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Pumps. Centrifugal Pumps (Roto-dynamic pumps) The centrifugal or roto-dynamic pump produce a head and a flow by increasing the velocity of the liquid through themachine with the help of a rotating vane impeller. Centrifugal pumps include
1. Radial, axial and mixed flow units. 2. Centrifugal pumps can further be classified as 3. End suction pumps 4. In-line pumps 5. Double suction pumps 6. Vertical multistage pumps 7. Horizontal multistage pumps 8. Submersible pumps 9. Self-priming pumps 10. Axial-flow pumps 11. Regenerative pumps 12. Positive Displacement Pumps
Pump Theory A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power.
Pump Characteristic Curved The performance of a centrifugal pump can be shown graphically on a characteristic curve. A typical characteristic curve shows the total dynamic head, brake horsepower, efficiency, and net positive Suction head all plotted over the capacity range of the pump. Figures 1, 2, & 3 are non-dimensional curves which indicate the general shape of the characteristic curves for the various types of pumps. They show the head, brake horsepower, and efficiency plotted as a percent of their values at the design or best efficiency point of the pump. Fig. 1 below shows that the head curve for a radial flow pump is relatively flat and that the head decreases gradually as the flow increases. Note that the brake horsepower increases gradually over the flow range with the maximum normally at the point of maximum flow.
Fig. 1 Radial Flow Pump Mixed flow centrifugal pumps and axial flow or propeller pumps have considerably different characteristics as shown in Figs. 2 and 3 below. The head curve for a mixed flow pump is steeper than for a radial flow pump. The shut-off head is usually 150% to 200% of the design head, The brake horsepower remains fairly constant over the flow range. For a typical axial flow pump, the head and brake horsepower both increase drastically near shutoff as shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 2 Mixed Flow Pump
Fig. 3 Axial Flow Pump The distinction between the above three classes is not absolute, and there are many pumps with characteristics falling somewhere between the three. For instance, the Francis vane impeller would have a characteristic between the radial and mixed flow classes. Most turbine pumps are also in this same range depending upon their specific speeds. Fig. 4 below shows a typical pump curve as furnished by a manufacturer. It is a composite curve which tells at a glance what the pump will do at a given speed with various impeller diameters from maximum to minimum. Constant horsepower, efficiency, and NPSHR lines
are superimposed over the various head curves. It is made up from individual test curves at various diameters.
Fig. 4 Composite Performance Curve
1) PUMP MAINTENANCE CONCEPT Concept of Cavitation Cavitation is a common occurrence but is the least understood of all pumping problems. Cavitation means different things to different people. Some say when a pump makes a rattling or knocking sound along with vibrations, it is cavitating. Some call it slippage as the pump discharge pressure slips and flow becomes erratic. When cavitating, the pump not only fails to serve its basic purpose of pumping the liquid but also may experience internal damage, leakage from the seal and casing, bearing failure, etc. In summary, cavitation is an abnormal condition that can result in loss of production, equipment damage and worst of all, personnel injury. The plant engineer’s job is to quickly detect the signs of cavitation, correctly identify the type and cause of the cavitation and eliminate it. A good understanding of the concept is the key to troubleshooting any cavitation related pumping problem.
Pumping machinery and pumping station are very important components in a water supply system. Pumping machinery is subjected to wear, tear, erosion and corrosion due to their nature of functioning and therefore are vulnerable for failures. Therefore, correct operation and timely maintenance and upkeep of pumping stations and pumping machinery are of vital importance to ensure uninterrupted water supply. Sudden failures can be avoided by timely inspection, follow up actions on observations of inspection and planned periodical maintenance. Downtime can be reduced by maintaining inventory of fast moving spare parts. Efficiency of pumping machinery reduces due to normal wear and tear. Timely action for restoration of efficiency can keep energy bill within reasonable optimum limit. Proper record keeping is also very important. 2) PUMP COMPONENT a) Pumping Machinery Pump : Pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Valve : Valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways Pipe : Pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids). Motors : An electric motor is an electric machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Electric motors very typically operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor.
Switchgears : In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Cable : Cable is most often two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted, or braided together to form a single assembly, but can also refer to a heavy strong rope. In mechanics cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling, and towing or conveying force through tension. Inelectrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents. An optical cable contains one or more optical fibers in a protective jacket that supports the fibers. Transformer : Transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive coupling between its winding circuits. A varying current in the primarywinding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic flux through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic flux induces a varying electromotive force (EMF), or "voltage", in the secondary winding. b) Auxilary Equipment Lifting Equipment : Lifting equipment, also known as lifting gear, is a general term for any equipment that can be used for lifting loads. This includes jacks, block and tackle, hoist (device)s, rotating screws,gantries, A frames, lifting harnesses, fork lifts, hydraulic lifting pads, air lift bags, and cranes. Lifting equipment can be dangerous to use, and is the subject of safety regulations in most countries. Flowmeter : Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement. Flow can be measured in a variety of ways. Positive-displacement flow meters accumulate a fixed volume of fluid and then count the number of times the volume is filled to measure flow. Other flow measurement methods rely on forces produced by the flowing stream as it overcomes a known constriction, to indirectly calculate flow. Flow may be measured by measuring the velocity of fluid over a known area. Pressure Gauge : A vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuum— which is further divided into two subcategories, high and low vacuum (and sometimesultra-high vacuum). The applicable pressure range of many of the
techniques used to measure vacuums have an overlap. Hence, by combining several different types of gauge, it is possible to measure system pressure continuously from 10 mbar down to 10−11 mbar.
c) Pumping Station Tubewell : Tube well is a type of water well in which a long 100–200 mm (5 to 8 inch) wide stainless steel tube or pipe is bored into an underground aquifer. The lower end is fitted with a strainer, and a pump at the top lifts water for irrigation. The required depth of the well depends on the depth of the water table. Sump : Sump (American and Canadian English: oil pan) is a low space that collects any often-undesirable liquids such as water or chemicals. A sump can also be an infiltration basin used to managesurface runoff water and recharge underground aquifers. Sump can also refer to an area in a cave where an underground flow of water exits the cave into the earth. Pump House : facilities including pumps and equipment for pumping fluids from one place to another. They are used for a variety of infrastructure systems, such as the supply of water to canals, the drainage of low-lying land, and the removal of sewage to processing sites. A pumping station is, by definition, an integral part of a pumped-storage hydroelectricity installation.
d) Type Of Pump Centrifugal Pump
Centrifugal pumps, are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric workabsorbing turbomachinery. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport liquids/fluids by the conversion of the rotational kinetic energy to the hydro dynamics energy of the liquid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor or turbine. In the typical simple case, the fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits. Common uses include water, sewage, petroleum and petrochemical pumping. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy.
A reciprocating pump is a positive plunger pump. It is often used where relatively small quantity of liquid is to be handled and where delivery pressure is quite large. Reciprocating pumps can be classified based on 1. Sides in contact with water a) Single acting Reciprocating pump b) Double acting reciprocating pump 2. Numbers of cylinder used a) Single cylinder pump b) Two cylinder pumps c) Multi-cylinder pumps Reciprocating pumps are used in High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reciprocating pump is using API 674 & API 675
3) OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PUMPING COMPONENTS i) Pumping Machinery a) Operation including starting and stopping of pumps and associated electrical and b) Mechanical equipment c) Preventive maintenance d) Trouble shooting e) Inventory of spares, oil and lubricants
f) Tools and testing equipments g) Inspection and testing h) Record keeping
4) OPERATIONS OF PUMP (a) Dry running of the pumps should be avoided.
(b) Centrifugal pumps have to be primed before starting.
(c) Pumps should be operated only within the recommended range on the headdischarge characteristics of the pump. • If pump is operated at point away from duty point, the pump efficiency normally reduces. • Operation near the shut off should be avoided, as the operation near the shut off causes substantial recirculation within the pump, resulting in overheating of water in the casing and consequently, in overheating of the pump.
(c) Voltage during operation of pump-motor set should be within + 10% of rated voltage. Similarly current should be below the rated current as per name plate on the motor.
(d) Whether the delivery valve should be opened or closed at the time of starting should be decided by examining shape of the power-discharge characteristic of the pump. Pump of low and medium specific speeds draw lesser power at shut off head and power required increases from shut off to normal operating point. Hence in order to reduce starting load on motor, a pump of low or medium specific speed is started against closed delivery valve. Normally the pumps used in water supply schemes are of low and medium specific speeds. Hence, such pumps need to be started against closed delivery valve. The pumps of high specific speed draw more power at shut off. Such pumps should be started with the delivery valve open.
(f) The delivery valve should be operated gradually to avoid sudden change in flow velocity which can cause water hammer pressures. It is also necessary to control opening of delivery valve during pipeline - filling period
so that the head on the pump is within its operating range to avoid operation on low head and consequent overloading. This is particularly important during charging of the pumping main initially or after shutdown. As head increases the valve shall be gradually opened.
5) UNDESIRABLE OPERATIONS i) Operation at Higher Head The pump should never be operated at head higher than maximum recommended. Such operation results in excessive recirculation in the pump, overheating of the water and the pump. Another problem, which arises if pump is operated at a head higher than the recommended maximum head, is that the radial reaction on the pump shaft increases causing excessive unbalanced forces on the shaft which may cause failure of the pump shaft. As a useful guide, appropriate marking on pressure gauge be made. Such operation is also inefficient as efficiency at higher head is normally low.
Operation at Lower Head
If pump is operated at lower head than recommended minimum head, radial reaction on the pump shaft increases causing excessive unbalanced forces on shaft which may cause failure of the pump shaft. As useful guide, appropriate markings on both pressure gauge and ammeter be made. Such operation is also inefficient as efficiency at lower head is normally low.
iii) Operation with Strainer/Foot Valve Clogged If the strainer or foot valve is clogged, the friction loss in strainer increases to high magnitude which may result in pressure at the eye of the impeller falling below water vapour pressure, causing cavitation and pitting similar to operation on higher suction lift. The strainers and foot valves should be periodically cleaned particularly during monsoon.
6) STARTING THE PUMP Checks Before Starting i. Power is available in all 3 phases. Trip circuit for relays is in healthy state ii. Check voltage in all 3 phases. The voltage in all phases should be almost same and within + 10% of rated voltage, as per permissible voltage variation. iii. Check functioning of lubrication system specifically for oil lubricated and clear water lubricated VT pumps and oil lubricated bearings. iv. v. vi. vii. Check stuffing box to ensure that it is packed properly. Check and ensure that the pump is free to rotate. Check overcurrent setting if the pump is not operated for a week or longer period. Before starting it shall be ensured that the water level in the sump/intake is above low water level and inflow from the source or preceding pumping station is adequate.
Centrifugal Pump (of low and medium specific speed) i. To start a centrifugal pump, the suction pipes and the pump should be fully primed irrespective of the fact whether the pump is with positive (flooded) suction or suction lift. The centrifugal pump with positive suction can be primed by opening valve on suction side and letting out air from the casing by opening air vent. Centrifugal pump on suction lift necessitates close attention to prime the pump fully. To achieve this, the suction pipe and the pump casing must be filled with water and entire air in suction piping and the pump must be removed. If vacuum pump is provided, the pump can be primed by operating vacuum pump till steady stream of water is let out from delivery of vacuum pump. In absence of vacuum pump, priming can be done by pouring water in casing and evacuating air through air vent or by admitting water from pumping main by opening bypass of reflux valve and delivery valve. Check all joints in the suction pipe and fittings. ii. iii. iv.
Close the delivery valve and then loosen slightly. Switch on the motor, check that direction of rotation is correct. If the pump does not
rotate, it should be switched off immediately. Check vacuum gauge if the pump operates on suction lift. If the pointer on gauge gradually rises and becomes steady the priming is proper.
Pressure gauge should be observed after starting the pump. If the pump is working correctly the delivery pressure gauge should rise steadily to shut off head.
When the motor attains steady speed and pressure gauge becomes steady, the delivery valve should be gradually opened in steps to ensure that the head does not drop below recommended limit. (in the absence of recommendations, the limit shall be about 85% of duty head for centrifugal pump).
vii. viii. ix.
Check that ammeter reading is less than rated motor current. Check for undue vibration and noise. When in operation for about 10-15 minutes, check the bearing temperature, stuffing box packing, and leakage through mechanical seal and observe vibrations, if any.
Voltage should be checked every half an hour and should be within limit.
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