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Lesson 1

Learning objectives

To understand the conventional sources of energy To understand the alternative sources of energy

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**What is Power System
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A system that deals with the business of Generation Transmission Distribution of electrical energy It is the most complex and massive man made system

The study of electric power systems is concerned with the generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electric power . The first of these – the generation of electric power – involves the conversion of energy from a nonelectrical form (such as thermal, hydraulic, or solar energy) to electric energy.

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**Goal of Power System
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High reliability standard Lowest operational cost Minimum environmental impact

Power System Components

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The engineer endeavors to keep the output from the generator equal to the connected load all the time. There is a continuous demand of power. The distribution and nature of fuel. Prepared by: Mr.The load is not an integral part of the Power System as they are not owned by power generating companies. A large and continuous process of adding to the system exists. but it has to be modeled in the PS analysis Electricity cannot be stored and the supplier has small control over the load at any time. John Mateo 4 . The problem of station siting and transmission distances is an involved exercise in economics.

A power plant may contain more than one power generating units. natural gas. etc). gas.Power Generation Power generation takes place in power plants. Water Solar Nuclear Chemical Wind Tidal 5 . Energy Sources Hydrocarbons (oil. which may geographically dispersed.

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compared with peak demand of 5. Department of Energy.S.Consumption of electricity in Singapore is about 6. As of end-2003. Singapore’s total installed generation capacity was 8.45 kW per person.919 MW.com Internet site. with 1. which brings total required capacity to around 6. 8 . EMA requires the gencos to maintain 30% reserve capacity. and 4th highest in Asia. Some 60% of Singapore’s electricity generation is now fueled by natural gas. The site also ranked Singapore as the 8th highest country worldwide (and 2nd in Asia) in terms of electricity generation ability per person. in an effort to maintain competitiveness in a liberalized market. The significant excess capacity is mainly a result of the conversion of oil-powered plants to gas. according to the nationamaster. placing it as the 29th highest consumer of electricity worldwide.500 MW.139 MW. Analysts expect demand to grow at 4-5% annually.151. using data from the U.54 kWh per person (2001 data).

Grid Inteconnection

Grid interconnection of is the interconnection of a number of distributed generators owned and operated by different entities

**Advantages of Grid Interconnection
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Economical as power plants may use less number of generating machines as they can depend on the grids when the need arises. Companies can take advantage of the most economical cost of power generation.

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**Disadvantages of Grid Interconnection
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Interconnection increases the amount of current flow when a short circuit occurs in a system and requires the installation of breakers able to interrupt large current flow. The disturbance caused by a short circuit in one system may spread into the other systems.

**Environmental effects of Grid Interconnections
**

Air pollutant emissions. Modest quantities of emissions may be produced during power line construction, but the main influence of grid interconnections on air pollutant emissions will be through the impact of transmission interconnections on which power plants are run where and when in the interconnected nations. Water pollution impacts, including erosion and water pollutants produced as a result of power line construction and operation, and incremental water pollution from power plant construction, power generation, and fuel extraction/storage.

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Solid waste impacts, mainly coal ash and high- and low-level nuclear wastes from electricity generation, but also including wastes from fuel extraction and possibly from power line and/or power plant construction. Land-use impacts, including costs such as the restriction of uses of land through which a power line passes.

Wildlife/biodiversity impacts, including costs such as the potential impacts of power line construction and operation on flora and fauna in the power line area. Human health impacts, including the impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from power lines on humans living and working in the power line vicinity (net costs of the interconnection project

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modular electricity generators typically sited close to customer loads By siting smaller. residential. or immediately adjacent to. and industrial areas Power Transmission Systems Connects generating plants to consumers Interconnect power grids High voltage AC transmission High voltage DC transmission 12 . Many distributed power systems produce so little noise or emissions that they can be located inside.Distributed power generation Distributed power generators are small. This greatly simplifies the problems of bringing power to expanding commercial. the buildings where the power is needed. distributed generation avoids transmission and distribution power losses and provides a choice of energy systems to the utility customer. more fuel-flexible systems near energy consumers.

Advantage of HV transmission Lower transmission losses/MW transfer Lower line-voltage drop / km Higher transmission capacity/ Km Reduced right-of-way requirement /MW transfer Lower capital and operating costs/ MW transfer Power transmission equipments Step-up transformers Step-down transformers Voltage regulators Phase shifters Transmission lines and cables Circuit breakers Series and shunt reactors and capacitors Lightning arresters Relays Converters/Inverters 13 .

at single phase (consumers) Power distribution devices Distribution transformers Feeder cables Switches/relays.at MV/LV levels . Etc Lightning arresters Protective relays PT/CT 14 .Power Distribution Receives electrical energy from the HV/MV levels Supplies energy to consumers .at three-phase (industrial) .

Power Distribution System Power System Operation and Control 15 .

Power Quality Consideration Frequency Regulation: System frequency must remain within its operational range fmin ≤ f(t) ≤ fmax Voltage Regulation : Bus Voltage must remain its operational limits Vmin ≤ V(t) ≤ Vmax 16 .Key Operational Goals Power Balance : Generation must remain constant with demand Total generation (t) = total demand (t) +b Losses (t) System security : equipment power flows must not exceed equipment ratings under normal. or single outage condition.

Types of operation and control Centralized .is based on system-wide data and usually handles slow events .examples are SCADA and EMS Decentralized .protection systems Examples of Centralized control Frequency control (regulation) Interchange control Generation dispatch (control of generating units) System security assessment and enhancement (both static and dynamic) Unit commitment (unit’s ON/OFF status) 17 .handles local data and tackles fast events .

Examples of DeCentralized control Equipment protection against over-voltage and over-current Generator speed control Generator terminal voltage control Power System Organization Power Utility Structure Traditional Restructured (Deregulated) 18 .

Regulated Power utility 19 .

transmission and distribution Increased outside investment in PS structure 20 .Traditional Utilities Operate as monopolies (“have captive customers”) Government regulated Have to get regulators approval for rate increases No incentive to increase generation efficiency “Vertical integrated (VI) business structures for improved profitability Deregulated PS Structure Has been legislated by government that results in Increased competition (reduced rates) New technology utilization in generation.

Lesson 2 Learning objectives To examine the parameters of a power transmission line To examine the voltage and current relation in a transmission line 21 .

The dc resistance R of a conductor of length l and cross-sectional area A is R = pl/A (in ohms) where p is the resistivity of the material of the conductor in ohm-meters The temperature dependence of resistance is quantified by the relation R2 = R1[1 + α(T2 – T1)] 22 .Three characteristics. or parameters: its resistance. and capacitance. inductance.

and r is the radius of the conductors. 23 .Resistivities and Temperature Coefficients of Resistance The inductance per conductor of a two-wire. singlephase transmission line is given by (in henrys per meters) where µ0 = 4p × 10-7 H/m (the permeability of free space). or loop. inductance is then where r' = re-1/4 is known as the geometric mean radius (GMR) of the conductor. The total. D is the distance between the centers of the conductors.

leading to unequal voltage dropst he cause by the usual nonsymmetrical spacing The average per-phase inductance for a transposed line is still given by D is equivalent to De.The per-phase (or line-to-neutral) inductance of a three-phase transmission line with equilaterally spaced conductors is where r is the conductor radius and D is the spacing between conductors Transposition is the interchanging of the positions of the conductors at regular intervals along the line. 24 . obtained from De = (DabDbcDca) 1/3 where the distances Dab. and Dca are shown in Figure. Dbc. Due to unequal inductances in the three phases.

The shunt capacitance per unit length of a single-phase. two-wire transmission line is given by (in farads per meter) is the permittivity of free space For a three-phase line with equilaterally spaced conductors. the per-phase (or line-to-neutral) capacitance is 25 .

576 × 10-6 m2 .05)(2000) = 2100m.5 × 10-3 )2 = 33. What is the resistance of the cable? Take the resistivity of copper to be 1.72 × 10-8 Ω m.5mm in diameter. we find that l = (1. R = rl/A = (1.72 × 10-8 × 2100)/(33. Allowing for twist.A transmission-line cable consists of 19 strands of identical copper conductors.576 × 10-6) = 1. The cross-sectional area of all 19 strands is 19(╥/4)(1. each 1. because of the twist of the strands. the actual length of each conductor is increased by 5 percent. The length of the cable is 2km but.076 Ω 26 .

m. substitute A = ╥ D2 /4 to R = pl/A yields ╥ D2 /4 = (1.208cm 27 . determine the required conductor diameter. If the resistivity of the conductor material is 1.The per-phase line loss in a 40-km long transmission line is not to exceed 60k Ω while it is delivering 100A per phase.72 × 10-8 )(40 × 103 )/6 D = 1. The line loss is to be. I2 R = (100)2 R = 60 × 103 R = 6. at most.72 × 10-8 Ω.

45° C 28 . Also.00409° C-1 Here we have R 1 = 50 Ω and R 2 = 50 + 0. 55 = 50[1 + 0. and we require T 2. T 1 = 10° C.00409(T 2 – 10)] or T 2 = 34. What must be the maximum operating temperature of the wire if the resistance is to increase by at most 10 percent? Take the tenperature coefficient at 10° C to be α = 0.A sample of copper wire has a resistance of 50 Ω at 10° C.1 × 50 = 55 Ω.

Prepared by: Mr. we note that 250 mils = 0.635) 2= 0.317 × 10-4) = 8.83 × 10-8 × (10 × 103) / (0.25 in = 0. from Table 1. R120 = R20[1 + a(120 – 20)] = 8.0039° C-1 at 20° C (a) At 20° C.83µ Ω.93(1 + 0.cm and a = 0. at (a) 20° C and (b) 120° C.317cm2 Also.0039 × 100) = 12. John Mateo To find the cross-sectional area of the conductor.Determine the resistance of a 10km long solid cylindrical aluminum conductor with a diameter of 250 mils.35 cm so A = (π /4)(0. John Mateo 29 . r = 2.41 Ω Prepared by: Mr. ( R20 = rl/A = 2.93 Ω (a) At 120° .

Hence.9 and In(De/r) = 7.848 × 2 × 102)/0. so that De/r = (5.A single-circuit.848m r = ½ × 0.554 mH/km The inductive reactance per kilometer is then XL = ω L = 377 × 1. John Mateo 30 . 60Hz transmission line consists of three conductors arranged as shown in the Figure. John Mateo De = (5 × 5 × 8) 1/3 = 5. for each kilometer of length.52.5858Ω Prepared by: Mr.635 × 10-2m.52) × 10-7 × 103= 1. If the conductors are the same as that in Question no 5. we have.554 × 10-3= 0. three-phase. find the inductive reactance of the line per kilometer per phase Prepared by: Mr. L = 2(1/4 + 7.635 = 1841.

31 . Evaluate the losses.Discuss the effect of TL parameters on the operation and performance of transmission lines. and voltage regulation of transmission lines Determine the consequence of such performance characteristics on the operation of a power system. efficiency.

the shunt capacitances are lumped at a few predetermined locations along the line.represented by a lumped resistance in series with a lumped inductance Medium line .considered valid for lines up to 80km long .have uniformly distributed parameters 32 .generally range from 80 to 240km in length .the shunt effects (conductance and capacitance) are neglected .longer than 240km . Long lines .Short line. .

and the receiving end (designated R) at the load 33 .The short transmission line is represented by the lumped parameters R and L is the inductance (per phase) of the entire line. The line is shown to have two ends: the sending end (designated by the subscript S) at the generator.

|VR(load)|]/|VR(load)| × 100 where VR is the receiving-end voltage Efficiency of transmission = Power at receiving end / power at sending end = PR/PS 34 . These quantities are defined as follows for lines of all lengths: Percent voltage regulations = = [|VR(no load)| .Quantities of significance here are the voltage regulation and efficiency of transmission.

the nominal-T circuit 35 . the nominal-II circuit and b.In a medium-length transmission line the shunt effect of the transmission line due to the line capacitance is not negligible Two representations for a medium-length transmission line a.

The parameters of a long line are considered to be distributed over the entire length of the line. 36 . One phase (with return through neutral) of a long line. of length L. is shown.

and z is the series impedance per unit length. γ is known as the propagation constant y is the shunt.The voltage V at any point along this line is given by where γ = √yz. admittance per unit length of the line. The voltage V at any point along this line The current I at any point along the line is given by Zc = √ z/y is called the characteristic impedance of the line 37 .

they are related to each other as follows: AD – BC = 1 38 . and D are called the generalized circuit constants or ABCD constants and are. C. By reciprocity. the terminal voltages and currents are related by Vs = A VR + B IR Is = C VR + D IR where the constants A. in general. complex.A transmission line may be viewed as a four-terminal network. B.

waves traveling in the +x and –x directions along the transmission line 39 . respectively. such that z and y are purely reactive. For a lossless transmission line.On a long transmission line. the wave equation may be written as the superscripts + and – denotes. the voltage V and current I everywhere along the line satisfy a relation called the wave equation.

/ I.A wave such as V+(t – x/u) that is traveling in the positive x direction is called a forwardtraveling wave. and one that is moving in the negative x direction is a backward-traveling wave for a lossy line Zc = √z/y.= √L/C 40 . For a lossless line Zc = √L/C = Rc V+ / I+ = √L/C and V.

t) = RL I(L.t) and V(L. in that case there is no backward-traveling wave and the line is said to be matched at the load.t) and terminal currents I(0. At x = L. But the discontinuity in the produced by the load resistor then results in a wave being reflected in the form of a backward-traveling wave.A transmission line of total length L that terminates in a resistance RL and is driven by a pulse voltage source having an open-circuit voltage waveform Vs(t) as shown and an internal resistance RS.t) and I(L. we must have V(L.t) as functions of time we consider the portion of the line at the load). To determine the terminal voltages V(0. 41 .t) If RL = RC.

A voltage reflection coefficient at the load is the ratio of the amplitudes of the backward.and forwardtraveling voltage waves at x = L. a current reflection coefficient at the load may be defined as The current reflection coefficient is thus the negative of the voltage reflection coefficient 42 .

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5<60°Ω /km impedance.A 10km long. What is the voltage regulation if the receiving-end voltage is 3.8 power factor lagging. single-phase short transmission line has 0. The line supplies a 316.3kV? 44 .8kW load at 0.

97V Percent voltage regulation = [(3858.87° ) = (551.69)V |VS| = 3858.69)V VS = (3300 + j0) + (551.Essential Formula cos θ = power factor (p.8 = 36.5∠60° )(10) = 5 ∠ 60° Ω 3 I = [(316.8 × 10 )/(3.97 – 3300)/3300] × 100 = 16.87° = 120 ∠ -36.77 + j235.94 percent 45 .3 × 103 × 0.77 + j235.f.) Ohm’s law : V = I x Z Percent Regulation = (Vno load –Vload )/ Vno load x 100 cos -1 0.8)]<-36.69) = (3851.77 + j235.87° A IZ = (5 ∠ 60° )(120 ∠ -36.87° and Z = (0.

P = I x V Percent Regulation = (Vno load –Vload )/ Vno load x 100 Vs2 = (VRcosΦR + RI)2 + (VR sinΦR + XI)2 46 .3 + j0.8 power factor lagging. Calculate (a) the receiving-end voltage and (b) the line current Essential Formulas per-phase voltage : Vs= V/ √ 3 Ohm’s law : V = I x R .The per-phase impedance of a short transmission line is (0. and the load at the receiving end is 300 kilowatts per phase at 0.4) Ω. The sending-end line-to line voltage is 3300V.

8 VR + (0.75 × 105)/ VR ] 2 VR = 1805V (b) we have I = (3.25V and I = (300 × 103)/(0.8) VR = (3.252 = [0.4 × 3.(a) On a per-phase basis.4) Ω if the receivingend voltage is 6351 volts per phase and the voltage regulation is not to exceed 5 percent? 47 .3 × 3.3 + j0.75 × 105)/ VR] 2 + [0.6 VR × (0. Vs= 3300/ √ 3 = 1905.75 × 105)/ VR A Vs2 = (VRcosΦR + RI)2 + (VR sinΦR + XI)2 1905.75 × 105)/1905 = 207.75A What is the maximum power that can be transmitted over a three-phase short transmission line having a per-phase impedance of (0.

05)(6351) = 6668.6 / 6351 0. P = I x V VS = VR + I(R + jX) I = IR + ICR On a per-phase basis.3MW/phase and the maximum total power that can be transmitted is 3× 36.6V Z = √[(0.Essential Formulas: impedance magnitude: Z 2= R2 + X2 per-phase voltage : Vs= V/ √ 3 Ohm’s law : V = I x R .3 = 108.3) = 36.5 × 6668.5 Ω Pmax = (6351/0.4) 2] = 0.9MW 48 . VR = 6351V VS = (1 + 0.3) 2 + (0.5) 2(0.

9 power factor lagging. and C = 1.8mH.The per-phase parameters for a 60Hz.4774µF. using the nominal-II circuit representation Essential Formulas: per-phase voltage : Vs= V/√ 3 Ohm’s law : V = I x R . wye-connected load at 215kV (line-t0-line) and 0. L = 310.07Ω. Calculate the sending-end voltage. the line supplies a 100MW. P = I x V VS = VR + I(R + jX) I = IR + ICR 49 . 200km long transmission line are R = 2.

4<69.39 ∠ 12.57<90° A = 285 ∠ -29.3108 » 117.8° + 34.98° 10-6 I(R + jXL) = 285<-19.5° R + jXL = 2.48° = 139.4 ∠ 69.19 ∠ 88.5 × 1.57<90° A I = I R + I CR = 298.98° = 33.97° kV/phase 50 .8° I CR = V R /X Rc/2 = (124.19 ∠ 88.4774 × 10-6) <90° ] = 34.5° × 117.To use the nominal-II circuit. we first express VR and IR per phase as follows: VR = (215 × 103)/√3 = 124.37<-25.12 × 103<0° )/[1/(377 × 0.9) = 298.48° kV VS = VR + I(R + jXL) = 124.13<0° + 33.13kV IR = (100 × 106)/(√3 × 215 × 103 × 0.07 + j377 × 0.37<-25.

Determine the ABCD constants for the nominal-T circuit of a transmission line for which R = 10 Ω.115° B = Z(1 + ¼YZ) = (10 + j20)[1 + ¼ (j4 × 10 -4)(10 + j20)] = 22. A = D = (1 + ½YZ) = 1 + j[(4 × 10 -4)/2](10 + j20) = 0.25<63.45° W C = Y = j4 × 10 -4 = 4 × 10 -4<90° S 51 .996<0. X = 20 Ω. and Y = 400µS for each phase.

ANSWER: (a) 98.8 power factor lagging.78 percent (b) 139. If the line supplies a 25 MW load at 0.A 138-kV three phase short transmission line has a per-phase impedance of (2 +j4) ohms.99 52 . 0. calculate (a) the efficiency of transmission and (b) the sending end voltage and power factor.5 kV.

which at any locations relates the surge voltage and surge current by the equation: Surge voltage = Surge current x Surge impedance 53 .DIRECT & TRANSFER SURGE CALCULATION Overhead transmission lines and cables under transient conditions can be represented by seriesconnected distributed inductances and shuntconnected distributed capacitances. They can be considered to have a surge impedance.

and that of a cable of the order of 50 OHMs.The surge impedance of an overhead transmission line is of the order of 500 OHMs. the surge impedance varies from 500 OHM to 800 OHM BEWLEY LATTICE DIAGRAM Trace the propagation of a travelling wave in overhead transmission lines or cables. With power transformer. 54 .

magnitude on reaching position P2 is reflected back into the line with a reflection coefficient where and is refracted into further lines beyond position P2 with a refraction coefficient .6 metre per microsecond The travelling wave with 1 p. 55 .u.Distance between P1 and P2 (ft) = Travelling wave velocity (ft per microsecond) x Transit time (microsecond) where the travelling wave is 550ft per microseconds or 167. where are the surge impedances of the line P1 P2 and that of the further line beyond P2.

Draw the Bewley lattice diagram and trace the surge voltage at the other side of the river crossing. 56 . one mile wide through a 132 kV overhead line and is to connect to another 132 kV cable at the other side of the river.Example: A 132 kV cable is to cross a river.

57 .

John Mateo 58 .LESSON 3 Prepared by: Mr.

John Mateo 59 . The interconnections among these components in the power system may be shown in a so-called oneline diagram. and loads. transformers. For analysis. transmission lines. the equivalent circuits of the components are shown in a reactance diagram or an impedance diagram Prepared by: Mr.Learning objectives To simplify complex power system using oneline diagram To represent power system components with per-unit The basic components of a power system are generators.

60 .The advantage of a one-line representation is its simplicity: One phase represents all three phases of the balanced system. and the completion of the circuit through the neutral is omitted. the equivalent circuits of the components are replaced by their standard symbols.

One-line diagram that may serve as the basis for a circuit representation that includes the equivalent circuits of the components of the power system 61 .

62 .

3. A generator can be represented by a voltage source in series with an inductive reactance. The loads are inductive. is equally applicable. 5. The delta-wye-connected transformer T1 may be replaced by an equivalent wye-wye connected transformer (via a delta-to-wye transformation) so that the impedance diagram may be drawn on a per-phase basis. 2. The internal resistance of the generator is negligible compared to the reactance. The transmission line is a medium-length line and can be denoted by a T circuit. The transformer core is ideal. An alternative representation. such as a pi circuit.1. 4. and the transformer may be represented by a reactance. 63 .

64 .

A minimum of four base quantities is required to completely defined a per-unit system. then the other two become fixed.Computations for a power system having two or more voltage levels become very cumbersome when it is necessary to convert currents to a different voltage level whenever they flow through a transformer (the change in current being inversely proportional to the transformer turns ratio). 65 . A set of base values. and impedance (or admittance). these are voltage. power. If two of them are set arbitrarily. and each parameter is expressed as a decimal fraction of its respective base Per –Unit : then the ratio of actual to base quantity. is assumed for each voltage class. or base quantities. current.

or pu) Generators and Per Unit System A generator rated 1000 VA and 200 V has internal impedance of j10 Ω. 66 . or pu) Per-unit current = actual current / base current (per unit.Base current = base voltamperes / base voltage (in amperes) Base impedance = base voltage / base current (in ohms) Per-unit voltage = actual voltage / base voltage (per unit. or pu) Per-unit impedance = actual impedance / base impedance (per unit.

S base = 1000 VA Vbase = 200 V I base = Z base = S base 1000 = =5A Vbase 200 2 Vbase 200 2 = = 40 Ω S base 1000 The generator impedance is stamped on the nameplate together with the other ratings.u .u. = Z% j25 = = j0. This generator has impedance of j25%. (Ω) 100 100 67 .The ratings of the generator are chosen as the base values. This means that the per unit impedance is Z p .25 p.

The actual impedance in Ω is Zactual = Zp. × Zbase = j0.25 × 40 = j10 Ω Example The given generator is short circuited at its terminals. in %.u. Find the short circuit current and the short circuit power delivered by the generator in p..u. and in the actual units 68 .

0 × 1000 = j4000 VA 69 . ( A ) r r E G p.u . × 100% = − j400 % r r r∗ * Ssc p.25 r r Ssc % = Ssc p. = E G p.u. = r = = − j4.0 × 5. ×100% = j400 % The actual values calculated from the per unit values are: r r Isc = Isc p.u .0 A r r Ssc = Ssc p.u .0 = − j20.r r Isc % = Isc p. × Isc p.0 p. u .0 p.u .(A ) Z S p. × I base = − j4. 1 Isc p.u . j0.u . × S base = j4.u .u .u .u. = 1× ( − j4) = j4.

and has an internal impedance of j4.Transformers and Per Unit System A transformer is rated 2000 VA. 200V/400V.0 Ω 2 2 70 .0 Ω as seen from the low voltage side.0 × 200 = j16. The internal impedance of the transformer as seen from the high voltage side is r r V2 Z HV = Z LV V 1 400 = j4.

regardless of to which side of the transformer it is referred. The transformer equivalent circuit is reduced to a single impedance: 71 .Bases for transformer low side and high side The transformer per unit impedance is the same.

S 3φ base = 3 VL Lbase I L base where S3φ base is the chosen three phase base power.Three Phase System and Per Unit Calculations In three phase systems the total apparent power is given by S 3φ = 3 VLL I L where VLL is the line-to-line voltage and IL is the line current. or the chosen base power used for all system calculation by the power utility VLL base is the chosen line-to-line base voltage. usually the rated voltage of the equipment or the nominal voltage level of a part of the power system IL base is the line base current. usually the rated power of the equipment. Similarly. usually calculated from the base power and the base voltage 72 .

u . Z ∆ base 3Z Y base Z Y base 73 . = Z∆ 3Z Y ZY = = = Z Y p.∆ and Y Connection in Per Unit Calculations The base values are related through the same relationships as the actual quantities: Z ∆ base = VLL base I ∆ base = 3 VLN base VLN base =3 = 3 Z Y base I L base I L base 3 Z ∆ p. u .

The per-unit (pu) impedance of a generator or transformer. such a per-unit impedance can be referred to a new voltampere base with the equation 74 . However. as supplied by the manufacturer. is generally based on the rating of the generator or transformer itself.

John Mateo 75 . the equation simplifies to The impedance of transmission lines are expressed in ohms. Prepared by: Mr.If the old base voltage and new base voltage are the same. but can be easily converted to pu values on a given volt-ampere base .

Calculate the base kVA and the base current. respectively. 76 .The base impedance and base voltage for a given power system are 10Ω and 400V.

Determine the per-unit voltage and the base impedance for the system. respectively.Base current = base voltage / base impedance = 400/10 = 40A Base kVA = (base voltage x base current)/1000 = (40 × 400)/1000 = 16kVA The base current and base voltage of a 345kV system are chosen to be 3000A and 300kV. 77 .

200V generator has an internal impedance Zg of 2Ω.Base impedance = base voltage / base current (in ohms) = (300 × 103)/3000 = 100Ω Per-unit voltage = actual voltage / base voltage = 345/300 = 1. 10kVA. Using the ratings of the generator as base values.15 pu A single-phase. determine the generated per-unit voltage that is required to produce full-load current under short-circuit conditions. 78 .

express the transformer reactance as a per-unit quantity. 100/200 = 0. Considering the rated values as base quantities. 79 . in per-unit terms.000/200 = 50A = 1pu The generated voltage required to produce the rated current under short circuit is IZg = 50 × 2 = 100V. we have Base voltage = 200V = 1pu Base kVA = 10kVA = 1pu Base current = Base kVA / Base voltage = 10.In per-unit terms.5pu Let a 5kVA. or. 400/200V transformer be approximately represented by a 2 Ω reactance referred to the low voltage side.

Using the rated kVA and voltage as base values. Then refer this per-unit value to a 230V. 220V synchronous generator has a reactance of 8.25kVA.4 Ω per phase. wye-connected.5kVA base 80 . 6.25 pu A three-phase. determine the per-unit reactance.Base voltamperes = 5000VA and base voltage = 200V Base current = 5000/200 = 25A Base impedance = 200/25 = 8Ω Then the per-unit reactance referred to the low-voltage side is Per-unit reactance = 2/8 = 0. 7.

8MVA base.05) pu.4 = 1pu Per-unit reactance = 8.Base volt-amperes = 6250 = 1pu and base voltage = 220 = 1pu Base current = 6250/(√ 3 × 220) = 16. referred to a 13kV. What is the voltage drop across the line? 81 .01 + j0. The per-phase impedance of the line is (0.5kVA base Per-unit reactance = 0. 7. 13kV transmission line delivers 8MVA of load.627pu For the 230V.4 = 0.4 = 13.688pu A three-phase.4/13.4 = 1pu Base reactance = 220/16.627(220/230)2 (7500/6250) = 0.

3 = 36.The given base quantities yield Base kVA = 8000 = 1pu Base kV = 13 = 1pu Then the other base quantities are Base current = 8000/13 √ 3 = 355.6(0. 230kV where the reactances are computed on the basis of the individual component ratings.1V A portion of a power system consists of two generators in parallel.3(0.83)Ω Voltage drop = 355. 8 percent reactance Transformer: 15MVA.366 + j1.6 = 1pu From these.000/355. 12 percent reactance Generator G2 = 5MVA.01 + j0. Express the reactances and the impedance in percent with 15MVA as the base value. connected to a step-up transformer that links them with a 230kV transmission line. we find the actual values as Impedance = 36.366 + j1. 6 percent reactance Transmission line: (4 + j60) Ω.3 = 1pu Base impedance = 13. 82 .83) = 130 + j650 = 663.05) = (0. The ratings of these components are Generator G1 = 10MVA.

Percent reactance = 8(15/5) = 24 percent For the transformer. expressing all values as per-unit values. from (2. 83 .113 + j1.2) and (2. Percent reactance = 12(15/10) = 18 percent For generator G2.For generator G1.7) Percent impedance = (4 + j60)[(15 × 10 6)/(230 × 10 3) 2] × 100 = (0. Percent reactance = 6(15/15) = 6 percent And for the transmission line.7) percent Draw an impedance diagram for the system shown in the figure.

039 + j0.088pu For motor M.000/8000 2 = 0.Zpu = j0. Zpu = j0. For generator G1.1(2500) 2(50)/(2500) 2(40) = j0.000) 2(50)/(8000) 2(80) = j0.0pu For generator G2.3(2500) 2(50)/(2500) 2(20) = j0. kVApu = 25/50 = 0. Zpu = (50 + j200)50.Choose 50kVA to be the base kVA.75pu For transformer T1.125pu For the transmission line. Zpu = j0. Zpu = j0.09(10.5pu Resulting reactance diagram 84 .2(2500) 2(50)/(2500) 2(10) = j1.156 pu For transformer T2.

Draw a per-unit reactance diagram for the system shown Impedance Diagram 85 .

64pu For the line. Xpu = (20/10)j0. Xpu = (20/30)j0.15 pu because its percent rectance is 15 percent with the same kVA base. for G1.1pu For T3.5)j0. Xpu = Xline(base kVA)/(base kV)21000 = j60(20.276pu 86 .08 = j0.1 = j0. Xpu = j0.000)/(60) 2(1000) = j0. Xpu = (20/2.Choosing 20MVA and 66kV as base values.15 = j0.2pu For T1 and T2.. Also for G2 and G3.

Per Unit Calculations The per unit value is the ratio of the actual value and the base value of the same quantity per unit value = actual value base value 87 .

it is necessary to convert their impedances to a per unit value expressed on the same base. The base impedance for the bases M and N are.Change of Base When pieces of equipment with various different ratings are connected to a system. The base that we are converting from will be denoted by subscript M. respectively 2 VM base Z M base = S M base Z N base = 2 VN base S N base 88 . the base we are converting to will be denoted by subscript N.

Using the MVA and kV notation. ⋅ MVA M base (kVN base ) 2 Tutorial Sample 89 .u . MVA N base (kVM base ) 2 = Z M p. Z N p.u .

Example Specification 90 .

6 kV to the 66 kV side 91 .After referring from 6.

assume common bases 30 MVA and 6.6 kV 92 .G1 & G2.

6 kV: 93 . assume common bases 30 MVA and 6. assume common bases 30 MVA and 66 kV: On G3.On the side of 66 kV transmission line.

Lesson 4 94 .

and planning for future expressions. controlling them. are extremely important in evaluating the operation of power systems. more commonly known as load-flow studies. A power-flow study yields mainly the real and reactive power and phasor voltage at each bus on the system.Learning objective To conduct load flow study in a power system Power-flow studies. although much additional information is available from the computer printouts of typical power-flow studies 95 .

Thus. in voltamperes. at the sending end we have Ss = Ps + jQs = VsI* VA From Fig. respectively. Complex power S. is in general given by S = P + jQ = VI* VA where I* is the complex conjugate of I. I is given by I = (1/jX)(Vs – VR) so I* = (1/-jX)(Vs* .VR *) Ss = (Vs/-jX)(Vs* . on a per-phase basis.We assume the short transmission line shown in the Figure has negligible resistance and a series reactance of jX ohms per phase.VR *) 96 . given that VS leads VR by an angle δ.(a). We wish to determine the real and reactive power at the sending end and at the receiving end. The per-phase sendingend and receiving-end voltages are VS and VR.

|Vs|| VR |cos δ) var Similarly.Now.| VR | 2) var This equation shows the strong dependence of the reactive power flow on the voltage difference 97 . (b). since Ss = Ps + jQs. then the average reactive power flow over the line is given by Qav = (1/2)(Qs + QR) = (1/2X)(| VS| 2 . at the receiving end we have VR = PR + j QR = VR I* And finally obtain PR = (1/X)(|Vs|| VR |sin δ) W and QR = (1/X)(|Vs|| VR |cos δ .|Vs|| VR |cos δ) Finally.| VR ||Vs| ejδ)/(-jX) = (|Vs|| VR |/X)sin δ + j(1/X)(|Vs|2 .| VR |2) var If the system operates with δ » 0. from the phasor diagram of Fig. we may write and Ps = (1/X)(|Vs|| VR |sin δ) W QS = (1/X)(|Vs|2. VR = | VR |<0° so VR = VR * and Vs = |Vs|< δ Hence Ss= (|Vs|2 .

Z lS2*/V2* (A) 98 . with the real power represented by solid arrows and the reactive power by dashed arrows. explicit analytical solutions are not forthcoming because of load fluctuations on the buses and because the receiving-end voltage may not be known. Then.In an actual power system. numerical methods must be used to solve for unknown quantities – generally via an iterative procedure The figure shows a two-bus system. we obtain V2= V 1 – Z lI = V1. The governing equations for the system are (on a per-phase basis) S2 = V2I* V 1 = V 2 + Z lI Solving for V2 and eliminating I from these equations.

Definition of the special buses: 1. we would assume a value for V and call it V (0). V (1). A generator bus is a bus for which the magnitude of the generated voltage |V| and the corresponding generated power P are known. For convenience. and P and Q are to be determined. 99 . and |V| and δ are to be found. calling the new value of V. and Q and δ are to be obtained. This procedure would be replaced until convergence to the desired precision was achieved. we choose V< δ = 1<0° per unit.To solve (A) iteratively. We would then substitute (V(1))* in the right-hand side of (A) and obtain a new value V (2). 3. obtained in this first iteration. A load bus is a bus for which the active and reactive powers P and Q are known. A swing bus (or slack bus) is a generator bus at which |V| and d are specified. We would substitute this in the right-hand side of (A) and solve for V. 2.

We illustrate the Gauss method with the following example. 100 .The kth (of N) nodal current is The kth (of N) nodal voltage is One of the more commonly used iterative numerical procedures The Gauss and Gauss-Seidel methods are iterative procedures for solving simultaneous (nonlinear) equations.

we rewrite the given equations as x = y/3 + 0. it must be pointed out that an “uneducated guess” of the initial values (such as x0 = y0 = 100) would have caused the solution to diverge 101 . we compute x1 = y0/3 + 0.8 – x02 = 1. That is. However.938 and y = 0.8 – x2 (2) We now make an initial guess of x0 = 1 and y0 = 1.8 (4) (3) After several iterations.8 = 0 To solve with the Gauss method.633 = 0.9178. we obtain x = 0.8 – 1 = 0.633 = 1/3 + 0. A few more iterations would bring us very close to the exact results: x = 0. update x with (1).9 = 0 y + x2 – 1.917.9663 And y1 = 1.y – 3x + 1.93926 and y = 0.633 (1) y = 1. and update y with (2).

Fig. If we represent the system with its Thevenin equivalent and connect the system to a generator as shown in Fig. 2 for leading. 1 102 . 1. and unity power factors. then the corresponding phasor diagram resembles those shown in Fig. Stated otherwise. we investigate the effect of a particular bus voltage on the reactive power supplied by a given generator to the system. lagging. The corresponding reactive power is then determined as needed to maintain each bus voltage.In certain cases the real power on each of the various buses is also specified.

Since the capacitor banks lower the reactive power required from the generators. 2 for a constant power delivered by the generator. and the corresponding phasor diagram. 2 that with constant power input to the bus. the node (or bus) voltage can be determined from the Thevenin equivalent of the system. From the standpoint of the operation of the system. and the larger |Eg| is obtained by increasing the excitation of the generator. If a capacitor bank is installed at a particular node. Another method of controlling bus voltage is by installing shunt capacitor banks at the buses at both the transmission and distribution voltage levels along transmission lines or at substations and loads. we are controlling bus voltage and Q generation by adjusting the generator excitation. Hence it reduces the line current necessary to supply reactive power to the load and reduces the voltage drop in the line via power-factor improvement. the component of I in phase with ETh must be constant. more real power output is available. 2 In the three diagrams of Fig. The increase in V1 due to the capacitor bank is approximately equal to |IC|XTh if ETh remains constant. Thus. Increasing the bus voltage by increasing |Eg| causes the current to become more lagging. shown in the figure. 103 . increasing the voltage specified at a generator bus means that the generator feeding the bus will increase its output of reactive power to the bus. It follows from Fig.Fig. Each capacitor bank supplies reactive power at the point at which it is placed. larger magnitudes of bus voltage V1 require larger |Eg|.

104 .

Then P1 = P2 = |V1||V2|sinδ/X or 10= (1 × 1)sinδ/0.36 pu Power factor at bus 1 = 0.87 lagging 105 .05 from which δ = 30° and V1 = 1<30° . The loads.36pu Thus we have Load on bus 1 = (6 + j10) + (10 + j5.05 – cos30° /0.36) = 24 + j13.36) = 16 + j15.05 pu. it is desired that |V1| = |V2| = 1pu.72 lagging Load on bus 2 = (14 + j8) + (10 +j5.05 = 2. The reactive power is given by Q1 = |V1|2/X . are S1 = 6 + j10pu and S2 = 14 + j8 pu. calculate the power and the power factors at the two ends.68pu = -Q2 so Qline = Q1 – Q2 = 2Q1 = 5. Let V2 = 1<0° and V1 = 1<δ. as shown.|V1||V2|cosδ/X = 1/0. If the real power input at each bus is 10pu.For the system shown. The line impedance is j0.36 pu Power factor at bus 2 = 0.

Also calculate the per-unit real and reactive power on the first bus From the above equation Iteration 0 1 2 3 4 V2.106 0.pu 1.108 106 .108 0.922 – j0.2) pu. and the load on the other bus is (1 + j0.108 0.Two buses are interconnected by a transmission line of impedance (0.4) pu.0 + j0 0.9 – j0.903 – j0.9 – j0.3 + j1. Determine the per-unit voltage on this second bus. The voltage on one bus is 1<0° .

P1 = 1.6° .188<28. How much reactive power must be supplied? 107 .188<28.6° = 1. This gives us S1 = P1 + jQ1 = V1I1* = (1<0° )(1.Then V2 = 0.188<28.9 – j0.108 pu and I = S2*/V2* = (1 – j0.188<-28.9 + j0.6°) = 1.108) = 1.043 + j0.569 pu The voltages on the two buses of Question 2 are to be made equal in magnitude by supplying reactive power at the second bus.043 pu and Q1 = 0.4)/(0.6° pu so that I* = 1.569 Hence.

and S2* = (1 – j0. Calculate the average reactive power flow over the line. The per-unit load on the line is (1 + j0. V2 = 1<0° (desired).259 pu.06. Q2 = 0.12. Zl = 0. Then from V1 = V2 + (Zl/V2*)(S2* + jQ‘2) (1) Where Q‘2 represents the added reactive power at bus 2. 108 . The per-unit impedance of a short transmission line is j0.4)]| Hence. 1 = |1 + (0.03 + j0.6) pu at a receiving-end voltage of 1<0° pu.03 + j0.We have |V1| = 1.12)[1 + j(Q2 – 0.4).

06) = 0.96582 – 12) = -56 pu Solve the following equation by the GaussSeidel method: x2 – 6x + 2 = 0.9658<3.The sending-end voltage is VS = VR + IZ = 1<0° + (1 + j0.|VR|2) var . = [1/2(0.06)](0. from Qav = (1/2X)(|VS|2 .56° pu Thus.6)(j0. 109 .

3568 Iteration 4: x(4) = F(0. The quadratic gives this root as x = 0. which seems to be sufficiently small.35425 to five places For the two-bus system and with the data as shown and with Y11 = Y22 = 1.6<-80° pu and Y21 = Y12 = 1. determine the per-unit voltage at bus 2 by the Gauss-Seidel method.9<100° pu.375 Iteration 3: x(3) = F(0. Then.3545 We may now stop since |x(n+1)| .3568) = (1/6)(0.We solve the given equation for a.0023.375) = (1/6)(0. in succeeding iterations we obtain Iteration 1: x(1) = F(1) = 1/6 + 1/3 = 0.5) 2 + 1/3 = 0.5 Iteration 2: x(2) = F(0.375) 2 + 1/3 = 0. obtaining x = (1/6)x2 = 1/3 = F(x) and use the initial estimate x(0) = 1. 110 .|x(n)| < Î = 0.3568) 2+ 1/3 = 0.5) = (1/6)(0.

0<-10° pu V 2(1) = (0. (1) becomes )[0.625<80° )(0.6<-80° (1.625<80° )[(0.1) + j(Q 1 – 0.6° .583<139° ) – (2.09<100° )] = 1.583<149° /1.09<100° ] (2) To begin the iterations.5 – j0.12.09<100° ) = 1.6° pu The next iteration yields V 2(2)) = (0. we let V 2(0) = 1.Y21V 1] (1) With the given numerical values.2.625<80° )[0.048.583<149° /(V 2 (i))* V 2 (i+1) = (1/1.9<100° )(1.2.3 pu From V 2(i+1) = (1/Y22)[(P 2– jQ 2)/(V 2(i))* .6° pu 111 .583<149° /(V 2 (i))* .048<12.4) pu S 2 = -0.1<0° )] = (0.The power into the two buses is S1 = (P 1 – 1.047<-8.

Power System Economics LESSON 5 Learning objectives a. To identify the different processes involved in flow and congestion control 112 .

and the turbine governor Within a power plant. generator voltage. Because fuel cost is the major factor in determining economic operation. the total load must be appropriately shared by the generating units. a number of ac generators generally operate in parallel. we shall consider only the economical operation of power systems and the control of load frequency. curves like that of Figure 1 are important to power-plant operation. 113 .Of the numerous aspects of power system operation and control. For the economic operation of the plant.

we may say that the fuel requirement is 8. Or.1 × 109 Btu/h. 1. 114 .Note in the figure that the inverse slope of the curve at any point in the fuel efficiency of the generating unit operating at that point. Point A in Fig.4 × 106 Btu/MWh. 1 is such a point for a unit having the input-output characteristic of Fig. an output of 250 MW requires an input of approximately 2. there. Maximum fuel efficiency occurs at the point at which the line from the origin is tangent to the curve.

1. Incremental fuel cost = dF/dP (in dollars per megawatthour) where F = input in dollars per hour. this incremental fuel cost is the additional cost of increasing the output by MW. 115 . For the most economic operation. Then the incremental cost is determined from the slopes of the input-output curves (Fig.To obtain the most economic load distribution between two units. we must determine the incremental cost corresponding to a partial shift of load between the units. From Fig. We first convert the fuel requirement into a dollar cost per megawatthour. At a given output. P = output in megawatts.1) for the two units. the criterion for load division is that all units must operate at the same incremental fuel cost. generally the incremental fuel cost of one unit will be higher than that of the other. load should be transferred from the unit with the higher incremental costs of the two become equal. In a plant having two operating units. In a plant with several units. for each unit.

116 .To include the effect of transmission-line losses on economical system operation. as |I 1 | = P 1 / √ 3|V 1 |cos Φ 1 |I 2 | = P 2 / √ 3|V 2 |cos Φ 2 where cos Φ 1 and cos Φ 2 are the power factors at buses 1 and 2. 2 shows two plants connected to a three-phase load. we must express these losses as a function of plant power output. and where |I 3 | = |I 1 + I 2 | = |I 1 | + |I 2 |) if we assume that I 1 and I 2 are in phase. the respective plant outputs. These currents may be expressed in terms of P 1 and P 2. The total transmission loss (for all three phases) is given by Ploss = 3(|I1|2R 1 + |I 2|2R 2 + |I 3|2R 3) where the R’s are the per-phase resistances of the lines. respectively. Fig.

Ploss = P 1 2 B 11 + 2 P 1 P 2B 12 + P 22 2 B 22 where B 11. and B 22 are called loss coefficients or B coefficients and are given by B 11 = (R 1 + R 3)/|V 1 | 2 cos 2 Φ 1 B 12 = R 13/|V 1 ||V 12|cos Φ 1 cos Φ 2 B 22 = (R 2 + R 3)/|V 12| 2 cos 2 Φ 2 For a system of n plants. we must have 117 . For a system of n plants. B 12. the total cost of fuel per hour is and the total power output is With transmission losses.

when the load is allocated among the n plants for minimum fuel cost. For a given (constant). In addition. Then 118 .where P R and P loss are. P R. dP R = 0. respectively. dF total = 0. the total power received by the load and lost in transmission.

is the same throughout the system. that.The system fuel cost is minimized when the incremental fuel cost for each plant. multiplied by its penalty factor. when To determine the L K 119 .

and the load frequency. These include devices that control the generator voltage. among other power-system variables. there are also computer controls to ensure economic power flow and to control reactive power. Generator voltage control is accomplished by controlling the exciter voltage.A number of automatic controls are used in present-day power systems. The blockdiagram representation of a closed-loop automatic voltage regulating system is shown in simplified form 120 . the turbine governor.

Thus. the change ∆f in the generator frequency may be used as a control signal for controlling the turbine mechanical output power. and T f are.The open-loop transfer function G(s) is given by G(s) = k/(1 + T as)(1 + T es)(1 + T fs) where T a. the exciter. The change in the turbine output power as a function of a change in the generator frequency is given by ∆Pm = ∆Pref – (1/R) ∆f 121 . consequently. and the open-loop gain k is k = ka ke kf Sudden changes in the load cause the turbine speed and. and the generator field. the generator frequency to change as well. The change in turbine speed occurs when the generator electromagnetic torque no longer equals the turbine (or other prime mover) mechanical torque. respectively. T e. the time constants associated with the amplifier.

and R is known as the regulation constant. respectively. the frequency deviation ∆f still remains if ∆Pref = 0. the changes in the turbine output power and the reference power (as determined by the governor setting).where ∆Pm and ∆Pref are. However. It is implied that the accelerations and decelerations of the generator rotor are controlled by the turbine governor. 122 .

8. Hint: We have to show that the fuel requirement is higher than that of point A. that is.4 × 106 Btu/MWh.Use Fig. 1 to find the fuel requirements for outputs of (a) 100MW and (b) 400MW. Thus verify that point A is probably the maximum fuel-efficiency point. 123 .

124 .(a) From Fig. A certain amount of coal costs $1. Hence. both values are greater than that for point A.6 × 109)/400 = 9.0 × 106 Btu/MWh Clearly. Then Fuel requirement = (3. 1. Fuel requirement = (1 × 109)/100 = 10 × 106 Btu/MWh (b) Similarly.6 × 109 Btu/h. at 400 MW output. Hint: We have to solve for the slope of the line at point A to solve for the incremental cost. at 100MW output. 1. the fuel input is approximately 1 × 109 Btu/h. determine the incremental fuel cost at point A.20 and produces 106 Btu of energy as fuel for a generating unit. If the input-output characteristic of the unit is that shown in Fig. the fuel input is approximately 3.

Slope at A = (2.20 = $9. Incremental cost = 7.24/MWh 125 .7 Btu/MWh Thus.7 × 1.2 – 2.0)109/(260 – 234)106 = 7.

R = 0. By how much does the turbine output power increase? The per-unit frequency change is Per-unit ∆f = ∆f/fbase = -0. The generator frequency decreases by 0.833MW 126 .For a certain turbine-generator set. based on the generator rating of 100MVA and 60Hz.02Hz. and the system adjusts to steady-state operation.02/60 = -3.04pu.33 × 10-3)(100) = 0.33 × 10-4 pu Then from ∆Pm = ∆Pref – (1/R) ∆f yields Per-unit ∆Pm = -(1/0.33 × 10-3 pu The actual increase in output power is then ∆Pm = (8.04)(-3.33 × 10-4) = 8.

The plant output ranges from 240MW to 1000MW over a 24-h period. During this period the load on each unit varies from 120MW to 600MW. A. Plot a curve of incremental fuel cost l versus plant output for minimum-fuel-cost operation.Graphs of the incremental fuel costs (in dollars per megawatthour) for two generating units in a power plant are shown in Fig. 127 . These graphs are linear.

008P1 + 8 (1) dF2/dP2 = 0. unit 2 should take all the additional load above 120MW. Therefore.96. we find that dF2/dP2 is equal to 8. until dF2/dP2 has risen to 8.96 and dF2/dP2 = 7.009P2 + 6 (2) At 120MW. dF1/dP1 = 8. we obtain dF1/dP1 = 0. Using (2).08. at which value Ptotal = P1 + P2 = 120 + 328.9 = 448.From the figure. Similar computations give the remaining rows of the table. whose values are plotted in the figure (dashed lines) 128 .9MW These values give us the second row of the Table .96 when P2 = 328.9MW.

008P1 + 8 = 0.009P2 + 6 0.24MW 129 . that is.008P1 + 8 = 0. determine how the load should be shared by the two generating units for minimum fuel cost.76MW and P2 = 588. incremental cost for each plant must be equal. 0.009P2 + 6 (2) Solving ( for P1 and P2) yields P1 = 411. dF1/dP1 = dF2/dP2 The maximum load is Ptotal = 1000 = P1 + P2 For minimum fuel cost. Hint: For minimum fuel cost.For maximum demand from the plant of Question 4.

29/MWh Prepared by.76 + 8 = $11.Determine the incremental fuel cost for each unit for the conditions of Question No. John Mateo 130 . 5 The incremental fuel cost λ is the same for both units. Mr.008 × 411.008P1 + 8 of Question 4 With P1 = 411. From dF1/dP1 = 0. λ = 0.76MW.

Symmetrical Fault Analysis LESSON 6 Learning objectives To calculate fault current in a three-phase circuit due to a symmetrical fault 131 .

Prepared by: Mr. John Mateo Prepared by: Mr.The operation of a power system departs from normal after the occurrence of a fault. Faults give rise to abnormal operating conditions – usually excessive currents and voltages at certain points on the system – which are guarded against with various types of protective equipment. John Mateo 132 .

Determination of the ratings of required circuit breakers 4. so that only singlephase equivalent circuits need be used in the analysis. Determination of unsymmetrical faults currents.1. double line-toground. Balanced three-phase fault calculations can be carried out on a per-phase basis. Investigation of schemes of protective relaying 5. Determination of the maximum and minimum threephase short-circuit currents 2. and open-circuit faults 3. and all calculations are made on a per-unit basis. Determination of voltage levels at strategic points during a fault Prepared by: Mr. Invariably. John Mateo A balanced three-phase short circuit) is an example of a symmetrical fault. as in single line-to-ground. line-to-line. 133 . the circuit constants are expressed in per-unit terms.

where Vl is the nominal line voltage in kilovolts. 134 . and If is the fault current in kiloamperes.In short-circuit calculations. which is equal to (√3)VlIf. we often evaluate the shortcircuit MVA (megavolt-amperes).

the transient period. The current flowing before the fault occurs is IL. and the terminal voltage of the generator is Vt. lasting only for the first few cycles. during which the current decrement is very rapid. 135 . covering a relatively longer time during which the current decrement is more moderate.The symmetrical trace of a short-circuited stator-current shown. and finally the steady-state period Suppose now that a generator is loaded when a fault occurs. shows the corresponding equivalent circuit with the fault to occur at point P. the voltage at the fault is Vf. may be divided into three periods or time regimes: the subtransient period.

With switch S open. If we can determine Eg". which will be i". we can find this current through Xd". Here a voltage Eg" in series with Xd" supplies the steady-state current IL when switch S is open.When a three-phase fault occurs at P. the subtransient internal voltage. for the transient internal voltage we have Eg' = Vt + jILXd' Clearly Eg" and Eg' are dependent on the value of the load before the fault occurs 136 . we have Eg" = Vt + jILXd" ( which defines Eg". Similarly. and supplies the current to the short circuit through Xd" and Zext when switch S is closed . the circuit shown becomes the appropriate equivalent circuit (with switch S is closed).

The figure shows the one-line diagram for a single phase of a system in which a generator supplies a load through a step-up transformer. and a stepdown transformer. 137 . Calculate the per-unit current. The transformers are ideal. a transmission line.

3 = 0.4608W = 1pu Zload = (2 + j5)/0.000/96 = 208.3A = 1pu Zbase.Because the voltage (and current) levels change across the transformers.gen = 20.67A = 1pu Zbase.load = 96/208.34 + j10.000/960 = 20.83A = 1pu Zbase.line = 20kVA = 1pu Ibase. different base voltages are involved at different parts of the system.75<68° = 0.022 + j0.gen = 480/41.4608 = (4.52W = 1pu Along the transmission line.065)pu At the load Vbase.load = 960/10 = 96V = 1pu kVAbase.line = 480/0.34 + j10.362 + j10. At the generator.85)pu The total impedance is then Ztotal = Zline + Zload = (0. Vbase.000/480 = 41. Vbase.load = 20.75Ð68° so that I = 1<0° /Ztotal = 1<0°/11.line = 20.08W = 1pu Zline = (1 + j3)/46.gen = 480V = 1pu kVAbase.67 = 11.022 + j0.load = 20kVA = 1pu Ibase.83 = 46.08 = (0.5 = 960V = 1pu kVAbase.gen = 20kVA = 1pu Ibase.line = 960/20.085<68 138 .85) = 4.915 = 11.065) + (4.

Determine the fault current and the fault kVA if the busbar line-to-line voltage is 11kV 139 . A threephase short-circuit occurs at point F. The base values for the given percent reactances are the ratings of the individual pieces of equipment.An interconnected generator-reactor system is shown in Figure.

246 Fault MVA = (50 × 103)/0.15 = 0.4 = 0.246 = 203. and find per-unit values for the system reactances.25)] = j0.375pu XG3 = (50/20)0.25MVA Fault current = (203.25pu X2 = (50/8)0. referred to this base. Per-unit reactance = j[0.Per phase reactance diagram Simplified into: First we arbitrarily choose 50MVA as the base MVA.2344 + 0.375pu X1 = (50/10)0.25 × 106)/(√3 × 11 × 103) = 10.5(0.5pu XG2 = (50/20)0.25)]/[0.25pu The total reactance from the neutral to the fault at F is.668A 140 . from that diagram.15 = 0.10 = 0.5 + (0.2344 + 0. We obtain XG1 = (50/10)0.5 = 0.

5 – j0. unbalanced load are Ia = (44 – j33).33 – j10. Ib = -32 + j24).81 – j8. and Ic = (-40 + j25)A.77 = 41.67 = 14.1° A I a2 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) + (0.866)(32 + j24) + (-0.5 + j0.5 – j0.37<-47° A 141 .17<-131.7<-12. Determine the sequence currents.866)(-40 + j25)] = 12.5 + j0. I a0 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) – (32 + j24) + (-40 + j25)] = -9.2° A I a1 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) – (-0.48 = 18.866)(-40 + j25)] = 40.52 – j13.866)(32 + j24) – (0.The phase currents in a wye-connected.

000) = 0.957pu For the transformer. and the base kVA be 75MVA.000/25. for generator G 1.The system shown in figure is initially on no load.25(75. X d” = 0. Calculate the subtransient fault current that results when a three-phase fault occurs at F. 142 .000) = 0.000/50. in per-unit terms we have. Then.957pu For generator G2.375pu E G1 = 66/69 = 0.25(75. Let the base voltage (on the high side) be 69kV.750pu E G2= 66/69 = 0.10pu. given that the transformer voltage on the high-voltage side is 66kV. X d” = 0. X = 0.

as a phasor with E G1 as reference. the subtransient current in the short circuit is i" = 0.25pu Therefore.75)/(0. The two parallel subtransient reactances are equivalent to a reactance X sub = (0.10) = -j2.735pu Example no 5 A three-phase short-circuit fault occurs at point F in the system shown.375 × 0.375 + 0.957/(j0. 143 . the fault is simulated by closing switch S.The reactance diagram for the system before the fault occurs. Calculate the fault current.25 + j0.75) = 0.

05+j0. The reactances and the impedances in pu will be: XG1 = 0.079+j0.3) X = j0.225)(j0.Let the base MVA be 30 MVA and let 33 kV be the base voltage.225 pu XG2 = 0.21 x 106)/(√3 x 33 x 103) = 875.21 MVA And Short circuit current = (50.5 A 144 .4632 = 0.3)}/{j0.5975 = 50.0826 + j.10 ( 30 / 10) = 0.15 ( 30 / 20) = 0.5918 = 0.4132) pu With X = (XG1 XG2/ XG1 +XG2) = {(j0.05 pu Zline = (3 + j15) ( 30 / 332) = (0.0826+j.3 pu Xtrans = 0.079 pu Per unit Ztotal = 0.2225 +j0.086 + j0.005 ( 30 / 30) = 0.5975 82° Then short circuit kVA = 30 x 103 / .

Symmetrical Components Lesson 7 Learning objectives To transform unbalanced voltage and current components into balanced parameters 145 .

a. negative-sequence. negative phase sequence system .a balanced three-phase system in the reversed sequence c. which are termed the positive sequence.Method of Symmetrical Components This method is based on the fact that a set of three-phase unbalanced phasors can be resolved into three sets of symmetrical components. and zerosequence components. zero phase sequence system – three phasors equal in magnitude and direction revolving in the positive phase 146 . positive phase sequence system – a balanced three-phase system in the normal sequence b.

such that 1 + a + a2 = 0 Prepared by: Mr.Prepared by: Mr. we have V a= V a1 + V a2 + V a3 V b= V b1 + V b2 + V b3 V c = V c1 + V c2 + V c3 We now introduce an operator a that causes a counterclcokwise rotation of 120° (just as the j operator produces a 90° rotation). John Mateo In particular. John Mateo 147 .

voltage. V a = V a0 + V a1 + Va2 Vb= V a0 + a2 a1 1 + aVa2 Vc = V a0 + aV a1 + a2Va2 Prepared by: Mr. V b1 = a 2V a1 V c1 = aV a1 V b2 = aVa2 V c2 = a2V a2 V a0 = V b0 = V co in terms of components of phase a.components of a given sequence in terms of any chosen component. impedance. John Mateo Solving for the sequence components of a V a0 = 1/3 (V a + V b + Vc) V a1 = 1/3 (V a + aVb + a2Vc) V a 2= 1/3 (V a + a2Vb + aVc) A quantity (current. John Mateo 148 . power) that is given in terms of symmetrical components is sometimes called the sequence quantity.” Prepared by: Mr. as in “sequence current.

John Mateo 149 . John Mateo The phase currents in a wye-connected. unbalanced load are Ia = (44 – j33). Ib = (32 + j24). Prepared by: Mr.S = V a I a * + VbI b* + V cI c* = 3(V a0I a0 * V a1 I a1 * V a2 I a2 *) The sequence power is one-third the power in terms of phase quantities Prepared by: Mr. and Ic = -(40 + j25)A. Determine the sequence currents.

I a0 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) – (32 + j24) + (-40 + j25)] = -9.33 – j10.67 = 14.17∠-131.2° A I a1 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) – (-0.5 + j0.866)(32 + j24) – (0.5 – j0.866)(-40 + j25)] = 40.81 – j8.77 = 41.7<-12.1°A I a2 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) + (0.5 – j0.866)(32 + j24) + (-0.5 + j0.866)(-40 + j25)] = 12.52 – j13.48 = 18.37 ∠ -47° A

Prepared by: Mr. John Mateo

Example

150

151

Example

152

Example 153 .

154

155

Unsymmetrical Faults

Lesson 8

Learning objectives

To calculate fault current in a three-phase circuit due asymmetrical fault

156

the neutral generator impedance is represented by three times its value in the zero sequence network 157 . the generator voltages are of positive sequence only and hence only appear in the positive sequence network (2) Since the neutral impedance connected to the generator neutral carries three zero sequence current.SEQUENCE NETWORKS OF GENERATORS (1) Since the generator is designed to supply balanced three phase voltages.

158 .

Transformer phase representation Zero-sequence currents free to flow in both primary and secondary circuits Wye-wye grounded No path for zerosequence currents in primary circuit 159 .

Delta-wye Single phase currents can circulate in the delta but not outside it Delta .wye No flow of zerosequence currents possible 160 .

Delta-delta No flow of zerosequence currents possible Tertiary windings provides path for zerosequence currents 161 .

Types of Faults Single line-to-earth fault Io=1/3(Ia +Ib + Ic) I1 = 1/3(Ia +a2Ic + aIb) I2 = 1/3(Ia +a2Ib + aIc) Io=I1=I2 = Ia/3 Ib = Ic = 0 Va = E .I1Z1 – I2Z2 -1oZo = 0 E = I1Z1 – I2Z2 -1oZo If = 3E / (Z1 + Z2 + Zo) 162 .

Sequence inteconnection

Line –to-line fault

163

Io=0 I1 = 1/3 Ib(a - a2) I2 = 1/3 Ib(a2 - a) I1= E/ (Z1 + Z2)

Sequence inteconnection

164

Line –to-line-to-earth fault

Ia = 0 I1 = E / (Z1 + Z2Zo/(Z2 +Zo) I2 = - I1 (Zo /(Zo+ Z2 )) I0 = - I1 (Z2/(Zo+ Z2 )) If = 3E / (Z1 + 3Zg +Z2 + Zo)

165

voltage is connected through star-star transformer. 166 . to two lines in parallel.Example A synchronous machine A generating 1 p. also generating 1 p. X1 = X2 = Xo. reactance 0.u.12 p.1 p. voltage.u. For both transformers. to a second machine B.u. The other ends of the lines are connected through star-star transformer of reactance 0.u.

25 0.The relevant per unit reactances of the plant. Machine B 0.2 0.03 167 .3.3 0.7 X1 X2 X0 Machine A 0. all referred to the sme base are as follows: For each line.15 0. X1=X2=0. X0=0.05 The star points of machine A and B are solidly earthed.

Positive.sequence Negative sequence 168 .

Zero-sequence 169 .

and calculate the ground fault current. The percentage impedance of the transformer is 12% at 75 MVA. and the transformer connection is delta on the HV windings and star on the LV windings. 170 .Example A 75 MVA 115/33 kV power transformer at the P. draw the sequence impedance networks for the ground fault. developed a line-to-ground shortcircuit fault at a high voltage winding terminal. Thailand. The 115 kV network can be considered as a star connection with centre point solidly earthed.T. Central Substation in Rayong. If the supply impedance of 115 kV power supply is 3% based on 75 MVA.T.

171 . the positive.For a single line-to-ground fault on the “A” phase. negative and zero sequence networks are to be connected in series in order to calculate the sequence short-circuit current.

5 = 12.11 p. There are three fault current infeeds: One fault infeed from generator G1.u.33 x 376. one fault infeed from generator G2 and one fault infeed from generator G3.11 p.Total sequence impedances = 3 x 3% = 9% If = 1/9% = 11.u. = 33. Short-circuit current on “A” phase = 3 x 11.549 Ampere Example 1 Three-phase short-circuit fault at terminals of generator G1 in power system of figure 1. 172 .

173 .

174 .

175 .Example Three-phase short-circuit fault at transformer T1 66 kV circuit-breaker terminal in power system of figure 1.

L2 and L3 are all 5 OHMs.Example With reference to the power system of figure 1. that is interrupted by the circuit-breaker. 176 . Calculate the fault current for a single line-toground short-circuit at transformer T1 66 kV circuit-breaker terminal. the neutral point reactors at the three generators L1.

177 .

To conduct power system stability study on a power system 178 .LESSON 9 Learning objectives a.

Dynamic stability involves the response to small disturbances that occur in the system. or synchronism. while disturbances occur on the system. the system is dynamically unstable. and transient stability Steady-state stability relates to the response of a synchronous machine to a gradually increasing load. dynamic. The system’s response to the disturbance may not become apparent for some 10 to 30s. If these oscillations are of successively smaller amplitudes. Three types of stability are of concern: steadystate. producing oscillations. The source of this type of instability is usually an interaction between control systems. the system is considered dynamically stable. If the oscillations grow in amplitude. 179 .By the stability of a power system we mean the ability of the system to remain in operating equilibrium.

power angles. then GH = ½ Jωs2 180 . which may cause rather large changes in rotor speeds. if G is the MVA rating of the machine. and power transfers.Transient stability involves the response to large disturbances. Thus. The per-unit inertia constant H is defined as the kinetic energy stored in the rotating parts of the machine at synchronous speed per unit megavoltampere (MVA) rating of the machine. The system’s response to such a disturbance is usually evident within 1s. The angular momentum and initial constant play an important role in determining the stability of a synchronous machine.

where J is the polar moment of inertia of all rotating parts in kilogram-(meters-squared). GH = ½ M ωs = ½ M(360)f or M = GH/180f MJ. then M = J ωs Since ωs = 360f electrical degrees per second. 181 .s/electrical degree where f is the frequency of rotation. and ωs is the angular synchronous velocity in electrical radians per second If M is the corresponding angular momentum.

then Where Pa is in megawatts. the “power in” P i no longer equals the “power out” Pout. then under steady-state conditions (with no disturbance) we have Te = TI T e ωs = T i ωs T i ωs . an accelerating torque comes into play. and θ is the angular position of the rotor The per-unit swing equation is 182 .T e ωs = P i – Pe = 0 Consider a synchronous generator developing an electromagnetic torque T e (and a corresponding electromagnetic power P e) while operating at the synchronous If a departure from steady state occurs. and if P i – Pe = 0. such as a change in load or a fault.speed ωs. If P a is the corresponding accelerating (or decelerating) power. If the input torque provided by the prime mover at the generator shaft is T i. Instead.

An inertia constant H mach based on a machine’s own MVA rating may be converted to a value H syst relative to the system base S syst with the formula H syst = H mach (S mach /S syst) A convenient system base value is 100MVA. and R is its radius of gyration in feet. respectively. such that δ= δ1 . The swing equation may be written for two machines as where the subscripts 1 and 2 correspond to machines 1 and 2. The moment of inertia of a synchronous machine is given by WR 2/32.2 slug-(feet-squared). Machinery manufacturers generally supply the value of WR 2for their machines.δ 2 . If we denote the relative angle between the two rotor axes by δ . where W is the weight of the rotating part of the machine in pounds. then 183 .

δ begins to increase under the influence of positive accelerating power.Algorithm for the Iterations Critical Clearing Angle If a disturbance (or fault) occurs in a system. There is a critical angle within which the fault must be cleared if he system is to remain stable and the equal-area criterion is to be satisfied. and the system will become unstable if δ becomes very large. This angle is known as the critical clearing angle δc. 184 .

If a threephase short circuit occurs across the line. For stability. consider a system that normally operates along curve A in Fig. the critical clearing angle must be such that area A1 = area A2. its curve of power versus power angle will correspond to the horizontal axis. 185 .For example.

186 .

The inertia constant H for a 60Hz. How much kinetic energy is stored in the rotor at synchronous speed? If the input to the generator is suddenly increased by 20MVA. what acceleration is imparted to the rotor? The energy stored in the rotor at synchronous speed is GH = 100 × 4 = 400MJ Using M(d2θ/dt2) = Pi – Pe = Pa with Pa = 20MVA of accelerating power and with M = GH/180f = 400/(180 × 60) = 1/27 d2θ/dt2 = 20 × 27 = 540° /s2 187 .0MJ/MVA. 100MVA hydroelectric generator is 4.

The two machines operate in parallel in a power station.0MJ/MVA.A 500MVA synchronous machine has H1 = 4. and a 1500MVA machine has H2 =3.6MJ/MVA. the equivalent H relative to a 100MVA base is H = 6800/100 = 68MJ/MVA 188 .6 × 600 + 3 × 1500 = 6800MJ Thus. What is the equivalent H constant for the two. relative to a 100MVA base? The total kinetic energy of the two machines is KE = 4.

53)/(180)(60) = 0. two-pole.rad/s 189 . What is the energy stored in the rotor at the rated speed? What is the corresponding angular momentum? Determine the inertia constant H.53MJ/MVA M = GH/180f = (100)(35. 60Hz generator has a moment of inertia of 50 × 103kgm2.329MJ. The stored energy is KE(stored) = ½ Jωm2 = ½ (50 × 103)[(2╥ × 3600)/60] 2 = 3553MJ Then H = KE(stored)/MVA = 3553/100 = 35.A 100MVA.

5MW. The input to the machine is 25MW at a developed power of 22. 60Hz synchronous machine is 200MJ.06 = 2.5/10. H = KE(stored)/machine rating in MVA = 200/50 = 4 M = GH/180f = (50 × 4)/(180 × 60) = 0.0185MJ. six-pole. Calculate the accelerating power and the acceleration The accelerating power is Pa = Pi – Pe = 25 – 22.s/degree = 1.356 rad/s2 190 .s/rad d2δ/dt2 = 2.5 = 2.The kinetic energy stored in the rotor of a 50MVA.5MW Now.06MJ. also.

Integration with respect to t yields dδ/dt = 2. the time required for ten cycles is t = 1/6 s.178t2 + C2 At t = 0.356.178t2 + δ0 At 60Hz. let δ =δ0 (the initial power angle). C1 = 0.356t + C1 Since dδ/dt = 0 at t = 0.0327 + δ0) rad 191 .If the acceleration of the machine of Question no 4 remains constant for ten cycles. δ= 1. Then δ = 1.178(1/6)2 + δ0 = (0. For this value of t. A second integration now gives δ= 1. what is the power angle at the end of the ten cycles? d2δ/dt2 = 2.

2 pu and is connected to an infinite bus operating at a voltage of 1. Pmax3 = (1. Calculate the critical clearing angle.3 = 4.4pu.0/4. Pmax2 = 0 and k1 = 0 for use in . Subsequently. Before the fault.0pu through a 0.0pu and k2 = 3. Pmax = (1.0 for use in 192 .3pu reactance.Question no 6 The generator of Question 4 has an internal voltage of 1.4 = 3. A three-phase short circuit occurs on the line.2 × 1.2 × 1.0)/0.0)/0.0 pu During the fault. After the fault is cleared. circuit breakers operate and the reactance between the generator and the bus becomes 0.

δ m (see Fig.0 and δ m = π .The initial power angle δ 0 is given by 4sin δ 0 = 1.8 rad. δ 0 = 0.0.).δ 'm δ m = 2.2527 rad. Define δ 'm = p . 193 . The angle δ m in is obtained from sin δ 'm = 1/3.

75)[(2.093 from which δ c = 95.34° 194 .Substituting k1.75cos2.8 – 0.2527)0.8] = -0. k2. δ 0 and δ m in cos δ c = (1/0.25 – 0 + 0.

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