water boards. The 2010 national water supply access figure of 81 percent shows that the Millennium Development Goal target of 74 percent by 2015 has already been surpassed12. The four profiled cities had safe water accessibility rates of over 90 percent as of 2009, but accessibility in unplanned settlements is low. Electrical energy generated by the Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi accounts for at least 90 percent of the total energy generated and used. The poor access to electricity mainly affects low-income housing areas and unplanned settlements; the high cost of electricity is a deterrent for most households13. Fixed and wireless telephone lines, cellular telephones, telex, courier, postal, and internet services are the main communication means in the country and are provided by several companies.

ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISK AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Malawi is endowed with environmental resources across the country. Government at all levels, the public and private sectors, and the city councils are responsible for environmental management. Deforestation around water catchment areas, unregulated urban agriculture and indiscriminate disposal of domestic and industrial waste are some of the main challenges. Most people use traditional latrines in both urban and rural areas, leading to pollution and other environmental and public health issues.

SLUMS AND SHELTER
Housing in Malawi ranges from wattle and grassthatched dwellings to baked brick, cement mortar and tile-roofed bungalows. Housing is provided by the Malawi Housing Corporation, private companies, and many smaller investors. The government provides housing to its staff.

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Eric Ning’ang’a (2011) in Travel ‘n’ Tourism, Vol. No. 1, Issue No. 3, 2011, Public Relations Associates, Box 2535, Blantyre, Malawi. National Aids Commission (August 2008), HIV and Syphilis Sero-Survey and National HIV Prevalence and AIDS Estimates Report for 2007. Malawi Government (2010), Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report.

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UN-Habitat (2010), Malawi Urban Housing Sector Profile. National Statistical Office (2009), Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009. Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report. Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

BACKGROUND
INTRODUCTION The Urban Profiling The urban profiling is an accelerated and action-oriented urban assessment of urban conditions, focusing on priority needs, capacity gaps, and existing institutional responses at national and local levels. The purpose of the study is to develop urban poverty reduction policies at local, national, and regional levels, through an assessment of needs and response mechanisms, and as a contribution to the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. The study is based on analysis of existing data and a series of interviews with relevant urban stakeholders, including local communities and institutions, civil society, the private sector, development partners, academics, and others. This consultation typically results in a collective agreement on priorities and their development into proposed capacity-building and other projects, all aimed at urban poverty reduction. The programme is being implemented in about 30 African, Caribbean and Pacific countries, offering an opportunity for comparative regional analysis. Once completed, these series of studies will provide a framework for central and local authorities and urban actors, as well as donors and external support agencies. METHODOLOGY The Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme methodology consists of three phases: Phase one consists of a rapid participatory urban profiling, at national and local levels. The capital city and other cities are selected and studied to provide a representative sample in each country. The analysis focuses on seven themes: governance and financial management, slums and shelter, gender and HIV/ AIDS, environment, urban disaster risks and climate change, local economic development, basic urban services, and land. Information was collected through interviews and key informants, in order to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOTs) of the national and local urban set-ups. The findings were presented and refined during city and national consultation workshops, and consensus was reached regarding priority interventions. Phase two focuses on building the priorities identified through the pre-feasibility studies and develops detailed capacity-building and capital investment projects. Phase three implements the projects developed during the two earlier phases, with an emphasis on skills development, institutional strengthening, and replication. This report presents the outcomes of the programme’s Phase One at the national level. URBAN PROFILING IN MALAWI In Malawi, the urban profiling covered four cities: Blantyre (the commercial capital, in the south of Malawi), Lilongwe (the capital city, in the central region), Mzuzu (capital of the northern region), and Zomba (the old capital of Malawi, in the eastern region). Each urban profile is published as a separate report. The national consultation process is a partnership platform co-developed with Malawi’s Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, parastatal organizations, and national and international NGOs. The aim was to develop options for formal inter-agency collaboration in order to create a coordination body that integrates a wide range of urban stakeholders in a single response mechanism. REPORT STRUCTURE This report consists of: 1. a general background of the urban sector in Malawi, based on the findings of the Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba assessment reports, desk studies, interviews, and city and national consultations during the Malawi Urban Forum II held in Lilongwe on 27 and 28 October 2011. The background includes data on administration, urban planning, economy, urban poverty, sanitation, refuse collection, health, and education. 2. a synthetic assessment of the seven main themes – governance, local economic development, environment, land, shelter and slums, gender and HIV/AIDS, and basic urban services – in terms of the institutional set-up, regulatory framework, resource mobilization, and performance and accountability; this second section also highlights agreed priorities and includes a list of identified projects. 3. a SWOT analysis and outlines of priority project proposals for each theme. The proposals include beneficiaries, partners, estimated costs, objectives, activities, and outputs. BACKGROUND
URBAN CENTRES

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BACKGROUND

Cities in Malawi are the engine rooms for education, manufacturing, production, innovation, culture, and economic activities that generate wealth and opportunities and contribute to the national gross domestic product. These urban centres are hosting about 15 to 20 percent1 of the national population, and over
1 National Statistical Office (2009), Population and Housing Census Main Report 2008.

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60 percent of urban dwellers are living in unplanned settlements and slums. The Department of Physical Planning developed a hierarchy of settlements to help implement a decentralized urbanization strategy, but the required institutions and regulations to guide urban development are not fully respected at all levels. Malawi is one of the fastest urbanizing countries, and in response to this, some policies and strategies are being formulated to guide the future development of the urban centres. Collaborations and partnerships among all stakeholders in urban and national development are key to sustaining economic growth and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Decentralization of economic and planning functions, among others, to local authorities is expected to strengthen local urban management.
MALAWI POPULATION

limited in their powers by the slow devolution of powers from central government. These government organs work with other stakeholders in the management of programmes. The Malawi Constitution mandates the election of ward councillors through popular voting every five years, but such elections are always postponed.
CORRUPTION

Malawi has a very youthful population: nearly threequarters are less than 30 years of age, while those below 18 make up 52 percent of the total population. In 2008 there were 6.4 million males and 6.7 million females. Population growth rates have been high since the 1960s, and the productive, youthful population presents opportunities for development. Table 1 presents the national and urban population trends since 1966.
ADMINISTRATION

Many people view corruption as a major constraint to development in Malawi, thereby denouncing the notion that corruption is a natural occurrence and part of our daily lives2. Malawi is considered to have high levels of corruption, ranked 85 out of 178 countries. In Africa, Malawi ranks 10 out of 47 countries3. Malawi’s score improved in 2007, and the country has made positive strides towards fighting corruption, which include the following initiatives: the Corrupt Practices Act, the National Anti-Corruption Bureau, the Office of the Director of Public Procurement, the National Integrity System, the National Anti-Corruption Strategy (2009), Business Action Against Corruption, and Civil Society Action Against Corruption4.
ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

URBAN PLANNING

Some powers and decisions have been devolved to local authorities, but these authorities are controlled centrally by various ministries. Executive positions are filled by presidential appointment, while managerial appointments are done by the Civil Service Commission and the Local Government Service Commission. Heads of Services are moved around in different ministries or departments depending on the politics of the day, compromising service delivery. Senior positions are generally filled with qualified personnel, but capacity gaps widen at the middle and lower staff levels. The local authorities are responsible for the management of government matters at the local level, but are still

Urban and regional planning in Malawi has traditionally been centralized, with the Department of Physical Planning under the Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development taking the lead. The department has four regional offices in Blantyre, Zomba, Lilongwe, and Mzuzu, as well as the head office. The Commissioner for Physical Planning in mandated to carry out all urban and regional planning in Malawi6. After 1991, urban and regional planning was devolved to the local authorities of Mzuzu, Lilongwe, and
2 3 4 5 6 Malawi Government (February 2006), Malawi Governance and Corruption Baseline Survey Final Main Report. Transparency International (2010), Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Malawi Anti-Corruption Bureau (2009), National Anti-Corruption Strategy. Malawi Government (2008), Malawi Growth and Development Strategy Annual Review 2008. Malawi Government (1988), Town and Country Planning Act.

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BACKGROUND

The political and administrative system in Malawi is partially centralized and partially decentralized. The state and government are headed by the President, who is elected by the people. There are 193 members of parliament from 32 districts and four cities in three administrative regions. Bills or proposed laws are prepared by the relevant ministries and deliberated by the cabinet before being debated in parliament. Any bill becomes law once passed in parliament and consented to by the President. Since the dawn of the multiparty political system in 1994, constitutional reviews have resulted in structural changes in roles, functions and the administration of the government.

Malawi has enjoyed progressive economic growth in recent years, with an average real gross domestic product growth rate of around 7 percent till 20095. This followed the implementation of a number of core policies and structural reforms in various sectors. However, since 2009 there has been a decline in official development assistance due to several issues, and this is expected to affect development projects and foreign direct investment. Poor economic performance will increasingly become a central challenge for the government and its stakeholders. With the low prices of tobacco, the prospects seem gloomy.

Blantyre, as these had planning professionals. Through the Local Government Act, however, all councils are mandated to undertake planning activities. Prior to this, the Commissioner for Physical Planning would seek to declare fast-growing settlements as statutory planning areas7. Town Planning Committees will therefore be established to control planning and development in these areas. The Planning Board is an appeals body where developers lodge grievances emanating from dissatisfaction with Town Planning Committees or the commissioner. It is important to note that the whole country is a planning area8.
URBANIZATION OF POVERTY

HEALTH

Malawi is experiencing one of the highest urbanization rates in Africa, at about 4.7 percent, and it is expected that the urbanization of poverty will follow the same trend. However, the national poverty rate in Malawi decreased from 52 percent in 2004 to 39 percent in 2009, while urban poverty declined from 25 percent in 2004 to about 14 percent in 2009. The rural poverty rate has gone down from 53 percent in 2005 to around 43 percent in 20099. The proportion of the ultra-poor has also decreased in general. However, it is noted that, as of January 2010, about 4 million people slid deeper into poverty due to increasing food and fuel prices10.
SANITATION AND REFUSE COLLECTION

Malawi is said to have a good network of health facilities provided by various players, including central government, local governments, the Christian Health Association of Malawi, and private companies. The health facilities totalled 843 in 2002. There are four central or referral hospitals located in the four profiled cities, and 22 district hospitals. The central government provided almost half of all health facilities, while the Christian Health Association of Malawi provided about 20 percent and local government 4 percent. About 85 percent of the facilities are primary health centres, and about 85 percent of the population is said to be living within 10 kilometres of a health facility13. The private sector, which is more urban and driven by profitmaking, is growing fast and contributing significantly to the sector. Traditional healers and traditional birth attendants still play a role in providing health services. Malaria, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS are the most common diseases14. Human, financial and technical capacities are major challenges, and there is a need to improve the coordination of health services by providing health facilities at strategic locations.
EDUCATION

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BACKGROUND

The Department of Water in the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development leads the water and sanitation sector, mainly on policy development. However, various government agencies and international organizations are involved in different aspects of the sector and usually work independently11. Local governments are responsible for sanitation services, including solid waste and refuse management. About 80 percent of Malawians use traditional pit latrines, and 13 percent have no facility. In urban areas, about 15 percent use flush toilets; this drops to 3 percent nationally and 0.7 percent in rural areas. About 1.7 percent of urban dwellers had no sanitation facility in 200812.

Malawi’s three-tier education system is offered by both public and private institutions. Public primary school education has been free since 1994, and enrolment soared from 1.9 million to 2.9 million by 1997, and to 3.6 million by 2008. The four profiled cities had an average student-teacher ratio of 46:115. Countrywide, the student-teacher ratio for secondary schools stood at 20:1 in 2008. The primary enrolment rate is projected to reach 92 percent by 2015, missing the Millennium Development Goal target by 8 percent16. In 2008, the recognized tertiary institutions produced about 8,388 graduates. Data for private school enrolment was not available, and the quality of education is not assessed in most private schools. Most private schools lack proper infrastructure, adequate instructional materials and qualified teachers.

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Malawi Government (1998), Local Government Act and Decentralisation Policy (1998). Malawi Government (2002), National Land Policy. National Statistical Office (2008), Integrated Household Survey II Report 2004/2005 and National Statistical Office (2009), Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009. African Development Bank (2010), Supplementary Loan for Support to Local Economic Development Project, Malawi, Project Appraisal Report. Manda, M. A. Z. (2009), Water and Sanitation in Urban Malawi: Can the Millennium Development Goals Be Met? A study of Informal Settlements in Three Cities. National Statistical Office (2010), Housing and Housing Conditions 2010.

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The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (2008), Malawi National Health Accounts with Sub-accounts for HIV and AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Bowie, Cameron (2006), ‘The Burden of Disease in Malawi’ in Malawi Medical Journal, 18(3): 103-110, September 2006. National Statistical Office (2009), Statistical Yearbook. Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report.

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TABLE 1: NATIONAL AND URBAN POPULATION TRENDS IN MALAWI
YEAR POPULATION MEAN URBAN ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH RATE (%) MEAN URBANIZATION URBAN LEVEL (% OF ANNUAL NATIONAL GROWTH POPULATION (%) IN URBAN AREAS)
6.76* 6.63* 7.83* 4.70 5.20 5.32* 5.16* 4.54* 5.210* 8.4* 10.70 14.40 15.30 22.50* 25.50* 32.40*

MEAN RURAL ANNUAL GROWTH RATE (%)
2.32* 2.97* 4.94* 2.63* 2.18* 1.84* 1.52* 1.17*

1966 1977 1987 1998 2008 2015 2020 2030

4,039,583 5,547,460 7,988,507 9,933,868 13,077,160 16,310,431 19,104,275 26,090,975

3.30 2.90 3.70 2.00 2.80 3.15 3.17 3.06

209,327* 466,081* 850,000 1,400,000 2,003,309 4,048,000* 5,240,000* 8,395,000*

Sources: National Statistical Office (1999), Population and Housing Census Main Report 1998; National Statistical Office (2009), Population and Housing Census Main Report 2008; United Nations Population Division (2009), World Population Prospects: The 2009 Revision Population Database.

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BACKGROUND

GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Malawi’s democracy is young, with a constitution that enshrines separation of powers, independence of constitutional bodies, and rule of law, and a human rights charter that entrenches the right to equality, liberty and development. There is an impressive set of constitutional bodies, which includes the Anti-Corruption Bureau, Human Rights Commission, Law Commission, and Ombudsman. Democracy was further consolidated through presidential and parliamentary elections in 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009 and local government elections in 2000. The country has also undertaken a decentralization process with support from UNDP and other development partners such as the German Agency for International Cooperation. Malawi has made significant strides towards democratic governance since 1994 through increasing support to civic education, affirming the rights and obligations of Malawi citizens, and furthering an understanding of the democratic process. The Millennium Development Goals highlight good governance as good public sector management, the absence of corruption and fraud, decentralization, justice and rule of law, security, good corporate governance, and respect of human rights. Good governance is seen as a means to attaining economic prosperity and reducing poverty17. However, local government elections have been postponed several times, and it is expected that they will be held in 2014. Despite the progress made, the country has some serious democratic governance challenges, including
17 Malawi Government (2006), Malawi Growth and Development Strategy 20062011.

high levels of corruption, inadequate transparency and accountability systems, poor access to justice by the majority, limited capacity in the public sector for improved service delivery, political intolerance, poor adherence to the rule of law, lack of constitutionalism, human rights abuses, and reluctance to hold local government elections. In addition, the participation of Malawians in the political affairs of the country has largely been limited to voting18. The Malawi government is, however, committed to improving justice, the rule of law and internal security as the core issues of democratic governance. There are legal, institutional, infrastructural, systemic, procedural, and human resource-related challenges faced by those providing the services, leading to poor justice delivery, especially for the vulnerable and marginalized19. The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development implements – in collaboration with local authorities and development partners – programmes and projects that include the National Decentralization Programme (1998), Malawi Decentralized Governance Programme (2002–2008), Poverty Reduction Project (2000–2007), MalawiGerman Programme for Democratic Decentralization since 1996, Rural Livelihood Economic Enhancement Programme (2005), One Village One Product, Rural Livelihood Support Programme, Income Generating Public Works Programme, Malawi Rural Transport
18 19 UNDP Malawi (2009), Enhancing Participatory Democracy, Strengthening Decentralized Governance and Increasing Access to Justice. United Nations Malawi (November 2010), Malawi Country Assessment Report 2010.

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and Travel Programme (2007–2011), and Malawi Local Government Strengthening and Investment Programme20.

formulation, etc.) is weak. Weak accountability and transparency increasing corruption and inefficiency. and

INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP
The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development is the overall overseer and controls budgetary matters of the council through the Local Government Finance Committee. City councils spearhead governance issues at the local level, headed by the mayor and supported by ward councillors and members of parliament, while the chief executive officer heads the secretariat, assisted by directors of departments. Stakeholders such as NGOs and community-based organizations participate in governing and managing the city. Community Development Committees provide the most valuable links for grass-roots participation in the decision-making processes of the council. City councils also work in close collaboration with donor agencies and other stakeholders.

Weak monitoring and evaluation system for measuring performance against set benchmarks, resulting in inefficiency and poor performance in city management, revenue collection and financial management. Poor coordination with other key urban stakeholders, compounding resource wastage and duplicating efforts. Weak regulatory frameworks to regulate service provision, especially for low-income areas.

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
The Malawi government is the main financier, assisted by donors in various programmes and projects. Major local authorities depend on property taxes, rentals, government grants, donations, and ceded revenue.

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
The Malawi Constitution, Local Government Act (1998), and National Decentralization Policy (1998) are the main statutes. Other important laws and policies are the Town and Country Planning Act (1988), Public Procurement Act and Audit Act.

AGREED PRIORITIES
Enhanced revenue generation and collection strategies for local authorities. Building the capacity of the local authorities and their stakeholders in participatory urban management. Promoting decentralization and improving good governance in local governments. Supporting the formulation and implementation of service delivery charters at the local level.

PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILLITY
Misunderstanding of the urban and rural settings bring confusion as traditional leaders are involved in urban land management. Poor service delivery by local authorities and poor tax base for the councils. Conflict of interest between the political arm and local authority itself (councillors and technical officers) in implementing local authority operations. Land administration is challenged by the multiplicity of landlords. Grass-roots participation in decision making (budgeting, development planning by-law
20 Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (6 July 2011).

GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT N°1 GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT N°2

Project proposal

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Local Authority Capacity Building Programme

Project proposal

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National Urban Observatory Programme

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

SLUMS AND SHELTER

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - SLUMS AND SHELTER

Housing construction in Malawi ranges from traditional to permanent. There are public housing providers such as Malawi Housing Corporation. Private housing providers that cater for the medium and higher income groups include Press Properties Limited, Maone Park Limited and Kanengo Northgate. The lowincome or urban poor groups are assisted by NGOs such as the Centre for Community Organization and Development, Malawi Homeless People’s Federation and Habitat for Humanity Malawi1. The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development and local authorities provide plots for housing and other uses. Other government entities, including the Ministry of Defence and the Malawi Police Service, provide housing to their employees. Most of the low-cost housing stock in Malawi is constructed through self-help initiatives and individuals using own resources2. Malawi is among the fastest urbanizing countries in Africa, with a rate of 4.7 percent and an urban population of about 20 percent3. This is contributing to the spread of unplanned settlements and consequently affecting the provision of basic urban services, including housing. The slum population as a percentage of the urban population stood at about 68 percent in 2009, down from 95 percent in 1990, and is projected to reach 65 percent by 20154. In 2001, the slum population in Malawi was 1.5 million5, and it has likely surpassed 2 million by now6.
1 2 3 4 5 6 UN-Habitat (2010), Malawi Urban Housing Sector Profile. UN-Habitat (2010), Malawi Urban Housing Sector Profile. National Statistical Office (2010), Spatial Distribution and Urbanization 2010. Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report. UN-Habitat (2003), Slums of the World: The Face of Poverty in the New Millennium. United Nations Population Division (2009), World Population Prospects: The 2009 Revision Population Database.

At the national level, about 21 percent of housing is permanent, 34 percent is semi-permanent and 44 percent is traditional, while at the urban level, 41 percent is permanent, 46 percent is semi-permanent and 12 percent is traditional or temporary. In rural Malawi, 50 percent of housing is traditional while only 18 percent is permanent7. Most occupants (88 percent) own their units, while 4 percent own or pay rent on theirs. At the urban level, about 52 percent of the units are owner-occupied while 43 percent are rentals8. Tenure disparities between planned and unplanned settlements are minimal9. In terms of gender, the tenure-related differences in most urban centres are not big. Unplanned settlements in Malawi are the result of scarcity of serviced land for housing; poor maintenance of services and infrastructure is leading to slum conditions in many traditional housing areas. The memorandum of understanding between the Malawi government and the Centre for Community Organization and Development is a step forward if put to good use. The Draft National Housing Policy 2010 has included the upgrading of slums as a focus area.

7 8 9

National Statistical Office (2010), Housing and Housing Conditions 2010. National Statistical Office (2009), Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009. Blantyre City Assembly (2006), Situation Analysis of Informal Settlements in Blantyre City.

14 14

ONGOING PROJECTS
The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development is involved in the development of houses for police and army officers and chiefs, but not housing for the public. The Malawi Housing Corporation is implementing housing projects in Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, Zomba, and Karonga. All the projects are in mediumand low-density categories, including hostels at Mzuzu University (not yet started). The Centre for Community Organization and Development and the Malawi Homeless People’s Federation is implementing several programmes in various thematic areas: The slum-upgrading programme in Chinsapo and Mtandire, in collaboration with Lilongwe City Council and funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Housing projects through the Mchenga Fund in Blantyre, Kasungu, Mzuzu, and Salima, Sanitation programme supported by UN-Habitat and the Department for International Development, Skills and livelihoods programme supported by Unilever South Africa, Batik production project in Mtandire in Lilongwe. Habitat for Humanity Malawi is implementing projects in Lilongwe, Blantyre, Mzuzu, and some rural areas. Over 7,000 houses have been built. New projects include the construction of 650 houses at Lupaso in Mzuzu and more in Blantyre.

Other NGOs, community-based organizations and financial institutions are increasingly entering the low-cost housing sector.

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
The Land Act, Lands Acquisition Act, Registered Land Act, Conveyancing Act, Land Development Act, Town and Country Planning Act, Environmental Management Act, Local Government Act, Malawi Housing Act, Public Procurement Act, Corrupt Practices Act, Public Management Act, Road Works Act, Electricity Act, and many others provide guidance. A draft housing policy is in place, which is inadequate. Other sectoral regulations exist for land and housing.

PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Inappropriate legal frameworks are complicating the implementation of some projects in urban areas. The absence of a functional housing policy leaves a vacuum in housing development and slum upgrading. Weak coordination among key stakeholders in land and housing is leading to inefficient performance. Involvement of chiefs in land administration in planning areas is complicating urban management. The absence of service charters and strategic plans complicates the implementation of certain thematic programmes. A local urban forum is needed where urban issues can be debated and action agreed upon for implementation. The existing infrastructure and services in highdensity areas are not maintained, leading to slum conditions. Land for high-density housing and traditional housing areas is often made available in marginal areas. Planning laws, building regulations and low capacity are constraining low-income housing development. The government takes a backseat role in the slum-upgrading process and does not commit or contribute enough. The increasing cost of construction and scarcity of

INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP
The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development leads housing and urban development at the national level. The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development facilitates housing and urban development at the local level. Malawi Housing Corporation, local authorities, Habitat for Humanity Malawi, and Malawi Homeless People’s Federation provide land or housing in the cities. Private companies include Press Properties Limited, Maone Park Limited, Kanengo Northgate, and other small investors and developers. Local chiefs involve themselves in the allocation of land for housing and other uses.

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - SLUMS AND SHELTER

housing finance contribute to the construction of poor quality housing and slums. Poor land information management systems at all levels of government are leading to inefficiency, fraud, corruption, and the lengthy and costly processing of land issues. Formal land markets are not affordable to the majority, making informal and traditional markets favourable. Government involvement and defaults on rentals, other fees and financing are crippling housing institutions and projects in Malawi.

AGREED PRIORITIES
Managing the National Housing Framework. Providing adequate housing for all and improving public housing services. Creating an environment in the housing sector that is conducive to both public and private investment and development. Supporting and promoting urban poor initiatives in various thematic areas that impact their livelihoods. Mobilizing the poor to work together and address their challenges together. Influencing and contributing towards policy formulation for urban poor issues. Intensifying debt or rent collection management. Capacity building for key departments and stakeholders.

TENURE
All landowners should streamline the land acquisition processes to ease accessibility for all income groups. Plot owners in traditional housing areas are issued with temporary lease documents, which may limit significant investments. Insecure tenure exists, as most plots and land are not registered because the registration system is long and expensive.

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - SLUMS AND SHELTER

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
The Malawi government is the main funding institution of the Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development. The Malawi Housing Corporation and local authorities mostly depend on resources generated from property rentals, property taxes, development charges, survey fees, and valuation fees, which are inadequate for investing in meaningful housing programmes. The Malawi Housing Corporation also depends on loans from banks and international financing institutions. Private players in the housing industry depend on their own resources and loans to implement housing projects. NGOs, community-based organizations and other players depend on donations and contributions from members and well-wishers to finance housing and slum-upgrading programmes. Financial lending institutions should be encouraged to support low-income housing programmes at low interest rates and with minimum conditions.

SLUMS AND SHELTER N°1

Project proposal

Page 38

National Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme

16 16

GENDER AND HIV/AIDS

The recognition that gender equality is a human right and that empowerment of women is an integral part of achieving the Millennium Development Goals called for a more concerted effort by the Malawi government through various initiatives, including the 50/50 Campaign1. Through some of these initiatives, the number of women parliamentarians rose from 14 percent to 22 percent in the 2009 elections. Gender and HIV/AIDS issues are treated as cross-cutting at all government levels. About 62 percent of the national population (52 percent of them females) was not receiving any education. The 38 percent attending an educational institution were almost equally split between females and males in both rural and urban areas2. Primary school attendance was the highest (86 percent), and university was the lowest (0.2 percent), as shown in Figure 1. The national HIV prevalence is around 12 percent, with urban areas the highest at 17 percent, semi-urban areas at 16.4 percent, and rural areas at 12.1 percent. Generally, there has been a decline in prevalence from 22.8 percent in 1999 to 13.5 percent in 20073. HIV prevalence is expected to reach 6 percent by 2015 if more efforts are directed towards combating the
1 2 3 Eric Ning’ang’a (2011) in Travel ‘n’ Tourism, Vol. No. 1, Issue No. 3, 2011, Public Relations Associates, Box 2535, Blantyre, Malawi. National Statistical Office (2011), Education and Literacy Report 2010. National Aids Commission (August 2008), HIV and Syphilis Sero-Survey and National HIV Prevalence and AIDS Estimates Report for 2007.

epidemic4. The prevalence rate among uneducated Malawians was 16 percent, while prevalence was 14.8 percent among those with at least a primary education. Widowed women had a higher prevalence rate (42.9 percent) than divorced, separated or married women5. HIV prevalence is also higher in persons who are drivers, professional or skilled workers, military or police. HIV prevalence increases with age up to 34 years then starts to decline6. Most economic activities are dominated by males, even though women have a higher organizational capability than men to form business groups and obtain loans from microfinance institutions. There are also deliberate efforts to put women in leadership positions on development committees. The private sector, civil society, community-based organizations, and faith-based organizations are active in gender and HIV/AIDS. In general, gender inequalities still prevail in many areas, including higher education, literacy, employment, ownership of assets and housing, and access to basic services7. Gender-based violence is one of the major challenges faced in the cities, and various institutions (e.g. the police service) are making strides to reduce violence against women by providing
4 5 6 7 Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report. National Aids Commission (August 2008), HIV and Syphilis Sero-Survey and National HIV Prevalence and AIDS Estimates Report for 2007. National Aids Commission (August 2008), HIV and Syphilis Sero-Survey and National HIV Prevalence and AIDS Estimates Report for 2007. National Statistical Office (2011), Gender Report, 2010.

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - GENDER AND HIV/AIDS

victim support services, developing gender policies for the workplace, sensitizing staff at all levels, and advocating for women’s rights on various issues, etc. There are numerous challenges: inadequate financial resources; reaching very rural areas, affluent groups, and minorities; inadequate human resources; inadequate reporting mechanisms; and an absence of appropriate legal frameworks.

There are public and private institutions that offer voluntary counselling and testing services. NGOs, community- and faith-based organizations, civil society, and the private sector are actively involved in gender and HIV/AIDS issues.

FIGURE 1: SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IN MALAWI 2008
100.00 90.00 80.00 70.00

PERCENTAGE%

60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 Malawi 86.30 4.90 8.00 0.20 0.40 Urban 14.70 23.70 39.90 73.60 77.80 Rural 15,941 76.30 60.10 26.40 22.20 Male 15,966 48.40 51.90 61.90 56.50 Male Urban 14.60 24.00 38.10 70.10 75.20 Male Rural 83.40 76.00 61.90 29.90 24.80 Female 50.50 51.60 48.10 38.10 43.50 Female Urban 14.80 23.30 41.80 79.30 81.10 Female Rural 85.20 76.70 58.20 20.70 18.90

PRIMARY PRE-SCHOOL

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - GENDER AND HIV/AIDS

SECONDARY UNIVERSITY OTHER

ONGOING PROJECTS
There are a variety of skill development, incomegenerating, and health programmes for empowering women: functional literacy for integrated development; safer livelihoods; HIV/AIDS treatment through care, support, mobilization, and sensitization; mobile voluntary counselling and testing services for remote areas; and community-based HIV/AIDS initiatives. These projects are implemented by the concerned ministries and departments, including the National AIDS Commission and the Malawi AIDS Counselling and Resource Organization.

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
The National Gender Policy, National HIV/AIDs Policy, National Girls and Women HIV/AIDS Equality Framework (June 2011), National AIDS Framework (2011–2013), HIV and AIDS Bill (awaiting approval), Wills and Inheritance Act, and Child Rights Protection Bill (awaiting approval). Other legal statutes include social policy.

PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Commemoration of International Women’s Day since 1997 to create awareness on the contribution of women to their societies and national development. About 52 percent of females and 48 percent of males are not attending school, while the figure is almost equal for those attending school. Increasing sex education is leading to a reduction in unwanted pregnancies and school dropouts.

INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP
The Ministry of Gender, Child Development, and Community Development is the lead actor at the national level. The Ministry of Health takes the lead on HIV/ AIDS issues through the Department of Nutrition and HIV/AIDS.

18 18

The absence of local gender policies is weakening efforts to address related issues. Limited resources and equipment, as funding for gender and HIV/AIDS is inadequate. Enactment of national gender and HIV/AIDS policies is a step in the right direction, as prevalence is declining. Better voluntary counselling and testing services through mobile services, as prevalence seem to be high in district centres. Need to improve awareness and information dissemination on gender, gender-based violence, and HIV/AIDS at all levels and enhance coordination among key stakeholders. Various NGOs, community and faith-based organizations, donors, private sector players, and community-based support groups are addressing prevention, treatment, care, support, and impact mitigation issues relating to HIV/AIDS.

AGREED PRIORITIES
Advocating and improving early child development through community-based child centres and nursery schools. Gender mainstreaming, including gender-based violence initiatives and youth programmes targeting adolescents. Improving social welfare and community development issues at the national level. Improving the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS at all levels in both urban and rural areas. Increasing voluntary counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy services. Encouraging prevention of HIV/AIDS through the operationalization of the Resource Mobilization Strategy. Encouraging men to participate fully in gender and HIV/AIDS programmes. Providing the necessary infrastructure and services for small and medium-sized enterprises.

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
Malawi government funding, through the National Aids Commission, the Centre for Disease Control, World Bank, World Health Organization, UNAIDS, Canada, the European Union, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, the Department for International Development, Norway, and USAID, among others. NGOs, community and faith-based organizations, and other stakeholders use their own resources for gender and HIV/AIDS activities.

GENDER AND HIV/AIDS N°1

Project proposal

Page 40

Rehabilitation and upgrading of urban community health facilities

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - GENDER AND HIV/AIDS

ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Malawi is rich in natural resources but is facing environmental degradation. Population growth and rapid urbanization are increasing the demand for affordable energy sources and land, which puts pressure on these natural resources. The undulating topography of the country, including the major urban centres, is sensitive to slight imbalances in the environment. Inadequate alternative livelihoods, old energy technologies, and pollution from pit latrines, septic tanks, industrial effluent, and vehicles are having a negative impact on the environment. Malawi is said to have lost about 494,000 hectares of forest cover. It is projected that if the current rate of deforestation is not reversed, Malawi’s forest cover will drop to about 33 percent by 20151, against a Millennium Development Goal target of 50 percent. The government is committed to reversing the loss of forest cover by intensifying reforestation, afforestation, natural regeneration, and forest protection and management programmes2. Most people in Malawi use firewood (80 percent); in urban areas, more charcoal is used (46 percent). Paraffin is the most common energy source for lighting, at 77 percent. Use of electricity for lighting ranges from 32 to 45 percent in the major urban areas, though this
1 2 Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report. Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report.

figure is only 14 percent nationally. There are no major differences between males and females in the use of these energy sources3. Specific regulations and by-laws to address unplanned settlements, environmental degradation and waste management are not in place, resulting in indiscriminate liquid and solid waste discharge and disposal into water catchment areas, rivers, forests, and along roads. Climate change is compounding these challenges.

ONGOING PROJECTS
Past or ongoing programmes include the following: biodiversity projects; climate change programmes; forest conservation projects; soil and water conservation projects; renewable energy programmes; water catchment areas conservation programmes; improved forestry management for sustainable livelihoods; forestry, nursery, and replanting programmes; tree planting for carbon sequestration and other uses; and ecosystem services. These programmes are funded by various donors and organizations, and many more stakeholders are involved in the implementation.

3

National Statistical Office (2009), Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009.

20 20

FIGURE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY MAIN ENERGY SOURCES FOR COOKING
100% 90% 80% 70%

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
MALAWI URBAN RURAL MZUZU LILONGWE ZOMBA BLANTYRE CITY CITY CITY CITY

ELECTRICITY PARAFFIN CHARCOAL FIREWOOD OTHER

INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP
The Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy takes the lead on environmental issues at the national level. The Departments of Environmental Affairs, Forestry, and Climate Change play a major role. City and town councils are the lead actors at the local level. Malawi Environmental Endowment Trust works with other institutions on environmental projects. The Department of Disaster Management Affairs is relevant to environmental issues.

PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Inappropriate legal instruments have been overtaken by events and need to be updated. Most programmes have funding challenges and do not always fully meet set goals. The complexity of the environment makes it difficult to fully comprehend. Malawians have a poor attitude and poor awareness about the environment and the benefits of proper environmental management. Major developments require environmental impact assessments to minimize environmental degradation, but the application of the existing guidelines is weak, as the government itself does not observe this requirement. Environmental management improvement programmes are poorly coordinated. Poor waste management results in pollution and waste heaps. Weak coordination among NGOs, communitybased organizations, and other stakeholders in project implementation on environmental management, as adequate resources and an environmental management plan are lacking. Weak capacity to ensure that marginal/fragile land is protected from unwarranted developments.

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
The Malawi Constitution, Environmental Management Act (1996), National Environmental Action Plan, Forestry Act, Forestry Policy, Local Government Act, Town and Country Planning Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines, City Urban Structure Plans, Environmental Guidelines (1997), Environmental Action Plans (District Level), Water Resources Act, Water and Sanitation Guidelines, Public Health Act, and Refuse and Rubble Disposal by-laws are the major guiding frameworks, with a number of additional by-laws, policies, and regulations, including disaster management policy and law.

21 21

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

PERCENTAGE

60%

Inadequate capacity to manage the environment. Forestry-related capacity is expected to improve with the introduction of forestry degree programmes at Mzuzu University.

ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE N°1

Project proposal

Page 42

Urban Forestry / Environmental Management Programme

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Government funding is normally inadequate to meaningfully address environmental issues. Malawi Environmental Endowment Trust provides funding for environment-related projects and scholarships for capacity building. Private environmental and waste disposal services are expensive, and there is a need for affordable services. Public–private partnerships can carry out projects in environmental protection, conservation and restoration. Donors such as USAID, the European Union, the Department for International Development, the African Development Bank, the Global Environment Facility and provide resources through specific projects. NGOs and community-based organizations use their own resources from donors for environmental management activities.

AGREED PRIORITIES
Conducting environmental audits and formulating environmental action plans. Operationalizing and reviewing existing legal frameworks to address current issues, as well as putting in place an environmental planning and land use policy. Improving capacity in environmental planning, waste management and research at all levels. Conducting environmental impact assessments for each and every development project, regardless of developer, and also controlling pollution. Conducting public education and awareness campaigns on environmental issues.

22 22

LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Malawi’s economy is predominantly agricultural, with tobacco, tea, sugar, and coffee being the most traded products. About 80 percent of the population are engaged in subsistence farming. About 9 percent are self-employed and 3 percent are in the private and public sectors. In urban areas, private business represents about 20 percent of employment, farming 30 percent, the public sector 11 percent, and self-employment (mostly informal) 32 percent. In rural areas, farming accounted for 86 percent, while self-employment accounted for 6 percent1. Malawi’s main economic activities are agriculture, forestry, and fishing (83 percent), followed by wholesale, retail, marketing, and hospitality activities (7 percent), and finally social and community services (4 percent). The growing mining sector is expected to contribute to local economic development, especially in northern Malawi. Tourism is becoming economically important, and the number of tourists visiting the country grew by 233 percent between 2000 and 20092. Many investment opportunities exist in the accommodation, entertainment and food sectors to support tourism.

The national poverty rate in Malawi decreased from 52 percent in 2004 to 39 percent in 20093 , while the urban poverty rate decreased from 25 percent in 2004 to 11 percent in 2007, and then increased to 14 percent. The national ultra-poor rate declined from 22 percent to stabilize at 15 percent through to 2009. Urban and rural ultra-poor rates have been reducing gradually, but slightly increased in 2008 and 2009 . The declining poverty rates may be attributed to the bumper maize yields and the growing economy. However, poverty rates are gradually increasing and the African Development Bank indicates that about 4 million people slid deeper into poverty as of January 2010 due to increasing food and fuel prices4. This trend may continue, as global tobacco prices are decreasing.

ONGOING PROJECTS
SUPPORT TO LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN MALAWI

The Malawi government is implementing the USD 26 million Support to Local Economic Development Project to promote sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction, in line with the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy. The project is implemented in
3 4 National Statistical Office (2009), Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009. National Statistical Office (2009), Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009.

1 2

National Statistical Office (2009), Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009. National Statistical Office (2009), 2009 Tourism Report.

23 23

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

FIGURE 3: MALAWI POVERTY STATUS 2009
60 50 40 PERCENTAGE 30 20 10 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Malawi Poor Urban Poor Rural Poor Malawi Ultra-poor Urban Ultra-poor Rural Ultra-poor 52 25 22 8 50 24 53 21 8 23 45 25 47 17 6 19 40 11 44 15 2 17 40 13 44 15 3 17 39 14 43 15 3 17

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
The Integrated Trade and Industry Policy (1998), Local Government Act (1998), Corrupt Practices Act, Malawi Constitution, Taxation Act, Decentralization Policy (1998), and Town and Country Planning Act (1988) guide economic development, along with local by-laws, urban structure plans (where in existence), planning policies and proposals, and other statutes. Public–private partnerships are not common and should be considered to create more investment opportunities. Generally, there are no pro-poor or deliberate gender-oriented local economic development policies in place.

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

four rural growth centres: Jenda in Mzimba, Malomo in Ntchisi, Monkey Bay in Mangochi, and Chitekesa in Phalombe. The core activities of the project include providing basic socio-economic infrastructure, improving agricultural productivity and developing capacity for local economic development through entrepreneurship and skills development. The project started in 2008 and will end in 20155.

PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Inadequate infrastructure and services economic growth and poverty reduction. limit Serviced investment plots are not affordable to most low-income groups, hence hindering local economic development. High dependence on public sector jobs and small and medium-sized enterprises is affecting economic development negatively. Poor legal frameworks and land use planning provisions for urban agriculture. Weak communication and consultations among government, the private sector, and small and medium-sized enterprises. Poor formal and informal economy integration to optimize employment potential. There is a need for local economic development coordination, public–private partnerships, and pooling of funds. Enforcing existing regulations without providing alternative infrastructure and basic urban services is failing to reduce illegal vending and hawking. The current regulatory frameworks for accessing credit do not favour the low-income earner and marginalize the majority. Individuals and small and medium-sized enterprises access loans from microfinance institutions, but the amounts are not adequate and have high interest rates.

INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP
The Ministry of Industry, Trade and Private Sector Development leads local economic development efforts at the national level. Local authorities champion development at the local level. local economic

The One Village One Product initiative creates opportunities at national and local levels. Public-private partnerships in local economic development exist in some areas. Some NGOs, community-based organizations and faith-based organizations are involved in local economic development. Some finance and microfinance lending institutions (the Malawi Rural Finance Company, the Malawi Rural Development Fund, etc.) are supporting local economic development through business loans and capacity building of low-income groups and small and medium-sized enterprises.

5

African Development Bank (2010), Supplementary Loan for Support to Local Economic Development Project, Malawi, Project Appraisal Report.

24 24

Some microfinance institutions such as Malawi Rural Finance Company offer basic training for those wanting to get loans to support small businesses.

AGREED PRIORITIES
Strengthening the capacity of the ministry and departments dealing with industry, trade and private sector development at all levels to promote local economic development. Providing local economic development infrastructure and services to support the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises in Malawi. Provision of serviced land and infrastructure for commerce and industrial investments. Promoting public–private partnerships at all levels with a win-win result.

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
The government and local authorities largely depend on a small revenue base and cannot invest significantly in local economic development infrastructure and services using their own funds. The government borrows from other financing institutions such as the African Development Bank. Institutions such as Press Trust have provided funds for the construction of flea markets in Lilongwe, Mzuzu, Zomba, and Blantyre to supplement existing markets, and such initiatives must be explored further.

and medium-sized enterprises

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Project proposal Page 44 LOCAL ECONOMIC Provision of local economic DEVELOPMENT development infrastructure for small N°1

BASIC URBAN SERVICES

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

The responsibility for infrastructure and service provision is shared by the central government and local authorities, as mandated by various legal frameworks. The central government provides these through various ministries and parastatals. These services include firefighting, roads, sewerage, waste management, sanitation, health, markets, education, safety and security, and recreation, among others. Most of the services are insufficient in most areas, due to inadequate resources and low capacity. High-density, low-income housing areas are the least serviced. In terms of public transport, Malawi has witnessed an upsurge in large buses for long-distance travel, minibuses and taxis. Bicycle taxis are a common sight in Mzuzu and are on the rise in Lilongwe. Generally, vehicular traffic is increasing, and there is a need for more effective traffic management regulations. Pedestrian walkways, cycle paths, safe zebra crossings, and street furniture must be provided or improved. Increasing numbers of cyclists on the roads have created traffic congestion, resulting in increased accidents. There is need for an integrated transportation system in urban Malawi. Street lighting is restricted to the major town centres; the rest of the streets have no lighting, creating an unsafe environment for cyclists and pedestrians, especially women. Both planned and unplanned housing areas lack street lighting, and it is vital to provide it on all

streets, as well as floodlights in unplanned areas and traditional housing areas to improve safety and security. Where street lighting does exist, maintenance is a major challenge. It is very encouraging to note that small town councils such as Kasungu have installed street lighting. The main means of communications in Malawi include fixed and wireless telephones, cellular phones, telex, courier, and postal and internet services, which are provided by a number of companies and regulated by the Malawi Communications Regulatory Authority. Network coverage is available in most parts of the country, though with some interruptions. The availability of cheap and affordable telephone handsets is contributing to the increasing number of people with fixed, wireless and mobile phones. Telecommunications is controlled through the Communications Act, Information and Communication Technology Policy Statement and other legal frameworks. The Malawi Communications Regulatory Authority is striving to improve telecommunications and is currently undertaking a project to have fully digital broadcasting by 2015. Challenges include the lack of monitoring capacity, the proliferation of towers and analogue equipment.

26 26

WATER SUPPLY
Three regional water boards and two city water boards supply water to various urban centres. Northern Region Water Board supplies water to Mzuzu and the whole northern region of Malawi, Central Region Water Board is responsible for the central region (except Lilongwe), and Southern Region Water Board supplies districts in the southern region, including Zomba. Blantyre and Lilongwe Water Boards are responsible for Blantyre and Lilongwe cities and their surrounding areas1. There has been a steady increase in the number of water meters (consumers in service) since 2000. The northern region registered an increase from 7,811 metres in 2001 to 127,743 in 2008; the central region registered an increase from 10,779 in 2006 to 13,378 in 2008; and the water board in the south went from 12,687 metres in 2002 to 25,746 in 2008. Lilongwe Water Board saw meters increase by 50 percent between 2003 and 2008, while Blantyre registered a minimal increase2. The proportion of people with safe drinking water stood at 80 percent in 2009, up from 72 percent in 2005. In urban areas, the figure dropped from 98 percent in 2007 to 94 percent in 2009. In rural areas, access increased to 78 percent in 2009. Most people take about 15 minutes to access the nearest drinking water supply3, as shown in the figure 8 below. The Malawi government stated that 81 percent of Malawians had sustainable access to an improved water source as of 2010, surpassing the Millennium Development Goal target of 74 percent by 20154. It is important to note that most households access water from communal water points. In informal

settlements, access is limited by high cost, congestion and poor maintenance; as such, many households access water from shallow wells and rivers5. Most public schools and health facilities are supplied with piped water or safe water from another source.
ONGOING PROJECTS

National Water Development Project This project aims to increase access to sustainable water supply and sanitation services for people living in cities, towns, market centres, and villages, and improve water resource management at the national level. Unserviced, low-income areas in Blantyre and Lilongwe cities will benefit from pilot water supply and sanitation services. The project will also contribute to building sector capacity through improved monitoring, regulation, incentive structures, public–private partnerships, and coordination among the sector stakeholders. As part of the project, Blantyre and Lilongwe Water Boards are implementing the Provision of Potable Water to PeriUrban Areas Project, supported by a variety of donors. Priority Rehabilitation and Expansion Works Project Northern Region Water Board is executing a MWK 1.6 billion Priority Rehabilitation and Expansion Works Project to rehabilitate and expand the current water supply system by installing three new reservoirs, an additional water source and new pressure zones to boost water pressure. The project is expected to improve water supply efficiency.

FIGURE 4: TIME IN MINUTES TO THE NEAREST DRINKING WATER SUPPY(2009)
120.00%

100.00% 0 - 14 MINUTES 80.00% 15 - 29 MINUTES 30 - 44 MINUTES 60.00% 45 - 59 MINUTES 60+ MINUTES

40.00% 20.00% 0.00%
MALAWI
1 2 3 4

RURAL

URBAN

MZUZU CITY

LILONGWE CITY

ZOMBA CITY

BLANTYRE CITY

National Statistical Office (2009), Statistical Yearbook. National Statistical Office (2009), Statistical Yearbook. National Statistical Office (2009), Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009. Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report.

5

Manda, M. A. Z. (2009), Water and Sanitation in Urban Malawi: Can the Millennium Development Goals Be Met? A Study of Informal Settlements in Three Cities, International Institute for Environment and Development.

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP

The Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development, assisted by the Water Resources Board, oversees water development and supply matters. Central Region Water Board, Northern Region Water Board, Southern Region Water Board, Blantyre Water Board, and Lilongwe Water Board are the main piped water suppliers in Malawi. Public–private partnerships in low-income and unplanned areas are in place and managed by community development committees and water user associations.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The water boards generate their own income, which is used for some projects and operations. The external sources include grants and credit from local and international organizations.

AGREED PRIORITIES
Providing water to all, especially low-income areas. A sustainable water supply system.

The Water Resources Act, Water Works Act, Local Government Act, Public Health Act, Environmental Management Act, Town and Country Planning Act, Planning Guidelines and Standards, Forestry Act, Land Act, and by-laws and regulations provide guidance in water provision.
PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY

Improving water and sanitation in all areas, including rural areas.

ENERGY SOURCES
Inadequate resources hamper improvement projects at all levels. water supply The Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi is the sole supplier of hydroelectric energy in Malawi for lighting, cooking, heating, and industrial use, from Nkula, Kapichira, and Tedzani hydropower stations on Shire River in the Southern Region and Wovwe in Karonga District. Only 11 percent of Malawi’s population have access to electricity: 34 percent of the urban population and 2.5 of the rural population1. About 2 percent of Malawians use electricity for cooking, while the majority use firewood. People with at least a secondary education seem more likely to use electricity for cooking. Figure 6 shows the statistics on energy sources for cooking. Many people use electricity for lighting in all areas, though most (77 percent) use paraffin2. About 98 percent of people use solid fuels, and it is unlikely that the 0 percent target of Millennium Development Goal 7 will be met, even though government indicates that it will3. Regarding the prevalence of electricity connections, affordability is the main determinant, not location.

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

Communal water revenue mismanagement leads to disconnections and outstanding water bills. Water losses, old pipes and high maintenance costs increase water supply costs. Public–private partnerships, through community development committees and water user associations, are in place in various communities, and performance depends on management. Availability of water varies, with low-income and unplanned areas having the least. Intermittent power supply affects the supply of piped water. The capacity of the water boards is insufficient, while demand is increasing. Water boards supply water to any applicant in urban areas regardless of location, contributing to the spread of informal settlements while providing potable water.
RESOURCE MOBILIZATION

The Malawi government provides funding in collaboration with donors such as World Bank, the European Union, Australia, the Netherlands, UNICEF, the African Development Bank, and International Development Association.

1 2 3

Foster, Vivien and Maria Shikaratan (2010), Malawi’s Infrastructure: A Continental Perspective. National Statistical Office (2009), Population and Housing Census 2008 Main Report. Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report.

28 28

INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy provides legal guidance and the Malawi Energy Regulatory Authority controls tariffs. The Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi is the sole supplier of hydroelectric power in Malawi, as public–private partnerships in the energy sector are not known to exist.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi depends on revenue from bills, which is inadequate. The corporation also benefits from external sources, including grants and loans.

AGREED PRIORITIES

The Electricity Act guides the supply of electricity. The Malawi Energy Regulatory Act controls the electricity tariff. Electricity by-laws developed by the Malawi Electricity Regulatory Authority are yet to be adopted.
PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY

Enhancing the supply system to meet growing demand by improving generation. Developing alternative power sources such as wind and solar energy. Preventing vandalism of public infrastructure.

The Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi faces resource and generation capacity challenges, which hamper delivery of services. No public–private partnerships exist in electricity supply, as the Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi generates, transmits and supplies electricity. Electricity connection is costly, as applicants pay for capital investment assets owned by the corporation. Electricity is used mostly for lighting and less for cooking, while supply is characterized by frequent outages.

URBAN SAFETY
Safety and security of people and property are fundamental priorities for the Malawi government, as enshrined in the constitution. The Malawi Police Service, National Road Safety Council, Roads Authority, Neighbourhood Watch Groups, community policing, private firms, and other stakeholders provide public and private safety and security services. The Malawi Police Service, in collaboration with various local authorities and stakeholders, is responsible for the provision of a safe, secure and crime-free urban and rural environment. It is therefore responsible for the prevention, investigation, and detection of crime;

FIGURE 5: ENERGY SOURCES FOR COOKING IN MALAWI IN 2009
100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00%

PERCENTAGE

60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00%

ELECTRICITY PARAFFIN CHARCOAL FIREWOOD OTHER

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

FIGURE 6: REPORTED AND REGISTERED CASES 2009 & 2010
800.00 700.00 600.00 500.00 400.00 300.00 200.00 100.00 -

MURDER

RAPE CASES 289.00 24

DEFILEMENT YOUNG GIRLS 645.00 755.00

INDECENT ASSAULT 235.00 563.00

SODOMY

ARMED ROBBERY 132.00 80.00

MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT 106.00 76.00

Challenges include inadequate resources and equipment for the Malawi Police Service and security firms; inadequate training of staff officers; low motivation, leading to corruption and conniving with criminals; untrustworthy neighbourhood watch groups; poor cooperation among stakeholders; weak legal frameworks; non-compliance with regulations by the general public; and weak public–private partnerships where in existent. The police should encourage the establishment of more partnerships with communities to improve safety and security, and also make a general appeal to the public.
INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP

2009 2010

417.00 25

14.00 23.00

FIGURE 7: REPORTED AND REGISTERED CASES 2009 & 2010
100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 CRIMINAL CASES 93,420 85,728 ROBBERY WITH VIOLENCE 3,851 3,148 BREAKING OFFENCES 15,941 14,853 ASSAULT CASES 15,966 15,076 TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 2,908 2,648

The Ministry of Home Affairs and Internal Security is the overall overseer of law, order and public safety through the Malawi Police Service. The four profiled cities are mandated to provide a safe environment. In traditional housing areas and unplanned settlements, community policing and neighbourhood watch groups provide security. The National Road Safety Council and the Roads Authority concentrate on road safety. The Department of Occupational Safety and Hazards ensures safety for employees. Private firms also provide safety and security on a private (commercial) basis.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

2009 2010

apprehension and prosecution of offenders; maintenance of law and order; protection of life, property, fundamental freedoms, and rights of individuals; and enforcement of all laws and regulations1. Both the police and private firms provide services at a fee. The Malawi Police Service has 34 stations countrywide, eight substations, 35 posts, and 191 units, giving a total of 268 formations. Staffing levels countrywide in 2010 stood at 9,655; the police–population ratio was 1:1,346 against an international requirement of 1:500. Female police staff totalled 21 percent, of which 2 percent were of the rank of inspector and above. About 8 percent of the male staff were of the rank of inspector and above2. Safety challenges in the urban areas include criminal cases, murder, sexual offences, breaking and entering offences, assault, gender-based violence, theft, robbery, and road and fire accidents. The following figures show that cases of murder, rape, defilement, indecent assault, and sodomy are on the increase, while criminal cases, robbery, breaking and entering offences, motor vehicle theft, assault, and traffic accidents are decreasing in general.
1 2 The Malawi Police Services (2010), 2010 Annual Report, Research and Planning Unit. The Malawi Police Services (2010), 2010 Annual Report, Research and Planning Unit.

The Local Government Act, Town and Country Planning Act, building by-laws, Crime Prevention Policy, National Roads Act, Road Traffic Act, Occupational Health, Safety, and Welfare Act, Police Act, Malawi Constitution, Police Regulations, Service Standing Orders, Penal Code, circulars, and planning guidelines and standards provide guidance on safety and security in general and at workplaces.
PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY

The crime rate in urban centres has been fluctuating and decreasing in some areas over the past few years. Rapid Response Services (991 and 990) by the police increased efficiency in crime and accident management. Public–private partnerships are helping to reduce crime, theft and accidents in most areas, though some neighbourhood watch members have been caught stealing. The fire-fighting service is inefficient, and fires have

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led to loss of property and lives. A total of 5,557 road accidents occurred in 2009 and 2010, 973 of them fatal. The police provide free and pay services, while private security firms provide pay security services.
RESOURCE MOBILIZATION

Private firms and community policing groups use their own resources collected from clients and residents.

WASTE MANAGEMENT
Waste management in general is the responsibility of local governments at all levels through the provision of the necessary infrastructure and services. The Malawi government indicates that the proportion of people with access to improved sanitation, i.e. those using flush toilets, ventilated improved pit latrines, or covered toilets, is 93 percent, while the Millennium Development Goal target was 86.2 percent by 20153. Figure 9 shows the statistics on sanitation as of 20104. The city councils are responsible for the management of solid waste in their areas of jurisdiction, and they provide refuse removal services through skips and other means. Some private institutions have their own means of managing the waste, such as treatment works or incinerators. Major issues include indiscriminate waste disposal, environmental degradation, pollution from industrial and domestic effluent, and insufficient regulations. Inadequate capacity (rudimentary equipment) and crude dumping due to lack of proper waste management facilities are among the challenges. In terms of sanitation, most schools and health facilities rely on septic tanks and ventilated improved pit latrines.
INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP

Police are funded mainly by government, though funding is inadequate and service delivery is compromised. Police collect fines and other revenue, but these go into government coffers. NGOs also contribute to the police. Multilateral donors have also assisted the police service at times through donations of equipment. City councils use their own limited resources to provide public safety services.

AGREED PRIORITIES
Fighting crime in all urban areas. Intensifying awareness on road usage and defensive driving. Strengthening collaborations with security companies.

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy and Ministry of Transport lead at the national level.

FIGURE 8: TYPE OF TOILET FACILITY FOR SANITATION IN MALAWI 2008
90.00% 80.00% 70.00%

PERCENTAGE

60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00%
3 4

FLUSH TOILET TRD TOILET VIP TOILET NO FACILITY OTHER

Malawi Government (2010), 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report. National Statistical Office (2010), 2010 Housing and Housing Conditions.

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

The Public Works, Health, and Parks and Recreation Departments of the councils are responsible for waste management, pollution control, sanitation services, and environmental health. Malawi Housing Corporation, city councils and other private firms provide septic tank vacuum emptying services at a fee. The Malawi Homeless People’s Federation has introduced Ecosan toilets in Mzuzu, Lilongwe and Blantyre; solid and liquid waste is used in the production of organic manure for use or sale.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

AGREED PRIORITIES
Identifying and developing a landfill site and constructing a sewage system. Procuring vacuum tankers for emptying septic tanks. Capacity building and sensitization on proper waste management, including composting. Establishing a recycling plant for nonbiodegradable waste. Adoption of new sanitation technologies such as Ecosan toilets.

The National Sanitation Policy (2008), Local Government Act (1998), Public Health Act, Town and Country Planning Act, and Planning Guidelines and Standards (under review) complement each other in waste management and sanitation.
PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY

BASIC URBAN SERVICES N°1

Project proposal

Page 47

Urban Safety Infrastructure Provision Project

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

There is indiscriminate disposal of solid and liquid waste in marketplaces, streets, open spaces, and industrial and residential areas due to lack of financial, technical, and human resources, as well as lack of awareness. Malawi Housing Corporation provides support for the removal of liquid waste and garbage. Public– private partnerships are emerging but need to be supported by finance lending institutions and the councils. Proper waste disposal facilities must be identified and developed in all major cities, as the present ones are a health hazard.
RESOURCE MOBILIZATION

Cities depend on property taxes and fees for waste management and sanitary services. Public–private partnerships and community involvement should be encouraged to improve service delivery.
ONGOING PROJECTS

Northern Region Water Board is preparing a sanitation strategic plan for Mzuzu, consisting of a situation analysis of Mzuzu, sanitation technology review and selection, a detailed sanitation coverage plan, a proposed institutional arrangement for the sanitation plan, and a sanitation intervention implementation plan. Other cities are implementing sanitation projects as part of upgrading projects.

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LAND
Most of the land in Malawi is under customary tenure, but the status quo is changing as customary and public land is being converted into private land1. Land use planning in Malawi extends to all rural and urban land, whether public, private or customary2. Customary land accounted for 79 percent of the land, public land 17 percent, and private land 4 percent (3 percent leasehold and 1 percent freehold) as of 19753. The urban areas claim only 300,000 hectares of the country’s land4. Cumulatively, public land in the cities of Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba comes to about 33 percent, private land (freehold and leasehold) 20 percent, and land under customary practices about 47 percent. Land issues are administered and managed by several players, including the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi Housing Corporation, the city councils, private landlords, and traditional leaders. Serviced land for low-income housing is scarce, forcing most people in the urban areas to get land in unplanned settlements, thereby accelerating squatting. Challenges include outdated legal frameworks, the involvement of traditional practices in planning areas, the residual effects of colonial land policy, land scarcity in spite of idle land, provocative squatting, and mismanagement of land development5. Several policies and legal frameworks have been formulated to respond to the challenges currently faced, including the Malawi Land Use Planning and Management Policy6, Land Bill, Registered Land Bill, and Physical Planning Bill7. Department of Physical Planning is also preparing a National Land Use and Management Strategy and an operational Development Guide at the district level in Malawi.

INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP
The Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, the Malawi Housing Corporation, city councils, private landholders, and traditional leaders own or manage land. Other government ministries also own land in various areas in the country. City councils manage low-income housing through the allocation of high-density serviced plots in areas such as traditional housing areas. Malawi Homeless People’s Federation, Centre for Community Organization and Development, and Habitat for Humanity Malawi are developing lowincome housing for the urban poor. Other players in housing provision include Press Properties, Malawi Property Investment Company, Kanengo Northgate, etc. Local chiefs also administer unserviced land according to planning requirements in cities.

ONGOING PROJECTS
THE COMMUNITY-BASED RURAL LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
The Land Act, Lands Acquisition Act, Registered Land Act, Land Survey Act, Town and Country Planning Act, Deeds Registration Act, Customary Land Development Act, Local Land Board Act, Adjudication of Title Act, Draft Physical Planning Bill 2011, Land Bill 2009, Draft National Housing Policy (2010), Environmental Management Act, National Land Policy, and others.

PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY
At times, Town and Country Planning Board decisions are challenged in court, making implementation of professional planning issues difficult to enforce. The urban councils are not strong enough to direct and control developments in certain areas under their jurisdiction and in the absence of up-to-date urban structure plans. Most legal frameworks are outdated, and new drafts and reviews are awaiting parliamentary approval.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

UN-Habitat (2010), Malawi Urban Housing Sector Profile. Malawi Government (2002), Malawi National Land Policy. National Statistical Office (2009), Statistical Yearbook. Kandodo, F. (2001), Land Reform in a Regional Context: Malawi Experiences. Malawi Government (January 2011), Land Sub Theme, Contribution to the Successor Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGD II). Malawi Government (June, 2010), Malawi Land Use Planning and Management Policy. Malawi Government (June, 2011), Physical Planning Bill. World Bank (2011), The Community-Based Rural Land Development Project in Malawi.

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - LAND

This project aims at contributing to poverty reduction by providing land to about 15,000 landless households in 4 districts in southern Malawi. It started in 2004 and continued for about eight years. The project sought to free up unutilized and under-utilized land resources held under the estate subsector in rural areas, where poverty is most pervasive. Through a market-assisted land redistribution approach, under the premise of willing seller–willing buyer, the land would become available for agricultural production. The total project financing was about USD 37.6 million8. Computerization of existing land records through the Land Records Computerization Project is also underway. The

Lack of up-to-date land records and land use plans is complicating future planning and effective implementation. Corruption and fraud in land administration, particularly by public officers. Absence of integrated land use planning is worsening land administration/management issues. Inadequate capacity (human, technical and financial) is hampering efficient land administration. Slow land administration/management devolution to local councils is fuelling challenges in land management. Scarcity of serviced low-income and high-density plots in recent years and limited resources for housing. High cost of plots in major urban areas is leading to unplanned housing settlements. New housing areas face challenges compensating people who are to be relocated, and planned programmes thereby fail. Involvement of local leaders (village headmen/ chiefs) is exacerbating land management challenges.

AGREED PRIORITIES
Operationalizing planning at the district level. Building the capacity of the ministry in terms of quantity and quality. Embracing new technologies and enhancing the quality of planning services in Malawi. Developing and providing more serviced plots to enhance housing and revenue. Transferring some land to city councils to improve land management. Establishing a computerized land information/ administration system in the departments dealing with land.

LAND N°1

Project proposal

Page 49

Computerized Land Information System

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development is funded by the central government and funding is always inadequate. City councils mostly use their own funds and some grants.

MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE - LAND

Revenue includes development charges, ground rent, search fees, consent application fees, change of ownership fees, rentals, plan application fees, plan scrutiny fees, plan processing fees, and appeal fees, among others. The Urban Window of the Local Development Fund and the Treasury Fund are opportunities for urban development.

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GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
STRENGTHS
Local Government Act (1998) and Decentralization Policy (1998) in place. Other relevant legal frameworks, by-laws, and regulations, e.g. the Public Finance Management Act, Corrupt Practices Act, Public Procurement Act, etc. in place. Established departments for key sectors in place. A growing property revenue base. Availability of civic education and adult literacy programmes.

WEAKNESSES
Absence of elected ward councillors. Political interference in technical affairs in the cities. Involvement of traditional leaders in urban land administration. Lack of a city services charter. Inadequate and outdated regulatory frameworks. Inadequate capacity in local authorities. Lack of support for public–private partnership culture in urban service delivery.

OPPORTUNITIES
Existence and willingness of community development committees, NGOs, academic institutions, donors, and civil society organizations to support council affairs. Availability of training opportunities for staff.

THREATS
Uncertainty of local government elections. Weak transparency and accountability in city management affairs. Existence of parallel governance system by local chiefs within the city. Political interference, corrupt practices and fraud in city affairs. High default rate of property taxes and other fees.

PRIORITIES
Train councillors and council staff in participatory urban management. Improve governance in the city. Formulate and implement a city service charter. Review existing urban sector profiles, bylaws and formulation of by-laws. Introduce participatory budgeting.

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PROJECT PROPOSALS - GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT N°1

Project proposal Local Authority Capacity Building

GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT N°2

Project proposal National Urban Observatory Programme

LOCATION: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba. DURATION: 24 months BENEFICIARIES: City councils, councillors, council staff, key stakeholders, community development committees, NGOs, community-based organizations, residents, taxpayers, service and utility providers, etc. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Four city councils (Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba), a training institution, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, National Initiative for Civic Education, the business Sector, Malawi Revenue Authority, development partners, Local Development Fund, and the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development.

LOCATION: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba. DURATION: 18 months BENEFICIARIES: The public and private sector, city residents and city councils. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: The four city councils, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, Ministry of Information, Mzuzu University, National Statistical Office, civil society organizations, UN-Habitat, and development partners. ESTIMATED COST: USD 800,000 BACKGROUND: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba face various economic, social, and political challenges as they strive to improve their economic performance and reduce urban poverty, as over 60 percent of their populations live in unplanned areas. Decision making is difficult, with inadequate data on key development areas. Data and information flow is skewed and mostly outdated. Urban support unit(s) with a local observatory could assist the city councils in improving productivity and equity, and promoting good governance and sustainability. OBJECTIVES: To improve urban data management in various sectors and decision making. ACTIVITIES: (1) Mobilize stakeholders to participate in the establishment of the National Urban Support Unit and Local Urban Observatories, (2) Conduct a needs assessment on data and information management, (3) Develop effective data management and communication strategies, (4) Develop and establish National and Local Urban Observatories, and (5) Institutionalize the observatory processes in the councils. OUTPUTS: National and Local Urban Observatories established and operational. STAFF REQUIRED: Coordinator and research team with experience in urban management issues.

PROJECT PROPOSALS - GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

ESTIMATED COST: USD 750,000 BACKGROUND: The ability of the city councils to deliver services and respond to city needs depends on their capacity to facilitate and participate in urban management. The residents should also be aware of their duty in urban management. However, local authorities lack the necessary skills and knowledge in various thematic areas, including leadership, municipal finance, participatory planning, participatory budgeting, conflict management, infrastructure development and management, and geographic information systems; other stakeholders also lack awareness. The councils must build their capacity to improve urban management processes in sustainable and participatory ways while bringing on board other stakeholders. OBJECTIVES: To improve the urban management capacity and awareness of urban stakeholders. ACTIVITIES: (1) Identify training coordinators and conduct a needs assessment, (2) Identify a training institution, (3) Develop a capacity-building programme in various sectors, (4) Conduct capacity-building and city awareness programmes, (5) Establish a sustainable capacity-building programme, and (6) Develop and implement a monitoring and evaluation programme. OUTPUTS: City councils’ urban management capacity improved, with a sustainable capacity-building programme in place. STAFF REQUIRED: Capacity building experts, community workers and trainers of trainers.

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SLUMS AND SHELTER

STRENGTHS
Some legal frameworks in support of lowincome housing in place. Minimum requirements for low-income housing available. Land available for councils to develop low-income housing plots. Availability of local and affordable building materials. Community development committees in place. Councils have had a mandate to develop low-income housing since 1992.

WEAKNESSES
No legal frameworks for slum upgrading, including a National Housing Policy. Restrictive planning standards. Absence of building standards to guide low-income housing. Involvement of chiefs in land matters is fuelling unplanned settlements. Weak coordination and poor forward planning is contributing to unplanned settlements. Inadequate capacity to develop sufficient low-income housing land. Restrictive institutional housing finance and high construction costs.

OPPORTUNITIES
New Land and Housing Bill is awaiting parliamentary approval. Self-help housing construction initiatives by people themselves. Establishment of a Development Coordination Committee to guide service delivery and city development. Upgrading of unplanned settlements to improve living conditions. Delivery of housing through public– private partnerships. High demand for low-cost housing. Availability of NGOs to provide low-cost housing.

THREATS
Absence of specific legal frameworks to address unplanned settlements and lowcost housing. Resistance from chiefs to stop meddling in land matters within the urban areas. Increasing population and increasing cost of building materials. Lack of secure tenure (collateral) to access loans for housing development for the low-income groups. Political interference on technical issues.

PRIORITIES
Slum upgrading. Capacity building for local communities and city councils.

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PROJECT PROPOSALS - SLUMS AND SHELTER

SLUMS AND SHELTER N°1

Project proposal National Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme

LOCATION: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba. DURATION: 36 months BENEFICIARIES: Slum dwellers in all four cities. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Malawi Housing Corporation; Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development; Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba City Councils; NGOs; communities,;Mzuzu University; UN-Habitat; the private sector; and development partners. ESTIMATED COST: USD 1.6 million BACKGROUND: Residents in urban unplanned areas live in deplorable conditions with inadequate basic infrastructure and services such as roads, water, and electricity. There is an urgent need for upgrading to improve the living conditions of the residents and reduce poverty. OBJECTIVES: To improve the lives of slum dwellers and reduce poverty. ACTIVITIES: (1) Make an inventory of the existing slum-upgrading initiatives, (2) carry out a situation analysis of selected unplanned settlements, (3) prepare strategies for replication of successful upgrading initiatives, (4) Conduct feasibility studies, (5) Implement the slum-upgrading programmes, and (6) Provide monitoring and evaluation.

PROJECT PROPOSALS - SLUMS AND SHELTER

OUTPUTS: Selected slums and unplanned settlements upgraded. STAFF REQUIRED: Urban planners, a socioeconomic mapping expert, trainers in community housing construction, engineers, environmentalists, a water and sanitation specialist, and local community coordinators.

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GENDER AND HIV/AIDS

STRENGTHS
National Gender Policy and other legislation in place. Active participation of NGOs, communityand faith-based organizations and civil society in gender and HIV/AIDS. Promotion of women’s empowerment by various stakeholders. Free primary education has minimized disparities between boys and girls in primary and junior secondary schools, but gender disparities still exist. Existing programmes for training of committees at all levels on gender and HIV/AIDS issues.

WEAKNESSES
Absence of local level and HIV/AIDS legal frameworks. Gender activities biased towards women. Lower patronage by men in adult education. Low information dissemination on gender issues, including genderbased violence. Inadequate resources to support gender and HIV/AIDS programmes. Unclear institutional set-up at local levels. Lack of attention by various stakeholders on urban poverty. Poor implementation of existing and proposed programmes.

OPPORTUNITIES
Deliberate decisions to empower women through governance and leadership positions adopted by government. Promotion of universal primary education for all. Building capacity of key players in the gender sector. Existence of microfinance institutions supporting economic activities of the poor. HIV/AIDS funding through the National AIDS Commission. Voluntary counselling and testing services and free antiretroviral drugs for people living with HIV. Availability of international support on gender and HIV/ AIDS programmes.

THREATS
Local level gender policies that are not equitably formulated. Lack of resources to implement gender and HIV/AIDS programmes. Early marriages for girls and sexual exploitation of vulnerable women. Men are fully involved in training programmes on gender and HIV/AIDS but do not participate in related projects.

PRIORITIES
Advocate and improve girls’ access to education. Improve awareness of gender-based violence. Encourage men to participate fully in gender and HIV/AIDS and related projects.

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PROJECT PROPOSALS - GENDER AND HIV/AIDS

GENDER AND HIV/AIDS N°1

Project proposal Rehabilitation and Upgrading of Urban Community Health Facilities

LOCATION: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba. DURATION: 30 months BENEFICIARIES: Residents of Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba, and the four city councils. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, Zomba, Ministry of Health, National AIDS Commission, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, UN-Habitat, UNDP, UNICEF, UNAIDS, civil society, and African Medical Research Foundation. ESTIMATED COST: USD 1.6 million BACKGROUND: Urban areas have high incidences of HIV/AIDS and malaria, among other deadly diseases, due to geographical, environmental, sociocultural, and economic factors. Urban health facilities are inadequate, with a shortage of voluntary counselling and testing centres and outpatient services. Additional health facilities are needed, while the existing ones need rehabilitation or upgrading. OBJECTIVES: To improve accessibility to health services for all. ACTIVITIES: (1) Conduct urban health facilities audit, (2) Conduct consultative meetings with key stakeholders, (3) Implement a rehabilitation and upgrading programme, and (4) Prepare post maintenance and monitoring strategies. OUTPUTS: Improved access to health facilities. STAFF REQUIRED: Urban planners, engineers and health personnel.

PROJECT PROPOSALS - GENDER AND HIV/AIDS
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ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISK AND CLIMATE CHANGE

STRENGTHS
National and local legislation available. Established departments to manage environmental issues in place. Budget provision for environmental management at all levels.

WEAKNESSES
Outdated legal frameworks. Poor coordination and performance in shared environmental responsibilities. Inadequate resources or capacity to support environmental management projects. Weak enforcement of environmental regulations in sensitive areas. Fragmented building regulations that fail to fully address complex building design and construction. Lack of a conservation plan.

OPPORTUNITIES
ENVIRONMENT Review of existing legal frameworks to take on board emerging issues such as climate change. Renewed interest in environmental issues by government and international and local organizations. Participation of other stakeholders in environmental affairs. Afforestation programmes with other stakeholders to repair the environment. Establishment of public– private partnerships in environmental programmes.

THREATS
Pollution and contamination of groundwater by industry effluent, pit latrines and domestic effluent. Increase in natural hazards such as floods. Rapid population growth. Slow response from local authorities to climate change. High dependence on charcoal and firewood, accelerating deforestation of water catchment areas and forest reserves.

PRIORITIES
Conduct an environmental needs assessment and formulate an environmental action plan. Operationalize existing legal frameworks and review existing ones. Increase budgetary spending on environmental management. Explore broadbased public–private partnerships on environmental issues. Expand existing sewage treatment and solid waste management facilities.

URBAN DISASTER RISK AND CLIMATE CHANGE Existence of legal frameworks at national level. Existence of Department of Disaster Management Affairs. Participation of other stakeholders and communities in disaster response and prevention. Lack of local level legislation to support urban disaster risk. Lack of technical capacity in times of disaster and emergency. Lack of structures dealing with disaster management and prevention at the local level. Political will exists to address disaster risks. Growing awareness of the impact of disasters and mitigation measures. Uncontrolled development in fragile areas, leading to environmental degradation. Corrupt practices and fraud are undermining building codes and planning regulations, resulting in substandard buildings and increasing disasters, e.g. fire accidents. Climate change and increasing disasters (natural and humanmade). Map of disaster-prone areas. Instigate a climate change programme.

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PROJECT PROPOSALS - ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

ENVIRONMENT URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE N°1

Project proposal Integrated Environmental Management Programme

LOCATION: Mzuzu city. DURATION: 24 months BENEFICIARIES: Mzuzu City Council and city residents. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba cities, civil society organizations, UN-Habitat, Department of Environmental Affairs, Mzuzu University, NGOs, Geological Surveys Department, Department of Climate Change and Meteorological Services, and development partners. ESTIMATED COST: USD 800,000 BACKGROUND: Urban areas face various environmental challenges, including climate change, yet they do not feature high on agendas. The local councils have inadequate capacity to tackle integrated environmental management issues, including an integrated environmental management plan. Such an integrated plan would help a lot in addressing most environmental challenges, including climate change. OBJECTIVES: To improve environmental management in the wake of climate change. ACTIVITIES: (1) Conduct a needs assessment through a consultative process, (2) Prepare an environmental profile of the city, (3) Prepare an integrated environmental management plan, (4) Conduct a public awareness campaign on climate change and related environmental issues, (5) Implement an integrated management plan, and (6) Establish a monitoring and evaluation programme. OUTPUTS: An integrated environmental management plan. STAFF REQUIRED: Environmental experts, building experts, urban planners, and a geologist.

PROJECT PROPOSALS - ENVIRONMENT, URBAN DISASTER RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
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LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
STRENGTHS
Availability of some legal frameworks. Existing and growing local markets for formal and informal economic sectors to support local economic development. Growing markets for goods and services, and the hospitality industry. Availability of production factors, such as land, at relatively low costs.

WEAKNESSES
Absence of comprehensive local economic development plans for the cities and institutional frameworks to promote economic development. Slow growth of the industrial sector in general to generate jobs. Inadequate existing infrastructure and services supporting local economic development.

OPPORTUNITIES
Skill development institutions locally available. Growing support and political will for small and medium-sized enterprises through the establishment of finance and microfinance institutions. Possibilities of public– private partnerships. Availability of raw materials at relatively low cost in surrounding areas for manufacturing and agro-industries.

THREATS
Restrictive access to investment capital by small businesses with no collateral. Unreliable power and water supplies. Supporting infrastructure and services are limited to central commercial areas. Vending in undesignated areas.

PRIORITIES
Strengthen the Department of Trade, Commerce and Industry within city councils to support and promote local economic development. Provide local economic development facilities to support small and medium-sized enterprises. Provision of serviced land and infrastructure for commerce and industrial investments. Exploit the ecotourism potential of the cities.

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PROJECT PROPOSALS - LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Inadequate legal frameworks supporting the formal Growing local markets and informal economy. for finished goods and services. Inadequate Growing importance entrepreneurial of mining activities, and business skills, especially in the including processed north, to create more production. opportunities (in Lack of market Mzuzu). diversification and satellite local economic centres to support the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises.

LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT N°1

Project proposal Provision of Local Economic Development Infrastructure for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

LOCATION: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba. DURATION: 30 months BENEFICIARIES: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba cities, small and medium-sized enterprises, residents. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: The four cities, business communities and donors, Local Development Fund, and the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. ESTIMATED COST: USD 2 million BACKGROUND: All four cities have inadequate local economic development markets and infrastructure, forcing some small and medium-sized enterprises to conduct their businesses in undesignated areas. Further, the existing markets are located far from some residential areas. Construction of new markets and infrastructure will create environments conducive to business and enhance local economic development and council revenue.

PROJECT PROPOSALS - LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

OBJECTIVES: To promote small and medium-sized enterprises and enhance city council revenue generation. ACTIVITIES: (1) Conduct needs assessments of local economic development markets and infrastructure, (2) prepare a design and strategy for each market and other local economic development infrastructure and (3) construct markets and other infrastructure. OUTPUTS: Markets and other local economic development infrastructure. STAFF REQUIRED: Business development expert, architect, engineer, and physical planner.

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BASIC URBAN SERVICES
STRENGTHS
Water supply legal frameworks in place. Water supply covers most parts of the cities, including slums. Communal water supply exists through kiosks at the community level through public–private partnerships. Most public facilities are connected to a piped water supply. Water quality is generally good, according to WHO standards.

WEAKNESSES
Poor coordination among service providers is leading to haphazard service provision. Water is not affordable to the very poor. Ageing water supply systems, with high maintenance costs and water losses. Water rationing in the cities leaves some areas without water. Some water programmes are not functioning due to low pressure, outstanding bills and vandalism. Poor coordination among service providers is leading to haphazard service provision and development. Illegal connections, unreliable supply and frequent power outages. Electricity connection takes long. High electricity tariffs and levies. Monopoly of the energy market by the Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi.

OPPORTUNITIES
WATER Water supply is provided upon individual application. Provision of water can be used as a development control guideline and can reduce squatting. Communities are willing to pay for water supply services and manage water kiosks through partnerships. Expansion of existing water supply systems.

THREATS
High water costs are forcing some people to use unsafe water sources. Old water supply infrastructure and high maintenance costs. Destruction of water catchment areas through deforestation and pollution. Vandalism of water supply infrastructure. Politicizing of water kiosk management. Lack of reliable power for water reticulation.

PRIORITIES
Provide water to all. Upgrade existing water supply systems to meet the demand. Provide bigger water reservoirs. Provide alternative power for emergencies.

ENERGY SOURCES Electricity supply legal framework in place. Electricity supply infrastructure available in most parts of the cities, including unplanned settlements. Existence of potential sources of hydropower. Availability of alternative energy sources such as solar. Provision of electricity can be used as a development control guideline. Potential for hydropower and other power sources, including solar. Interconnection with other countries into a regional power pool. Availability of training in renewable energy, e.g. Mzuzu University. High cost of electricity connection. Electricity supply infrastructure is old with high maintenance costs. Destruction of water catchment areas through deforestation and pollution. Low capacity to meet energy demand. Vandalism of infrastructure and assets. Over dependence on hydropower.

Enhance the supply system to meet the growing demand. Replace wooden poles with metal pylons. Develop an alternative power supply such as wind and solar energy.

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PROJECT PROPOSALS - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

Prevent vandalism of public infrastructure.

STRENGTHS
Legal framework in place. Presence of security providers and stakeholders (Malawi Police Service and private firms). Community policing initiative in place.

WEAKNESSES
Inadequate capacity to adequately provide security and safety services. Inadequate or no street lighting in many areas. Corrupt practices and theft by security providers themselves.

OPPORTUNITIES
URBAN SAFETY Crime rapid response service availability. Existence of security and safety provision. Collaboration among security and safety stakeholders, including communities. Establishment of a Victim Support Unit by the police.

THREATS
Low public trust of security provision entities. Inadequate support from the public programmes. Rising unemployment and insecurity among the urban poor. Vandalism of security and safety equipment and infrastructure.

PRIORITIES
Provide street lighting throughout the cities. Sensitize city residents about domestic violence.

WASTE MANAGEMENT National and local level legal frameworks in place. Active participation of various stakeholders in waste management. Availability of cleansing services. Inadequate and weak enforcement of regulations. Weak coordination among stakeholders. Underutilization of existing infrastructure. Emergence of innovative waste management and sanitation concepts (e.g. Ecosan toilets and biogas energy). Improved water supply capacity and availability. Overdependence on pit latrines and rubbish pits is increasing groundwater pollution and contamination. Identify and develop a landfill site. Procure vacuum tankers for emptying septic tanks.

PROJECT PROPOSALS - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

High use of rubbish pits and pit latrines, and Potential for indiscriminate waste composting, recycling, disposal, especially in and re-use. high density areas. Growing interest by Poor liquid and solid NGOs, communitywaste management. based organizations and private parties Very few innovative to take part in waste ways of managing management. waste in place.

Contaminated land at Capacity building and Mchengautuwa will remain a health hazard sensitization on proper unless decontaminated. waste management, including composting. Rapid urban population Construct a sewerage growth, with consequent increase in system. waste generation. Establish recycling Compensation to delay plants for nonbiodegradable waste. waste management site development. Adopt new sanitation technologies such as Ecosan toilets.

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BASIC URBAN SERVICES N°1

Project proposal Urban Safety Infrastructure Provision Project

LOCATION: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba. DURATION: 12 months BENEFICIARIES: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba cities, residents, and road users. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba cities; Road Safety Council; Road Authority; development partners; primary schools; Malawi Police Service; Minibus Owners Association of Malawi; and Sacramento Association (Mzuzu). ESTIMATED COST: USD 1.5 million BACKGROUND: Inadequate urban infrastructure is leading to road usage conflict (motorists, cyclists, and pedestrians) and road accidents. Schoolchildren are exposed to danger when crossing the roads. Street lighting is almost non-existent. Road users also lack knowledge on proper road usage. OBJECTIVES: To improve urban safety. ACTIVITIES: (1) Carry out an urban safety infrastructure audit, (2) Provide urban infrastructure (street lighting, road signage, cycle and foot paths, etc.), (3) Encourage awareness of proper road usage, and (4) Provide parking space. OUTPUTS: Urban safety infrastructure provided and increased knowledge of proper road usage. STAFF REQUIRED: Engineers, road safety experts and urban planners.

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PROJECT PROPOSALS - BASIC URBAN SERVICES

LAND
STRENGTHS
Some relevant legal frameworks in place. Structures for managing land in place at all levels. Existence of the Plot Allocation and Town Planning Committees. Entry into the housing sector by pro-poor NGOs, communitybased organizations and the private sector.

WEAKNESSES
Inadequate capacity and resources for land development and development control. Inadequate coordination and conflicting interests in land administration. Scarcity of serviced land. Cumbersome land administration systems coupled with fraud and corrupt practices.

OPPORTUNITIES
National land policy advocates equitable access to land, propoor developments and tenure security. Availability of training courses at the University of Malawi, Mzuzu University and Natural Resources College. Some form of land information systems in place. Existence of Local Development Fund to fund local land servicing projects.

THREATS
Involvement of chiefs and political interference in urban land matters. Delays in developing land use plans (e.g. Mzuzu). Existence and proliferation of unplanned settlements. Weak legislation.

PRIORITIES
Redefine the roles and functions of traditional leaders within the cities. Service more land and promote accessibility for low-income groups. Improve the capacity of councils in land administration and management.

Establish land Increasing cost of information systems in servicing housing land. departments dealing with land.

PROJECT PROPOSALS - LAND
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LAND N°1

Project proposal Computerized Land Information System

LOCATION: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba. DURATION: 36 months BENEFICIARIES: The four cities, residents, institutions, utility companies, and private practitioners. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Mzuzu, and Zomba cities, Mzuzu University, Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, development partners, UN-Habitat. ESTIMATED COST: USD 1.6 million BACKGROUND: Institutions dealing with land have staff who are not trained in land administration, lack the necessary capacity and equipment, and are using archaic systems, leading to many challenges in land matters. OBJECTIVES: To improve land administration in the cities. ACTIVITIES: (1) Develop a land information system and (2) Train council staff in land administration and management. OUTPUTS: (1) Automated land information system and (2) Trained staff. STAFF REQUIRED: Systems administrator, geographic information system expert and land administration expert.

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PROJECT PROPOSALS - LAND

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MALAWI NATIONAL URBAN PROFILE The Malawi Urban Profiling consists of an accelerated, action-oriented assessment of urban conditions, focusing on priority needs, capacity gaps, and existing institutional responses at local and national levels. The purpose of the study is to develop urban poverty reduction policies at local, national, and regional levels, through an assessment of needs and response mechanisms, and as a contribution to the wider-ranging implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. The study is based on analysis of existing data and a series of interviews with all relevant urban stakeholders, including local communities and institutions, civil society, the private sector, development partners, academics, and others. The consultation typically results in a collective agreement on priorities and their development into proposed capacity-building and other projects that are all aimed at urban poverty reduction. The urban profiling is being implemented in 30 ACP (Africa, Caribbean, Pacific) countries, offering an opportunity for comparative regional analysis. Once completed, this series of studies will provide a framework for central and local authorities and urban actors, as well as donors and external support agencies.

HS Number: HS/112/12E ISBN Number (Series): 978-92-1-132023-7 ISBN Number (Volume): 978-92-1-132526-3

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME P.O Box 30030 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254-20-7623120 Fax: +254-20-7623426/7 (Central Office) infohabitat@unhabitat.org www.unhabitat.org/publications

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