Taiwan first large-scale offshore wind farm connection–a real project case study Wu, Yuan-Kang

Member, IEEE National Penghu University 300, Liu Ho Rd. Penghu 880, Taiwan yk.wu@npu.edu.tw

Lee, Ching-Yin
Tungnan University 152, Sec.3 Pei Shen Rd. Shen Keng, Taipei, 222, Taiwan cylee@mail.tnu.edu.tw

Shu, Ging-He
National Taipei University of Technology 1, Sec. 3, Chung-hsiao E. Rd. Taipei,10608,Taiwan t7318006@ntut.edu.tw

Abstract -- The west coast and islands of Taiwan have abundant wind resource, which offers a great opportunity for large-scale offshore wind power generation. In Taiwan, the first stage of offshore wind farms at Jhang-Bin and Peng-Hu areas have been planning. Particularly, the Jhang-Bin wind farm would become the first and one of the largest wind farms in Taiwan. Therefore, its impacts on the system operation and security have to be investigated and studied in advance. Following a general connection design discussion, this paper comprises four major system impact analyses: load flow, fault current, voltage variation, and transient stability. Moreover, three types of typical wind turbines have been adopted respectively in this study in order to compare their performances on the wind farm integration system. From the simulation results, some significant conclusions and recommendations have been extracted, which would contribute to the first off-shore wind farm development in Taiwan. Index Terms— Offshore wind farm, system impact analysis, load flow, fault current, voltage variation, transient stability.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Taiwan is a highly energy dependent country that has followed the world trend in developing renewable energy. In early 2002, Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) proposed a plan entitled “Wind Generation Development Plan for 10 Years”. This plan is to install 200 onshore wind generators with more than 300MW installed capacity within 10 years according to three stages. Up to mid April of 2010, Taipower has 179.76MW with 106 wind turbine generators in operation, and 109 MW (56 wind turbines) under construction [1]. In addition, Infra Vest has completed onshore wind power at two different sites with 51.8MW installed capacity since 2006. Because onshore wind power has site limitations, Taiwan is promoting offshore wind power developments. In 2007, the Bureau of Energy announced that the total installed capacity of 300MW offshore wind power has been available for the first stage application. In fact, offshore wind power has become the focus of the world's renewable energy development [2]. With the gradually maturing of offshore wind power technology, the power cost and operation cost of offshore wind power are gradually reduced. Therefore, by 2010, the total installed capacity all over the world has been reached up to 1527.55 MW with around 28 offshore wind farms. Although the offshore wind farm has been paid more

attention, it has to be observed that offshore wind power at present is not yet fully competitive with respect to other energy sources and that, furthermore, it would imply huge investments in installation facilities and offshore grids. In addition, modifications to system configuration and operation practices to accommodate offshore wind farms have to be required. Similar to other new generation facilities, the impacts of a large-scale offshore wind generation on the system operation, voltage profile, power flow, short-circuit current, transient stability, and system security have to be investigated and studied during the system planning, as the system impact study is often the first step taken towards defining wind penetration targets in each power system [3][9]. This paper discusses the impact study of connecting a 108MW wind farm into the Taipower transmission system in the central of Taiwan. A detailed system description for the current Taipower system and the planning Jhang-Bin offshore wind farm topology is described in Section II. Section III illustrates the operation rule of renewable resource connections in Taiwan. The system impact analysis due to the offshore wind farm integration is analyzed in Section IV. Finally, our conclusions are summarized in Section V. II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION In Taiwan, the peak load in 2009 reached 31,011MW; the average load was 21,642 MW. In the end of 2009, there are 23 Extra High Voltage substations (EHV, 345/161-kV); 250 primary substations (P/S: 161/69-kV, D/S: 161/22-kV/11kV); and 306 secondary substations (S/S, 69/22-kV/11-kV) [10]. It is noted that, until now, the actual output energy from the renewable energy is less. In Taiwan, most onshore wind farms have been already planned. Nowadays, several possible offshore wind farms have been investigated in the first-stage planning. Most of them are along the western coast of Taiwan and around Penghu archipelagoes. Specifically, Jhang-Bin offshore wind farm in central Taiwan could become one of the largest wind farms in the near future. This wind farm will be located along the coast of the Jhang-Bin industrial estate and would include 7 phases of construction. It is estimated that the installed capacity in the first phase of wind farm would be 108MW by 2012. The possible grid connection between the offshore wind farm and the nearest onshore grid point is shown in Fig.

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respectively. From the system operation viewpoint. Wind farm connection of the Jhang-Bin offshore wind farm . The grid characteristic for the point of common coupling (PCC) of Jhang-Bin offshore wind farm is listed in Table I. Fault Current The additional fault current caused by the new wind power injection is not allowed to exceed the interruption capacity (IC) of each original circuit breaker.5% of the voltage Fig. they define technical requirements which all parties connected to their system must follow [13] [14]. in order to maintain power quality and system reliability and stability. 2. B.2-km long submarine cables. and the nearest one is the Sian-Si substation Fig. limited variable speed (Type B) and variable speed ones (Type C and D) [11]. From the system planning point of view. where the wind farm will be connected to the 161kV SianSi primary distribution substation through two 7. the IC limitations for different voltage levels are 63-kA for 345-kV. wind turbines can be classified into fixed speed (Type A). ±2. Steady State (power flow) Analysis The capacity limitation at each transmission lines cannot be violated by new wind power integration. Type B. In the Taiwan grid. Voltage Fluctuation If a new wind power injects. In Taiwan. This analysis includes N-0 and N-1 contingencies. renewable energy facilities are required by Taipower (the system operator) to follow the practices of renewable generation facility connections and other related criteria: major operation requirements shall take into consideration based on the following items: A. GRID DATA FOR THE CONNECTION POINT OF JHANG-BIN OFFSHORE WIND FARM The PCC of Jhang-Bin Offshore Sian-Si D/S 161kV wind farm Rated voltage 161kV Maximum three-phase short37. the integration of the large-scale wind generation to the Taiwan network should be close to the nearby substations. 2. C. III. market interest in Type C and Type D systems has been increased. C.5 m/s TABLE I Proposed layout of the Jhang-Bin offshore wind farm Referring to the rotation speed.04 deg grid Rated interrupt current of circuit 50kA breaker Annual average wind speed 8.1. OPERATION RULES OF RENEWABLE RESOURCE CONNECTIONS IN TAIWAN Electricity system operators are responsible for the satisfactory operation of their electricity systems in normal and abnormal conditions. and 40-kA for 69-kV. In order to achieve this. the Type C and Type D systems have better performance on voltage control without additional capacitors [12]. In this study. Therefore. 50-kA for 161-kV.364 (reactance/resistance ratio) Impedance phase angle of the Arctan(X/R)=88.887kA circuit current Maximum three-phase short10564MVA circuit capacity Impedance ratio of the grid X/R=29. 1. but market penetration in Type A and B has declined since 1997. This first phase of planning wind farm comprises 30 wind turbines that are clustered and connected to the onshore substation through underground cables and use two step-up transformers 33/161kV up to 161 kV. The single line diagram inside the offshore wind farm is shown in Fig. and D turbines have been adopted respectively in this wind farm to compare their performances on the wind power integrated system.

03pu. and D were utilized respectively to investigate their effects on the system impact analyses. In this study. wind generator type. and single contingency (N-1) events close to the wind farm. This analysis indicated that an addition of the 108 MW wind power has a little effect on grid system.9 4% 118 6% 126 Line C 4.e. it requires infrastructure improvement to accommodate the new wind farm installation. which ensures that the circuit breakers in the system have enough ability to isolate the fault when faults happen. the 2012 peak and off-peak load predicting data in Taiwan was used. Based on the results.fluctuation margin in the PCC shall be remained. the increment of the shortcircuit currents at each neighboring bus around the new wind farm has been calculated. with wind farm integration. TABLE II STEADY STATE POWER FLOW RESULTS WITH WIND FARM INTEGRATION UNDER OFF-PEAK LOAD System condition Base case N-0 (without wind farm) Base case N-0 (with wind farm) Line A N-1 Contingency analysis (with wind farm) Lin B Line C Line D Load flow Ratio of flow Load flow Ratio of flow Load flow Ratio of flow Load flow Ratio of flow Load flow Ratio of flow Load flow Ratio of flow Line A 301 14% 270 12% Line B 82. the normal system voltage range should maintain between 0. Table II and III are based on the 2012 off-peak and peak load systems respectively. A.4 5% 45.6 4% 60. i. RESULTS OF SYSTEM IMPACT ANALYSIS The impacts of wind power on transmission depend on the grid strength of the connection point. The planning Jhang-Bin offshore wind farm with a total capacity of 108 MW is integrated into the existing 161 kV transmission line through a primary substation. respectively. short-circuit current. This analysis is to check whether B. IV. Furthermore. Results for Three-Phase Short-Circuit current Short-circuit studies are performed to determine the possible changes of fault currents resulting from the added wind generation. three types of typical wind turbines. the maximum fault current occurred at the 161kV Jhang-Bin bus and the largest increment of fault current occurs at the 161kV Sian-Si bus.8 9% 31% * * denotes ‘out of service’ Line A: from Jhang-Bin E bus to Jhong-Huo S bus Line B: from Jhang-Bin E bus to Cyuan-Sing bus Line C: from Jhang-Bin H bus to Sian-Si H bus Line D: from Jhang-Bin H bus to Cao-Gang bus TABLE III STEADY STATE POWER FLOW RESULTS WITH WIND FARM INTEGRATION UNDER PEAK LOAD System condition Base case N-0 (without wind farm) Load flow Ratio of flow Load Line A 98. the system impact analysis includes steady state power flow. and transmission bus voltage during outages of system components. From Table IV.8 Line B 367 16% 399 Line C 8. In this simulation. it is noted that the fault current from DFIG units is larger than that from full power converter units. transformer facility loading. If the maximum short-circuit current exceeds the interrupted capacity of the circuit breakers. voltage variation. In addition.8 Line D 129 27% 150 31% 139 29% 156 32% 150 * 155 8% 263 12% 255 12% 7% * 118 6% 126 6% 9% * 49.7 9% 49.8 9% 49. Transient Stability If there is a three-phase short circuit fault. i. location of wind farms. In this section..5 Line D 380 74% 400 . the maximum short-circuit current of each neighboring bus is under its original circuit breaker interrupted capacity.95 and 1. The results indicated that the maximum fault currents are still under the rated capacity (50kA) of the existing circuit breakers no matter which kinds of wind turbines were installed. the critical clearing time shall be above 4. C. Table II compares the steady state power flow results near the wind farm when the system is under various conditions: without wind farm integration. and the correlation between wind power production and load consumption. Table IV shows the maximum fault currents near the wind farm before and after the offshore wind farm integration. Type B. The contingency analysis considers the impact of the new wind power on transmission line loading. and transient stability studies. where all load flows in the tables are expressed in MW.. no split-bus or circuit breaker upgrade is necessary for the 108MW offshore wind farm installation.5 cycles at the fault location along with 4 cycles at the remote end in the 345-kV system and the critical clearing time for 161-kV system shall be above 12 cycles at the fault location along with 7 cycles at the remote end.2 3% 47. which are based on the wind integrated operation rules issued by Taipower. Results for Steady State Power Flow The purpose of this power flow study is to observe the potential overloading impact during normal (N-0) and contingency (N-1) conditions after the 108 MW offshore wind farm is interconnected with the grid system.e. In this study. but there is no negative impact of the wind farm on the existing transmission systems even for N-1 contingency events. D.

001 pu +0.95 1 1.003 pu +0.87 2.020 +0. which would reduce system capability on voltage control. Especially for Type B turbines. they cannot contribute to reactive power.05 0. Table V compares the voltage variation results at the PCC of wind farm after the 108MW wind farm with Type B or D turbines is interconnected with the Taiwan system.999 pu 0.999 Pu 1. 345kV Cyuan-Sing bus. Type B.9 % TABLE VII VOLTAGE VARIATION AT THE PCC OF WIND FARM UNDER PEAK SYSTEM (TYPE C WIND TURBINE) Control Voltage control Power Factor control mode Setting 0.45 41. the remote end.008 pu +0.5 398 Load Line flow * A Ratio 15% 10% 78% of flow Load 308 45.4 % 0.02 pu 1. In this study.6 % 1.2 -0. the adopted Type C turbine possesses two kinds of control modes: voltage and power factor (PF) modes. The results indicated that the voltage variation is still Without Wind farm With wind farm Voltage variation 0.02 Pu 1.02 pu 1.02 Pu 1. It can be observed that the added wind farm only has little effect on the system continuous operation voltage because the grid strength at the PCC is strong.026 pu +0. This analysis is to check whether the maximum voltage variation caused by the new wind farm integration is still under the voltage limit requirement. D WIND TURBINE) Wind Bus voltage at the PCC (Sian-Si bus) turbine Without wind With wind Voltage type farm farm variation (%) OffPeak OffPeak OffPeak peak peak peak 0.001 0 4 1. and D.5 % 1.09 TABLE VI VOLTAGE VARIATION AT THE PCC OF WIND FARM UNDER OFFPEAK SYSTEM (TYPE C WIND TURBINE) Control Voltage control Power Factor control mode Setting 0.999 pu 0.02 pu 1.5 419 N-1 Lin B flow Contingency * Ratio 14% 10% 82% analysis of flow (with wind 60. In addition. TABLE V VOLTAGE VARIATION AT THE PCC OF WIND FARM (TYPE B.04 Type B Type D 2 1.999 1.05pu and PF=0.025 pu +0. C. but absorb reactive power from the grid. As 345kV faults occur.95 1 1.9989 1.015 pu -0.9 lagging.999 Pu 1. C. It is because that in the offpeak system. B.6 % 1.8 400 Load 400 farm) Line flow C * Ratio 3% 18% 79% of flow Load 40. which has a negative impact on the continuousoperation voltage.1 % 1.019 pu -0.9 leading laggin pu Pu Pu g C.999 Pu 1. in particular. Results for Transient Stability Analysis Power system stability is important for the operation of a power system and.3 47 Base case N-0 (with wind farm) under the ±2.03pu under the control mode of V=1.8 % 0. In this study.02 pu 1.0208 No wind turbine 0. the penetration of wind power is higher and the generation output from traditional synchronization machines is low.6 30 Type D 40. therefore. will trip after 4 cycles and the .5 % D.020 pu 0 % 1.014 pu -0.007 pu +0.5% limit by using various control modes. The two buses are the closest buses to the PCC of the wind farm in terms of the voltage level on 161kV and 345kV.992 pu -0. respectively.2 % 0.9 421 45.45 40. were utilized respectively in order to evaluate their effects on the voltage variation. respectively at 161kV Jhang-Bin and 345kV Jhang-Bin buses.45 41.7 % 0.5 Line flow D * Ratio 2% 19% 10% of flow The definition of Line A.8 60 Type C 40.30 1.989 pu -1 % 0. Results for Voltage Variation of Continuous Operation The purpose of the voltage variation study is to observe the change of continuous operation voltage after the wind farm is interconnected with the grid system. they have to be analyzed very carefully when connecting a large-scale offshore wind farm with the grid. Table VI and VII show the voltage variation results when one kind of Type C wind turbine is used in the offshore wind farm. the voltage variation under the off-peak system is a little larger compared to that under the peak system.flow Ratio 3% 18% 10% 79% of flow 343 45. three kinds of typical wind turbines.019 9 +0. it should be noted that the PCC voltage will be reached up to the 1.05 0.21 3.9 leading laggin pu Pu pu g without wind farm with wind farm Voltage variation 1.999 pu 1.9 1 0. However.3 -0. the transient stability analysis was carried out based on two symmetrical three-line-to-ground fault conditions.9 1 0. and D is identical to that in Table II TABLE IV FAULT CURRENT CALCULATION WITH/WITHOUT WIND FARM Capacity Wind Maximum three-phase Number of short-circuit current for each turbine wind (kA) turbine type turbine (MW) Without With wind wind farm farm Type B 40.

Transient active power and frequency of Type B turbine output Fig. It is observed that there is oscillation phenomenon at the post-fault frequency and voltage curves. which causes the frequency at the PCC to be reduced instantaneously to 58. The fault occurs at 1 sec. the adopted wind turbines are only equipped with under-voltage relay without LVRT function. 3 shows the transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm. 6 shows the transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm. During the fault. 161kV JhangBin bus. 345kV Jhang-Bin bus.5 cycles. During the fault. Fig. which is affected by the nearby thermal plants. 3. the above mentioned variables would recover to the original condition. In this case. after the fault clears.fault location. Fig. will trip after 12 cycles. the system voltage and frequency still recover to the original condition after the fault clears. then the wind farm trips offline after 0. Three kinds of typical wind turbines were adopted respectively in the transient stability analysis in order to compare their effects on the system. Fig. the remote end. Transient reactive power and voltage of Type B turbine output Fig. Case 1: 345kV Jhang-Bin bus faults Fig. The setting on the tripping time of the under-voltage relay in the used wind turbine is longer than that of the circuit breaker in the system. 5 shows the transient reactive power and voltage curves during the fault. It is observed that there is a little overshoot accompanying with oscillation phenomenon at the post-fault frequency. 4 shows the transient active power and frequency curves during the fault: each wind turbine reduces its active power output to zero. . Transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm with Type B turbines Case 2: 161kV Jhang-Bin bus faults Fig. 1) Type B: Wound Rotor Induction Generator. the voltage reduces instantaneously to 0pu so that the under-voltage relay is activated. the wind farm stays online. Although the wind farm is disconnected with the grid.216pu (peak system) and 0. 4. Therefore. will trip after 7 cycles and the fault location. will trip after 4.05pu (off-peak system) respectively.16 sec. As 161kV faults occur.16Hz. the voltage reduces instantaneously to 0. 161kV Sian-Si bus. 5. After the fault clears.

the adopted DFIG wind turbines possess LVRT function. Similar to the case of 345kV bus fault. In this case. Transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm with Type C turbines 2) Type C: Doubly Fed Induction Generator.4pu (peak system) and 0. each wind turbine supports 1. the wind farm will stay online after the fault clears under the peak system. 9.21MVAr to the grid.3MVAr (off-peak system) during the fault.17 sec in the off-peak system because of excessive voltage dip. the wind farm will trip offline after 0. In the meantime. 9.28pu (off-peak system) respectively. 6. Transient reactive power and voltage of Type C turbine output . Transient active power and frequency of Type C turbine output Fig. Fig. Case 2: 161kV Jhang-Bin bus faults Fig. which causes the wind farm to be disconnected from the system. which supports reactive power during the fault to try to prevent voltage dips and maintain the rated output voltage of wind turbines. 9 indicates the maximum reactive power support from each DFIG turbine is 1. Although the wind farm is finally disconnected from the system. which maintains the output voltage of wind turbines at 0.57MVAr (peak system) or 1. 10 shows the transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm. Transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm with Type B turbines Fig. Obviously. Based on the simulation result.05pu (off-peak system) respectively.Fig. the voltage reduces immediately to 0pu because the 161kV bus is very close to the wind farm PCC.22pu (peak system) and 0. each wind turbine during the fault provides reactive power to try to relieve voltage drop. Fig. 12 show the output of each wind turbine. 7. 8. In this case. 7 shows the transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm. Fig. the PCC voltage reduces instantaneously to 0. 8 and Fig. During the fault. this voltage drop is less severe than that in the Type B case (Fig. During the fault.11 and Fig. 5). the output of each wind turbine is shown as Fig. the grid voltage and frequency still recover to the original condition after the fault clears. Case 1: 345kV Jhang-Bin bus faults Fig. it is observed that the frequency dip due to the wind farm tripping is obvious. Conversely.

Fig. 12. In this work. 14. Transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm with Type D turbines Fig.21pu (peak system) and 0. 10. 14 and Fig.5-sec ZVRT capability was adopted in this Type D wind turbines. Transient active power and frequency of Type C turbine output Fig. Transient reactive power and voltage of Type C turbine output 3) Type D: Synchronous Generator with a full-scale power converter. Case 1: 345kV Jhang-Bin bus faults Fig. In the meantime. Transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm with Type C turbines Fig. the PCC voltage reduces instantaneously to 0. 13 shows the transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm. Furthermore. 13. 15.5-sec at Fig. Based on the simulation result. the output of each wind turbine is shown as Fig. its capability on zero voltage ride through (ZVRT) is allowed from 0. 15. Transient active power and frequency of Type D turbine Fig. the wind farm will stay online after the fault clears under the peak and off-peak conditions.least to a 5-sec long period. the 0. 11. According to the technical document of the adopted fullscale-converter synchronous wind turbine. During the fault. Transient reactive power and voltage of Type D turbine output Case 2: 161kV Jhang-Bin bus faults . the adopted wind turbines can also support reactive power to the grid during the fault.05pu (off-peak system) respectively.

several viewpoints have been highlighted: z z z The grid strength would affect the system impact of a wind power integration system. Beato. CONCLUSIONS This paper has discussed the impact study of the first offshore wind farm project in Taiwan. Variable speed wind turbines. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] Yun-Hsun Huang. after the fault clears. Vol. A. pp. Jung-Hua Wu.. 16. 1. 2007. Jan. Fig.Fig. 34. 1228-1238. Akhmatov. 9.79pu so that the under-voltage relay is activated to trip the wind farm to be offline. 28. Jul. Knudsen. "Large penetration of wind and dispersed generation into Danish power grid. Vladislav Akhmatov. D. Rodriguez. Bookman. J. Fernandez. 4." Electric Power Systems Research. 17. Issue. 17. Petersson. which is operated in the peak system. the wind turbines also reduce their active and reactive power output to zero (Fig. 17 and Fig. such as Type C and Type D. "Kriegers Flak 640 MW Off-Shore Wind Power Grid Connection—A Real Project Case Study. Agneholm. the wind farm will be disconnected with the grid under the peak system because. Vladislav. The simulation results have shown that it is possible to connect such a large-scale offshore wind farm as Jhang-Bin. fault current. it has to be decided if the wind power units should produce reactive power to support the grid during faults." IEEE Technology and Society Magazine. 2. Vol. 2009. By contrast. J. During the fault. J. Wilhelmi. to the 161kV network in the central Taiwan without any network reinforcement. 1089-1095. 2005. 437-447.M. it is obvious that the recovery voltage is kept under 0. the adopted wind turbines in the off-peak system would still be connected with the grid after the fault clears. Karlsson. Transient active power and frequency of Type D turbine output [5] [6] . Issue. 2002. R. "Incidence on power system dynamics of high penetration of fixed speed and doubly fed wind energy systems: study of the Spanish case. "Wind energy's promise. Issue. Issue. 48-57. Vol. seem to have a better dynamic performance than limited-speed Type B wind turbines In the design phase of the wind farm. T.. Vol. Based on the study experience. 24. pp. "System stability of large wind power networks: A Danish study case." Energy. 22." IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.R. Ledesma and P. 18. Apr.L. 2007. 77. 79-85. Usaola. 9-15. D. pp. pp. J." International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. Vol. Fig. 108MW. E.18). 18 shows the post-fault voltage curve of each wind turbine. 2006. Due to their ZVRT characteristic. This phenomenon would be caused by the disturbance of the two nearby thermal plants. offshore. pp. D. Transient reactive power and voltage of Type D turbine output V." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. the output voltage of the wind turbine does not recover back to the pre-fault condition. Fig. Hans. pp. the voltage reduces instantaneously to 0pu. Iturbe. Vol. and transient stability computations. 1. "A transition toward a market expansion phase: Policies for promoting wind power in Taiwan. Under transient fault situations both the voltage and frequency have to be considered to assess the impact of wind power on the system stability The voltage at the PCC has to recover quickly after the clearance of the fault. 4. voltage variation. Issue. including power flow. 16 shows the transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm. Andersson. Transient voltage and frequency at the PCC of the wind farm with Type D turbines z z [4] Fig. Issue. in the meantime.

N. degree from National Taiwan Institute of Technology in 1983. the dean of college of management from 2007 to 2008 and the vice-president at National Taipei University of Technology from 2006 to 2009. Vol.D. Since 1986. 2009.. "A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms. degree from the National Penghu University in 2008. pp. Clemens Jauch. department from 1992 to 1995.. Singh." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. He received his B. reactive power planning. Chen. Methaprayoon. power quality. 308-332. Jun. pp. Issue. Poul Sørensen. Issue.E. renewable energy forecasting techniques.[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] Chai Chompoo-inwai. He was the chairperson of the E. Oct. Issue. working in the area of wind power system. Issue. National Taipei University of Technology (NTUT). "Reactive compensation techniques to improve the ride-through capability of wind turbine during disturbance.S. Issue. "Simulation of the impact of wind power on the transient fault behavior of the Nordic power system.E degree at the National Taipei University of Technology. 3." The Electricity Journal.. S. M. Issue.S." IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 34.S. Aug. 11. 2007. "Overview of different wind generator systems and their comparisons.E. pp. 41. 8. Issue. a visiting scholar at the University of Texas at Arlington from 1996 to 1997. 8. Z. Vol. Vol. Williams. Carsten Rasmussen. 2008. He will join the Taiwan Power Company as an engineer. 2007. 22. 3. he is an honorable professor at NTUT. Tsili. Yuan-Kang Wu was born in 1970." Electric Power Systems Research. 1858-1872. 77. Yu. 54-63. Oliver S. M. micro grid simulation." IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. "Challenges of wind farms connection to future power systems in Taiwan. He is presently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at National Penghu University.E. 2005. degree from National Taiwan University in 1986 and Ph. the head of secretary office from 1997 to 2001. P. 2.D. Jon Andreu. 1. the dean of extension education office.. S. distributed generation.. 1926-1930. 123-138. Haritza Camblong. particularly in voltage stability analysis.. H. pp. from National Taiwan University of Science and Technology in 1992. 2005. distributed generation and smart grid control Ching-Yin Lee was born in 1957. He received his B. pp. Wei-Jen Lee. Pedro Ibañez. 2. Chyou-Jong Lin. contingency analysis. degree in Electronic and Electrical Engineering from the University of Strathclyde at Glasgow. pp. K.. "Connection requirements for wind farms: A survey on technical requierements and regulation. Li. UK. Wei-Jen Lee. His research interests are in power system operation. He was a researcher at the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and an engineer at the Taiwan Electric Research and Testing Center (TERTC) in Taiwan. His research interests include the micro grid control and integration of large amounts of wind power into existing power systems. Chompoo-inwai.E. 163-168. Feb. 666-672. M. Yu-Liang Lin. Iñigo Martinez de Alegría. "System impact study for the interconnection of wind generation and utility system. Vol.E. 2.E. 3. 2009.E. J.R. Yuin-Hong Liu. and renewable energy Shu-Ging He was born in 1986.S. 135-144. pp." IET Renewable Power Generation. Yuh-Fa Chuang. C.E.S. 2009. Liao. and a Professor and the head of secretary office at Tungnan University in Taiwan. He is currently pursuing the M. he has worked with the Department of Electrical Engineering. Issue.E. Currently." IET Renewable Power Generation. Ian Norheim. Taiwan. Fuangfoo. Vol. in 2004.E degree. José Luis Villate. Yingvivatanapong. "Wind Power Interconnection into the Power System: A Review of Grid Code Requirements. C. Chung-Liang Chang. power system control and management. He received his Ph. Vol. 41. the dean of general affairs from 2001 to 2006. Vol. Professor Lee worked with Northern Taiwan Telecommunication from 1979 to 1986. Papathanassiou. Bharat Singh. M." Renewable Energy. After completing his . José Luis Martín. pp. Vol. 5.

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