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General Background Middle English Literature Old English literature did not completely disappear with the Norman

Conquest in 1066. Many sermons and works continued to be read and used partly or wholly until the 14 th century, and were further catalogued and organised. However, starting with 1066, criticism no longer speaks about Old English literature, but Middle English literature. Middle English is the name given to different forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion in 1066 and the mid-to-late 15 th century, when the Chancery Standard started to become widespread. In the 1470s, William Caxton introduced the printing press into England. Another important event to mention by this time is the tranformation of the Ynglis language dialect into Scots language. After the Norman Conquest, England was trilingual: Latin was the language of the Catholic Church, Anglo-Norman (French) was the official language, the language of courtly life, literature and documentation, and Middle English was the spoken language of the majority. The fact that English lost its official status as the learned tongue of the court, does not mean that it completely cease to be used in the court or as a literary language. While it was still being used in royal charters as a language of literary production, Old English homilies, saints' lives, devotional manuals, encyclopaedias, histories and grammatical texts, continued to be reproduced and adapted by scribes. On the one hand, it is worth noticing that even nowadays, after almost one millenium, we may contrast words derived from Old English: pig, cow, sheep, wood, house, worthy, bold to their Anglo-Norman French counterparts: pork, beef, mutton, forest, mansion, honourable, courageous, or we may notice the multitude of French-derived words that are used in connection to crown matters: court, judge, jury, appeal, parliament. On the other hand, we may see that trilingual activity brought about a triplicate synonymity in modern English, as we can see in the case of adjectives that roughly mean of or relating to a king: kingly from Old English, royal from French and regal from Latin. The Old English grammar contained a complex system of inflectional endings, which after the Norman Conquest were gradually lost and simplified in the dialects of spoken English. In the later fourteenth century, Chancery Standard (or London English) introduced more conformity in English spelling. The only possibility to do away with so many dialects and ambiguous forms of English was to develop a standard English; this is precisely what King Henry V did from 1413 to 1422, in response to his order for government officials to use English rather than Anglo-Norman or Latin. Henry V’s decision to introduce the Chancery standard is believed to have contributed in a significant way to the development of the English language that we use today. The Chancery Standard was largely based on the London and East Midland dialects. By the mid-15th century, Chancery Standard was used for most official purposes except the Church (where Latin was used instead) and some legal matters (where French was the predominant language). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Often described as the jewel of medieval romance, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is the only poem that could be equal to Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. Leon Leviţchi considers Sir Gawain and the Green Knight a poem that ranks as a first-rate creation through many excellencies, of which a major one lies in the fact that a high ethical ideal is made the central theme to which everything else is subordinated. i

had to protect his country from enemies. Krappe considers the Green Knight death itself . Sir Gawain and the Green Knight begins as a romance should begin at a high festival in Arthur’s court. The Green Knight’s challenge is addressed to the society as a whole. viii Yet.. Class and Careerism: Cheshire and Lancashire Society in the Age of ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ’ (Cambridge. Criticism has differently interpreted the symbolical meanings of the Green Knight. John Massy of Cotton in east Cheshire. on New Year’s Day. Gawain’s intervention is phrased with all the courtesy of a true knight. Sir Gawain managed to behead the Green Knight.The romance describes a sort of semi-religious quest which illustrates various notions: man’s quest of death (Zimmer). The Green Knight suggested that if he had remained unscathed. Michael J. the Lord of Hades. v while Dale B. the Green Knight rode into the feasting hall on a green horse and challenged those present to behead him. idealism and loyalty to the king. Equally. but traditionally it is the king who responds against the reputation of the Round Table. Sir Gawain. the annual death and rebirth of nature. and this is why all his fellow courtiers hastily agreed that the king had to be exempted. For instance. Another critic. largely based on sharp contrasts and it is divided into four parts. after some hesitation the one who accepted the challenge was King Arthur’s nephew. a Lancastrian retainer – no name. 1983). yet there is implied criticism of the king for taking up so foolish a challenge. Elizabeth Salter. Contexts and Readings (Oxford. commands general acceptance. as the king was already an initiated knight who had to take care of other affairs. calmly asked Sir Gawain to meet him a year later at the . endowed with miraculous powers. one of the periodic renewals of Round Table unity. The poem is written in North-West Midland dialect. he should have the right to give a blow in return.iii At that time.ii In Community. and who. such evidence does not offer conclusive proof of any earlier date. is worth attempting. The poem has a symmetrical structure.iv H. though the area of composition has been more narrowly defined as the Cheshire/ Staffordshire border and a number of individuals identified as possible authors of the poem – most notably. ix Gawain suggested that his own life would be the least loss to the society. in her Fourteenth Century English poetry. investigated the cultural context in which the poem was produced. Bennett spoke of the presence at court of a large group of Cheshire notables during the later reign of Richard II. the arbiter in affairs of honourvii and the one who rewards knights for their achievements.. holding his severed head in his hand. Despite objections that the dating of the poem to the last ten or fifteen years of the fourteenth century rests on details of armour and equipment which would not preclude an earlier date of composition. which makes the reading extremely difficult. This is why he accepted the challenge in order to save the reputation of the other knights who hesitated to react to The Green Knight’s words. perhaps. yet the latter. Individual knights act as representations of knighthood itself. A. as yet. picked up his head and. 1983). seen in the vegetation myth of the Green Man. and of the court for allowing him to become involved in an adventure which threatens his destruction. By convention Arthur must be the initiator and stimulator of the chivalric adventure. first of all. Randall maintains that the knight's behaviour is fiend-like. John Speirs sees the Green Knight as a recrudescence in poetry of the Green Man who in turn is a descendant of the Vegetation god of almost universal and immemorial tradition. This is why a translation. the king and his knights were in the middle of their celebration. however inadequate.

the other old and ugly. whereas desert (with the meaning of deserted or solitary place) is a familiar element in French names denoting places and here it undoubtedly refers to the Green Knight’s castle. Following romance tradition. his wife entered Sir Gawain’s bedroom and tried to seduce him. Gawain agreed to stay until New Year’s morning. Gawain and the court equally involved in this ambiguous adventure but that it relates to the common experience of mankind: ’for though men may be light-hearted when they have drunk strong drink. xiii In the castle he was warmly greeted by Lord Bertilak-de-Hautdesert and his lovely lady. Sir Gawain agreed. Finding out from the lord that the Green Chapel was less than two miles off. Bertilak’s title. xii The remorselessness of time is demonstrated in the passing of the year. The survival of the Green Knight placed Gawain in a dilemma. Christian/pagan. Embarked on this test and quest. agents of evil. Sir Gawain kissed him once. Sir Gawain prayed for shelter and crossed himself. Some possible interpretive pairs assignable to the two spaces might be margin/center.R. when the lord presented Sir Gawain with the dear he had killed in the forest. the knights and squires who conducted him to the hall. sharing their chivalric values. as if in answer to his prayer. Therefore.Green Chapel. one young and beautiful. Disert in Celtic languages means hermitage. proposed in the midst of drinking and merry-making. may be an ill omen for the future.x Returning to the chivalric code. the beginning is very seldom like the end’. we may allow various receptions behind the same façade: there are castles where knights errant are honourably entertained in a society like their own. in nature death is followed by rebirth. we may see that it implied that a true knight had to be courageous. this is what W. The lord suggested that they should initiate a Christmas sport: as long as Sir Gawain remained in the castle all day long. where characteristically the hero must choose between apparently certain death on one hand and some shameful breach of the chivalric code on the other. while the lord went hunting. a year passes very quickly. with a slight change in the number of kisses. real/faery. xi the knights continued their feasting as if nothing had happened. yet the only thing that she managed to do was to kiss Sir Gawain. normative/perverse. which proves that natural time is somewhat circular. He arrived at a castle on the next Christmas Eve. Gawain passed the festive season with all the pleasures of the previous Christmas at Camelot. they should exchange what they might get by hunting or otherwise. After the disappearance of the Green Knight. Gawain was impressed with the servants kneeling to welcome him. as on the second day. balanced in the weight of their significance. and never brings back like circumstances. To some extent. J. and that the once idle court is now occupied with serious business whose outcome may be unhappy. de Hautdesert has been translated as of the high hermitage. the narrative tension is maintained. others where they are imprisoned by malicious wizards or beset by seductive enchantresses. bent upon the downfall of the Round Table.xiv Initially. Gawain fulfilled his religious duties and he met the ladies of the castle. masculine/feminine. it suggests that the Green Knight’s Christmas game. when the lord presented him with the boar he had killed . Barron calls the familiar dilemma in romance. On the first day. a refuge appeared. Throughout the passage the nouns and the pronouns are so interchanged as to suggest that not only are Arthur. In this Christian household. Camelot and Hautdesert [the castle] appear as opposed spaces. which happened on the second and on the third day as well. in North Wales. and both cowardice and compromise were unacceptable. Gawain’s reception suggests the former. and. yet in a man’s life everything is linear and there is no rebirth after death and no end similar to the beginning.

when he came to the chapel to meet his doom. Gawain refused the ring. a universally acknowledged valuexv since he had nothing with him with which to pay for it. but as Gawain understood that a glove might have represented a love token. At parting. and the phrase to þe plesaunce of your prys must be the satisfaction of your esteem. R. the lady asked for a trifle. though in appearance harmlessly idiomatic. When rejecting the lady’s proposal. that he must needs either to accept her love there and then. for example). Allen Shoaf carefully analyses the commercialism of lines 1266-67. yet the lady pressed the girdle upon him. Sir Gawain kissed him twice and on the third day. but R. or its synonyms and discovers the gradual intensifying of the commercial rhetorics: . Gawain refused the girdle too. Gawain did his very best to be polite. when he got the fox from the lord. often function in the poem to betray the extent to which commercialism is part of the fabric of feudalism and chivalry. rejecting in turn both the ring and the green girdle which the lady wished to give him. Allen Shoaf underlines the words which mean to buy. telling him that it had the power to protect the wearer from death." 3elde as well as other forms of the word (for3elde. was trying to convince Gawain that he had a price and that he was marketable. xviii Interpreting the lady’s speech. xvii Thus. 127) Gawain found a polite excuse – the preoccupation of a knight on his mission. I were glad. and yow god þoʒt. he did not obey felawschyp towards the lord. R. If he had given the girdle to Bertilak. and even more for his plight if he should commit a sin. a glove perhaps. lest he should behave like a boor. it would be a pure joy -if I might do something or other. At this point. The fragment requires a detailed analysis. the Lady who was not shy at all. as death had never been far from his thoughts. and be a traitor to the man who owned that castle. estimate or esteem. it occurred to him that it would be a godsend for the perilous adventure which was assigned him: if. analyses Gawain’s speech when the lady tries to tempt him and he concludes that G awain is enmeshed in the market and the marketability of chivalric manners. urging him so near to the limit. as its meanings represent the key to decode the poem. in word or deed. Yet on the third day. (p. as a keepsake. In Commercium in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight . Older editions of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight indicated that prys and the referent of your prys from the phrase to þe plesaunce of your prys represent a polite expression for you. he would have betrayed the lady to her lord (which would have been a breach of cortaysye towards the lady). which are commercial terms involving Gawain more and more in the market of the forest. yet the moment he decided to keep it. in a very subtle manner. which would be. he accepted the girdle and he hid the truth from Bertilak. 131) Thus. he made a polite excuse. he was concerned for his courtesy. the noble princess renewed her attacks more keenly: For that noble princess pressed him so hard. therefore saying that he could not have a sweetheart at that moment.(p.' (1245-47) can be translated in contemporary English as By God. Allen Shoaf. he kissed him three times. or refuse offensively. it would be an excellent device. R. yet critics have remarked quite numerous occurrences in the poem of the word prys and they have concluded that in the context it must mean something like evaluation. xvi `Bi God. At saʒe oþer at seruyce þat I sette my ʒt To þe plesaunce of your prys--hit were a pure ioye .Let Mary repay you for your generosity which implied: "I hope I don't have to repay you for all this lush flattery. he managed to escape being slain. I would be glad if it seemed good to you -I mean. The lady said Mary yow 3elde. Allen Shoaf considers that he was repeatedly forced to be polite in the Lady's terms.

xxv .' quoþ þe menskful. my souerayn I holde yow. xxiii This is the way that Gawain priced his life. Bertilak’s wife was interested in finding out the cost(es) of Gawain: `Iwysse. as excess. Once she discovered that she could not buy him with sex. xxi R. xx This oath is precisely what had bound Gawain to the Lady. succeeded in seducing Gawain into believing that value lies only in the subjectivity that prices it. The moment he committed his first serious mistake was when he accepted the oath the lady suggested to him.] So far from saving his life. he deliberately confused the sign and what it signifies.xxii When Sir Gawain turned around and accepted the girdle. (1276-79. here.. emphasis added by R. its cost(es) by which it is (ap)praised at a high prys is (are) no less than a man's life. in R. and this he ignores. Gawain should have known that oaths are powerful and have a way of binding a man. And. For were I worth al þe wone of wymmen alyue. Allen Shoaf regards the lady as a successful seductress who. knyʒt. where surfet. The green girdle costs a man's life. she also convinced him that she is to be trusted in all her pricings. In fact. thus being proud. And I schulde chepen and chose to cheue me a lorde. Bot I am proude of þe prys þat ʒe put on me. Yet as R. is a kind of pride.. Allen Shoaf’s terms. worþy. Allen Shoaf suggests. [. including that of the green girdle. in Gawain's case. `ʒe haf waled wel better. Gawain ultimately pays the price of pride at the Green Chapel and bears the mark of it for the rest of his life. the girdle. to the extent that in order to buy his life. the relationship of identity between the green girdle and what it signifies is arbitrary and. the green girdle costs Gawain his lewté and becomes the syngne of surfet. the signified. my souerayn I holde yow. has become identical with his life. emphasis added by R. By convincing Gawain that she is a very good judge of knight's flesh. At this point. he saw the green girdle as simple and less worthy than the ring. that is its price.' quoþ þe wyʒe. Allen Shoaf) The lady’s speech means that she inspected his cost(es) and found them trwee to their advance billing (þat I haf er herkkened). wholly subjective. she would spare nothing in the world (1269-70) as long as it were hers in order to buy Gawain. by means of her high-pressure bisinesse tactics. the signifier. And yowre knyʒt I becom. up to the point of jeopardizing his soul. Allen Shoaf) Gawain made her think that he had a price. soberly your seruaunt. a piece of cloth tricked out in gold. (1268-75. and he was covetous.`Bi Mary. a piece of cloth. doubtless he still assumed that in fact he was being only courteous and mannerly. And al þe wele of þe worlde were in my honde. and were she to barter and to dicker (chepen) for a mate. in Saussure’s terms. and this human sin is an assertion of personal value to the exclusion of the Maker of that value. Gawain became everything that a knight should never be: he was proud. xxiv For him. xix Even if Gawain told Bertilak's Lady. `me þynk hit an oþer. For þe costes þat I haf knowen vpon þe. And þat I haf er herkkened and halde hit here trwee. he spent his loyalty ( lewté). he was coward. Proud of the price his human maker puts on him. and by keeping the girdle he was also idolatrous. and Kryst yow forʒelde. At this point in the story. þer schulde no freke vpon folde bifore yow be chosen.

133). he never allows her to acquire definition in terms of his color structuring. But Gawain unconscious that the lord’s gift of the fox skin is a memento mori. Sir Gawain exchanges his ‘prys’ for his life. both big and small. whose thematic parallel to the temptation has been pleasantly remote while its atmosphere of natural.xxvi There are exactly five greens in the third Fitt. where he confessed himself fully and laid bare his sins. In one word he was guilty of untrawρe and thus his perfect pentangle was fatally flawed.xxvii Earlier on his last day in Bertilak’s castle. finally surprises and disheartens him more than anyone else. we may see the repetition of reds in the second Fitt. But. he snatches at it instinctively – and falls prey to the temptress whom he has so long eluded by every wily shift in his power. Gawain's refusal of ‘nostram humanitatem’. Sir Gawain was dressed in blue. suddenly becomes acutely relevant. and the bedroom Bertilak gives him has red-gold bed-curtain rings. Gawain had made the final. having evaded the hounds all day was suddenly killed when the lord appeared in its path with his drawn sword. yet his confession was practically invalid without the restitution of the green girdle. Red is the colour that is linked to Bertilak' s wife. he rejects a red ring offered to him by his temptress. Allen Shoaf. against spiritual purity (clannes) and Christian duty (pité). and he absolved him fully and made him as pure as if Judgment Day were to fall upon the following day. in the following stanza. (p. again echoing the pattern of repeated fives. she shares the red color already so strongly connected with Gawain. is to have refused nostram humanitatem. the error of Gawain. imploring forgiveness. The hunt. a hunt came to an end: the artful fox. yet the fear of death was much stronger than his real wish to be sincere. The fact that the next day he was going to face a creature endowed with supernatural powers makes the retention of the green girdle equally understandable in human terms: with death facing him next day. as every man eventually must. his temptress : Just as the Gawain-poet never gives her a name. Gawain was guilty of having sinned against fraunchyse. R. His confession may be interpreted as Gawain’s attempt to save his guilty conscience. and by false confession. accepts it. and begging the priest for absolution. he pays for his life with his ‘prys’. as soon as Gawain tied the green girdle across his red pentangle. far away in the forest. lay his life down. without his ‘prys’ his life is precisely worthless. the fox’s end suggesting a fateful paradox: he who seeks to save his life shall lose it. Allen Shoaf compares Gawain’s gesture of keeping his life with the sacrifice of Christ and emphasises that Gawain’s mistake is one that any human being would do. as he soon learns. during the third temptation scene. back to one of undisturbed green no longer given specific definition by its former contrast with red.xxxiii . however. and it is here that Gawain chooses green over red. red gold on a red background. xxviii According to R. the colour structure of the poem shifted out of the world of contrasts. his horse has red studs on its armour. his fear of death or his belief that he must live at all costs.though for him Judgment Day is to fall upon the following Yet. an apparent means of escape offers itself. This is in fact the only moment in which Gawain wore blue clothes in the whole romance. in spite of the fact that Sir Gawain’s fear is normal for a man of his youth. Instead. and normally blue is the traditional colour of faithfulness. outdoor activity contrasts agreeably with the unnatural pursuit of male by female going on indoors. vitally important preparation by going to confession.xxix Accepting the girdle. The strange thing about the significance of colours is the fact that at the moment of his confession. and on his coat. goes to bed secure in his possession of the girdle and conscious of absolution .xxxii By coveting the girdle.Coming back to the significance of colours and their repetitive appearance in the romance. In stanza seventy-three. but when she then presents the green girdle a few lines later he weakens and.xxxi While Gawain was confessing. when the narrator describes Gawain’s red pentangle on his shield.

that leads him to act deceitfully in not disclosing his gift when called upon to do so.xxxvii When Bertilak prices Gawain -when he comparat militem Arthuri -on this day of admirabile commercium. and he preyed on all those who passed. his confessor responded unhesitatingly: I consider you absolved of that offence and purged as clean as if you had never sinned since the day you were born. knights. promising to conceal the fact. will now take its place. Now I am lacking in fidelity and guilty of breach of faith. Solomon included. Gawain’s persistence in treating the issue as a serious moral one appears increasingly at variance with the conventional romance conclusion as Bertilak reveals the underlying motivation of the adventure. with one red and twelve greens. It is his love of his own life. Gawain replied: Because I feared your blow. racked by shame and mortification. responsible for the downfall of many great and wise men. xxxvi Abashed and swearing never to break his word again. while never referred to as red. but Sir Gawain refused. and peasants. priests. and henceforth I will be on my guard. The Green Knight revealed his identity as he was lord Bertilak and told Sir Gawain that in collusion with his wife. let me understand your pleasure with respect to penance. Elizabeth A. He even advised Sir Gawain to give up his mission and escape. But then. is visually powerful enough to associate itself with the first red thread beginning to unravel from that essentially fragile knot. the five-pointed knot of the red pentangle has collapsed as Gawain's symbol. that generosity and fidelity which is proper to knights.xxxv Therefore. Hoffman notes that in the fourth Fitt. Bitterly he inveighed against both ladies in the castle who have so cleverly deceived their knight with their trickery (p. the colour structure's correspondence with the numerological patterns based on five and twenty-five breaks down. (p. The little blood that falls on the snow after the token "tappe" on Gawain's neck. 161). the challenge was to Arthur’s court. he reminds Gawain of that exchange. against the feminine sex in general. and against himself as a fool brought to grief through the wiles of women (2407-38). Once again Gawain has met with a tempter and been challenged to choose between cowardice and death. unable to withstand the loss of even one element of its five clusters of virtues. 159) As Gawain had already made restitution of the girdle and resolution not to sin again. neither colour in any way related to five or its multiples. between Deus and Homo. malicious. Sir Gawain refused Bertilak’s invitation to return to the castle and reconcile with his wife. guided by a member of Bertilak’s household who warned him that the guardian of the Green Chapel was massive. The Green Knight attempted to behead Sir Gawain but he only managed to graze his neck. between spirit and flesh. between deity and humanity. Gawain’s diatribe shocks not least because it is gratuitous. (p. sir. the traditional enmity of the enchantress Morgan le Fay towards Arthur’s court (2439-70). his head restored. he seems like Death himself. once again his choice is complicated with ambiguities. Obviously. he reprimanded Sir Gawain for not telling the truth to the end. The much tougher green one. which in his youthful idealism he had . I who have always abhorred treachery and dishonesty… I here humbly confess to you. his failing has been to accept from his hostess the secret gift of a green girdle whose magic powers will protect him in his forthcoming fight against the Green Knight. not of a woman. ignoring the courtly. that commerce. ironic challenger but extending and darkening his Wild Man characteristics until. the “uncourtliness” of his behaviour is compounded rather than excused by his misogynistic tirade. that my behaviour is very sinful. Stunned. the knotted sash. cowardice led me to have to do with covetousness.On New Year’s Day Sir Gawain went to the Green Chapel. 159). The guide’s description of the Green Knight develops one aspect of the ambivalent figure who appeared at Arthur’s court. as slayer of all three social orders. yet Gawain interpreted it as a personal failure which was inexcusable. he had put him to a test. to forsake my true nature. xxxiv The Green Chapel was a threatening place itself and the Green Knight appeared in the same armour that he had worn at Arthur’s court. As Henrietta Leyser notes.

represented the archetypal founding father. symbol of trawthe. Although Gawain is a superior man. in his Fortunate Fall off Sir Gawain: The Typology of ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ' (Washington.ignored. As Sidney E. not yet a deity. admitting that the green girdle represented the blazon of this guilty scar I bear in my neck. this is the badge of the injury and the harm which I have received because of the cowardice and covetousness to which I there fell prey . however. thus relating Gawain to the archetypal Aeneas. which brought redemption for mankind. Donald R. The tulk of line 3 in the poem ( þe tulk þat þe trammes of tresoun þer wro3t/ Wat3 tried for his triecherie. There is a strong interrelation between the bedroom scenes and the hunting scenes.xxxviii This time he accepted the girdle as a badge of dishonour and returned to Arthur’s court. 1 1 Howard. Howard’s view was that the hero’s failure could be interpreted in terms of the conflict between Christian ideology and the secular idealism of chivalry. 1982) went even further. (p. he is still a man. the opening stanza to Sir Gawain and The Green Knight contains a characteristic combination of the verbal and thematic ambiguities and it describes the foundation of European civilizations by noble refugees from fallen Troy and also the appearance of medieval chivalry.xli As Donald R. xl Later readings.xxxix Among the earlier readings of Sir Gawain and The Green Knight. 165) All knights decided to wear green girdles as a symbol which would always remind them of their chivalrous duties. þe athel. Howard suggests. According to the medieval versions of the Troy legend. and his highe kynde – p. Another possible interpretation of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight consists in analysing the journey that Gawain takes from Arthur's court to Bertilak's castle. Berger points out in his Gawain's Departure from the Peregrinatio. 104 . starting with the ‘80s underlined that these were seen as complementary values integrated in the figure of the pentagle. 32) must surely be Aeneas who. Antenor revealed her hiding place and the Greeks angry at Aeneas’ treason sent him to exile. it seems that by the end of the fifteenth century the pilgrimage was in decline. When Gawain looks hereafter to the syngne of surfet. as each hunt ended with a different version of the penalty for treason. According to W. p. whom they wished to sacrifice on Achilles’ tomb. […] Dante's journey to Beatrice and Chaucer's from the sinful Tabard Inn to the tomb of St. The outcome. Reform and counter-reform and the complex of medieval institutions to which [Protestantism] was crying out for reform were already existent in Chaucer's time. the Middle Ages abounds in peregrinatios or pilgrimages to describe spiritual progress through a worldly metaphor. and therefore he is still subject to the market-place of this world where the commerce between deity and humanity goes on. suggesting that Sir Gawain’s fault is similar to Adam’s felix culpa. Barron. a place where the pilgrims can receive absolution for their sins. concealed from the princess Polyxena. and back to Arthur's court as peregrinatio. yet out of compassion. then to the Green Chapel.J.(see Appendix 3). Aeneas helped Antenor betray the city to Greeks. The American critic Victor Yelverton Haines. Donald R (1980). He recounted his story. he will see the weight of the flesh and thus also that concupiscence which is the reatus of original sin. for the Middle Ages. is not the conventional reaffirmation of the chivalric values but the bitter disappointed idealist who has fallen short of his own absolute standards. Thomas Beckett. obviously represent spiritual as well as literal movements in the traditional peregrinatio.

42 xxi ibidem. 5 xi To what land he went none there knew.. 2. 1998. p. "A Re-Hearing of ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’". PsyArt. 69. 45 xxiii idem..luc.R. Howard (1966) xli Sidney E. 7 x idem. p. Barron (2001).. Barron (2001). v Quoted in Frances Gibbons. article no. in Mark D.luc. p. in Essays in Medieval Studies 2. p. retrieved from the site: http://www. retrieved from the site: http://www. 40 xx idem. PsyArt. 219.R. Essays in Medieval Studies. p. Hoffman. p.R. consulted on January.clas. Samuel M. Essays in Medieval Studies 2/ An Online Journal for the Psychological Study of Arts.. ( p. 24 xxxix W. "Sir Gawain’s Mentors". p.ufl.ufl. "Gawain's Departure from the Peregrinatio". retrieved from the site: retrieved from the site: http://www... pp. Johnston. p. 146 W. Proceedings of the Illinois Medieval Association. R. p. Samuel M. 80. 86. any more than they knew where he had come from. xvii idem. retrieved from the site: http://www. p. Essays in Medieval Studies 2/ 1985. 2006 vi Quoted in Frances Vargas Gibbons. 70. 3. "Sir Gawain’s Mentors". retrieved from the site: p. J.).shtml. his list contains seventy-three terms of marketing that he found in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. 19 xxxv Idem. An Online Journal for the Psychological Study of Arts . The book is an extremely interesting analysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. p. Barron (2001). 970929. 22 xl see Donald R. "A Re-Hearing of ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’". At the end of his book. p. in Mark D. p. "A Re-Hearing of ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’". p. article no. 21-22 xxxi Elizabeth A.R. p. Riley (eds). p. p. 57) xii W.R. p. in Mark D. vol. consulted on February. J. J. The Uses of the Past. 2006 xxxii W. 21 xxxvi Elizabeth A. p. 2006 vii W. Barron (2001). 17 xxxiv idem. 44 xxiv idem. Allen Shoaf (1999). Barron (2001).clas. Samuel M. Barron (2001). "Bertilak Reads Brut: History and the Complications of Sexuality in ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’". p. Allen Shoaf (1999).. Barron (2001). 2006 ii . 9 xiii Heide Estes. xxviii W. Essays in Medieval Studies 2/ 1985. Berger. 18 xxxiii idem. xxvi Elizabeth A. p. Allen Shoaf (1999). 2. 5 viii ibidem. Riley (eds). 67 xxv ibidem. 25 iii W. p. Barron (2001). consulted on February.. p.. Hoffman. 37. 2000. xix idem.html.R. 13 xv R.html xxvii ibidem. 6. John Zedolik (eds. Hoffman. J. p.R.luc. 39 xviii ibidem. 18 xxix R. ix idem. Frantzen.R.. xxii idem.shtml. p. Allen Shoaf makes a list of occurrences of commercial terms. J. 80. consulted on February. J. J. retrieved from the site: http://www... p. 4 iv John Speirs (1957). Johnston. Riley (eds). in Allen J. 43 xvi idem.html.. J. consulted on retrieved from the site: http://www.html xiv 250 xxxviii R. 17. 3. 2006 xxxvii Henrietta Leyser (1996). p. 21 xxx idem. 970929. Johnston.i Leon Leviţchi (1974). 1998.