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Typical crude oil distillation

Top pump around Desalter Top pump around Heavy gas oil

Naphtha and gases


Bottom pump around

Distillation tower

Light gas oil


Light gas oil


Heavy gas oil

E4 E1 E5
Storage Bottom pump around


Reduced crude

Reduced crude

Definition of oil refining

An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base,

heating oil, kerosine, and liquefied petroleum gas

Operation:Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractionating column is cooler at the top than at the bottom because the fractions at the top have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom

Typical distillation tower

During distillation crude oil passes through many

processes such as Heating in heat exchanger Heating in furnaces Distillation towers Chemical processes Cooling Storing Heating in heat exchangers To keep the crude in liquid phase The heating process doing gradually in order to prevent dissociation of crude oil

Crude path through shell-tube heat exchanger

We use in this type for heating oil steam or a product Of refining process to save fuel observe that there are many types working with benzenekerosine-solar

Heating in furnaces
The purpose of this process is to raise the oil

temperature to360 co in order to separates its components

A furnace or direct fired heater, is an equipment used to

provide heat for a process or can serve as reactor which provides heats of reaction. Furnace designs vary as to its function Fuel flows into the burner and is burnt with air provided from an air blower. There can be more than one burner in a particular furnace which can be arranged in cells which heat a particular set of tubes. Burners can also be floor mounted as in the picture, wall mounted or roof mounted depending on design. The flames heat up the tubes, which in turn heat the fluid inside in the first part of the furnace known as the radiant section. In the chamber where combustion takes place

After the flue gas leaves the firebox, most furnace designs include a convection section where more heat is recovered before venting to the atmosphere through the flue gas stack . (HTF=Heat Transfer Fluid. Industries commonly use their furnaces to heat a secondary fluid with special additives like anti-rust and high heat transfer efficiency. This heated fluid is then circulated round the whole plant to heat exchangers to be used wherever heat is needed instead of directly heating the product line as the product or material may be volatile or prone to cracking at the furnace temperature.)

Crude oil cycle

The oil enters form the top of furnace at the

convection section in order to achieve a gradually heating to the oil then the oil leave this section of radiation which has higher temperature in the furnace Observe that the oil is carried in two coils and complete cycle in the furnace then each compound of petrol leave to an distillation tower We use mazute a s a fuel in furnace because it is available and cheap

Distillation tower
Treating and Blending the Fractions Distillated and chemically processed fractions are treated to remove impurities, such as organic compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, water, dissolved metals and inorganic salts. Treating is usually done by passing the fractions through the following: a column of sulfuric acid - removes unsaturated hydrocarbons (those with carbon-carbon double-bonds), nitrogen compounds, oxygen compounds and residual solids (tars, asphalt) an absorption column filled with drying agents to remove water sulfur treatment and hydrogen-sulfide scrubbers to remove sulfur and sulfur compounds

After the fractions have been treated, they are cooled

and then blended together to make various products, such as: gasoline of various grades, with or without additives lubricating oils of various weights and grades kerosene of various grades jet fuel diesel fuel heating oil chemicals of various grades for making plastics and other polymers

Chemical process
You can change one fraction into another by one of

three methods: breaking large hydrocarbons into smaller pieces (cracking) combining smaller pieces to make larger ones (unification) rearranging various pieces to make desired hydrocarbons (alteration)


Cracking takes large hydrocarbons and breaks them into smaller ones
And this to increase the reaction area and this leads to a very speed process such as heating distillation

Cracking breaks large chains into smaller chains

Thermal - you heat large hydrocarbons at high temperatures (sometimes high pressures as well) until they break apart. steam - high temperature steam (1500 degrees Fahrenheit / 816 degrees Celsius) is used to break ethane, butane and naptha into ethylene and benzene, which are used to manufacture chemicals. visbreaking - residual from the distillation tower is heated (900 degrees Fahrenheit), cooled with gas oil and rapidly burned (flashed) in a distillation tower. This process reduces the viscosity of heavy weight oils and produces tar. coking - residual from the distillation tower is heated to temperatures above 900 degrees Fahrenheit until it cracks into heavy oil, gasoline and naphtha. When the process is done, a heavy, almost pure carbon residue is left (coke); the coke is cleaned from the cokers and sold.

The refining process releases numerous different chemicals

into the atmosphere; consequently, there are substantial air pollution emissions[7] and a notable odor normally accompanies the presence of a refinery. Aside from air pollution impacts there are also wastewater concerns,[3] risks of industrial accidents such as fire and explosion, and noise health effects due to industrial noise.

The public has demanded that many governments place

restrictions on contaminants that refineries release, and most refineries have installed the equipment needed to comply with the requirements of the pertinent environmental protection regulatory agencies. In the United States, there is strong pressure to prevent the development of new refineries, and no major refinery has been built in the country since Marathon's Garyville Louisiana facility in 1976. However, many existing refineries have been expanded during that time. Environmental restrictions and pressure to prevent construction of new refineries may have also contributed to rising fuel prices in the United States[8]. Additionally, many refineries (over 100 since the 1980s) have closed due to obsolescence and/or merger activity within the industry itself. This activity has been reported to Congress and in specialized studies not widely publicised.

Cooling operation is very important process before storing the products This process can be operated using by heat exchanger or by air cooler and increasing the cooling area The air is pushed by using big fans to path through the tubes and heat transfer by convection to the air

Air cooler
The big fans push the air to get through a large number of narrow tubes This tube are made of cupper and have aluminum fins to cooled quickly The length of this tubes approximately 13.5 m and it is 460 tube

# Gaseous fuels such as propane, stored and shipped in liquid form under pressure in specialized railcars to distributors # Liquid fuels blending (producing automotive and aviation grades of gasoline, kerosene, various aviation turbine fuels, and diesel fuels, adding dyes, detergents, antiknock additives, oxygenates, and anti-fungal compounds as required). Shipped by barge, rail, and tanker ship. May be shipped regionally in dedicated pipelines to point consumers, particularly aviation jet fuel to major airports, or piped to distributors in multi-product pipelines using product separators called pipeline inspection gauges