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GARDENING FOR THE MILLION
By ALFRED PINK
AUTHOR OF "RECIPES FOR THE MILLION."
T. FISHER UNWIN
It is with the object of stimulating the cultivation of gardens still more beautiful than those generally to be met with that the present volume has been written. It has not been thought necessary to repeat in each case the times when the seeds of the various flowers and plants are to be sown. A careful attention to the remarks made under the headings of "Annuals," "Biennials," "Perennials," and "Seed-Sowing" will supply all the information needed. That the work may prove useful to those at least who supervise their own gardens is the sincere wish of the author. DULWICH.
—These shrubby plants are herbaceous and mostly hardy. Height. Keep them well supplied with liquid manure while in a growing state. The Pigmy Spruce (A. or suckers.—Handsome half-hardy annual trailers. Height. loam. cuttings placed in heat. Flowers from July to September. They succeed in any ordinary soil if the situation is warm and sheltered. The dried leaves. Height. cover lightly with fine soil. is very ornamental. yet stately hardy perennial. Any of these may be increased by cuttings.—This is a frame evergreen perennial. The A. are produced in May.—Fine plants. and leaf-mould. never exceeding 4 ft. ( See also "Winter Aconites. Flowers in April. or Blue Spruce. with its bright crimson palmate leaves. May be grown from seed.—Among these ornamental conifers mention may be made of the beautiful Japanese Spruce Ajanensis. It may be increased by cuttings planted in a shaded situation. Height. or by cuttings of young shoots placed in spring or summer in sand under glass. Height. and may be increased by cuttings placed under glass. fast growers. to 2 ft. Abutilon. funnel-shaped flowers. Plant six tubers in a 5-in. but the choice varieties are best raised from seed sown as soon as it is ripe. this makes a grand single specimen anywhere. suitable when young for pots. or by layers. with their growing ends inclining to the centre and the roots to the edge of the pot. or in August or September in a sheltered situation. Achimenes. Height. and cover them an inch deep with a compost of peat. and afterwards for the shrubbery.—A pure white hardy perennial which blooms in August. Negundo Variegata has silvery variegated leaves. in height. Any soil.—Winter and spring flowering greenhouse shrubs with charming flowers and graceful foliage. which grows freely in most soils and has dual-coloured leaves—dark green on the upper surface and silvery white underneath. 2 ft. thriving in any light.—A hardy bog plant. 3 ft. Achillea Ptarmica (Sneezewort). to 4 ft. to 2-1/2 ft. Height. suitable for the greenhouse. produce sneezing. The White Spruce (Abies Alba Glauca) is a rapid grower. which are green.—See "Solidago. The height of the various kinds varies from 3 in. and when new shoots appear re-pot the plants.—Very vigorous plants. 1-1/2 ft. of a creeping nature. It is not particular as to soil or situation. which contrast effectively with dark foliage. Height. which should be soaked in warm water for twenty-four hours.GARDENING FOR THE MILLION A Aaron's Rod. powdered. and for winter bouquets. Best increased by rooted offsets. Seed may also be sown in the open during May or in autumn for early flowering. 4 ft. The flowers. 4 in. It can be increased by dividing the roots. Will also bear dividing. and flowers in August. Clanbrasiliana is a good lawn shrub. Acroclinium. Of the slow-growing and dwarf varieties Gregorii is a favourite. or with a bottom heat. Campestre Colchicum Rubrum.—A greenhouse evergreen shrub. The Maple grows best in a sandy loam. to 3 ft. Acacia. The Caerulea. Flowers June to July. having an abundance of light-coloured evergreen foliage. Abies (Spruce Firs). Height. Acer (Maple). 1 ft. or they may be propagated by layers. as is also Negundo Californicum Aurem. only attaining the height of 1 ft. Will grow from seed sown from March to midsummer. Abronia. In May it puts forth its rose-coloured flowers. Aconite (Monk's-Hood or Wolf's-Bane ). They flourish best in sandy loam and peat. but while it is small makes a lovely show in the border. 3 ft. pot. 5 ft. Acæna. sandy soil. sitting-room. which has large ornamental foliage. and succeeds under the shade of trees. to 6 in. 2 ft.") Acorus (Sweet Flag). and are readily raised by cuttings. They like a rich sandy loam soil. plunge the pot in gentle heat. Increased by division or by seeds. place a square of glass on the top. Cut the old plants back in January. Sow in pots in February or March. it prefers a moist situation.—Very ornamental evergreen shrubs. 3 in. is also very beautiful. and suitable for dry banks or rough stony places. with its golden-yellow foliage. or hanging baskets. Grow in sandy peat and multiply by root division. Acanthus. and may be increased by cuttings of halfripened wood. rich soil. but being very poisonous should not be grown where there are children. It will grow in any wet soil. bearing tubular." Abelia. Pygmea) is the smallest of all firs.—Daisy-like everlastings. Height. Half-hardy annuals suitable for cutting during summer. Acantholimon Glumaceum (Prickly Thrift). Height. 6 in.—A coarse. Height. May be raised from seed. to 8 ft. but free space should be given it. or a light. . 3 ft.—Evergreen greenhouse shrubs of great beauty and easy cultivation.—Very pretty and very hardy. and gradually harden off. Acrophyllum Verticillatum. March is its flowering season. It will grow in any soil.
Bloom in August. requiring only the simplest treatment of hardy annuals. resembling small sunflowers. Actinella Grandiflora. 1 ft. Carrot 5 to 6 lb. There are also perennial varieties: these are increased by division of the root.—A showy herbaceous plant. from June to August. pot for each plant. when they may be planted out a foot apart. and are readily increased by seeds sown in a damp situation. It thrives in any loamy soil. 1 ft. It will grow in any soil. Any soil suits them. and is increased by dividing the roots. Blooms in June and July. Sow the seed in March. The flowers are both lovely and showy. Height. Cuttings root freely under glass. Give it plenty of pot room. 3 ft.—These are mostly hardy herbaceous plants from South Africa. Actinomeris Squarrosa. Height.—Showy crimson summer flowers. 15 ft. Height.Acrotis.—A useful hardy perennial for rock-work. say a 9-in. 6 in. Cabbage (to transplant) 1" Cabbage (to drill) 2 to 3" Kohl Rabi (to drill) 2 to 3" Lucerne 16 to 20" Mangold Wurtzel 5 to 7" Mustard (Broadcast) 10 to 20" Rape or Cole 4 to 6" Rye Grass. Adonis Flos. Ageratum. Italian 3 bus. Agrostis. They will flower at midsummer. and the situation should be dry and sunny. Height. It is increased by division of the roots. and is largely used for bouquets. 1 ft. and is increased by dividing the roots. Height. Adonis Pyrenaica. Height. Rye Grass. 1 ft." Adenandra Fragrans. bearing large orange-coloured flowers in July. Adenophora Lilifolia. 6 in. Actaea Spicata (Bane Berry). Adonis Vernalis. Height.—Required per statute acre.—This little Alpine plant is a hardy evergreen that is very suitable for rock-work.—Interesting hardy climbers. high.—This hardy and ornamental herbaceous plant bears heads of bright yellow flowers.—An evergreen shrub suitable for the greenhouse.—A hardy annual that is very pretty when in flower. Turnip. Some few are of a creeping nature. It flowers in June. Height. Ajuga Reptans. Height.—This is a noble plant. and may be increased by seed sown in the spring or early autumn. moist loam in a sunny situation or in partial shade. Adam's Needle. if not too wet. Height. and is easily increased by dividing the root.—A hardy herbaceous perennial which delights in a shady position. Perennial 2" Sainfoin 4" Tares. 1 ft. Height. Winter in a warm greenhouse. Seed may be sown early in March in gentle heat. . Akebia Quinata. and is easily raised from seed sown in spring. but will not allow being divided at the root. There is a dwarf variety suitable for ribbon borders and edgings. Height. Will grow in any soil. 1-1/2 ft. to 3 ft.—Pretty hardy perennials suitable for the border. suitable for borders. In winter protect from severe frost.—A rare but charming Pyrenean perennial species. 1 ft. It thrives best in a mixture of sandy peat and turfy loam. 1-1/2 ft. It needs no special treatment. and give but very little water. with thick ornamental foliage. and the plants grown on in a cold frame till May. Agapanthus (African Lily). Produce drooping pale blue flowers on branching spikes in July. as it will grow in any soil. deep. flowers in March. —A favourite hardy perennial. Adlumia Cirrhosa. 4 ft. It is increased by dividing the root while in a dormant state.—See "Yucca. which grows freely from seed in any garden soil. and may be propagated by seeds or division. Height. Flourishes in any soil.—This greenhouse evergreen twining plant delights in a soil of loam and peat. Alchemilla Alpina (Lady's Mantle). 3 in. to 1-1/2 ft. The plant is nearly hardy. thriving best in a light.—A very elegant and graceful species of Bent-Grass. May is its flowering month. Re-pot in March. It will grow in any soil. and producing large goldenyellow flowers from May to July. Several growing together in a large tub produce a fine effect. 2 ft. or Vetches 3" Turnip. It may also be increased by dividing the roots. In pots it requires a strong loamy soil with plenty of manure. Height.—A hardy herbaceous perennial. It may be propagated by seeds or cuttings. which succeeds well in the open if placed in a rich. 3 ft. Agricultural Seeds. suitable for the front of borders. being produced during August in great bunches on stems 3 ft. They may be grown from seed. Æthionema Cordifolium. Height. Its rose-hued flowers are produced in June. 10 ft. or by dividing the roots. or it may readily be raised from seed in ordinary soil. Throughout the summer the pots should stand in pans of water. Height. It is a hardy annual. Require the support of stakes. It flowers in June. It is not particular as to soil. Swedish 3 lb. Height. May is its flowering season. Cuttings of the young branches stuck in sand will strike. 1 ft. The soil should consist of two parts loam and one part leaf-mould.—Effective half-hardy annual bedding plants. and will even grow under trees. Seed should be sown in heat in February or March. Common 2 to 3" Trifolium 16 to 20" Agrostemma. Sow in March or April in the open border. Height. rich soil.
when they will probably require thinning out. preferably on a south border. and is best sown in autumn. It is increased by cuttings planted in sand." Alonsoa. Lutea (Sternbergia) flowers in autumn. Height." It bears large heads of pure white flowers. as it will bloom two or three times in a season. deep in light. Alsine Rosani. Purpurea (Vallota Purpurea or Scarborough Lily ) is a very beautiful free bloomer.—Pretty hardy perennials which may be very easily raised from seed on a sandy soil.Allium Descendens. which are invaluable for cutting for vase decorations as the bloom lasts a long time in water. deep from October to December. If put into pots. and may be increased by layers. Flower in June. well-drained soil. Any common soil suits it. bears an abundance of scented white flowers in June. Plant 4 in. October and November or March and April are the most favourable times for potting. 1-1/2 ft.—The foliage of these half-hardy annual plants are extremely beautiful. 1 ft. Allspice. and the flowers will be borne in July. Ampelopsis. Most of the stove and greenhouse species should be turned out of their pots in autumn. Being one of our earliest spring flowers. Any of the varieties may be grown in common garden soil. The soil should be chopped up and used in a rough condition. They thrive best in a compost of turfy loam and peat. when undisturbed. with a fair quantity of sand. in the proportions of three parts of the former to one of the latter. Alstromeria (Peruvian Lilies). though they are usually taken from the old plants in spring. with its cushions of green growth. Protect in winter with a covering of leaves or litter. A. and flowers during June and July. Height. well—drained soil. and is suitable for borders. The Veitchii clings to the wall without nailing.—Well adapted for rock-work or the front of flower-beds. and keep the temperature moist and at 60 degrees or 65 degrees. pots. Aloysia Citriodora. Sow the seed in spring in any fine garden soil. and produces a profusion of lovely leaves which change colour.—These plants bear large drooping bell-shaped lily-like blossoms. They are increased by offsets from the bulbs. 3 ft. 2 ft. then they will flower in July. will preserve the plants in good health. which produces fine spikes of orange-scarlet flowers in June. loam. red. Height. or forcing in a cool house. Ammobium. bears yellow flowers in spring. Plant in October or November in any garden soil. when they should be re-potted and kept liberally supplied with water.—These beautiful summer-flowering hardy perennials produce large heads of lily-like blossoms in great profusion. 1 ft. 1 ft. They may be grown from seed sown as soon as it is ripe in sandy loam.—This is popularly known as the "Star.—Handsome and rapid climbers. deep in a well-drained sunny situation. and allowed to remain undisturbed for two or three years. 4 in.—A pretty and free-blooming half-hardy annual. It is multiplied by cuttings or seeds." Alyssum. or Sweet Alyssum. and keeping the roots free from stagnant water. bulbous perennial. The hardy perennial. Althea—See "Hibiscus. but established plants should be re-potted in June or July. Height. Alternantheras. The hardy varieties should be planted 6 in. pots filled with coarse sand. Height. some being carmine. They bloom in July. with a dressing of fresh cow manure once in two years. Discontinue watering when the foliage shows signs of failing.—See "Calycanthus" and "Chimonanthus. Plant in autumn 6 in. Amaranthus. 1-1/2 ft. Formosissima (the Scarlet Jacobean Lily) is a gem for the greenhouse. When rooted. and laid by in a dry place until spring. Height. Height. If grown in the open. 6 in. Saxatile (commonly called Gold Dust). others green and crimson. to 6 ft. but where this cannot be obtained a good fertile loam. it should be trained to a wall facing south.—This favourite lemon-scented verbena should be grown in rich mould. Ambrosia Mexicana. it is of easy culture. give plenty of room for the roots and keep well supplied with water.—A hardy. Height. American Plants. 2 ft. 3 in. They are very suitable either for bedding or pot plants. Striatifolia bloom best. makes a very fine display on rock-work or in any shady position. and on to the end of September.—These thrive most in a peat or bog soil. . Insert them singly in 4-1/2-in. Height. or leaf-mould and soil from the surface of pasture land. with noble foliage. Reticulata and A. Amaryllis. to 1 ft. The Belladonna (Belladonna Lily) should be planted in June in a sheltered border in rich. to 3 ft. and in winter the roots need protecting with a heap of ashes and the branches to be tied up with matting. and very suitable for forcing. Ordinary soil suits. It is increased by offsets. Allium Neapolitanum. Height. The annual. but avoid shrivelling the leaves.—This pretty little herbaceous plant. Sickly plants with yellowish foliage may be restored by applying liquid manure once a week during the month of July. however. and plant out in May or June in very rich soil. A light top-dressing of cow manure applied annually. Flower in July and August. the bulbs should be planted early in autumn. Sow the seed early in spring in gentle heat.—Cuttings of this greenhouse herbaceous plant may be struck in autumn. to 1-1/2 ft. Height. may be used. It should be potted in February. some changing to a deep crimson in autumn.—A hardy annual of the simplest culture. The pots must in all cases be well drained. and green. August is its flowering season. and leaf-mould. some yellow. place them near the glass.
The scarlets make very effective beds. or May in fine soil. producing lilac-purple flowers with yellow stamens in July and August. and may be increased by division. Place the seedlings in a cold frame and let them have plenty of air.—These perennials are almost hardy. 6 in. It grows best in a compost of turfy loam and peat. 2 ft. By this means strong and sturdy plants are produced and their flowering properties are enhanced. or the plants may be raised in the windows of the sitting-room. and the plants will flower in July. Height. light. —An elegant and graceful greenhouse plant. but not touching them. the greenhouse varieties from cuttings in light loam under glass. It flowers in April and May.—A rather scarce but remarkably handsome perennial. Height. The annual and biennial kinds succeed well if sown in the open in rich soil. Take cuttings during summer. commonly known as the Marsh Cystus. Very small seeds.—This produces an abundance of bright red flowers with a dark blotch and a low growth of grass-like foliage. to 2 ft. place them under glass. They are increased by seeds. Anthemis Tinctoria (Yellow Marguerites ). Antennaria.—Anchusa Capensis is best raised in a frame and treated as a greenhouse plant. sow in March where they are intended to flower 1 in. producing a brilliant display of flowers. covering slightly with wellprepared mould—very small seeds require merely a dusting over them. Annuals. Seed may also be sown in a cold frame in April. Scatter the seeds thinly and evenly over the soil and cover very lightly. and placed on a slight hotbed. Flower in July. rich soil. 6 in. such as lobelia and musk. apart. and have holes at the bottom for drainage. Sow the hardy annuals in the open early in March. giving forth a delicious aromatic odour. cover with leaf-mould. to allow them to develop their true character. but give a little air occasionally. as the seed rots if too much mould is placed over it. The tubers will not keep long out of the ground. and die in one season. produce seed. with a trowelful of manure under each plant. They grow best in small pots in a mixture of turfy loam and peat. They can be increased by division as well as by seed. rich garden soil. so the roots must never be allowed to get dry. or groups. and may be increased by cuttings or division.") Andromeda. gradually potting them on into larger sizes until the flowering size is reached. As soon as the young plants appear. May be grown from seed sown directly it is ripe and only lightly covered with soil. Hardy.—An ornamental evergreen shrub. needing protection merely in severe weather. It is more generally increased by layers in September.—Pretty little plants. Height. Harden off gradually. It is suitable for either vases.—These are best sown in boxes 2 or 3 in. Transplant into light soil. Angelonia Grandiflora Alba. placing the tubers 2-1/2 or 3 in. Many of the hardy annuals may be sown in August and September for spring flowering. They are readily raised from seed sown in gentle heat early in spring or by slips during the summer months. should not be covered by earth. For early spring flowering plant from October to December. but do not plant out until the weather is favourable. Water them very cautiously. and thriving in a peat soil with partial shade. When the plants are large enough to handle. but thrives in any light.Anagallis (Pimpernel. but a sheet of glass over the box is beneficial. (See also "Bugloss.—These must be sown on a hotbed. Height. If the seed is set as soon as it is ripe it produces bulbs which will flower the following year. and may be grown in any moist. preferably mixed with a good proportion of silver sand. Half-Hardy. Two or three sowings may be made also during the summer.)—Very pretty. remove the glass and place them near the light. or in a greenhouse at a temperature of about 60 degrees. deep during February and March. care must be taken that the seeds are not washed out.—Hardy perennial plants. mostly hardy. where gentle ventilation can be given them to prevent long and straggly growth. or offsets. thoroughly mixed. Height. while others do not put forth flower till August. as it keeps the moisture from evaporating too quickly. In growing from seed choose seeds from single-flowering plants. 1-1/2 ft. . Height. 1-1/2 ft. divisions. Anemones. Height. May also be increased by cuttings planted in ordinary soil under glass. 6 in.—Plants of this description arrive at maturity. some blooming as early as April. Plant the bulbs in autumn in a mixture of loam and peat. 6 in. Anemonopsis Macrophylla. If planted in February and March they will bloom from April to June. or in the open border during May. light soil. They should occupy a sunny and well-drained situation. prick them off into small pots. or in rather stronger heat than is necessary for half-hardy descriptions. As soon as they are large enough to be shifted. They flower at different seasons. Should watering become necessary. It will grow in ordinary soil. Androsace. They require a slight protection from frost.—These are highly ornamental. and require little or no protection from frost. Anomatheca Cruenta. The heights of the various kinds range from 3 in. to 2 ft. edges. Anchusa. the biennials or half-hardy perennials in pots in a greenhouse or a frame. The box should be nearly filled with equal parts of good garden soil and coarse silver sand. They are mostly hardy. 2 ft. requiring a rich. but some require the protection of a frame. Tender. which must not be disturbed for a year. Height. though in reality it is a hardy perennial. They flower in June and July. thin them out boldly. deep and 9 in. and plant out when strong enough. apart. Drought will kill it.—The seed should be sown thinly in the open borders during March. April. deep and 4 or 5 in. bloom. All are ornamental and open their flowers in June. A little sea sand or salt mixed with the soil is a preventive of mildew.
Should they become troublesome on account of their numbers a strong decoction of elder leaves poured into the nest will destroy them. sow in July.—A charming and graceful evergreen shrub. 1-1/2 ft. may be kept free from them by surrounding it with a broad band of chalk. which can be trained as desired. All apples will not succeed on the same soil. or plant-lice. For light. Ants in Gardens. The soil—good. and succeed in any common soil. In the spring any leaf-buds not required for permanent shoots can be pinched back to three or four leaves to .--. it being merely necessary to remove branches growing in the wrong direction. Syringe the plant all over repeatedly with gas-tar water. etc. apart each way. but this should be done annually. that on the deep soil being dug in at the approach of spring. sound loam for preference— should be dug 3 ft. a handsome and early dessert apple. The foliage is light and elegant. etc. to 2 ft. Place a substratum of bricks below each tree and tread the earth very firmly round the roots. They may be grown on their own roots by planting the stone. while others grow best in sandy loam or in well-drained peat. In orchards standards should stand 40 ft. Aponogeton." Young trees may be planted in the autumn. as it allows a ready means of tucking small yew branches between them to protect the buds from the cold. 6 in. keeping the seed moist until it germinates. For a deep. the leaves curling up. Seeds sown early in spring produce flowers the same year. It may be increased by cuttings taken in spring and planted in the shade in leaf-mould. make their presence known by the plant assuming an unhealthy appearance. The best time to perform the grafting is March. June is their flowering period. For shallow soils it is better to graft on to the Paradise stock. It enjoys a light soil and a good amount of sunshine. or a more expeditious method of getting rid of them is to put gunpowder in their nests and fire it with a piece of touch-paper tied on to a long stick. but should not be disturbed oftener.As pot plants they are very effective. Aotus Gracillima..—Early in November is the most favourable time for planting Apricots. This should be done in August. while that on the shallow soil should be removed in the spring to allow the ground to be lightly forked and sweetened. A vegetable soil is best suited for its growth. They will not need any manure until they are fruiting. should receive a good mulching in the autumn. throwing up spikes of starry white flowers from May to July. Choice sorts may be plentifully increased by cuttings taken in July or August. The fan shape is undoubtedly the best way of training the branches. It is of a procumbent habit. They will not crawl over the wool. and it should be done on the whip-handle system. equally suitable for cooking or dessert. Height. It may be increased by separating the tubers after the tops have died down. and King of the Pippins. Planted in deep. Sow in spring. Mulching in early springtime is advantageous. If moss makes its appearance. and dwarfs from 10 ft.—This hardy perennial is a profuse bloomer. 12 ft. but a quicker way to obtain fruit is to bud them on to vigorous seedling plum trees. Warner's King. Height. The ground. Cuttings of half-ripened wood planted under glass will take root. good soil and a sheltered situation the standard form grafted on the Crab-apple is generally considered to be the most profitable. Anthericum Liliastrum (St. Frequently swarms of ants (which feed upon the aphides) are found beneath the plants attacked. Duchess of Oldenburgh. lily-like blossoms from 2 to 3 feet in height. Apricots. 6 in. cool climate. whether deep or shallow. and mixed with one-fourth its quantity of rotten leaves and one-fourth old plaster refuse. and in early summer throw up spikes of snowy-white. To obtain prime fruit.—A fine hardy perennial for rock-work. to 15 ft. Bruno's Lily). it is advisable to tie a little wool round the stems of standard roses and other things upon which they congregate. It may be divided every three or four years." Apples. Height. particulars of which will be found under "Grafting. just in the same manner as roses. while the branches are young—either at the end of July or in winter. Height. some preferring clay. 3 ft. and easy to grow. The plant is quite hardy. Treat in the same manner as the foregoing. sandy soil. Antirrhinum (Snapdragon). Cox's Orange Pippin or Bess Pool. when a little may be applied in a weak liquid form. a vigorous shoot will then be produced.—One of the finest of hardy plants.Contrary to general belief. it will grow vigorously.—Apples delight in a moist. Height. but as they are unsightly on flowers. inserting the bud on the north or north-west side of the stem and as near the ground as possible. free. Height. Anthyllis Montana.—Sweet vernal grass. They stand remarkably well both drought and excessive rainfall. and has a woody nature. replacing the manure when the dry. keep the young plants in a cold frame. and is used for edgings. deep. most effective in beds or borders. Budding is done in August. ants do more good than harm to a garden. as its roots do not run down so low as the Crab. but a plentiful supply of water should be given during spring and summer months. 2 ft. while wall-fruit. and planting them while they are fresh.—Handsome hardy perennials. A little sulphur sprinkled over a plant will keep them from it. and plant out in March or April. or with tobacco or lime-water. as soon as the leaves have fallen. It is most suitable for the greenhouse.—An American climbing plant which produces in the autumn bunches of purple flowers of an agreeable odour. It flowers at midsummer. In spring head back to the bud. one of the best for mid-season. For spring bedding. hot weather sets in. 1-1/2 ft. one from the other.—See "Aquatics. thin the fruit-buds out to a distance of 6 in. Flower from July to September. Anthoxanthum Gracila. The Devonshire Quarrenden is a delicious apple. It is graceful and ornamental. The following sorts may be specially recommended:—For heavy soils. The lady-bird is their natural enemy. and delights in a soil of loamy peat and sand. warm soils. scrape it off and wash the branches with hot lime. Apios Tuberosa (Glycine Apios). whose slender branches are covered with small pea-like flowers in May. Apples need very little pruning. Anthericum Liliago (St. and its roots should be in contact with large stones. Bernard's Lily ). Height. Aphides. and will grow on any good soil.
near water. Raise the seed in a frame in March.—These evergreen shrubs need the same treatment as Arbutos.—An evergreen shrub which delights in a mixture of loam and peat. and plenty of room for root action should be allowed. which is valuable for spring bedding. Calla Ethiopica bears pretty white flowers. It succeeds best in a mixture of loam and peat. but do not over water. Height. pot them off singly in thumb pots. Slips of half-ripened wood taken at a joint in July may be struck in heat and for the first year grown on in the greenhouse. See "Thuya. Arctotis. Height. and is only 3 in.—This shrub is an evergreen. half-hardy annual producing large daisy-like flowers on long wiry stems. when sufficiently strong. bearing flesh-coloured flowers. or it may be propagated by slips. Height. which must be well drained. It is a beautiful plant for moist.—Pure white hardy perennial. A. high. They may be raised from seed sown in autumn in a gentle heat. and may be grown in loam." Araucaria Imbricata (The Monkey Puzzle. and the plants potted off. The dwarfs are increased by layers. It flowers in June. Arctotis Grandis. though it proves quite hardy in the open. Height. Keep the mould moist. Kaisha. planted in moist soil in autumn. especially in winter. The seed should be sown early in spring on a slight hot-bed. Its cushions of white flowers are produced in July. and transplant in May. and lace it down with tarred string. and transplant when strong enough. The roots may be divided in spring or autumn. It requires a good stiff sandy loam. Aralia Sieboldi (Fig Palm).—This strikingly handsome conifer is very suitable for a forecourt or for a single specimen on grass. and the fruit of the previous year is ripe. as well as in the centres of beds. light mould. sandy soil. the rest by seeds or by budding on each other. The Water Hawthorn (Aponogetou Distachyon) does well in a warm. It should be grown in well-drained sandy loam. See "Dimorphantus. provided it is favoured with a sandy soil. produces fine heads of pink flowers. and is generally given stove culture. Uva-ursi. Yellow Water Lily ( Nuphar Lutea). Not particular to soil. 3 in. Height. Aralia (Fatsia Japonica). the upper part being white and the base yellow and lilac. or Water Plantain. Cover the surface of the earth with hay-bands twisted backwards and forwards and round the plant. when they produce an abundance of pearly-white flowers. The following are good sorts: Moor Park. is a pretty prostrate evergreen. Plant 3 in. so as to keep the earth and plant from being washed out. The Flowering Rush (Butomus Umbellatus).—Fine foliage plants. but more surely by rootlets taken after the plants have done flowering. in well-drained pots of light sandy soil. and when the plants are large enough to handle. Arabis Alpina (Rock Cress. 1 ft. and blooms (if at all) in July. Aquatics. Young plants are obtained from seed sown in good mellow soil. Water sparingly. The young plants should be hardened off and planted out in May in a sunny situation. placed under a frame. Young plants are sometimes grown in the conservatory and in the borders of shrubberies. Aquatics are propagated by seed sown under water: many will allow of root-division. The flowers are produced from May to July.—Elegant evergreen shrubs with dark foliage of great beauty during October and November. The Apricot is subject to a sort of paralysis. and easily raised from seed sown from March to June. or Creeping Arbutos. In plantations they should stand 20 ft. and Oullin's Early. Royal St. plunged in a pan of water." Arbutus (Strawberry Tree ). Ardisia Japonica. so also does the before-mentioned Aponogeton Distachyon. They flourish in the open in sandy loam. with white. Aralia Sinensis. Aquilegia (Columbine). The only remedy for this seems to be to prevent premature vegetation. or Chilian Pine). apart. and Nuphar Advena. and transplanted in the autumn. Arbor Vitae. The following make good plants:—White Water Lily ( Nymphaea Alba) in deep water with muddy bottom. They may be transferred to the border as soon as all fear of frost is over. Common garden soil suits them. Hottonia Palustris.—Very ornamental and easily-grown hardy perennials. the roots float.—A very handsome. the branches dying off suddenly. or Snow in Summer ). 3 ft. sheltered position. Weeping Willows grow readily from cuttings of ripened shoots. using rich. Is increased also by offsets. Height. Unedo is particularly charming.—All aquatics grow best in wicker-baskets filled with earth. having yellow and red flowers. and re-pot as the plants increase in size. . 6 ft. Cuttings will strike if planted in sand under glass with a little bottom heat. For shallow water Menyanthus Trifoliata (Three-leaved Buckbean) and Typha Latifolia (Broad-leaved Cat's Tail) are suitable. Arenaria Balearica (Sand Wort ). Sow seed in March in sandy soil. where its large deep-green leaves acquire a beauty surpassing those grown indoors. Be careful not to let the sun shine on them at any time. Water Forget-me-nots (Myosotis Palustris) flourish on the edges of ponds or rivers.form spurs. under glass. The Water Violet merely needs to be laid on the surface of the water. and it may be increased by seed or division. Height. Grosse Peche. Spiraea does well in moist situations. 6 in. Arctostaphylos. apart. and Alismas. light. Do not pot too firmly. and purple and white flowers. It flowers in July.—A showy and interesting half-hardy annual. which flowers in May. Powell's Late. A. very suitable for a shady situation in a living-room. Ambroise. as this would cause the leaves to lose their fresh colour. 2-1/2 ft. while the reverse of the petals are of a light lilac. Tender Aquatics are removed in winter to warm-water tanks.—A hardy evergreen trailing plant of easy culture. using a rich. 2 ft. shady rock-work. Keep them moist. especially during the winter.
high. Height. light-blue hardy annual." Artemisia Villarsii. and plenty of sunshine. It may be grown from seed on any soil. Height. allowing the plants to remain in the seed-beds until the following spring. They bear best when two or three years old.—Ornamental hardy annuals. the silvery leaves of the plant being very effective on rock-work. then planting them out. 1-1/2 ft. transplant them into small pots. Height. using a compost of loam. 2 ft. Asclepias (Swallow-Wort). its light and elegant foliage making it a general favourite. though. bearing fern-like foliage. It produces its purple flowers in May. It should be grown in rich. then transplant into beds thoroughly prepared by trenching the ground 3 ft. 6 in. The roots should not be kept too wet. sandy soil. and the roots bear dividing.") Asarum Europaeum. It needs no special treatment. They may be grown from seed sown in August or April. Plant the tubers in March. pots filled with the above-mentioned compost.—This curious hardy perennial will grow in almost any soil. A temperature of 55 degrees throughout the winter is quite sufficient. especially at such times as they are removed from one soil to another. 9 in. 2 ft. asunder. See "Southernwood. Asparagus. Height. which is usually sown in the open in autumn for early flowering. Artichokes. In dry weather water liberally with liquid manure. Arums.—In warm districts these beautiful plants may be grown in damp places out of doors. The seeds should be sown in slight heat early in spring. growing about 1 ft. The Globe variety is increased by offsets taken in March. They need at all times a good amount of moisture. Give protection in winter. flowers from June to August. At the same time. and fork in a good supply of manure every autumn. and may be increased by taking off portions of the root early in autumn. April is a good time for making new beds. and flowering early in summer. below the soil. There is also a dwarf hardy perennial variety ( A. closely allied to the Anchusa. not being thoroughly hardy. It is well to feed them every other day with weak liquid manure. Height. They may also be increased by the small shoots that form round the base of the corms. leaf-mould. Aristolochia Sipho (Dutchman's Pipe). and sand. and is fast taking the place of ferns. covering them with glass. Three or four may stand a foot apart. 1-1/2 ft. They are hardy. —Pretty hardy annuals. which is generally richly coloured and marked. Are increased by suckers or by seed sown in spring. with a little silver sand beneath each. They require an open. Height. Asparagus Sprengeri. or can be increased by division of the root. Sow the seed in spring where it is to flower. or on trellis-work. As soon as they can be handled. rich.—Sow in March or April. 30 ft.—This delightful greenhouse climber is seen to best advantage when suspended in a hanging basket. deep and 12 in.—Handsome hardy perennials for rock-work or pots. and may be propagated by seed or division. to 3 ft. 6 in. The roots should be planted as soon as possible after they are lifted. it is safer to grow them in pots. Stake neatly the flower stems. Keep them well watered. at least 2 ft. (See also "Calla.—A. Asparagus Plumosus Nanus is a greenhouse variety. succeeding well in any common garden soil. When grown in the open. but it also makes an attractive plant when grown on upright sticks. apart and 4 ft. if sown in the spring it will bloom in June or July. It may be raised from cuttings placed in sand under glass. Height. The plants should not be cut for use until they become strong and throw up fine grass. Arum Lilies. Height. A. 6 ft. Odorata is a hardy perennial. Set them in deeply manured ground in threes. Azurea Setosa is a pretty.—This hardy. as exposure to the air is very injurious to them. Bloom June to September.—The Jerusalem variety will flourish in light sandy soil where few other things will grow. Asperula (Woodruff). and in August put them carefully into 6-in. lasting a long time in this state. Height. In June transplant them in the open to ripen their corms. A very light soil is needed. They may be raised from seed in boxes of leaf-mould and sand. The plants should stand 2 ft. They flower from September to June.—Showy hardy perennials which require plenty of room to develop. 1 ft. and raise and store them in November. deep. Arnebia. with a little crushed charcoal. deciduous climber grows best in peat and sandy loam with the addition of a little dung. the bulbs should be placed 3 in. The seeds are sown in the open in spring. with a south aspect and a background of shrubs. and cutting should not be continued late in the season.—Remarkably handsome plants with fine foliage and curious inflorescence more or less enclosed in a hooded spathe. light mould. apart. from row to row. and the ground between them loose. and not be disturbed oftener than once in four years. —A hardy perennial whose graceful sprays of finely-cut silvery foliage are very useful for mixing with cut flowers. and mixing about a foot thick of well-rotted manure and a good proportion of broken bones and salt with the soil. and flowers are produced in July. it is necessary to procure good drainage. It is useful for cut purposes. and flower in July. and pot on as they increase in size. Flowers are produced in July.—Interesting hardy annuals. Artemisia Arborea. especially in cold weather.Argemone. easily grown in any soil (a good sandy one is preferable). placing them in small pots till the beginning of spring. Armeria (Thrift). to 2-1/2 ft. Echioides) known as the Prophet's Flower. merely needing ordinary . in rich light soil. and keeping them well watered. apart in rows 3 ft. Artemisia Annua.
by division of roots immediately after flowering. Height. 1 ft. A poor sandy soil is more suitable for the variegated kind. It thrives in any fairly good mould. generally known as Animated Oats. Flower in July. Prick out the seedlings 2 in.—Sift coarse gravel so as to remove the dusty portion. Height. and are increased by layers or by cuttings under glass. Aspidistra. They all delight in a very rich. and are indifferent to soil or position. when sun and air is needed. apart. 6 in. Aubergine. Will grow in any soil if sown in spring. as this renders the variegation more constant. the flowers of the French section resemble the chrysanthemum. rendering the plant very showy and ornamental. prick them out in a cold frame 6 in. Spread it evenly. It may be increased by suckers. Asphodelus. some growing as tall as 6 ft. and merely requires the same treatment. and mix it with boiling tar in the proportion of 25 gallons to each load. Take care to press the soil well round the roots of offsets.—An early spring-blooming hardy perennial. 6 ft. to 2 ft. etc. It makes an effective border to beds.—This greenhouse herbaceous perennial is a drawing-room palm. Asphalte Paths. Asperulas thrive in a moist soil. mulch the ground with some good rotten soil from an old turf heap.treatment.—Straggling hardy annuals of very little beauty. to 4 ft. or by division. and dense plumes of flowers. Auricula. requiring a peaty soil for their successful cultivation. apart. producing its flowers in June and July. followed by others at about fourteen days' interval. and need plenty of room from the commencement of their growth. but is best shaded from the midday sun. delights in shade. and keep them there through the winter. It is serviceable for perfuming clothes. the flowers lasting a long time. and one part sand. 2-1/2 ft. Hypoglottis. This imparts a gloss to the leaves. 1-1/2 ft. and will not bear too much water. Height. or by dividing the roots in April. They flower in August. They look well standing alone on grass plots. It flowers in August.—A very singular hardy-annual ornamental grass. and roll it in before the tar sets. The seeds are best sown in shallow drills and lightly covered with soil. Height. but to grow it to perfection it should be accommodated with three parts loam. on a gentle hotbed. and it should be discontinued when the buds appear.—Ornamental. rich soil. light soil. shells. Astrantia. and increased by dividing the roots or by cuttings under a glass. and only require ordinary attention. Very useful in a green state .—See "Egg-Plant." Aubrietia.—This is a species of primrose. Astragalus Lotoides.—This splendid class of half-hardy annuals has been vastly improved by both French and German cultivators. or in four parts rotten loam. or coarse sand. Sow the seed early in spring on a moderate hotbed. Astragalus Alpinus. hardy climbers. —Handsome. with large handsome foliage. 5 ft. When the male and female varieties are planted together. and grow well under the shade of trees. 1 ft. Height. It will do in any position. Seed may be sown either in autumn or spring. 6 ft. especially when root-bound. the leaves should be sponged with tepid milk and water—a teacup of the former to a gallon of the latter. They flower at the end of July. May. and plant out into any garden soil. Flowers in March and April. and is readily propagated by offsets taken early in autumn. October is a good time for making new borders. Height.—Hardy evergreen shrubs. It will grow in any decent soil. Height. If plant food be given it must be forked in lightly. They may be grown from seed sown in July or August. Aucuba. to 2 ft. An open and dry situation suits it best. The first sowing may be made in February or March. Height 6 in. Speaking generally. will grow in common soil. two parts rotten cow dung. as the Aster is very shallow-rooting. It succeeds best in a mixture of loam and peat. Atriplex. or may be increased by division. and is sometimes called Bear's Ear from the shape of its leaves. and is interesting from the fact that it produces its flowers beneath the surface of the soil. and plant them out about the middle of May in a deeply-manured bed. Astilbe. or by layers in April or May. Supply the plant freely with water. Height. one part leaf-mould. cover the surface with a layer of spar.—A hardy deciduous trailing plant. and can be propagated from seed sown in spring or autumn. hardy herbaceous perennials. Astragalus Hypoglottis. or June. producing purple flowers in July. —A hardy perennial bearing bluish-purple flowers. covered with a piece of glass and shaded from the sun till the plants are well up. and occasionally give a little manure water. When large enough to handle. then pressed down by a board. Avena Sterilis. Atragene Austriaca. and those of the German the paeony. Height. Very ornamental either in the garden or on rock-work. or from seed sown in March on gentle heat in firmly pressed light. Cuttings may be struck in any garden soil under a handglass in August.—Bold hardy herbaceous plants. They bloom in June. When dusty. and one part silver sand. 3 in. and flower between May and August. For exhibition purposes remove the middle bud. The varieties vary in height. some having blotched leaves. Asters. The half-hardy kinds require the protection of a house in winter. May be readily raised from seed. the latter produce an abundance of large red berries. which may be grown in any garden soil. fine for borders. and will thrive in any good garden soil. or in February or March.—This pretty little trailer is of the same height as A. 8 ft. Increased by young plants taken from the roots.—This herbaceous plant is quite hardy. Height.
After they have flowered remove the remains of the blooms.for mixing with cut flowers. The hardy varieties should receive the same treatment as rhododendrons. Indica is a plant of great beauty. 3 ft. place the plants out of doors in the sun to ripen the wood. Height. in a partially shaded position. it must be done directly the flowers have fallen. It is increased by placing cuttings of ripened wood in sand under glass with a little heat. Stand it in the open air in summer. In winter remove it to a cool part of the greenhouse. Azara Microphylla—This hardy evergreen shrub.—A good soil for these deciduous shrubs is made by mixing a fair quantity of silver sand with good fibrous peat. glossy leaves. is very ornamental and sweet-scented. Sow in March or early in April. . The plants must never be allowed to become too wet nor too dry. If they require shifting. and syringe them freely twice a day. or in a temperature of 60 degrees or 65 degrees. 4 ft. Cuttings taken off close to the plant will root in sand under a glass placed in heat. Height. and must be shaded from excessive sunshine. A. Height. 3 ft. Flowers in June. Azaleas (Greenhouse). with its fan-like branches and small dark.
and can be increased by division. and old manure. Give them air when the weather is favourable. They require very little attention. When the flower spikes are formed. Height. 3 ft. In the open ground the first sowing may be made about the third week in April. Broad. Plant them out in the open in May. shady situation. and succeed best in a moist. apart in the rows. bearing rich yellow flowers in spring and attractive fruit in the autumn. Height. damp soil. —These are not particular as to position or soil. The whole family like a rich. For cultivation in the open. Beans. Beans. apart. thinning the plants out to 1 ft. apart. light. if the soil is moist when the bulbs are planted. Increased by layers or by cuttings of the roots. The last shift should be into 24-sized pots. Bahia Trolliifolia. Stand the pots in ashes and cover them with 3 in. admit as much air as possible. Sow. to 9 in. Runner." Barberries. Most handsome when trained to a single stem and the head allowed to expand freely. Bambusa. 1 ft. and subsequent sowings for succession every two or three weeks until the end of July. A sowing of Beck's Green Gem or Dwarf Fan may even be made in November in rows 2 ft. They are not particular as to soil. 1-1/2 ft. Cuttings or layers root freely in the open. and syringe freely. sow in pots under glass from December to March. give weak liquid manure twice a week till the flowers open. apart. In August or September place five bulbs in a well-drained 5-in. and plant the bulbs 5 in. 1-1/2 ft. The bulbs while dormant are best left in the pots. but good crops can be obtained from any garden soil. Plant in rows 2 ft apart. Height. deep either in autumn or spring. cover them completely. They will flower in the open early in September. Height. When the plants have done flowering pinch off the tops. Height.—Beautiful hardy annuals. and if the black fly has attacked them. Balsams. deep and at intervals of 6 in. Height. another sowing early in May. leaf-mould.—A hardy herbaceous plant of easy culture from seed sown in spring or autumn in any garden soil. the flowers of which open at night and effuse a delightful odour. and Johnson's Wonderful and Harlington Windsor for a main one. and liberally enriched with manure. prick off singly into small pots. and the seeds 6 to 9 in. sand. especially while it is young. A sharp look-out ought to be kept for slugs. 1-1/2 ft. using rich. Keep them in a temperature of 55 degrees. Protect from slugs when the plants are coming through the ground. loamy. indeed. French. where they will flower in June. It flowers in August. take off the tops low enough down to remove the pests. adding a good proportion of well-rotted manure. Sweet (Laurus Nobilis). growing in any loamy soil. The first sowing should be made in February or March. Other varieties should be planted in rows 3 ft. and burn them at once." Baptisia Australis. When 2 or 3 in. to 2 ft. Sow the seed in autumn on a gentle hotbed. beyond occasionally cutting away some of the old branches to make room for new growth. They must never be allowed to get dry. It produces bright orange flowers from June to August. —This ornamental hardy perennial makes a good border plant. very sandy soil.—See "Rocket. which are very partial to French Beans when pushing through the soil. suitable for either pot cultivation or the border. Height. pot.—This half-hardy evergreen shrub likes a sheltered position. strong loam is most suitable. It is more suitable as an isolated specimen plant than for the border. and in succession to May. to 2 ft. and producing its blue flowers in June and July. make the soil light and sandy. Seville Longpod and Aquadulce may be recommended for an early crop. When the foliage begins to die down gradually. or large enough to handle. For forcing. sowing the seed 3 in. lessen the amount of moisture given. Secure their stems firmly to sticks.B Babianas. apart in the rows.—Charming. Bartonia aurea. high.—The seeds of these tender annuals require to be sown in early spring in a hothouse or a warm frame having a temperature of 65 to 75 degrees. from the second week in May until the first week in July for succession. sweet-scented flowers. but prefer a rather light one. pot off. Bay.—This hardy herbaceous perennial will grow in any kind of soil. in rows 6 ft.—The dwarf-growing Bamboos Fortunei variegata and Viridi-striata make graceful edgings to borders or paths. Bahia Lanata.—Very ornamental hardy shrubs. and press the mould down gently.—The soil should be dug over to a depth of at least 12 in.—A deep. Beans. shade them till they are established. 1 ft. Barbarea. Scarlet Runners may be kept dwarf by pinching off the tops . to ensure a better crop. Protection from severe frosts is requisite. Baneberry. but the best results are obtained by placing them in a deep rich mould where they can get a fair amount of sunlight. and support them with sticks immediately the growth begins to run. and protect in a greenhouse during the winter. choose a warm situation. and re-pot as they advance in strength in a compost of loam. Water very sparingly until the roots are well formed. 6 in. Supply them with an abundance of liquid manure. It can be multiplied by dividing the root. of cocoa-nut fibre.—See "Actæa. no water will be needed till the new growth appears above ground.
Frutescens has an exceedingly pretty foliage. Bignonia (Trumpet Flower ). They do best on a loamy soil.—See "Staphylea. Take up for use as wanted until November. Height. cover with a sheet of glass. 6 ft. or by cuttings of the root.—See "Thuya.—See "Dielytra. and the plants transferred in the autumn to the place where they are intended to bloom. and nipping off the subsequent shoots when 6 in. Belladonna Lily. and in a place where neither moisture nor frost can reach them. apart. Cuttings may be taken in April. The variety B.—These plants take two years to flower. or they may be raised from seed sown in March in a hothouse or frame having a temperature of 65 degrees. long will root readily in spring or summer. Cuttings 2 or 3 in." Bocconia Cordata. and shade are essential to their health. and keep shaded. long. such as is afforded by a cold pit." Blackberries. dry soil on raised banks facing south. Easily raised from seed or by layers. The half-hardy kinds may be sown in May or June. Beta Cicla. It is propagated by cuttings placed in sand. Height.—A somewhat succulent genus of conservatory plants. and may be increased by suckers taken from established plants in the summer and placed in rich soil. or by cuttings planted in sand.—To obtain good crops plant in a poor. They appear to the greatest advantage when grown as solitary plants. apart.—See "Stachys. Bergamot (Monardia Didyma)." Blanket Flower. A profuse bloomer. Transplant into small pots. Stand the cuttings in the shade and do not over-water them. Plants so treated will flower in June or July." Bellis Perennis. 4 ft. August is the month in which they flower.—See "Daisies." Biennials. and thin out the plants to about 9 in. The following plants are suitable:—Arundo Donax. when the whole crop should be taken up and stored in dry sand. and only just cover the top of the tuber. the flowers of which are followed by edible strawberry-like fruit. These require protection during winter. Seed is also sown in August and September for flowering the following year." Bleeding Heart. but be careful not to wound any part of the fleshy root. Height.—By planting a few of the more distinct species adapted for such positions. and at intervals of a fortnight for succession. Betonica.—A hardy annual which succeeds in any common soil. and then they die away altogether. Bog or Marsh Land.when the plants are about 1 ft. It flowers in July. Its dark crimson and yellow flowers are borne in August.—Distinct and very pretty evergreen climbing shrubs.—An ornamental half-hardy shrub. in a gentle heat under glass.—See "Gaillardia.—This is admirably suitable for a south wall. then sprinkle it evenly over a box or pan of moist. Bambusa Fortunei. Beet. When the leaves of the old plants turn yellow keep the roots quite dry. and pot on from time to time as the plants increase in size. When storing them cut off the tails and some portion of the crowns. Height. They are not particular as to soil. Before sowing mix the seed with silver sand. when they must be re-potted. or shift into larger pots for conservatory decoration. In Germany the midrib of the leaf is boiled and eaten with gravy or melted butter. away from other tall-growing flowers. leaf-mould. and may be increased by seed or by division of the root. 3 ft. Will succeed in any good garden against a south wall.—Ornamental hardy perennials. Water moderately till the plants begin to grow freely. Biota." Bird Cherry. The plants may also be raised from seed sown in February or March in a temperature of 65 degrees. and sand. which prove hardy in the south and west. frame. to 3 ft. They all require a very rich loamy soil containing a little sand. Height. . These should be planted out in the spring. or greenhouse.—See "Cerasus. Tuberous Begonias should be planted in small pots placed in heat. but it requires plenty of room. high. early in spring. using a compost of equal parts of fibrous loam. and plant out the last week in May or early in June. Dondia Epipactis. Gradually harden off. It is used as spinach. apart. Begonias. and may be increased by cuttings. but need protection in other places. 1 ft. or the covering of a mat or litter. Press the soil rather firmly so as to promote sturdy growth. moisture.—Land that has been well manured for the previous crop is the best on which to obtain well-shaped roots of high quality. afterwards turn them out of the pots and bury them in cocoa-nut fibre till January. bogs or marshes may be made interesting. or autumn will do if they are covered with a handglass. also by seed sown during the autumn months. Flowers in August. fine. light loam and silver sand. Sow in April and May in drills 18 in." Benthamia. The seed of the hardy varieties is sown thinly in the open border any time between April and June.—This hardy perennial will grow almost anywhere. and heat. Bladder Nut. Cypripedium Spectabile. Berberidopsis Corallina. The bushes should be planted 6 ft. 6 ft.—See "Amaryllis.
or on a sheltered bed out of doors. as they last a long time in water.—Sow towards the end of March or early in April. and in April for succession. leaving the tops 1 in. If well watered in autumn and removed to the greenhouse they will continue to bloom during early winter. Set the young plants thinly and at regular intervals. above the surface. Sow the seed as for ordinary half-hardy annuals in rich. Box Edging. with plenty of sunshine. May be transplanted early in spring or late in autumn. and . Transplant as soon as ready into deeplytrenched. February is its blooming time. when large enough to handle. 1 ft. Bravoa Geminiflora (Twin Flower ). Cuttings will strike if planted in sand under glass. and can be increased by seed or division. and make the bottom firm and even.—Requires a heavy. Kale. sandy soil. 1 ft. and loam. or Curled Greens. Gunnera Scabra. light. light soil. The pots should be filled with sandy peat and be well drained. Keep the ground free from weeds. and left undisturbed.—This very choice Boragewort is a trailing hardy biennial. Height. Cuttings should be taken early in autumn. (See also "Genista" and "Spartium. Bomarea. deep. The same treatment that is given to Asters is suitable for this plant.—For a first crop sow early in March. 3 ft. It flowers in June.—Hardy shrubs thriving in almost any soil. Transplant. 1 ft. Brussels Sprouts.—Very handsome half-hardy annuals. rich. and may be increased by cuttings. It thrives best in a mixture of sand. Polygonum Sieboldi. They bloom in July. sturdy plants always produce the best results.—Favourite stove plants. to produce a constant supply till Cauliflowers are ready. Borecole. They are propagated by cuttings taken at a joint and placed under glass. Pinguicula Vulgaris. Plant out in May in rich.—Handsome plants for rock-work or the border. B. (See also "Buxus.—A greenhouse evergreen climber. In a warm greenhouse they will flower all the winter. and liquid manure during growth. Height. apart. Megastigma is sufficient to perfume a good-sized house. Brodiaea Coccinea. Height. the flowers of which are valuable for cutting. Height. Drummondi. to 8 in. Browallia. produced in July in elegant racemes from 6 in. and Serrulata are all good plants. On a dry. and earth the plants up as they advance in growth. the young plants must be pricked off into another bed until ready for planting. apart. inserted in light. 6 ft. Bouvardias. about 2 in.—A deep loam suits the box best. early in spring. and very pretty both in a green and dried state. and Sarracenia Purpurea. well-manured soil. 2 ft.—This hardy bulbous plant bears lovely racemes of coral-coloured flowers in July. Iris pseud-Acorus. the former of which is pure white. light mould. 12 ft. —This is a hardy perennial which flowers in September. covering them sparingly. apart in the rows. gradually harden off. Height. Successional sowings should be made to the end of June. with large. sandy soil. and is propagated by cuttings. Boltonia Asteroides. It produces lovely pale pendent flowers from June to August. 6 in. as strong.—A useful greenhouse climber. Plant out as soon as ready in moderately rich soil in rows 3 ft. It likes an open soil. Borago Laxiflora. from each other. It is nearly hardy. Bloom in May. Height. about the middle of February. rich soil.—Greenhouse evergreen shrubs.") Broussonetia Papyrifera. 15 ft. giving a little protection if necessary. thriving best in a loamy soil. At the approach of cold weather they may be taken up and potted off. or in a frame over a gentle hotbed. A single plant of B. beautiful both in flower and foliage.—Beautiful little half-hardy annuals bearing cineraria-like flowers that open well in the border in summer. Broccoli. Broom. Bousingaultia Basselloides. about 2 ft. The end of June is a good time for clipping. Briza (Quaking Grass). about 2 ft. Osmunda Regalis. and keep clear from weeds. Dig a trench. May is their flowering month. Each variety should be sown in pots. Iris Kaempferi. For earliest crop sow thinly in beds early in March.—A very effective deciduous shrub. They are propagated by pieces of the thick fleshy roots. Hoe well. Height. using small pots to prevent them damping off. Cover with 1 in.") Brachycome (Swan River Daisy). Briza Maxima bears large and handsome panicles. will grow readily from seed in any garden soil. and plunged in a bottom-heat. A rich loam suits it best. Bougainvillea. Height. For exhibition and early use sow in a greenhouse. cutting back all the over-vigorous growth. their gorgeous spikes of brilliant scarlet flowers are very attractive in May. 2 ft.—There are several varieties of this ornamental hardy annual grass. Juncus Zebrinus.—A rapidly growing climber. Heterophylla. but prefer a sandy one. peat. Tread the soil firmly against them. Parnassia Palustris. of gravel to prevent them growing too luxuriantly. will grow in almost any soil. Any garden soil suits it. long. If the seed is sown thickly. Boronias. curiously-cut leaves. Briza Gracillis is slender. long. The bulbs may be planted in November. They may succeed peas without any fresh manure.Drosera Rotundifolia. Sow Purple Sprouting Broccoli in May for late spring supplies. Myosotis Palustris. very suitable for a cool greenhouse. prick off into a cold frame. Height. Height. so as to form a well-balanced plant. and the plants 2 ft. Elatior.
It is perfectly hardy. To prevent the shoots being torn away by the wind a stake may be tied on to the stock. delighting in a loamy soil mixed with peat.plant out in May. It is popularly known as Ox-Tongue. Of the various systems of budding. as the buds unite better in wet weather. Set the bulbs in sandy loam or leaf-mould. and also a vertical one about an inch long. deciduous greenhouse shrubs. Height. or from seed sown in the open border in spring. Plant in autumn in light vegetable mould. If in the process of detaching it the interior of the bud is torn away it is useless. tall. Burning Bush. from slips. Pass a sharp knife 1/2 in. in height. Bugloss (Anchusa). and in a sheltered. They will grow in any good soil. Bulbocodium Trigynum (Colchicum Caucasium). Height. The bulbs may be divided every other year. 1 ft.—A hardy evergreen shrub. The B. Fruit trees are sometimes budded close to the soil on stocks 1-1/2 ft. 1-1/2 ft. . and a fresh bud must be taken. may be increased by division of the roots into as many plants as there are heads. 6 in. but the stock is not cut away until the following spring. taking about a third of the wood with the bud.—A useful evergreen shrub which may be grown in any soil or situation. choosing a sunny situation. Bryanthus Erectus. or to any other plant of the same species. which will grow in any soil if the situation is shady and damp.—This showy plant. Height. and preceding the foliage. This dwarf plant flowers from January to March. The buds are rubbed off the stock as soon as they appear. and bind it on with raffia. Now hold the bud in the mouth. Budding. without the risk of dead wood being left at the junction. Cuttings strike readily. Buddlea. and flower from May to September. well-drained position. and with as little delay as possible raise the bark of the stock with a knife. and valuable for edgings or rock-work. 2 in. but many leading nurserymen contend that a better union is effected. but will not endure the constant dropping of moisture upon its leaves from trees. Buphthalmum Salicifolium (Deep Golden-yellow Marguerite ).—See "Dictamnus" and "Fraxinella. The bulbs may be divided every two years. a mass of rose-purple flowers close to the ground. and the new shoot secured to it by means of raffia. cloudy days being most suitable. It is chiefly employed on young trees having a smooth and tender bark. above the bud and the same distance below it. Japonica Aurea is one of the best golden plants known for edgings to a walk. may be increased by suckers. It may be performed at any time from June to August. bearing large blue flowers in June. clay soil. which produces in February and March erect flowers about the size of snowdrops. that known as the Shield is probably the most successful. It thrives without any sunshine.—Showy and ornamental hardy perennials. thus forming an elongated T shape. Bulbocodium Vernum (Spring Saffron ). They may be grown out of doors during the summer. It will not grow in stiff. Increased by suckers or layers.—A miniature hardy bulbous plant. Make a small horizontal cut in the bark of the stock. When the bud begins to grow the binding must be loosened. Next select a branch of the current year's growth on which there is a well-formed leaf-bud.—This bulb produces early in spring.—Budding consists in raising an eye or bud from one part of a bush or tree and transplanting it to another part. after the tops have died down." Buxus (Tree Box).—Half-hardy. The process is not only more simple and rapid than that of grafting. The closer it is clipped the brighter it becomes. insert the bud. but need the protection of a house in winter. April is its flowering time. Height.
Little Pixie. Flower during June and July. and bears rose-coloured flowers from May to September. Any loamy soil suits it. It is propagated by offsets planted in sand. They grow best in a mixture of sandy loam. 10 ft. This vegetable is sometimes called Cabbage Broccoli. and given the same treatment as other Cabbage. Cuttings. Cactus. Chou de Burghley is of great value for spring sowing. Flower in June. Flower in July. Plant the offsets from the fleshy roots singly in small. generally grown in peat soil at a temperature of 70 degrees.—Favourite hothouse foliage plants. Height. May be grown from seeds. They require very little water while growing. July. brick rubbish. to 1 ft. Height. Height.—A species of half-hardy climbing plants of great merit. These are best taken in October. or 2 ft. An open and sunny situation is necessary. Calamintha Grandiflora. rich. Early Marrow. an inch or so below the surface. give plenty of air. Calceolaria. as watering from the top might wash the seed too deeply into the soil. They require plenty of light while growing. and decomposed dung. strike readily. April. In very frosty weather a mat should be laid over the glass. They are elegant when in flower. remarkable for their awkward-looking stems and discoloured leaves. are worth cultivating. placing them 18 in. They are easily reared from cuttings. shake them out of their pots and put them into fresh mould. Calampelis. Calla. They may be grown from seed. well-drained pots of sandy loam with one-fourth leaf- . Caladiums. and plant them out at the beginning of June. but as this is so small it should not be covered. They grow well in sunny places in a mixture of loam and peat. Bloom in July. press the earth round them. well reduced.—Very pretty hardy annuals. sandy soil. or before. (See also "Eccremocarpus. They make handsome pot-plants. and the pots must be well drained.—This hardy herbaceous plant has sweetly-fragrant foliage. They are quickly increased by offsets from the root in August or September. or in spring for a later show. Savoy Cabbage is sown in March or April. During the summer it should be syringed over-head with tepid water. Sugarloaf. and weak soot water should be given three times a week. These should be planted in very rich.") Calandrinia. laid by for a few days to dry. and cutting before they heart. They may be increased by dividing the root stock into as many pieces as there are crowns. and Enfield Market may be recommended. Among the best varieties for spring sowing are Heartwell. Its cultivation is precisely the same as the white varieties. should be sown in March. apart. Keep the soil well broken up. Red Dutch is used almost solely for pickling. according to the kind grown. porous loam. or over a vase. as they readily succumb if it does so. Height. When fresh growth begins. and May for succession. sandy mould on a well-drained north border.—Many of the varieties are suitable for the greenhouse only. As soon as the plants have made four or five leaves. and cover with a handglass. Pot them off in spring. and it is easily increased by suckers. known also as Braganza Marrow and Portugal Cabbage.—These showy plants.—Great care should be taken not to allow the sun to strike on the collar of any of the plants from California. Calendula (Marigolds). 6 in. As the leaves lose colour less water should be given. They should be trained to a south wall. Echinopsis is a good plant for cool houses or windows. bearing fine white flowers in the spring. For autumn sowing. July and August are the two best months for sowing. and August for succession. 1 ft. and may be raised from seed sown in the spring or by cuttings placed under handglasses. and in watering them it is best to stand the seed-pans in water so that the moisture ascends. or dug deeply. on account of the miniature Broccoli which are formed among its inner leaves towards autumn.—Hardy annuals.—A sandy loam with brick rubbish and a little peat or rotten manure suits them. 1-1/2 ft. if weather permits. and give a liberal supply of liquid manure while they are in a growing state. Height. but the autumn sowing gives the more satisfaction. Its flavour is much improved if the plants are mellowed by frost before being cut for use. and to be kept moderately moist at the roots. 1 ft. but the less the leaves are wetted the better for the appearance of the plants. Defiance.—Very showy hardy annuals.C Cabbage. sometimes called Arum. and will be found very useful during autumn and early in winter. Ellam's Dwarf Early Spring. Coleworts may be sown in June. placing them about a foot apart. Nonpareil.—Sow from February to April for an autumn supply. and in July and August for spring cutting. transplant into soil that has been liberally manured and trenched. or up a pillar. Put them in light. They merely require sowing in the open in autumn for an early display of bloom. and will endure the open air. Cacalia. or roots may be divided. Couve Tronchuda. and Early Dwarf York. Californian Plants. also by slicing off a portion from the top of the plant and placing it in light. and they are easily increased by cuttings. The half-shrubby kinds make fine bedding plants. and during winter they must be kept almost dry. In syringing the plants use nothing but the purest rainwater. Any light loamy soil suits them.
so that a succession of bloom may be had throughout the year.—A handsome. and the plants disturbed as little as possible. Harden off and plant out. A succession of flowers are borne from April to June.—This is eminently suitable for trellis-work or for walls. A rich. The seed may also be sown in a sheltered position in August or September. Sow the seed in autumn in a light. and is propagated by offsets from the bulbs. and a beautiful plant for covering arbours. and may be increased by division of the roots. 1 ft. Calystegia. deep and 5 in. gravel walks. few things can equal and none surpass Cannas. while the plants are growing. It is satisfied with any ordinary soil. apart. Height. rich soil. Canna (Indian Shot or Hemp). 11/3 ft. hardy. using a rich. Calochortus Luteus. Water them well while in growth. It will grow anywhere. Height.—Showy hardy biennials. and then place them in a shed. Canary Creeper (Tropaeolum Canariense).. Height. It produces yellow flowers in July. or in the open in April.—The best soil for these beautiful greenhouse evergreens is a mixture of rough peat. or in spring if a less prolonged flowering season will give satisfaction. The roots should always be kept moist and cool.—A showy genus of plants. plenty of sand. They may stand in saucers of water. and placing them in a warm house where a moist atmosphere is maintained. Height.—A perfectly hardy climbing convolvulus. leaf-mould. or by division. Flower in July. The less hardy kinds may be sown on a hotbed or in the greenhouse. flowers in July. and keep them in a very warm situation. and such like places. in one season. and cows' dung.—This half-hardy Hemp is grown for its ornamental foliage. Candytuft (Iberis).—See "Coreopsis. and is propagated by layers. They flower from May to July. Induce a vigorous growth of wood. in complete repose. It may be raised from seed on a hotbed in spring. and a little turfy loam. A top dressing of fresh soil may be given each winter. and when large enough potted off. Height. and the plants protected from frost by binding straw round the stems. and may be increased by dividing the roots in spring. and afterwards give only enough moisture to keep them alive. to 10 ft. at a temperature of 55 degrees to 60 degrees.—Hardy annuals demanding but little attention. Height. The seed is raised on a hotbed in March. Height. both on account of its dwarf and slender habit and also the colour of its flowers. File the tough skin off one end of the seed. Canterbury Bells. 2 ft. and put them into the smallest sized pots into which they can be got. mostly hardy perennials. Calliopsis. bearing clusters of beautiful blue flowers in July. which may be raised from seed sown in the spring. C. 9 in." Callirhoe (Digitata). Cannabis Gigantea (Giant Hemp). for a month or so.—For pot-plants on terraces.—This very handsome hardy perennial thrives best in sandy peat with a little loam. Height. Calthus Palustris Flore-Pleno (Double Marsh Marigold). but abundant syringing is necessary at all times. The seed is sown in the open in March. remove as much of the old soil as possible without injuring them. and also grows well trained up sticks in a pyramidal form. but prefers a clayey soil and a boggy situation. Height.—Very pretty hardy annuals. showy perennials. The greenhouse should be kept rather close. growing 20 ft. They are half-hardy perennials. and steep it in hot water for a few hours before it is sown. etc. 4 in. Height. 6 ft. and is treated as above described. 10 ft. and returned to the greenhouse in October. 1 ft. scantily after the leaves begin to wither. to 30 ft. . 1 ft. There are several varieties suitable for growing in the open. 2 ft. The plants may be placed out of doors at the beginning of June. 1 ft. and give plenty of water. Caltha. Height. 6 ft. Campanula Mayii is a grand plant for hanging baskets. but this must be changed daily. Old and straggling plants may be renovated by cutting them hard back as soon as they go out of flower. gritty soil suits them all. and let this be well matured by exposure to the sun and free ventilation. They may be increased from seed. gradually hardened off. Flower in July. It thrives in any loamy soil or situation. These should be provided with a soil. Bloom in May or June. and it blooms in the autumn. and is increased by bulbs or seeds. Camassia Esculenta. Its elegant foliage and bright yellow flowers make it a general favourite. Plant the bulbs early in October. light soil.mould or well-rotted manure. composed of peat. its pure white flowers resembling a water-lily. Transplant in the autumn to the border where they are intended to flower. When the state of the roots require the plants to be re-potted. Height. It needs a sandy peat border under a north wall. and may be increased from seed or by dividing the roots late in autumn. or after the buds have fairly commenced to push. deep. Callichroa. Lift and store the roots in autumn in the same way as Dahlias. Different kinds flower at various seasons.—A hardy annual which well deserves a place in the garden border. Re-pot them in October or November.—Early-flowering. Leave the plants in the light while the leaves die off. Height. then stand it in a hot place till it has germinated. Calycanthus Floridus (Allspice). all thriving in a moist or boggy situation. flowers from May to September.—This hardy herbaceous perennial is very useful for mixing with cut flowers. to 5 ft. Campanula. 1 ft. They are readily raised from seed. and planted out in May. which need no special treatment. Comparatively little water should be given for some time after they are cut back. bulbous plant. The tall-growing varieties make fine pot-plants. or division of roots. with fresh soil. or shift into larger pots in June. This will induce them to break. 1 ft.—This shrub likes an open loamy soil. 2 ft. allowing them first to partially dry. This may be done after the last flower has fallen. Camellias. Leptosepala is especially choice.
sandy soil. Seed may be sown as soon as it is ripe. as stagnant wet is very injurious to them. When strong enough to handle put two or three plants in a 5-in. are delicately fragrant. They will flourish in the open borders even in towns if planted in light loam. For pot culture. free mould. leaving half a dozen near the top untouched. light. Keep them well supplied with water in dry weather and syringe the leaves. 1-1/2 ft. shady situation. Flower in July. in trenches prepared as for Celery. . one part peat. Fill the pots nearly to the top with light. just below the third joint. but they are all said originally to come from the clove: (1) Flakes. somewhat ornamental. When grown in pots the mould should consist of two parts turfy loam. Carduus (Milk Thistle). (3) Picotees. Thin out to a distance of from 4 to 7 in.Height. They may also be increased by pipings. When established remove them to a cold frame and harden off. Keep the surface of the ground well open with the hoe. leaving the strongest one in each case. It produces its purple flowers from May to August. then shift them into 7-in. Carnations may also be grown from seed sown in spring. Cardoons. As the buds swell thin out the weakly ones. pot. Height. When they have attained the height of 1-1/2 ft. of soil. Choose for this purpose fine outside shoots. A calm day must be chosen for sowing. 9 in. Cape Primroses. They grow freely from seed." Caprifolium. and keep the plants shaded from the sun till they have taken root.—Ornamental. in warm. which have each petal margined with colour on a white or yellow ground. but are hardly more than weeds. The plant is most suitable for a cool greenhouse. with a medium bottom heat. For the main crop the seed should be sown in March. and keep it constantly moist at a temperature of 65 degrees. Carrots. and bears dividing. Flowers are borne from June to September. Carnations. Height. rich mould and fill up with silver sand. to obviate which it is generally rubbed into some light soil or sand previously to being scattered. then in each piping cut a little upward slit. as the seed is very light and liable to be blown about. Sow in spring.—This hardy perennial thrives in a moist. Cardamine Pratensis (Cuckoo Flower. prick them out into pots or beds. and place the pot on a gentle hotbed. and place each of the young plants separately in a small pot. to 2 ft. They will flower the following year. 2 ft. filled with light. which has been thoroughly trenched and manured the previous autumn. which make their appearance in July. and a little sharp sand. turfy loam. Another sowing may be made in June for a spring crop. cover the seed with 1/2 in. When the seedlings have made six or eight leaves. Cut off all the lower leaves. Put on the sashes. Carex Japonica. Cardamine Trifolia.—This is a graceful and very beautiful variegated grass.—Coarse hardy annuals. tie the leaves lightly to a stake and earth-up the stem. or dotted with small spots. Height. hardy perennials. Keep them rather close till established. which are striped with one colour and white.—See "Honeysuckle. flowers in May. thistle-like. 2 ft. striped green. Height.—A hardy herbaceous plant. and when the flower-stems appear. It may be increased by seeds or by cuttings planted in sandy soil. plant them pretty thickly in the sand. The beds must be well drained. then harden off gradually. Carlina.—Sow two or three seeds together in clumps 1 ft. adding a little guano. pots. and cover the stems with equal quantities of leaf-mould and light loam.. By stopping the shoots they become nice. and replace them in warmth." Capsicum. rich. and gold. bushy shrubs. and makes a fine decoration for the table. silver. (2) Bizarres. For early use the French Horn may be sown on a hotbed in January and February.—See "Streptocarpus. and may be propagated by layers at the end of July or beginning of August. 11/2 ft. It has also a tendency to hang together. stake and tie up carefully. apart. high pull up the superfluous plants. about the end of March put two roots in an 11-in. well drained (too much moisture being injurious). will grow in any soil. Carpenteria Californica. Carnation Margaritae. 1-1/2 ft. in April or May. Peg down. or tie it with raffia. not those which have borne flowers.—The white flowers of this evergreen shrub. to 4 ft. those streaked with two colours and white. When 6 in. The young plants may be separated and potted off as soon as they have taken root—say. Stand them on a bed of ashes in a sheltered position. or Milkmaid ).—Sow early in March in well-drained pots of rich. Make incisions on the under sides of the layers. apart. pricked out when strong enough.—May be sown in heat during February or March. They will be ready for use in September. pot. It will grow in any moderately moist soil. Plant out at the end of May in a warm situation. Break off the pipings at the third joint.—These are divided into three classes. well-drained situations. the end of August. and planted in the open in May or June. or on a bed of sifted coal ashes. according to the kind grown. pressing the earth firmly round the roots. Do not water them till the following day. and is easily raised from seed. which will grow in any ordinary soil. but does well in the open.—To grow them to perfection carrots require a deep. either broadcast or in rows 18 in. Keep them well supplied with water. and is easily propagated by seeds or division. To prevent them bursting unevenly put an india-rubber ring round the bud. Height. and flower from June to August.
and should be done gradually. They bloom in August. Cerastium Biebersteini. and may be increased by seed or division. and syringe freely. to 5-1/2 ft. pressing the soil firmly round the roots. For main and late crops sow in a cold frame in April and plant out in June or July. distant from each other. or other suitable material. Centaurea. 3 ft.—Ornamental hardy annuals. and sand. The usual method of propagating it is by grafting it on to the common Larch. soft. They require a thoroughly rich and well-tilled soil to grow them to perfection. and early in May transfer to rather shallow trenches. and are propagated by seed or division of root. and are increased by cuttings planted in sand and subjected to gentle heat. When preparing the trench plenty of manure should be dug into the soil. sheltered situation and rich. and during the whole of their growth pour plenty of water round the stems in dry weather. and may be increased by cuttings planted in sand under glass in a little heat.—This stove shrub is an evergreen. They produce their deep purple flowers in June. Water liberally until earthed up to ensure crisp. choosing a warm. never allowing them to become dry. These half-hardy annuals. Cedrus Deodora. hairy foliage and yellow flowers. Any light. and May for autumn cutting. to 2 ft. rising to the height of 3 ft. suitable for backs of borders. It flowers in July. Cephalaria (Yellow Scabious). Centranthus. Height.Cassia Corymbosa. Height. Cephalotaxus (Podocarpus Koraiana). borne in succession from June to September. Castor Oil Plants. 6 in. but require a little protection in the winter. Towards the end of March prick them out in rows in a frame. In its young stage it makes an exquisite specimen for the lawn. Height. 3 ft. and 18 in. apart each way. pots filled with sandy loam. They succeed best in a damp. Celosia (Feathered Cockscomb ).—Sow in February or early in March on a mild hotbed for the earliest crop. and may be increased by cuttings planted in heavy loam. setting them 6 in.—Sow the seed in early spring in a warm frame. and in favoured localities will produce berries. Earthing up should be delayed until the plants are nearly full grown. Height. its arched branches being thickly set with long grey-coloured or whitish-green leaves. Height. will grow in any soil. in June. 9 in.—See "Silene. These shrubs are quite hardy.—The hardy annual and biennial kinds merely require to be sown in the open in the autumn. 2½ ft. They flower in June. They are free-flowering and suitable for the conservatory or outdoor decoration if placed in warm situations. Give them abundance of liquid manure.—Strong-growing hardy perennials.—A blue hardy annual which may be sown in the open in spring. in height. possessing a rich. Centauridium Drummondi. placed in a shady. leaf-mould. They may be planted in the open. 1½ ft. A sowing should also be made in August for spring and summer use.—A beautiful and graceful conifer. 1-1/2 ft. Height.—A beautiful Himalayan poppy. 3 ft. Cedronella. and bearing fine spikes of flowers in July and August. and keep them rather close and warm until they are established. and flower from June to August. 9 in. shady spot. solid hearts. Height. Ceanothus. to 3 ft. prick off singly into small pots. protecting them from night frosts. April.—Ornamental hardy perennials. Their final shift should be into 24-sized pots. It should be grown in a mixture of loam and peat. They flourish best in peat and loam. and may be increased by suckers. apart. Celery.—A hardy trailing perennial which will grow in any light soil. and then watered very carefully. loamy soil. deep. The half-hardy ones must be sown on a slight hotbed." Cathcartia Villosa. Make a larger and the main sowing in the open ground in March. Height. make fine pot-plants for table decoration.—Handsome conifers of the Yew type. but let the whole be completed before the autumn is far advanced. Cauliflowers.—See "Ricinus.—A genus of handsome and ornamental evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of the perennials should be inserted singly in 3-in. well-drained soil." Catananche. wide. old manure. The different varieties vary from 6 in. Sow in the open border in March in any good. rich soil suits it. During winter protect from frost with straw. Catchfly. in trenches 3 ft. When the heads appear break some of the large leaves down over them to afford protection. where they should remain till strong enough to be planted in the border. cool frame till established. to 6 ft. Prick the seedlings off into shallow boxes as soon as they are large enough to handle. It is propagated by seeds sown in spring. 3 ft. They succeed in any garden soil. apart.—Sow thinly in pans or shallow boxes early in February and March on a gentle bottom-heat. but it requires a sheltered position. It flowers in June. . It is the best of all the Cedars for such a purpose. and an occasional application of liquid manure will benefit the plants. and re-pot as they advance in strength in a compost of loam. and in spring planted out so as to stand 30 in. These latter should be pricked into a frame or under a handglass during the winter.—Pretty hardy biennials that will grow in almost any soil.
Cherry (Cornelian). one part peat. and they may be increased by seed or division.—Hardy annuals. It flowers from six to eight weeks after planting. Bloom in July. Chicory." Cherry Pie." Chelidonium. and for winter requirements in July and August. when the ground is in a workable condition. If gumming occurs. and bears white flowers in July.Cerasus Padus (Bird Cherry). suitable for any ordinary soil. Morello succeeds on a north wall. They are very effective for the centre of beds. May Duke. They likewise give piquancy to mixed salads. flowering early in spring. and thin out to 6 in. and is generally flowered in an ornamental bowl of water. It is generally propagated by means of layers. 10 ft. or by seed treated like other hardy perennials. .—This is a very beautiful variety of the Polyanthus Narcissus.—Fine greenhouse plants. Cherries. produces its blooms in January before the leaves appear. The planting may be done at any time during November and the beginning of March. Chimonanthus Fragrans (Japan Allspice). In autumn lift the roots and store them in dry sand. Re-pot before the roots have filled the small pots. apart. Waterloo. standards 30 ft. but at the same time sheltered. Should sharp frost set in. Chionanthus Virginica (Fringe Tree). Height. Cerinthe. to 3 ft. and Kentish are all good sorts. It may also be grown in a pot of mould. When two years old they may be transplanted to their permanent site. delighting in a rich. plant the roots closely together in boxes or large pots. Bigarreau. It will grow to the height of 20 ft. Height. Height.—Charming conservatory plants. useful in the shrubbery in its earlier stages. the knife should be used as little as possible. in shallow drills 6 or 8 in. or Flower of the Gods. apart. 1 ft.—This delightfully fragrant hardy shrub. deep. with the tops only exposed. Chinese Sacred Narcissus (Oriental Lily. and is most at home when trained against a wall.—This hardy perennial will flourish in any garden soil. Cheiranthus.—Charming hardy herbaceous plants. Chilli.—To raise trees from seed sow the nuts in November. loamy soil.—Sow in May or June in drills of rich soil. Chelone. and given a little bottom-heat. apart. 2 ft. 35 ft. and needing merely ordinary treatment. Height. though they will grow in any fairly good dry ground. The plant requires a fairly good soil. Black Tartarian. Chestnuts. or more. Cut for use when 3 or 4 in. and keep in the dark. It is very fragrant and free blooming. and one part sharp sand. using ordinary soil. protection ought to be given to the flowers. Height. or in groups. about 2 in. The tender tops and leaves are used in soups and stews. It succeeds in any soil. The young plants may be topped to form bushy ones. White Heart. Succeed well in a mixture of peat and loam or any rich soil. let it be done in the summer. flowers in April. Joss Flower. Flower in June. ready for use. 6 ft. the bulb being surrounded with pretty pebbles to keep it well balanced. budding. Chamaerops (Chusan Palm). Bush trees should stand 10 ft." Chervil.—A light. C.—Same treatment as Capsicum.—Half-hardy perennial Thistle plants of little merit. A grand plant for bees. Parqui is suitable for the open if planted in a sheltered position. the Chinese emblem of good luck ).—See "Wallflower. cut away the diseased parts and apply Stockholm tar to the wounds. place in a temperature of 55 degrees. high. Height.—For summer use sow in March. and may be increased by division. Chamaepeuce. Aphides or black-fly may be destroyed by tobacco dust and syringing well with an infusion of soft soap. but where pruning is necessary. then placed in a sunny position and supplied with water. 2 ft.—See "Heliotrope. The only pruning they require is to cut away any branches which would prevent the tree forming a wellbalanced head. using two parts loam. As they have a tendency to gumming and canker. Black Eagle. Any soil suits them. rich soil is the one that Cherries succeed in best. It may be increased by seed. Long blanched leaves will soon appear.—An ornamental tree. as it will grow in any soil. to which they impart a warm. Cestrums. To force leaves for salads. Cherries are often worked upon the Mahaleb stock.—A curious shrub which is best raised from seed.—See "Cornus Mas. kept in a dark place for about ten days. and is grown to bloom at the advent of the Chinese New Year. aromatic flavour. Cuttings may be taken in autumn. known as the Winter Flower. flowers in May. as the blossoms are liable to be cut off by spring frosts. The position should be open. Height. 3 ft. Increased by division of root. placed in small pots in a light compost of peat and sand. or grafting.
with sufficient sand to keep it porous. standing the pots on pieces of slate to prevent the ingress of worms. While young it makes a fine pot-plant. leaf-mould. but this trouble can be spared by cutting them back freely and employing a few light sticks to keep them within bounds. bearing sweet-scented white flowers in July. In June they may be placed in a sheltered and partially shaded part of the open border. Fine for growing in clumps. and keep them well supplied with water. These should be kept close in a frame until rooted.—This is a hardy herbaceous plant producing blue flowers in July. Height. At the end of September place them in a cool frame to bloom during the following month. should never be subjected to a forcing temperature." Chrysanthemum. by layers of the lower branches in March. 6 ft. which will induce the growth of side-shoots. They require to be well supplied with manure water. after which they must not on any account be stopped. When the pots are full of roots shift the plants into larger sizes. or they may be increased by dividing the roots. and in March shake them out of their pots and plant each sucker separately. The bush is round. and are usually trained over balloon or pyramidal trellises. long. As soon as the plants have done flowering. and being nearly hardy. or offsets. herbaceous plant. They are increased by seed.—These hardy herbaceous plants will flourish in any good garden soil and are easily raised from seed. Thin out the flower-buds. leaf-mould. Height. Re-pot when the roots are well grown. Where there is no greenhouse a canvas structure may be erected to protect them from the cold. . and requires a loam and peat soil. and as soon as this nuisance appears fumigate the plants with tobacco paper. Choisya Ternata (Mexican Orange). 4 to 8 in. It will grow in any soil and needs no special treatment. If the old plants are cut down and kept well watered they will throw up suckers. pots. then gradually harden them off. high. or. but reaches perfection in a cold frame. pots. and extremely ornamental when grown in the shrubbery. Keep the young plants shaded from the sun. and sand. and as soon as they can be handled put them into 3-in. and inserted in sand under a glass. Other sowings may be made in April and May. Chrysogonum Virginianum. Good plants for the border may be raised from cuttings in March or April. cut them down. or it may be sown during March on a slight hotbed. and coarse sand. a naturally good soil being often preferable to an artificial one.Chionodoxa Luciliae (Glory of the Snow). When they attain the height of 6 in. liberally mixed with sharp sand. Christmas Rose. It succeeds fairly well in the open. An excess of fumigation is injurious. Cuttings taken in November or December make the finest exhibition plants. when the plants have flowered cut them down.—A pretty hardy spring-flowering bulbous plant. Cichorium Intybus. and towards the end of May they may be planted in the open. discontinue the manure water. and re-pot them in March or April in 6-in. Shift the plants from time to time into larger pots. They must always be kept shaded from the sun. Height. Keep a good look-out for green fly. It delights in a mixture of peat and loam. Its deep-golden. Chorozemas. peat. —A free-flowering. where they may shed their seed. especially in the winter and spring.—The Chrysanthemum will grow in any good mould. Pot them singly in 2-in.—See "Helleborus. May be shifted at any time except from October to Christmas. pots. where the flowers will be produced in March. until at the end of May they receive their final shift into 10-in. from which early plants will be produced. which may be separated and potted off into thumb pots. Cimcifuga. Those that have bloomed in pots may be planted in the north border of the garden in July. When the flower-buds begin to show colour. making the soil moderately firm. To obtain cuttings. 1 ft. pinch off the tops to make the plants grow bushy. It may also be increased by dividing the root. Return them to the hotbed and keep them shaded till established. pinch off the extreme point of the shoot. They may also be increased by offsets. A cool frame suits them in summer. sufficient heat to keep away frost and damp being all that is necessary. or 3-in. 6 in. starshaped flowers are produced from June to September. At the end of September they must be removed to a cool greenhouse to flower.—These grow well in a soil composed of equal parts of rich loam. cuttings. best grown in loam and peat. gradually merging into pure white in the centre. Propagated by cuttings about 1 or 2 in. star-like in form. 1 ft. to 3 ft. but before they get matted.—These Australian plants delight in rich turfy peat mixed with fibrous loam. leaving two or three only of the strongest on each stem. when a little clear liquid manure may be given twice a week. detaching them in the autumn. Syringe the leaves each day and give the roots a liberal supply of liquid manure. better still. Height. are produced on gracefully arched stems. Syringing with soot-water twice a week until the flower-buds appear will darken the leaves and deepen the colour of the flowers. The blossoms. Cinerarias. and are nearly 1 in. but the side-shoots may either be reduced or not. then gradually hardened off. and when they have again grown large enough take the cuttings and plant them in pots filled with the above compost. The first flower-stem should be cut out close to the bottom. stand them on coal ashes in a cold frame. hardy.—A pretty evergreen wall plant. Various species produce their flowers from May to September. Cinnamon Plant. putting a layer of silver sand on the top. When freshly potted they should be given a warm part of the greenhouse and watered cautiously till they are in full growth. across. and of a lovely blue tint on the margin. The plants have rather a rambling habit. from five to six in number. Where the ground is not in good condition a compost may be made of one-half rich loam and one-fourth each of well-rotted manure and leaf-mould. Height. Cuttings of ripened wood planted in sand and subjected to moist heat will strike. and give occasionally a little liquid manure.—This is a stove or greenhouse plant. 2 ft. pots. and thoroughly rotted horse-dung. and planted in rich soil. Plant the bulbs in autumn in equal parts of loam. The seed should be sown as soon as it is ripe and covered with the lightest layer of the finest soil. Cuttings of the ripe wood strike freely. When the cuttings have made shoots 3 in. long of half-ripened young wood taken in July or August. and is propagated by cuttings placed in sand under a handglass. They bloom nearly all the year round. Seeds may be sown either in autumn or spring. transplanting into larger ones when required. choosing a sheltered situation.
then potted off and placed with tender annuals. ripe cuttings covered with a handglass. June. but it is best raised from seed. Clematis (Virgin's Bower ). Cuttings of firm side-shoots taken in summer will root under glass in a little moist heat. The tops of the shoots should be constantly pinched off. Some of the annual species require to be sown in a hotbed frame or in a hothouse. peat. Though the plants are pretty hardy it is advisable to afford them protection during severe frosts. Clarkia. replace them on the hotbed. Sow the seed in the open in spring. covering with 1/4 in. or in September if protected in winter. moist heat. These produce flowers in June. The soil most suitable for them is a compost of leafmould. 3 ft. some being half-hardy climbers notable for their foliage. but is more generally increased by layers. Height.—A greenhouse climbing or trailing plant. Seed may be sown in bottom-heat early in spring. Height. 3 ft. Cobæa Scandens. or rock-work. If planted against a rough wall its tendrils will catch in the crevices and support it without any assistance. Any good garden soil suits the hardy kinds.—A greenhouse evergreen tree. A good dressing of leaf-mould and manure should be dug in about November.—These plants like a dry situation. and sand. After they have ceased to flower. and afterwards planted out in a sheltered position. The hardier ones may be sown on a hotbed. 9 in. June is its flowering season. and sand.—The annuals may be sown in the open in April to flower in July. and merely requires sowing in the open in March. Its blue and purple flowers are produced in August.—Most beautiful evergreen plants for the greenhouse. Cuttings will strike in heat. Cistus (Rock Rose). 5 ft. or seed. With the protection of a greenhouse they come into flower early in spring.—A hardy herbaceous plant which yields light yellow flowers in June. 18 in. (See also "Traveller's Joy. to 20 ft. but it is more readily grown from seed. They produce an abundance of Lobelialike flowers in August. peat. It is generally budded on an orange or lemon tree and plunged in a bottom-heat. loam. It may be propagated by cuttings placed under glass in sandy loam.—This rapid climber is well adapted for the conservatory. rich soil. They like a rich. and when the combs are full grown place them in the greenhouse. which thrives in a mixture of loam. Seed ripens plentifully. Height. The bloom lasts from June to September. They will not bear much disturbance. Heights vary from 2 ft. June is their flowering month. It is not particular as to soil. They will grow in smoky districts.—This hardy deciduous shrub bears in September deliciously scented pure white flowers on the side-shoots of the previous year's growth. The greenhouse evergreens may be propagated by cuttings under glass. or by suckers taken when the leaves have fallen. but it will thrive in the open air if the root is protected during the winter.—These hardy perennials are best grown in sandy peat and loam. but not too close. Height. They may be increased by layers. to 4 ft. (See also "Celosia. taking care not to allow any damp to lodge on them." Cockscomb. Citrus Japonica.—These tender annuals should be sown on a moderate hotbed in March or April. They bloom at various periods.—See "Filberts. and may be increased by cuttings of firm side-shoots under a glass in summer or by layers in September. It stands division of the root. to 8 ft. requiring a rich loamy soil. useful for beds. Clianthus. Shade from strong sunshine. and . those of the Lanuginosa should be cut back moderately. Heights vary from 6 in. free-flowering. Give a liberal supply of water when in full growth. They are easily raised from seed or cuttings. The stove and greenhouse varieties are best planted in loam and peat. Cob Nuts.Cissus Orientalis.—The species of this genus are very pretty and free flowering. and keep the temperature at from 60 to 70 degrees. When a couple of inches high place them in small pots. the Jackmanni and Viticella sections should be cut down to within 9 or 12 in. light soil. otherwise it runs to leaf instead of to bloom. to 6 ft. Height. Clethra Alnifolia. Height. and July. They are increased by cuttings planted under glass and kept in a gentle.") Cleome. It needs a light soil and a dry. to 20 ft. Height. 6 in.—A genus of very elegant. sunny situation. Afterwards shift them into larger pots. They flower in May. and sand. 3 ft.—A compost of loam and peat suits these beautiful evergreen shrubs. Height. 4 ft. Cuttings root freely in the same soil under glass. to induce thickness of growth. It requires plenty of room and a rather poor soil.—Very pretty half-hardy annuals. sown sideways. in May. evergreen greenhouse shrubs. Clintonia. at the same time supplying them well with water and all the air possible. Clitoria. pots. Cladanthus. in a hotbed in March. and give shade till they have taken fresh root. Claytonia Sibirica. edging. Height. 10 ft. of the ground. in pans of leaf-mould and sand. The herbaceous varieties are increased by dividing the roots early in spring. They are the most beautiful of all flowering hardy climbers. though they will thrive in any light soil. They flourish in the border of the conservatory (or against a south wall if protected from cold) in an equal mixture of loam.—Useful climbing plants which delight in a light. Cuttings of the stove kinds root freely under a glass. Seed sown early in spring produce flowers the first year. and may be raised from seed sown either in autumn or spring. The Patens and Florida do not require pruning. When the weather is favourable let them have a moderate amount of fresh air. Very little water should be given it while in a growing state. but from September to February keep them only moderately moist. of soil.—These hardy annuals make a pretty display in the borders during summer. Clivias (Caffre Lilies).") Codonopsis. or they may be increased by suckers.
" Conifers. It has large. internally flushed rose. May to July. Height. 1-1/2 ft. Pot off singly in loam and sand. so that what was at the bottom will be at the top. will strike. however. Then take as much manure. Collinsia." . Height. as you have dead leaves. to 3 ft. bearing cobalt-blue flowers. Commelina Sellowina (Blue Spider Wort. This slakes the lime and hastens the decomposition of the vegetable matter. 4 ft. and. and over that a thin layer of earth. and is so ready for them to assimilate. It is increased by layers. Colchicum (Autumn-Flowering Crocus).—Showy plants. to 3 ft. bearing in June blue or white flowers the size of a shilling. requiring the protection of a greenhouse. and proceed in this way till all the materials are used up. Cuttings will strike in sand if covered with glass. long planted in sand. It should occupy a sunny position. and may be raised either from seed or cuttings taken in autumn.—Get a heap of dead leaves and press and jam them down as closely as possible. the plants are increased by offsets. come under this heading.—Hardy annuals. —This ornamental deciduous shrub is quite hardy. clayey soil. and plunged in heat 60 to 70 degrees. Bloom May to August. Height. but of course must be removed from the shrubbery or border before they attain undue proportions. until it has become perfectly friable and will powder through a garden-fork like dust. in some out-of-the-way corner. The seed is sown in autumn for early flowering. Colt's-foot.—Plant the bulbs in February in light. 2 ft. and may be increased by dividing the root. Colletia. Collomia.—See "Echinacea. Commelina Tuberosa. 2-1/2 ft. Height. apart. Firs. Treat as Collinsia. doing well in any garden soil. Height. Bloom in June or July. Height. Flower in July. possessing little beauty. September is their flowering season. 1 ft. then a layer of leaves. Height. 10 ft. (See also "Bulbocodium. and treated as other stove and greenhouse annuals and biennials. 6 in. after which very little should be given. It will be well. The stove and greenhouse annuals and biennials require to be sown in heat. The half-hardy annual kinds should be sown on a gentle hotbed in February. loamy soil. Convolvulus (Morning Glory). Flowering season. and one of lime and earth as before. followed with bladder-shaped seed vessels.." Colutea Arborescens (Bladder Senna). 3 in. It will then be ready for use. Compost Heap. Height. and are produced from May to September. 1 ft. —Perfectly hardy plants. 1 ft.—A half-hardy. to 2 ft. and are best grown in loam and peat: cuttings strike freely in sand under a glass. Indeed. with a sheltered position. Sow in a warm spot in April. They succeed best in a mixture of loam and peat. or they may be sown in the open in April. They are hardy.—Ornamental evergreen shrubs. Hardy kinds merely require sowing in the open.") Coleus. upon which sprinkle a layer of lime.produce their flowers in July and August. but requires a light. Convallaria Prolificans. This compost is invigorating to flowers of all kinds. any of the specimens may be utilised in this way. Keep the plants root-bound and near the glass. Coix Lachryma (Job's Tears ). Blooms in April. It grows best in a moist. and when large enough transferred to the open.—Most elegant hardy annuals. or Day Flower ).—See "Aquilegia.—This is one of the most beautiful hardy perennials known. Columbine. Cuttings of shoots 3 in. with a good supply of heat and moisture. Height. After letting it stand for about six weeks. yet among the class are many low—growing evergreens well adapted for the lawn or border. is their delight. It will grow in any soil. Now spread upon the ground. early in spring. are very fragrant. in appearance. not particular as to soil or situation. etc. with erect and much-branched flower-stems. placing them 2 in. a layer of the dead leaves. generally speaking. Cone Flower. to 15 ft. and for each cartload have two bushels of unslaked quicklime and some earth. and mention is made in other parts of this work of those most suitable for the amateur's requirements. Comptonia Asplenifolia. The flowers are white. They are readily increased by offsets from the bulb. begin at the top of the heap and turn it completely over.—Tender perennial shrubs of some merit. Pines. The tender species are well adapted for the stove or conservatory.—A shrub with Acacia-like leaves and producing yellow Pea-shaped flowers in July. covered with a glass.—A pretty greenhouse climber. annual. sandy loam or peat soil and a shady situation. 1-1/2 ft. and be watered freely from March to September. Next lay on a covering of manure. Height.—See "Erythrina. Height. ornamental grass bearing clusters of beautiful pearl-like seeds. to give the heap a good watering whenever you come to the layer of leaves. deep and 3 in. The bulbs may be planted in spring in any garden soil. barely covering the seed with fine soil. The plant will grow in any ordinary soil. Cedars.—This hardy perennial flowers before the leaves appear. and may be increased by pieces of the running root.—Conifers (so called because they bear cones in place of ordinary seed) are mostly of tall growth. deep-green foliage. Coral Plant. and in spring for a later display. A mixture of peat and loam. 2 ft. and keep the surface of the ground moist till germination is ensured. Repeat this operation from time to time at intervals of six or seven weeks. Height. They produce their flowers in July.
and propagate by cuttings. which must be left to dry for a few days in a sunny place. They are not particular as to soil." Crambe Cordifolia (Tournefort. Height. July is its flowering season.—A stove evergreen shrub.—See "Cornus. Cowslips. Height.—Sow in drills—the plants to stand 6 in. Flowers are produced from May to August. and produces a profusion of white flowers and bright crimson berries. Cotyledon Chrysantha (Umbilicus). the flowers resembling a single Dahlia. or in the early part of spring.—These low-growing perennials are suitable for dry positions on rock-work. prostrate perennial species. August is its flowering period.—See "Cyanus. and transplant to the flower border at the end of May.—Well-known hardy perennials. 3 in. 6 in. 4 ft. The annuals should be raised on a hotbed in February and be planted out in May. It flowers in spring. apart—from March till August. as they are liable to damp off. autumn being the time to propagate. Autumn sowings will stand the winter and prove useful in early spring. and produces flowers from June to August. followed by red berries. Cortusa Matthioli. rich soil. It likes a good. or in well-drained pots of the same soil. and produces flowers in May and June. 6 in. They are mostly hardy. to 8 ft. C. Its yellow flowers are produced on bare stems from February to April. Height. These are propagated by seed or division. Height. 1 ft. therefore they are best grown in pots. Cowslips. Hardy perennials may be divided at the roots. likes a light soil. Magnifica is also a capital plant. others in September.—Evergreen shrubs which will grow in any soil and are easily increased by layers. are brought forward in heat. Coronilla Iberica. Cuttings of the stove kinds root freely under glass. Height. Correa Cardinalis. or Sea Cabbage ). bearing white flowers from May to August. Hookeriana attains the dimensions of small trees. Coronilla. C. Cotoneaster. 6 in. and may be increased by seeds or division of the roots. and sandy soil. in well-drained sandy loam. Useful as cut flowers. Height. on which its bright yellow flowers are very attractive during June and July.Corchorus.—Pretty plants. 1 ft. to 1 ft. C. 1-1/2 ft. It makes a good pot-plant. Height.—This hardy herbaceous plant is suitable for a wild garden.—See "Kerria. The roots may be divided in autumn. and is multiplied by cuttings. Coreopsis. Cornus Mas (Cornelian Cherry). The annuals may be sown either in the autumn or in March. The annuals need no special treatment. 3 in. Cornus Canadensis (Canadian Cornel). Crane's Bill.—This hardy deciduous shrub does well in common soil if a fair amount of moisture be given.—See "Geranium Argentium. 8 in.—A very pretty half-hardy annual which flowers in July.—A pretty herbaceous plant. It may be increased by seeds. while some scatter seed in abundance. Their flowering period extends over many months. and is easily increased by seed or division. to 3 ft.—A choice Alpine succulent which thrives in a sandy loam. Some flower in June. vegetable mould or in peat and loam. C. Cornel.—A pretty creeping hardy perennial suitable for rock-work. Height. Height. Height. 2 ft. Place in equal parts of sand and loam. It flowers from May to August. Height. Cape.—The greenhouse shrubs should be grown in peat and loam. It thrives best in a mixture of peat and loam. Height. It must be gathered young. and may be increased by division of roots. Corydalis (Fumitory). Height. Most of the hardy perennials need protection in winter.—See "Lachenalia. too. Longipes flowers in April. they bear transplanting. 3 ft. They all like a light." . Rupestris is a small-leaved. Cosmea Bipinnata. It may be increased by seeds or by division of the roots. It is very hardy.—This ornamental hardy herbaceous plant thrives best in a mixture of peat and loam. Simonsii is largely used as a hedge. Sow the seed early in spring on a slight hotbed covered with glass." Cordyline.—Very pretty and long-flowering. and divide as soon as the bloom has died off. to 3 ft. which may be grown in any light. Grandiflora in August. It is advisable to give protection to the roots in winter. and is easily increased by suckers. Cosmos. The perennials. These require the same treatment as Primulas. 6 ft. 3 ft. which should have plenty of room. Height. cuttings." Corn Salad (Lamb's Lettuce). suitable for moist parts of rock-work. Plant in a mixture of loam and peat. or layers.—An evergreen greenhouse shrub." Cornflower. They are raised by seeds and by cuttings. rich. but some need protection.
Ogden's Black. The fruit is produced on spurs. apart. They succeed better as bushes than as espaliers or trained to walls. 6 in.Crataegus Pyracantha (Fire Thorn). apart. in good. they should not be moved into the open before the end of May. Cuttings may be struck in sand under bell-glasses.—Sow at intervals of a week from March to September in the open ground. Among the leading red varieties are the following:—Champagne. 1 ft. and will grow in any soil. and plant firmly in rows 1 ft. Crocus. and may be increased by seeds. It merely requires sowing in spring. The seed may also be sown from March to midsummer. especially in winter. remember that the fruit is borne on the young wood. in such a manner as not to injure the roots. It is not particular as to soil. Houghton Castle. therefore only sufficient should be cut away to allow of the admission of air and sunshine and the further growth of young branches.—A rich. These will grow in any garden soil.—Fine-foliaged hothouse plants.—Among our earliest spring flowers. 1 ft. In plantations they should stand from 4 ft. Towards the end of June is a good time for cutting the young wood away. and can easily be increased by division. Height. Chiswick Red. Sow again in September for winter use. together with partial shade. 3 in. by 6 in. Cuttings of the previous year's growth are taken in autumn and planted firmly 1 ft. and keep the plants supplied with water in dry seasons. The stove varieties require a sandy loam to grow in." Crepis (Hawkweed).") Crotons. commencing early in autumn. deep and 2 in. or 6 in. Height. Protect the bulbs from mice.—See "Fritillarias. with a night temperature of 70 degrees. The flowers are produced in June.—This hardy perennial produces heads of pretty purple flowers from July to September. and when strong enough potted off and kept in the greenhouse. Raby Castle. stiff loam. deep soil and a moist situation. It should be planted early in spring on a south or south-west wall. Cuphea. are most suitable for their growth. Mulch the roots. (See also "Colchicum.—An interesting hardy annual. but perfect drainage must be secured. Cut away all the eyes except the three uppermost ones. Cuckoo Flower." . Flowering. Currants. and by often cutting over such as readily renew a bottom growth. Crown Imperials. and planted out about the middle of May in a warm border on strawed ridges prepared with good stable manure..—See "Lysimachia Nummularia. Cherry. Cress. The hardy or ridge cucumbers (which are not suited for frame or hothouse culture) should be raised in a frame or hot-bed in April. or by grafting. A mixture of peat and sandy loam suits their growth. and plant the small offsets in a nursery bed for two years.—A rich. Black Naples. rich. as they are very partial to them. Prune in March. They are readily raised from cuttings—which should be as long and strong as possible—taken in autumn. a constant succession of tender shoots is obtained. Lee's Prolific. Transplant at the end of the second year to a distance of 5 ft. and plant them in succession. Height. when they will be fit for the beds or borders. loamy soil is most suitable for their growth. and Red Dutch. sunny position is needed. Baldwin's Black. Height. In pruning the bushes." Cucumbers.—A hardy perennial. They grow best in loam and peat. and plant out finally to a distance of 5 ft. apart. A shady position is most suitable. Height. Sow frame varieties in a heat of 75 degrees or 85 degrees during February and March for summer use. Red and White.—Select strong bulbs of the seedling varieties. Creeping Jenny. The soil that suits them best is a deeply-manured. James' Prolific. by budding.—See "Ribes. Currants.—Shrubs of a rather pretty description. sandy earth. While the plants are young cut out all the top centre branches. Crowea Saligna. apart. Of the white fruit the White Dutch and the Cut-leaved White are the leaders. by 6 in. and the plants moved in autumn to the place where they are to bloom. The perennial species if sown early make good bedding plants the first year." Crucianella Stylosa. which send forth their purple flowers in September. ornamental shrub will grow in any soil.—This hardy. sandy soil. so as to give a cylindrical form to the bush. and they require a good amount of light to properly colour their leaves. mossy wood. They grow well in bowls filled with wet moss or sand. to 6 ft. A portion of the old wood should be removed each year. The annuals should be sown on a gentle hotbed. In two years shift every alternate plant so as to allow room for expansion. and may be propagated by cuttings. Cunila Mariana (Dittany). Sow in August or September in a sheltered spot to stand the winter. placing a handglass over each plant until it is well established.—See "Cardamine. 1 ft. Lelandii (Mespilus) ensures it a place on walls and trellises. A liberal supply of water is necessary during the blooming season. Their delicate pink flowers are produced in July.—Charming greenhouse evergreen shrubs. they need protection in the winter. In the autumn of each year carefully dig in a good dressing of half-rotted manure. apart. The profuse brilliant orange-coloured berries of the C. but shorten all others to 4 in.—Black. and cut out all old. Take the roots up every second year. A sunny position gives best results. By these frequent sowings.—An open. but prefer rich. Plant in October or November. In further pruning leave the leading shoots untouched. and Old Black are among the best. 3 ft. and during the winter months in frames. cutting always to an outgrowing bud. Indoor Culture. and when the plants are of sufficient size transplant to a well-prepared hotbed.
good loamy or peaty soil mixed with a fair proportion of brick rubble. When the blooming season is over. Cytisus.—These hardy plants are well adapted for trellis-work. and pinching out the stronger shoots where too thin. Japan Cypresses are elegant little shrubs. Pygmea is a compact dwarf-growing variety suitable for the centre of small beds and for rock-work. Plant the corms in September 3 in. It is most at home in a well-drained yet moist peaty soil. One full-sized bulb is sufficient for a 6-in. They succeed best in a rich. Cyperius Alternifolius. it succeeds in almost any soil or situation. Neapolitanum in April. to 1 ft. well adapted to fill moist places on rock-work if the situation is open and sunny. C. but never allow the roots to get dry. or in March for a later one. Protect from frost and heavy rains. Bloom in July. and re-pot in fresh soil. It flowers in the autumn. plunge the pots in a shady. one of the finest being Retinospora Ericoides. to 9 in. the slender branches of which are tipped with white. Water moderately till growth begins. and kept in a frame or on a shady border. 3 ft.—Very pretty and free-blooming hardy annuals. or in partial shade on rock-work. Nana Alba Maculata is a dwarf globular plant. Height. but very beautiful procumbent perennial. Any of the above may be increased by cuttings. 1 ft. Fraserii is also hardy. deep loam. to 3 ft. Persicum flowers in February. 2 ft.—Elegant hardy shrubs with finely-cut leaves and terminal racemes of Pea-shaped flowers in July. 2 ft. Sow the seed in the open in autumn for an early display of flowers. which thrive in a mixture of sandy loam and vegetable mould. C. where it will bloom in June. in length. so as not to injure their roots. and of a rich glaucous hue.—Among these useful conifers C. the flower-stems being from 6 in. then increase the supply. and upwards. Give a little liquid manure. in a weak state. and when the leaves start afresh turn the plants carefully out of the pots. Europeum is a hard variety. . They may be increased by seed sown in slight heat as soon as it is ripe. and C. apart. They require a moist atmosphere and a uniform temperature not lower than 50 degrees. apart. thriving in any situation. Height. and flower more freely than when trained to the wall. They will grow in any soil. It produces sweetly-scented flowers throughout July and August. also in February and March. Cypripedium (Hardy Ladies' Slipper Orchid ). A mixture of vegetable mould and sand suits it. Lawsoniana has no superior as a single specimen for the decoration of the lawn. or rock-work. Height. so as to encourage new growth. and are improved by thinning out the branches where too thick. pot. of erect habit. deep. Plant the bulbs in October. in well-drained. Cyclamen. The beautiful silver variegated variety Argenteo Variegata deserves a place in every shrubbery. well-drained border. —A stove grass which will grow in any soil. and 1-1/2 in. whose peculiar violet-red leaves contrast charmingly with light green plants. placing them so that the crown is level with the top of the pots. and are increased by suckers. the bloom often lasting to the winter. giving it the appearance of being partly covered with snow. Cyanus(Cornflower). Thin out to 2 ft. and it is best increased by cuttings placed in moist peat. Height. C. if a large quantity of flower-buds appear.—Charming winter and spring blooming bulbous greenhouse plants. which must be provided with good drainage and placed on a layer of coal ashes that is kept constantly moist. to 4 ft. Height. but are more effective when grown as bushes. It does best when planted under trees. 6 in. Height.Cyanthus Lobatus—A small. It is increased by dividing the roots. Cydonia (Pyrus). They will grow in any soil.—This plant is of the simplest culture and is well adapted for pots. ferneries. and are readily raised from seed or layers. but requires a plentiful supply of water. Cypress (Cupressus). Of free growth and perfectly hardy. When it attains a good size it is very ornamental. 4 ft.
they will flower at the end of August. little hardy perennials are very useful as edgings. and replanting them where they are intended to bloom. Height. well mixed with rain water. Daisies (Bellis Perennis). 1 ft. pot. at any time from March to August. to 3 ft. Water them occasionally with liquid manure. using a compost of two parts fibrous loam. It is readily increased by cutting the roots into pieces about 1-1/2 in. 10 in. pot. Pot off separately. and preserve them from damp. As soon as top growth has commenced. shady situation. remove the plants indoors. The quickest way to grow the perennial varieties from seed is to sow in a frame with a slight bottom-heat. and putting a little gas-tar or a pinch of salt on the wound. They flower continuously from February to July. Any that turn out very good had better be propagated by cuttings from the young tops. Height. and place an inverted flower-pot over the whole. and shade from the sun till the plants are up. Or they may be dug up and blanched for mixing with salad. apart in a cool. 9 in. leaving about 6 in. Odorata is too tender for outdoors. but thrive best in a moderately rich loam.—A fine. Dentaria Digitata (Toothwort). and plunge them into a box of sand. moist. and long. pendulous scarlet and orange flowers in . 2 ft. or so of sand round them. When they have become good bushy plants put a layer of halfrotted manure round each plant. planting them out 6 in.—Beautiful shrubs. and heat during the winter. In this case plant six roots in an 8-in. When the shoots are a couple of inches high the tubers may be taken up and divided with a sharp knife.—Dandelions on lawns. 1-1/2 ft. When flowering is over take up the young bulbs and treat them as directed afterwards for old tubers. Height. The Chinese variety D. Height. bearing elegant flowers followed by bright-red poisonous berries. putting 1 in. according to size. They all need a peaty soil. Dahlias. Datura. to save the kind in case the roots should die. Different varieties flower at various periods.. and if unattended to become troublesome. highly enriched.—See "Commelina. care being taken not to injure the young fleshy sprouts. afterwards transferring them to their final quarters. well-drained garden soil if sand be put round their roots. where they will bloom more freely than in pots. the plants are sometimes blanched in the open by covering them with old tan or fine ashes. Plant them out at the end of May. etc. according to its size. mostly evergreens. may be killed by cutting them down as low as possible. Daffodils are also suitable for pot culture. but sowings made in the open from April to June will succeed. but are very useful for rockeries occupying sheltered positions. friable soil. and is very suitable for the front of shrubberies. to 3 ft. one part leaf-mould. or 5-in. not over rich.—These pretty. They like a deep soil. ones. As soon as frost turns their foliage brown take them up.D Daffodils. for they soon run to seed. The seeds of all the species must be sown on a hotbed early in spring." Day Lily. then transplant to nursery beds for the summer. and may be increased by grafting on to the common Spurge Laurel. As soon as they are up give all the air which can with safety be given. The perennials may be divided at the root in autumn. of cocoa-nut fibre. are rather tender. Daffodils likewise make a good display when planted on a lawn. The annuals are readily raised from seed.—These attractive plants require a deep. Daphne. They may be grown from seed sown on a hotbed in March and lightly covered with fine mould. and one part sand. and cover with 4 in. and tie the branches securely to stakes firmly fixed in the soil. from February to October. frost. for large bulbs produce the finest flowers. Place the pots on a bed of ashes.—These will grow in any good. in order to exclude the light. They flower in July. Keep the ground moist. but makes a fine ornament for the greenhouse. Plant from September to December. or ashes. Flower in June and July. to 6 ft. bearing fragrant pink flowers. Dandelions. Day Flower. The dwarf kinds. in a 4-in.—Ornamental half-hardy annuals. evergreen wall shrub with holly-like leaves. Mezereum is the most common variety. cool. The flowers must be kept picked off. Another way to propagate them is to place the old tubers in soil over a hotbed early in March. and plant them out early in May.—This tuberous hardy perennial grows well in old leaf-mould. Give them plenty of room. where it can obtain both shade from the midday sun and moisture. Height. to 6 ft. Ceratocaula will sometimes remain several years in the ground before they germinate. but the majority are from 2 ft. When the flowering is over the leaves must be allowed to die down. apart is a good distance. long. high. The seeds of D." Delphinium (Larkspur). October is a suitable time for transplanting. 1-1/2 ft. When the seedlings are large enough pot them off singly in the smallest-sized pots or round the edges of 6-in. not cut off. Plant three to six bulbs. apart. To grow them to perfection the ground should be highly manured. below the surface. and is very suitable for the base portion of rock-work.—The gorgeous spikes of flowers produced by these plants render them invaluable for the border. of stem attached. D. They flower in May. Desfontania Spinosa. cut off the roots. and the roots divided every year.—See "Hemerocallis. made from guano and powdered charcoal. and give plenty of light and air to prevent them being drawn. When the plants are strong enough transplant them in the border. The top of the bulb should be about 3 in. chaff. They may remain in the ground for years. 6 in.
Dittany. which is very ornamental when in flower. to Kill. cuttings. they will be ready in about three weeks to plant out in the open.—This is a fine border hardy perennial. The trees are gone over once a week during the spring. flowering in July. A sandy loam is most suitable for their growth. 4 ft. Plant in rich. 9 in. Height. Diplopappus. sheltered border of rich. Height. The term is also applied to the pinching out of flower-buds.—One of the most elegant hardy perennials for forcing for table decorations. peat. Dictamnus (Burning Bush)." Docks. and requires a good deal of moisture in the summer months. so as not to give any check to the tree. It is generally raised from cuttings late in summer. Diplacus Glutinosus (Hard-wooded Mimulus ). The graceful. and is easily increased . as in the Dahlia. They flower in August.—Splendid evergreen climbers. They flower in July.—Very beautiful and fragrant flowers. Desmodium Canadense. light soil. It is propagated by cuttings under glass. Picotees. to 6 ft." Dielytra Spectabilis (Venus's Car. still it may be grown out of doors in a sheltered. and give plenty of water. They require the warmest situation the garden affords. loamy soil mixed with peat. mixed with a little rotten dung and sand. 1 ft." Dianthus. 3 ft. and may be increased by cuttings planted in sand under glass. suitable either for the greenhouse or in a sheltered position out of doors. A peaty soil suits it. During winter it is safest to afford it protection. Diphylleia Cymosa. It grows best in a compost of loam. Desmodium Pendulaeflorum. or division of roots. though from autumn till spring it should be kept on the dry side. sandy loam. Bleeding Heart. Cuttings planted in sand with a little bottom-heat and under glass will strike. among shrubs or herbaceous plants. taken at a joint and planted on a shaded site. Devil-in-a-Bush. 2 ft. It thrives in sandy loam and peat. loamy one. It is well to confine the rarer kind to pots.—See "Fraxinella. Height.—See "Nigella. The process is both simple and expeditious. and may be increased by seed or by cuttings planted in sand and subjected to heat. and is increased by cuttings. 1-1/2 ft. Let them be planted in tufty groups in a warm. Height. Dimorphotheca Ecklonis. which are kept through the winter in small pots in the greenhouse. The soil most suitable for them is a light. and are readily raised from seed. will produce flowers the following June and July. Disbudding—The object of Disbudding is to prevent the growth of branches which. 20 ft. from their position. Out of doors in summer. and it may be propagated by cuttings of ripe wood. perennial border plants.—A very pretty bog plant which blooms from June to August. and sand. Dodecatheon. give them a conspicuous place among plants. They are propagated by layers. Digitata. Chrysophylla render that variety specially attractive.—This elegant greenhouse shrub is an evergreen which delights in a rich. The golden stems and leaves of D. or cutting for vases. Height. and would consequently have to be cut away later on.—The Dimorphantus Mandschuricus is one of the noblest of deciduous shrubs. or Lyre Flower ). Height. Height. sunny situation. and to be protected during the winter. which. and.—Cut the weeds down to the ground. Cuttings strike readily. with a south or west aspect. Any soil is suitable for its growth. It prefers a soil of sandy loam and peat. if sown in the autumn. The work should be done gradually. if grown in the open. Flower in July. taking off first those which are most unfavourably situated. combined with the delicate green of the foliage. they are exceedingly attractive. It is propagated by division. They will grow in any garden soil. Plant in rich. Height. It is pretty hardy.June.—This plant is not perhaps quite hardy. 3 ft.—A beautiful conservatory shrub. Height. Digitalis (Foxglove).—Dwarf-growing evergreen shrubs of pretty habit. The genus embraces Carnations. They may be increased by division of the root. Disemma. Height. It grows best in a loamy soil.—A hardy evergreen shrub. would be useless to the tree. hardy. so as to give more room and strength to the remaining blooms. and placed under glass on a gentle hotbed. 10 ft. It produces its flowers at midsummer. producing long racemes of rosy-purple flowers in June or July. If the cuttings are taken about the middle of June. pendent branches are laden with beautiful red or purple heart-shaped flowers. bearing in spring a large quantity of flowers resembling the snowdrop. to 3 ft.—A hardy perennial. and run a skewer dipped in vitriol through the roots. The annuals and biennials merely require sowing where they are intended to bloom. Deutzia. 3 ft. Pinks. 4 ft. It flowers in June." Dimorphantus (Aralia Sinensis). so as the better to protect them in winter. give protection to the roots during the winter. light soil.—See "Cunila. or by cuttings.—See "Callirhoe.—Very showy. these. to 2 ft. It grows well in sandy loam and leaf-mould. Height. such as those of the Chrysanthemum. and Sweet Williams. Height. and the useless buds are rubbed off with the thumb. to 30 ft. the foliage being very large and much divided. 6 ft.
They are propagated by planting the young shoots in sand. and kept in the hothouse till May. placing sticks for them to run up.—See "Violets. Doronicum (Leopards Bane). It thrives in peat or leaf-mould.—Greenhouse evergreen shrubs of an ornamental character." Dryas Octopetala (Mountain Avens). Draba. will strike. covering them with a handglass. Dracaena Indivisa. Dragon's Head. It produces its flowers in May. The seed should be sown in spring in pots placed in heat. mostly bearing lilac or blue flowers. Dracocephalum (Dragon's Head). and likes a moist position. 1 ft.—A prostrate. Strong clumps may be divided in February. 6 in. to 2 ft. but it is rather shy at being moved. It will grow in any garden soil. It thrives in peat. Cuttings stuck in tan or peat and sand. loamy soil and plenty of light.—An ornamental hardy perennial. protection should be afforded during winter.—A very pretty and extremely hardy little perennial. They flower in June. Not being quite hardy. and is increased by seeds.by dividing the roots. or division. in the like manner to Beans. Flower in July. when the plants may be set out in a sheltered position. and come into bloom in June and July." . very suitable for rock-work. Dog's-Tooth Violets. Many of the half-hardy kinds are grown in pots. Dracophyllum. Height. Height. cuttings. or by dividing the root.—See "Dracocephalum. 2 ft. The pots should be filled with an equal mixture of sand and peat. Dutchman's Pipe—See "Aristolochia. The perennials are propagated by dividing the roots. to 3 in. The annuals are increased from seed sown in March or early in April. suitable for either pot culture or rock-work. and may be propagated by seed or division. so that they may the more readily be removed to the greenhouse in winter. 1 ft." Dolichos Lablab. They like a rich. It requires a light. 1-1/2 ft. light soil. 3 ft. They flourish in a compost of loam and peat.—Half-hardy annuals. Height.—Pretty dwarf Alpine plants which bloom during April and May. and may be propagated from seed sown either in the autumn or spring. and provided with strong heat. Height. 6 ft. creeping perennial which bears white Anemone-like flowers from July to September. It flowers in June. and plunging them in heat.—Ornamental plants. Blooms in May. Height.—A stove evergreen shrub much valued for its foliage and as a table plant. It flowers in May. Dondia Epipactis. Height. Height. 1-1/2 in. Height. 6 in. Height.
1 ft. and sparkle as if polished. The foliage is dark and Clematis-like. They flower in autumn. and place them in drills about 3 in. —An inverted flower-pot. barren soil. very pretty when in flower. syringe the trees and walls with the clear liquid. but the principal sowing. They are mostly treated as greenhouse pot-plants. Height. and as dry as possible. Cuttings should be left for a few days to dry before planting. in ridges like those made for cucumbers. to Destroy. the flowers are borne in clusters. They grow in any ordinary soil. Any soil suits them. and do not give them too much water. mixed with pulverised brick rubbish. rich soil. Height. 1-1/2 ft. The Aubergine is a tender annual. Edelweiss. or they will rot. Sow in the open in spring. They flower in May. Echeveria. Height. It likes a rich. 10 ft. Echium Creticum. 1 ft. each one being about 2 in. light. The flowers are soft lilac-rose in colour.—A charming little herbaceous perennial which proves quite hardy in our climate.—The fruit of the egg-plant is edible. Elsholtzia Cristata. high transplant them to a rich nursery bed.—These climbing half-hardy perennials will grow in any garden soil. Eggs of Insects. and 1/2 lb. Height. with the soil round the roots. They may be destroyed by shaking them into boiling water. —A pretty and curious plant which may be grown in bowls of water like the Chinese Lily. and a dry.—See "Gnaphalium. Water well immediately after planting.—A stately hardy perennial. light. apart each way. and cover the roots with dry leaves: they will shoot up again in the spring.—See "Sambucus. Water must be given cautiously. Egg-Plant (Aubergine)." Eleagnus. loam soil and plenty of sunshine. containing a little dry moss or hay. the flowers being very sweet. high lift them carefully. so as to induce a bushy habit. —Into 3 gallons of water stir 1/4 peck of lime. and bright orange-scarlet in colour. forms a good trap for these pests. Sow the seed in autumn on a slight hotbed.—Choice greenhouse evergreen shrubs. rich loam.—Hardy annuals of great value where there are bees. The plants will be ready to turn out on a warm south wall in April or May. but hardly suitable for cutting purposes. They will also congregate in any hollow stems of plants that may be laid about.—Coarse perennial plants. Height. and covered with handglasses till established. loamy one being preferable. They will bloom in July and August.—Effective variegated shrubs which prove perfectly hardy in the south of England. Plant in deep. and cover the surface of the crown with 1/2 in." Edraianthus Dalmaticus.—Sow at intervals from May till the end of August. Height. It blooms during September and October. a light.—A scarlet-flowering hardy annual which should be grown wherever bees are kept. 1/2 lb. placed on a stick. Height. of tobacco. in light. Height. . Young plants may be taken off the parent in October and pressed firmly. The roots may be divided in spring. and are propagated by layers. In winter keep them in a cold frame. to Trap. They are increased by cuttings. 4 ft. with a little peat. Echinacea Purpurea (Purple Cone Flower). and when they have started into growth the points are pinched out. 4 in. to 2 ft. The stalks are bladders about the size of a greengage. of stiff growth. and are increased by cuttings. They bloom in July. Winter the young plants in a cold frame. after growth has fairly started. giving the plants the protection of a frame. 2 ft. and they may be increased by dividing the roots. are tube-shaped. but may be grown in the open if planted on a south border. to stand the winter. When settled. Cut them down in the autumn. Empetrum. rich soil. Height.—Small hardy evergreen shrubs requiring an elevated and exposed position. should be made the first week in August. in diameter. which enable the plant to float. 1 ft. but without bruising them. the growth is stopped at the first joint beyond it. They grow best in a sandy loam. and well deserves a place in the rockery. of sulphur. When 4 in.E Earwigs. and placed in a cucumber frame or on a hotbed with a temperature of 75 degrees. It may be propagated from offsets. It is necessary to keep the roots well supplied with water. A little soil at the bottom of the bowl is beneficial. When the fruit is set. More water may be added afterwards. The seed is sown in March or April in pots of well-drained. Eccremocarpus (Calampelis). Sow in spring in any garden soil. taken with as much root as possible as soon as flowering ceases. pot off. of coarse sand. 2-1/2 ft. Eichhornia Crassipes Major. deep and 1 ft. When the early sown ones are 2 in. and keep the soil moist. Endive. Elder. When the plants are fairly up they are potted off separately. and winter in a greenhouse. It will flourish out of doors in summer. Echinops (Globe Thistle).
—It is useless to attempt to grow these beautiful shrubs unless proper soil is provided. but do best in a mixture of loam and peat. and when the fresh shoots are 2 or 3 in. Place it in turfy loam enriched with old manure. They bloom at various times. A peat and sandy loam soil suits them best. and afterwards transplanted to the border. They flower longest if sown in autumn. The bloom is produced in June or July. Height. The free-growing kinds thrive best in good black peat and require large pots. Eranthis Hyemalis. placing them in a close. Height.—See "Winter Aconite. and its flowers possess a delicious fragrance. Eragrostis Elegans (Love Grass). 2 ft. They are mostly quite hardy. and may be propagated by layers. Cuttings will strike in sand. The latter are very pretty. Erythronium Dens-Canis (Dog's Tooth Violets). It flowers between April and June. and may be increased by layers or by cuttings. though they thrive best in a light. and harden off by degrees. Erythrina Crista Galli (Coral Plant). to 1 ft. when they are in flower. Height. Height. and the pots thoroughly well drained. it will reach perfection in August or September.—Flowers of little merit. Height. They may be propagated by layering in the autumn. They only need sufficient heat to keep out the frost. Eriogonum. or by suckers taken in the spring. (See "Heaths.") Erigeron. especially during August. Any rich soil suits them. 4 ft. pot them off. Gradually harden off. Protect from frost and damp." Eremurus Robustus. They all like a sandy soil. and may be increased by division or by seed sown between March and July. 1-1/2 ft. and produce their flowers in July. 3 ft.—The hardy perennial kinds bloom in March. Height. Easily raised from seed sown on a gentle hotbed in spring.—Pretty hardy annuals. and must not be crowded too closely together. Cuttings of the young wood placed in sand with a little bottom-heat will strike. and are easily raised from seed. Cuttings taken at a joint. The herbaceous kinds thrive in common soil. ornamental grasses. Grow in sandy peat with a little loam added. Epilobium Angustifolium. They may be planted against. and remove them to the conservatory in October. They flower in May and June.—One of the best of our hardy. The best soil for it is sandy peat. producing a copious display of bloom. a south wall. Erysimum. They bloom in June and July.Epacris. Sown in March. in the same manner as Carnations.—This hardy perennial bears tall. to 2 ft. Erodium. 6 in. As soon as rooted. Height. hardy. The annuals and biennials merely need sowing in the open during autumn.—A showy. Height. with the leaves left on. They may be increased by cuttings placed under glass. Epimedium. 1 ft. The greenhouse and frame varieties should be grown in pots. then place them in a sunny situation out of doors. Greenhouse. They need less water than the free-growing kinds. peach-coloured flowers in May. so that they can be easily housed in winter. and will grow in any garden soil. in a well-sheltered and moist situation. Height. 6 in. place in a close frame. or may be increased by division of the roots. 4 in. The laterals may be cut back fairly close in March to encourage new growth. long. The pots in which they grow should be provided with ample drainage and stood in a larger-sized pot. It will grow in any ordinary soil. As soon they have done blooming cut them back freely. Eriostemon. They will grow in any soil. Height. to 4 ft. They like a sandy peat soil. 1-1/2 ft. They are readily increased by seed or division. The cuttings of the stronger-growing kinds should be somewhat longer. and may be increased by seed or by division. The hardy sorts grow in a sandy peat. but need protection from frost. They flower at the end of July. 1 ft. to 3 ft.—See "Violets. summer-blooming greenhouse plant. It flowers in April. and is easily propagated by young plants from the roots. Eschscholtzia. They all want a good deal of air.—These pretty. Height. and plenty of moisture. sandy one. Ericas (Heaths). herbaceous plants bloom in June. It may be grown in loam and sandy peat or in leaf-mould with a little sand added.—Handsome.—A very ornamental and beautiful kind of Thistle.—An extensive genus of very beautiful plants. annual. The dwarf and hard-wooded kinds must be provided with sandy peat. and trained to. but . Cuttings off the tender tops of the shoots planted in sand under glass will strike. to 4 ft. and merely require ordinary treatment.—This creeper is hardy and evergreen.—Very handsome hardy perennials. Erinus. Eryngium. half-hardy.—Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. pot off singly. They grow best in a compost of loam and peat. may be struck in sand. —An ornamental herbaceous plant which may be grown in any common soil from seed sown in autumn. possessing rich glaucous leaves and bunches of tubular flowers. It puts forth its flowers in July. and when the wood is ripe cut it back and keep it dry till spring. Height. or in August or September. It may be transferred to the garden in the summer. suitable for shaded borders or rock-work.—Pretty Heath-like shrubs. 1 ft. handsome spikes of sweetly-scented. 6 in." Escallonia. and is increased by dividing the root. to 9 in. Epigaea Repens (Creeping Laurel ). the greenhouse varieties in May. They will grow in any soil. with wet moss between the two. Height. cool pit for three or four weeks. 1 ft. evergreen shrubs. I ft. Height.—An elegant hardy perennial. mostly hardy.
When flowering ceases. given a sunny situation. but for the tender. variegated. light soil suits them. It flowers in June.—A dwarf evergreen shrub with flowers resembling a white St. Any rich. Sow the seed in light soil early in spring where it is to flower. 4 ft. and easy to propagate. borders. They flower in August. by seed. will grow in any soil.—An evergreen shrub which produces white flowers in May. It is of easy cultivation. or Spindle Tree. root in sand under glass." . —A hardy evergreen shrub which. bearing long spikes of fragrant creamy-white flowers and curiously-spotted stems. suitable for the greenhouse. They thrive best in a mixture of peat and loam. in a temperature of 65 degrees.—Very pretty flowering shrubs for walls. though the roots may be divided.—An elegant class of plants. 2 ft. It is very handsome as single specimens on lawns. and is propagated by cuttings planted in a sandy soil on gentle heat. loam. John's Wort. Height. Height. It should be grown in loam and peat. Ripened cuttings may be struck in sand under glass. It may be increased by layers. May is its time to flower. Eurybia. Eurya Latifolia Variegata. give less water and prune hard back. 2-1/2 ft.—Exceedingly pretty hardy annuals. It grows best in a compost of loam and peat. It may be planted out at the end of May. though a rich. or rockeries. Eugenia Ugni. and subjected to heat. but as the flowers open these curl over gracefully. with small. They require a light. succulent plants it should be mixed with brick rubbish. 1 ft.—See "Oenothera. bright green leaves. Height. large-leaved evergreen. nearly allied to the Clarkia. but must be lifted before the frost comes. Height. Height.—Pretty evergreen shrubs. or in spring for blooming in July. Everlasting. Euphorbia. and require but little water. by cuttings of ripe wood taken early in autumn and planted in the shade.—A greenhouse everlasting tree. which should not be too ripe. Eucryphia Pinnatifida. and require the pots to be well drained. Height. are equally hardy. Height. continuing in bloom for a long while. Eutoca.—A fine. Height. rich soil. Eucalyptus Citriodora.the young plants need protection through the winter. or by dividing strong roots. It grows well in peat and loam. Cuttings. resembling a Prince of Wales feather. 4 ft. To have nice bushy plants they must be pinched back well. or for conservatory decoration. Euonymus Radicans Variegata. 2 ft. succeeded by round. and is propagated by cuttings planted in sand. Evening Primrose. Eucomis Punctata. edible berries. Height. Eupatorium Odoratum. sandy one is preferable. or used in groups on the margins of shrubberies.—A greenhouse shrub which bears sweet-scented white flowers in August.—A fine. It delights in a compost of loam and peat. Cuttings will strike in sand under glass. Height. They bloom in July.—Pretty little hardy annuals. Eucharidium. Pinch back freely until the end of July. and thin out so that the plants have plenty of room. and is increased by seed or by cuttings of the young shoots in spring in bottom-heat. 2 ft.—See "Peas. Height. oblong. from February to April. leaving all growth after that period. The stove and greenhouse varieties are generally succulent. 1-1/2 ft. Best grown from seed. Eucalyptus Globulus.—A useful window or greenhouse plant. 1 ft. growing freely from seed sown in slight heat. 2 ft." Everlasting Peas. very suitable for covering a low wall. autumn-blooming plant. It may be grown from seed sown. Eulalia Japonica. Eutaxia Myrtifolia. and sand. while the hardy kinds need plenty of moisture. Height. furnished with appendages that emit an odour resembling the Lemon-scented Verbena. It may be grown in any rich soil. The flower panicles in their first stage have erect branches. 6 ft. 6 ft. Other varieties of the Euonymus. 1-1/2 ft. The seed may be sown in autumn for early flowering. Height.—A hardy perennial Giant Grass. commonly known as Blue Gum. It delights in a mixture of peat. and may be increased by seeds sown early in spring on a gentle hotbed.
They may be increased by dividing the roots. It is increased by separating the tubers in autumn. and sphragnum moss. When the surface is covered with growth. Height. Manure may be given—preferably in a liquid state—when heavy crops of fruit are being borne. apart. hardy. Brown Turkey. coarse sand.—See "Thermopsis. re-potting as soon as these are filled with roots.—Though in some parts of our country Figs are cropped on standards. Stand the pots in a warm. The fruit is borne on the previous year's growth. as a rule they require to be trained on a wall having a southern exposure. It flowers in May. They may be increased by layers.—See "Tigridia. Young plants. sow the spores thinly.—Collect the spore-fronds towards the end of summer. Place them on a sheet of paper in a box for a few days. and when the plants are strong enough set them out 1 ft. Sponge the leaves once a week to free them from dust. Cuttings with uninjured leaves will root in autumn in sand with a bottom-heat of 65 or 75 degrees. the others may be rubbed out with the hand. F. herbaceous plants. and cover with glass.—Sow the seed in April. White Marseilles. high. will grow in any garden soil. Cut off the flower-stalks as soon as they appear. and St John's are all good varieties for open-air cultivation. rubbed through a fine sieve. Tingitana is very stately and graceful. but are best sown within a year. but the knife must be used sparingly. Black Ischia. Ferns.—This hardy perennial will grow in any soil and ripen its seed freely. when planted alternately with. The bed will last for years. 6 in. but taking care not to give too much water to the roots. The soil should be a fairly good loam mixed with old mortar and crushed bones.—See "Aralia. F. In summer any of the artificial manures may be used. Fig Palm. and keep moist till it germinates. by suckers. More heat can be given as the plants advance. changing to a brilliant orange. Old and exhausted wood may be cut away in April. apart. Ferns from Seed. keeping up a moist atmosphere. obtained by sowing the seed early in spring. cover lightly with fine mould. These spores will keep good a long time.—Most Ferns delight in a loose soil. and the surface of the soil kept moist until they are established." Ferula (Giant Fennel). or for growing in houses. 1 ft.—See "Aralia. The branches should be trained to a distance of 10 in. they will flower in April or May. Yellow Ischia. Lobelia a pretty effect is produced.—Strong-growing. (See also "Ferula." Feather Grass. if sown in spring.—An annual ornamental grass.—Elegant half-hardy annuals. They are easily raised from seed. and keep the plant well sheltered from draughts. and apply a coating of charcoal. water freely. The end of March or the beginning of April is the most favourable time for planting. Use the knife upon them as little as possible." Fatsia Japonica. Feverfew. and at night 55 degrees. to prevent them running to seed. The stove and greenhouse kinds are best cultivated in a mixture of sandy loam and peat. When grown under glass. At starting the temperature in the day should be about 60 degrees. or the cuttings may be taken in spring. prick out into pans or boxes. and the fruit-bearing shoots may be pinched back with the thumb and finger at the end of August. stem-rooting the slips.—See "Stipa Pennata. Festuca. and flower in August and September. and sometimes attains the height of 20 ft. Ferraria. which is grown best on a loamy soil. just as the spore-cases begin to open. rich soil. or by cuttings of the young wood placed in sand and plunged in a bottom-heat under glass. Keep the soil moist by standing the pots for a time each day up to their rim in water. No surface water should be given. or in loam and peat. Figs may be trained on trellises near the roof of the house. but no manure is needed. Height. and a warm. or in proximity to. humid atmosphere. Ficus Elastica (India-rubber Plant). Ficaria Grandiflora. keeping it in a dry place. 6 in. When the fruit begins to ripen admit air. using a rich. sandy soil suits them. glistening foliage. using tepid water. Sow the seed on a peat soil. By pinching off the points of the shoots when they have made five or six leaves a second crop of fruit will be obtained. are very useful for edgings. Sow the seed in March. and as soon as it is gathered give liquid manure to the roots . not allowing too much root-room. If this be done in autumn. light place in the greenhouse. Most of the spores will fall out.") Fenzlia. Keep it moderately moist throughout the winter. When they are large enough pot them off singly in thumbpots. light soil." Figs. The hardy kinds grow best among rock-work or in a shady border: a light. but keep them shaded from the sun. Height. they will bloom in autumn.F Fabacea. an abundance of moisture.—A hardy perennial which thrives well when planted under the shade of trees. Gigantea has bright. growing 4 ft. Fill the pots with good heavy loam. Damp the surface. and attains a height of 8 ft or 10 ft. The trees should be firmly set. or may be planted in tubs or pots.—This thrives well in any light. and produces its flowers in May." Fennel. Brunswick.
When growth has begun and the pots are full of roots. but seed sown in spring will generally fruit the same year. Inches Inches SIZES. which is then pegged down 2 or 3 in. frame. Among the best of the Cobs may be mentioned the Great Cob and Merveille de Bollwyller. Forget-me-not. Suspensa thrives best under greenhouse treatment. but keep the pots in the frame. The crop is produced on the small wood. and remove all suckers as they make an appearance. but F.—These Nuts will succeed on any soil that is not cold or wet. When the plants are at rest they need hardly any water." Fragaria Indica (Ornamental Strawberry). remove the covering of ashes. as well as any branches that obstruct light and air. The bulbs should be planted early in the spring in rich. Height. Sizes of.—This ornamental hardy perennial is commonly known as the Burning Bush. and planted. Fraxinella (Dictamnus).—See "Inula" and "Stenactis. Height. It succeeds in any garden soil. In every case the inside measurement is taken. Protect from frost by a covering of mats.—See "Myosotis." Fontanesia Phillyraeoides. Fire Thorn. by which means the harvest is more readily reaped. They are easily cultivated in a cool greenhouse. or window. Make the soil firm about the roots and give a mulching of stable manure. high and produce six or eight tubular flowers on a stem. F. possessing a most agreeable perfume. It may be saved through the winter by protecting the roots. Encourage well-balanced heads to the bushes by cutting back any branch that grows too vigorously. and watering carefully when the soil appears dry. The only way of raising them is from seed.—Hardy perennials bearing white flowers from June to September. the long sprays lasting from two to three weeks in water. 1 ft. and is easily raised from seed. Purple Filberts are good varieties. On a fairly good soil they should stand from 10 to 14 ft.—Any good soil suits these pretty shrubs. Freesia. The best method of propagation is by layers in November or any time before the buds swell in spring. . and are invaluable for cutting. By successional plantings they may be had in bloom from January to May.—See "Tiarella. giving a little ventilation when the weather is mild. The process is simple.—Remarkably pretty and graceful Cape flowers. except they are required for transplanting. It blooms in June. very sandy soil. —Various practices prevail at different potteries. In Kent the bushes are kept low and wide-spreading. the latter in February. Put six to twelve bulbs in a 4-in. and given the protection of a cold frame in the winter. or 8-in pot.—See "Digitalis. The following autumn it may be cut away from its parent." Flower-Pots. Height. place in a sunny position in a cold frame. Height. when the leaves have nearly all fallen. Filberts and Cob Nuts. 3 ft. For early flowering remove the plants to a warm greenhouse when the flower spikes appear. Foxglove. Height. They may be increased by layers or cuttings. It flowers in July. Viridissima is quite hardy. Francoa." Flea Bane. across Top. If the flowers are rubbed they emit a fine odour. it merely requiring a notch to be made in a branch of two or three years' growth. Deep.—This shrub will grow in any soil. It may be propagated by layers or by cuttings planted under glass. They require a slight protection in winter. but the appended names and sizes are generally adopted. They may also be grown from nuts sown in autumn and transplanted when two years old. the former two bearing abundantly. The bushes should be planted in October. 10 ft. pruned. which ripens freely. warm soil.—See "Crataegus. They like a good.—A rich or peaty mould suits this half-hardy perennial. August is its time for flowering." Forsythia. 10 ft. The plants grow about 9 in.every other day to encourage a second crop. 2-1/2 ft. Lambert's Filberts. Thimbles 2 2 Thumbs 2-1/2 2-1/2 Sixties (60's) 3 3-1/2 Fifty-fours (54's) 4 4 Forty-eights (48's) 4-1/2 5 Thirty-twos (32's) 6 6 Twenty-fours (24's) 8-1/2 8 Sixteens (16's) 9-1/2 9 Twelves (12's) 11-1/2 10 Eights (8's) 12 11 Sixes (6's) 13 11 Fours (4's) 15 13 Threes (3's) 17 13 Twos (2's) 18 14 Foam Flower. and cover with damp cinder ashes to keep them fairly moist. The former flowers in March. apart. below the surface. Frizzled Filberts. but needs protection in severe weather. At the beginning of April the old and exhausted wood may be cut away.
but always plenty of liquid manure. Increased by cuttings taken in spring or autumn and placed in a shady border under handglasses. Fumitory. They will also grow well from cuttings taken off the old wood as soon as they are 1 in. or moss. Plant in the open ground in autumn. and the sun can more readily ripen it. one quarter leaf-mould. Fringe Tree. sandy loam. Height. light soil. Fruit Trees.keeping them as near the glass as possible. and do not allow any shoot to cross over or come in contact with another. take the bulbs up as soon as the leaves decay. ashes. —Cut away all growths that have an inward tendency. and flower in the spring. and water and syringe them moderately while they are growing. Cuttings will also strike in loam and leaf-mould. also keep the centres of the trees or bushes open." Funkia. bearing clusters of pendent bell-shaped flowers surrounded with tufts of fresh green leaves. They are not so suitable for pot culture as for outdoor decoration. On the approach of frost cut them down and cover the roots with 3 or 4 in. Keep them in a cool place. When they are in full growth never give them plain water. with large yellow flowers. The fruit of trees thus treated is not so liable to be blown down by the wind. F. deep. Fuchsias. (See also "Ulex. It is of evergreen habit. They are quite hardy. Increased by offsets taken from the old roots every third year. Re-pot them in the spring. yet free from frost. If grown in pots. The hardy sorts do well out of doors in rich.—These like a warm and moist atmosphere.—See "Corydalis. Remove the ashes in April and thin out the shoots in May. or well-drained. rich mould. and one quarter old manure. Plant in autumn. When the buds are developed an occasional application of weak liquid manure will prove beneficial. and making a compost for them of onehalf mellow yellow loam. the Pruning of. inserted in sand and placed under glass. and preserve them in a rather moist place. Furze. 1 1/2 ft.") . or Snake's Head Lilies ). If the ground is poor a dressing of rotted manure worked into the soil will be beneficial to the roots. Any soil is suitable for it. light soil and a warm. and forms a dense and highly ornamental hedge. long.—See "Chionanthus.—Ornamental plants which delight in a deep." Fritillarias (Crown Imperials. moist situation. and bear in early spring elegant pendent flowers of various shades netted and marked with darker colours.—Soil.—A beautiful and somewhat singular wall shrub. They are increased by division (which should not be too severe) and bloom in July and August. and give them very little or no water at all during the winter. Place them in a frame with bottom-heat. of coal dust. or plunged in dung at a temperature of 60 degrees. These are suitable for either the border or pots.—Enjoys a sandy soil. take them indoors before the frosty weather begins. slender growth. without which they will not flower. but a south or west aspect is indispensable. Fremontia Californica. trimming the branches and roots. Meleagris are of dwarf.
and during warm weather turn the plants out of doors. Height. G. Cuttings will strike if placed in sand under glass. Height. to 2 ft.") Galega (Goats Rue). M'Laughlin's Gage (end of August). Garlic. Gentians. Give plenty of light. A light. June.—The Heart-shaped Galax is a charming little plant for rock-work. creeping evergreen shrubs. In the open they may be grown as dwarfs or pyramids. The chief points to observe are to thin the branches in order to admit plenty of light into the middle of the tree.—The cultivation of Gages is similar to that of Plums. Both of the latter kinds do best in a dry. Among the choicest sorts are: Bonne Bouche (producing its fruit at the end of August). Height. and can be increased by division of the root. A rich. Gaillardia (Blanket Flower). or July. requiring plenty of room. Young cuttings inserted in sand under a glass take root readily. Good drainage is essential. Cuttings of the young wood planted in the same soil and plunged in heat will take root. The annuals are raised from seed sown as soon as it is ripe. apart and 6 in.—Greenhouse evergreen shrubs which thrive best in sandy loam and peat. having dark foliage and producing white flowers in May. Height.—Plant small cloves from February to April in rows 9 in. 2 ft. as it only grows to the height of 6 in. Garrya Elliptica. They are readily increased by seed or division of the root. It will grow in any soil. it is an evergreen creeper. It flowers in July.—Dwarf. Gastrolobium." Galax Aphylla (Wand Plant). Procumbens is suitable for rockeries.—Plant in a hothouse in fibrous peat mixed with a large proportion of sand. loamy soil is what it likes. Genethyllis. Galium. Canariense is an exceedingly ornamental and free-flowering greenhouse shrub. and its situation should be a somewhat shady one. The perennials are increased by dividing the roots. In October it bears graceful yellowish-green tassels of flowers from the ends of its shoots. which is very suitable in its early stages for pot-culture. 1 ft. herbaceous plant will thrive in any light. rich soil. peat. Gaura Lindheimeri. 3 ft.—A hardy evergreen shrub. and transplanting at once. It bears elegant spikes of white flowers from May onwards. cordons. It should be planted in a mixture of loam. Gaultheria. and are increased by layers.—This hardy herbaceous plant blooms in July. sandy soil. and flower in July. from each other in the row. Water freely in summer. and in the middle of summer stand the plants out in the open for a week or two for the wood to ripen. Gasteria Verrucosa. Height. and does not lose the old leaves till the new ones appear.—Very ornamental flowers. Coe's Golden Drop (end of September). Lift them when the leaves die down. rich soil. but thrive most in a light. They are increased by seeds or by layers.—The herbaceous kinds do best in a light. thus inducing the production of a plentiful supply of fruit spurs. Oullin's Golden Gage (end of August). They require to be grown in peat. and bears large trumpet-shaped flowers of rich ultramarine . Gardenias. Guthrie's Late Green Gage (September). It blooms in June. Cuttings taken in August and placed in sand under a handglass will strike freely. and to occasionally lift and root-prune the tree if growing too strong. 1 ft. (See also "Shortia. Its flowers are borne in July and August. rich one. Height. Height. such as loam and peat mixed with vegetable mould. cool shed. Give plenty of heat and moisture during growth. Hardy species of Genista may be placed in the front of shrubberies. and grow best in a soil of loamy peat and sand.—A showy greenhouse plant.—G. Lower the temperature as soon as growth is completed. is very suitable for edgings. 2 ft. Grow it in peat and loam. 3 ft.—Elegant evergreen shrubs which flower in April and May. Bloom in July. Genista (Broom). or in pots. if left till spring before it is sown it will probably not come up till the second year. and sand. Cuttings of half-ripened wood planted under glass will take root. Height. and in orchard-houses as gridirons. and store in an airy.G Gages. Seeds of the annual kinds are sown in the spring. with a thin shade to keep off the sun's midday rays. or more high. Gentiana Acaulis.—This free-flowering. followed by red bracts in September. Gazania Splendens. Old Green Gage (August). hardy. to which has been added a little old mortar. Height. or Gentianella. and Reine Claude de Bavay (beginning of October).—Ornamental hardy perennials. Galanthus. but it is most readily increased by layers. light mould is required for its growth. Height.—See "Snowdrops. The perennials are increased by dividing the roots. They are most suitable for adorning the greenhouse. Keep the foliage clean by sponging. —This plant grows best in pots of turfy loam and leaf-mould. 6 ft. or for rock-work. dry them in the sunshine. on stalks 1 ft. shaking it apart. 1 ft. to 4 ft. 4 ft. G. Shallon attains the height of 2 ft. Their flowering season is in August. It may be planted in the open in warm positions. but will require protecting in winter. and keep just moist in winter. It is perennial. 3 ft. which will grow in any common soil. The plant may be increased by taking up a strong clump. and is readily propagated by seeds.
—See "Echinops. Gillenia Trifoliata. watering. —The Three-Leaved Gillenia is a hardy herbaceous perennial which is very useful as a cut flower for the decoration of vases. Sow early in April. They are increased by offsets. Increased by seed in the same manner as other tender annuals. especially in front of dark stones. It lasts in bloom from June to August. plant the old bulbs in pots (three to six bulbs being placed in a 5-in. Height. Height. Height. apart). It will grow in any rich soil. when they may be transferred to the border. and cover it lightly with fine soil. Water occasionally with weak liquid manure. remove them to a cold frame to harden. leaf-mould. They thrive in any light. 6 in.—Dig the ground out to a depth of 1 ft. when sown in early spring it flowers from July to September. and the bloom is continuous during the greater part of the summer.—A pretty little hardy trailing plant bearing flesh-coloured flowers in June and July. thickly set and varying in colour from light pink to dark purple. rich soil. taken when the bulbs are removed from the ground after the leaves have turned yellow. a depth of 3 or 4 in. loamy soil. etc. Height. and some of them moisture at the roots. and re-potted in spring. and let them he to partially dry for twenty-four hours before planting. Gladiolus. 4 in. much attention must be given to shifting. composed of old turf. Height. These should be planted at once in well-drained earth. 1 ft. or 15 in. and plant them out on a warm border towards the end of May. or under a handglass. some well-rotted manure. etc. of earth mixed with sand.—See "Trollius. give liquid manure twice a week. but when sown in the open ground in autumn. Geraniums. In frosty weather cover with a thick layer of litter. and keep them under glass during the winter at a temperature of 55 degrees. If early flowers are required. Globe Flower. moist soil and partial shade. to 2 ft. of sand. brilliant. Height. They may be propagated by cuttings placed under glass.—These hardy perennials form pyramidal bushes bearing Pentstemon-like flowers. Give them frame culture up to the second week in May. in the greenhouse. sandy soil. For pickling they must be cut while small.—The large. Tricolour may be sown in autumn. Give plenty of water when they begin to throw up their flower-stems. Bloom in July." Globularia Trichosantha. but provision must be made for its long tap roots. put in a layer of leaf-mould or rotted manure. Flower in July.—Very handsome hardy perennials. Coccineum is extremely pretty. it blooms from June to August. German Seeds. Height.—These require to be sown in a cold frame in seed-pans. rich compost. In the spring they should be re-potted singly and hardened off as early as possible. cover them with 1 in.—This tender annual is well known for its clover-like heads of everlasting flowers. Cuttings will strike readily either in sand or soil if placed under glass in heat. . They flower in October. 6 in. Globe Amaranthus (Gomphrena).—Take cuttings in July or August..—Extremely pretty and free-flowering hardy annuals. from the surface and 9 in. The greenhouse varieties of Globularia grow best in loam and peat. but to produce really fine plants.—Handsome greenhouse perennials. Gerardia. Height. July is their flowering season. It is hardy. 2 ft. When the fruit begins to form. Gherkins.blue. G. G. Height. 1 ft. The flowers are invaluable for vase decoration." Globe Thistle. and transplant in the middle or end of May in rich soil. is enough. orange-red flowers of this plant are very effective in the border.—Sow the seed the first week in April in small pots. insert the bulbs (6 in. They may also be raised from seed sown in a temperature of 75 degrees in March or April. one of well-decomposed cow-dung. 18 in. and may be increased either by seeds or by dividing the roots. Geum. Gilia. deserving of a place in every garden. one of leaf-mould. They grow well in any light. Geranium Argentium (Silvery Crane's-Bill). and may be propagated by dividing the roots early in spring. and is raised from seed sown in spring. Height. Glaucium Flavum Tricolor (Hardy Horn Poppy ). and is increased by either seeds or cuttings planted in sand. When grown to nice little plants. in good. 3 in. The seeds should be sown thinly and watered sparingly. Bone dust is an excellent addition to the soil. pot) any time between December and March. The roots must be kept dry in winter. and fill up with earth. A suitable soil for them is made by mixing two parts of good turfy loam. It should be grown in large clumps. If the cuttings are taken in September put three or four slips in a 48-size pot. Gesneria. Its seeds germinate freely when sown in peat and sand. If planted late in the season. Flowers are borne from May to July. thrives in light. When rooted pot them off in 60's. 1 ft. The seed is rather slow to germinate. Height. Old plants stripped of their leaves may be packed in sand during the winter. All the Gentians need plenty of free air. delights in a deep. rich. Blooms in July. They should be sown in the open early in spring. They may be planted at any time between December and the end of March. Plunge the pots in a hotbed covered with a frame. but are best grown from seed.—A pretty dwarf perennial rock-plant bearing pale blue flowers in May and June. A rich. and a good proportion of silver sand. to 2 ft. Glaux Maritima (Sea Milkweed). and then 4 or 5 in. A peat soil suits them best. 1 ft. 18 in. They are very suitable for small beds. It grows in sandy loam.—This hardy perennial alpine is very effective on rock-work. Bloom in July. and silver sand. deep loam suits it well.
and shake the bushes vigorously. They may be grown in any light. Plant the shoots firmly 3 in. Height." Gompholobium. By the process of uniting strong-growing trees to those of a weaker nature their exuberance is checked. At the end of the second season cut back all leading shoots to two-thirds of their length. Whatever form of Grafting is adopted. —To prevent caterpillars attacking Gooseberries syringe the bushes with a decoction of common foxglove (Digitalis). Cyclanthera Explodens (Bombshell Gourd). They are of two classes. Lagenaria Leucantha Longissima. Glycine. must be brought into direct contact with the inner layers of the bark of the branch which is grafted. on a north border. The following are among the most ornamental:—Abobra Viridiflora. and Trichosanthes Palmata. deep. Cucurbita Melopepo. Sow in the autumn for early flowering. The position should be somewhat cool and sheltered. Cucumis Dudaim (Balloon Gourd). Trichosanthes Coccinea. Lady Leicester. Lagenaria Leucantha Depressa.—From the middle of October to the end of November is the best time for planting. They are well adapted for arbours.—Very pretty hardy annuals. In summer supply the roots plentifully with water. Cucumis Perennis. as it is called. They are not particular as to soil. and with a sharp knife remove all the buds or eyes from the base to within a couple of inches of the top. Cucumis Dipsaceus (Teasel Gourd). 1 ft. with the addition of a little vegetable soil. The leaves of most of the others. while for preserving and culinary purposes Old Rough Red. 1-1/2 ft. Height. trellis-work. This scion should be a branch of the early growth of the previous year's wood. Cucumis Erinaceus (Hedgehog Gourd). Cucurbita Argyrosperma. Select strong shoots about 1 ft. 1 ft. and are propagated by cuttings planted in sand under glass. 6 in. Coccinea Indica (scarlet fruit). Wilmot's Early Red. Ironsides. that may be grown in any garden soil. Lagenaria Enormis. but give them very little in winter. Goat's Rue. just below a joint. Thumper. to produce good fruit from an inferior plant. 2 ft. and place in a warm (60 degrees). and Yellow Champagne. if taken off close to the stem. Golden Drop. sprinkle some fresh lime below the bushes. the drooping and the erect." Gnaphalium (Edelweiss). Momordica Elaterium. Bryonopsis Erythrocarpa." Gloxinias. Luffa Cylindrica. deep. Height. Luffa Solly Qua. Maculata is increased by division. Lagenaria Poire a Poudre. Cut the bottom end straight across. in rows 1 ft. Lagenaria Plate de Corse." Gooseberries. When grown in bush form ample room must be allowed between each to enable one to get round the bushes to gather the fruit. the inner layers of the bark of the stock or tree on which the operation is performed. and planted. In dry seasons mulching may be resorted to with advantage. Gorse. Momordica Charantia. —Hardy annual foliage plants. Height.—The objects of Grafting are to bring a bush or tree into an earlier state of bearing than it would do naturally. Gomphrena. To produce good crops the soil should be rich. They flower in June. Cucumis Grossularoides (Gooseberry Gourd). will soon make young plants.Glory of the Snow." Gourds. pot off when the plants are sufficiently advanced. They flower in July. Lagenaria Clavata (Club Gourd). and to save space by putting dwarf scions on to rampant-growing trees. and well drained.—See "Globe Amaranthus. Trichosanthes Colubrina. long. apart and 6 in. If the caterpillar has begun its attack. apart in the rows. Scotanthus Tubiflorus. Pot at any time during January and March in a mixture of equal quantities of loam. The pruning may be done either in spring or autumn. and on into September. Trichosanthes Anguina. and should be in the same state of . Conquering Hero. Green Walnut. They bloom in July. Golden Rod.—See "Ulex. G. They flower in June. Eopepon Aurantiacum. Momordica Balsamina. Cucumis Anguinus (Serpent Gourd). so that the insects are dislodged. Broom Girl. July is their ordinary season of coming into flower. and a liberal quantity of liquid manure is beneficial. Grafting. Gooseberry Caterpillar. Favourite. Leader. Benincasa Cerifera (Wax Gourd). Cyclanthera Pedata. White. Mukia Scabrella.—See "Chionodoxa. and are easily raised from seed sown early in spring. peat. but plenty of young wood must always be left on the bushes." Godetia. and Warrington Red for dessert. rich soil. so as to prevent the formation of suckers. The annuals are easily raised from seed. Cuttings are taken in autumn as soon as the leaves begin to fall. The following varieties may be recommended:—Red. British Crown. or.—See "Solidago. Ironmonger. which are covered with a woolly substance. or sloping banks.—Delicate greenhouse evergreen shrubs requiring a soil of sandy loam and peat and but little water. the scion. and weaker ones are improved by being worked on those of a stronger growth. Height. and sand. Eopepon Vitifolius. They may be raised from seed sown from March to July in a hothouse or frame having a temperature of 65 to 75 degrees. or dust the leaves with Hellebore powder. Lagenaria Siphon. as also any that are growing near the ground.—Sow at the end of March or the beginning of April on a slight hotbed. and Moreton Hero may be classed among the leading varieties. Melothria Scabra. or in spring for later blooms. moist temperature. and transplant to the open border in June. The shrubby and herbaceous kinds may be increased by cuttings or division. Golden Feather. In after years remove weak and superfluous branches. to 2 ft. to 1 ft. where they can be favoured with a little shade.—See "Wistaria" and "Apios.—See "Galega. Overhead watering is likely to rot the leaves and flowers.—Hardy everlasting flowers.—A very ornamental family of tuberous-rooted hothouse plants.
Last year's shoots produce other shoots the ensuing summer. and train young shoots in their places. and every facility should be afforded for the production of a chance crop of fruit. in length is made down the bark of the branches. and waxed. One bunch of grapes is enough for a spur to carry. Both the Black Hamburgh and Royal Muscadine ripen as well as any in the open. about 1 in. Theophrastes or Rind Grafting is used where a tree has strong roots but inferior fruit. below the surface of the soil. It is under glass only that Grapes can be brought to perfection.—Pitch and resin four parts each. spreading the roots out equally about 9 in. The union may be completed by the following spring. then make a deep upward slanting cut through the bark at the top 2 or 3 in.—The cultivation of Grapes in the open in our cloudy and changeable climate cannot be looked forward to with any certainty of success. Two successive favourable seasons are indispensable—one to ripen the wood. Approach Grafting is the most favourable method of obtaining choice varieties of the vine. Grafting Wax (Cobbetts). admit more air. leaving two or three eyes above ground. The system of pruning adopted is that known as spur pruning (see "Pruning"). beeswax two parts. A portion of the bark is cut from both scion and stock while the vine is in active growth. deep. It should be given a south aspect. The vine may be increased by layers at the end of September. Professional gardeners cast off the weight of the bunches. in length. and the next to ripen the fruit. Grafting of all kinds is best done in March. or of growing weak sorts on roots of a stronger growth. its growth may be stopped by cutting it off and burying it in the earth under a north wall until the stock has advanced sufficiently in growth. The soil most suited to the growth of the vine is a medium loam. and a drier atmosphere is necessary. The scion is generally grown in a pot. and the tongues of the scions are slipped in. Next cut the scion in a similar manner so that it will fit exactly into the incision of the stock. Bind it firmly in position. and allow 1 ft. and an angular piece is cut away in which the scion is inserted. from the main stem. and moss (kept constantly wet) is bound round the parts. with 1 in. extending to the inner bark. of the last year's growth. When the scion and the stock are united. and produces very sweet berries. Here a night temperature of 55 to 65 degrees. . After gathering the grapes syringe the vine frequently to clear it from spiders or dust. otherwise the fruit will shrivel. which is demonstrated by the former making growth. and bury it 4 or 5 in. A T-shaped cut is made in the stem of the tree. If the scion is in a more advanced state than the stock. Tie or nail the bunches to the trellis or wall. and in the middle of the cut turn the knife downwards and cut out a thin wedge-shaped socket. and the lower parts of the scion. cut out some of the old rods each year as soon as the leaves fall. Mrs. and cover it over. taken the latter end of February. of manure. It is then bound and waxed over. with grafting wax or clay. in length. of rod to each pound of fruit. Side Grafting is useful where it is desired to replenish the tree with a fresh branch. Nevertheless. Plant these deep in the ground. of the rod attached. The branches are cut off about 1-1/2 or 2 ft. Natural— AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA (Creeping Bent Grass). It may be rolled into balls and stored in a dry place. the Frontignan Grizzly Black and White are also delicious. of old wood attached. and these are the fruit-bearers. Grapes. Many methods of Grafting are adopted. the bark of the branches is lifted with a knife. As the grapes ripen. etc. To secure a continuance of fruit. In the French mode of Grafting known as the Bertemboise. the following being the principal:— Whip or Tongue Grafting is suitable for almost any description of trees. the highly ornamental foliage of the vine entitles it to a place on our walls. and keep the house cool to induce rest to the plant. remove the wax and cut away all shoots that may be produced on the stock. having been cut into tongues resembling the mouth-piece of a flageolet. and use when just warm. Melt and mix the ingredients. Cut a notch at a bud.—Useful for damp meadows. unless the clay is well kneaded and mixed with wood ashes or dry horse droppings. at the top being left square. from the top of the stock to the bottom of the scion. and remove all branches or leaves that intercept light and air. ALOPECURUS PRATENSIS (Meadow Foxtail). should be maintained. and the vine syringed frequently until it comes into bloom. when the sap is flowing freely. the crown of the stock is cut at a long level. syringe the vine with a mixture of soapsuds and sulphur. Saw the stock off level at any desired height. the walls and paths damped once or twice a day.—Strong-growing and very nutritious. tallow one part. the scion is prepared by a longitudinal sloping cut of the same length as that in the stem. Pearson is a very fine variety. leaving one eye only above the surface. selected from a superior tree. into which it is inserted. April is the best time to plant it. and mulching with 3 or 4 in. and be liberally supplied with water in dry seasons. but it is safer to leave the cutting down of the stock to the point of union and the separation of the scion from the potted plant until the second spring. Grasses. bringing the bark of each into direct contact. about 1 ft. so that they fit exactly. and inserting the cuttings in bottles of water in which a piece of charcoal is placed: the bottles to be placed in racks nailed on to an upright post in any room or cellar where an equable temperature of 45 or 50 degrees can be kept up. with which is incorporated a quantity of crushed chalk and half-inch bones. Clay bands are frequently employed for excluding the air from wounds caused in the process of grafting. The fruit may be preserved for a long while in a good condition by cutting it with about 1 ft. the moisture being reduced by degrees. with a rise of 5 or 10 degrees in the day. It may also be propagated by cuttings. and the two are bound together and treated like other grafts.vegetation as the stock. bound. and reduce the heat. when syringing must cease. and the two wounded parts brought into contact. A sharp cut 2 or 3 in. These are liable to crack. They are then tied together. Should mildew set in.
—Fine for mixing in a green state with cut flowers. —Fumigate the infected plants with tobacco.—This unquestionably is the grandest of all grasses.—Dwarf-growing. and loam. To have them in perfection gather them while quite fresh. Eragrostis.—Good permanent grass for rich. or they may be grown in vases of water. Griselinia Littoralis. Height.—Hardy and gives fragrance to hay. moist soil. with the pollen on them. sandy soils. but prefer a chalky one. POA PRATENSIS (Smooth-stalked Meadow Grass). and apply a compost of horse-dung. excellent for sheep. and Stipa Pennata. Anthoxanthum. 4 to 5 ft. Avena. Gumming of Trees.—Good for poor soils. moist soil. but the following (which may be found described herein under alphabetical classification) may be mentioned:— For bouquets and edgings: Agrostis. They will grow in any soil. Planted in a rich. Plants may be raised from seed sown thinly in pots during February or March. Panicum. and bears division. Grasses. FESTUCA OVINA TENUIFOLIA (Slender Fescue). or in a dried condition for the decoration of vases. light-coloured evergreen shrub. FESTUCA DURIUSCULA (Hard Fescue). FESTUCA PRATENSIS (Meadow Fescue). Grevilleas will grow well in windows facing south.—Fine for dry. FESTUCA OVINA (Sheep's Fescue). The Grasses may be divided into two sections. nutritious and hardy. under a glass. Plant the bulbs deeply in a warm. Gynerium. Keep the beds dry in winter. clay. Coix Lachryma. Festuca. arrange lightly in vases. and may be increased by cuttings. but G. CYNOSURUS CRISTATUS (Crested Dogstail). Gypsophila. on petioles 3 to 6 ft. The class is numerous. which will thrive near the sea. 6 ft. and those grown in the border or on lawns for specimen plants. Grevillea. shady position. where it will flower in August. Gunnera Manicata (Chilian Rhubarb). strong. Briza. They also make good indoor plants.—Suitable for any soil. Young plants may also be obtained from seed. or the plants may be washed with tobacco water by means of a soft brush. as they afford protection to the plant. For specimen plants: Eulalia.—Soil.—Strong and coarse-growing. Plant out at end of May. well drained. FESTUCA ELATIOR (Tall Fescue). Height. The old leaves should be allowed to remain on till the new ones appear.. and tar. Lagurus.—Fine for damp soil.—Suitable for strong soils. and Zea. Give plenty of water in summer. A rich. cattle are fond of it. sheltered position. Gynerium (Pampas Grass). rich loam with sand. Robusta attains a great height.—Handsome greenhouse shrubs. Gratiola Officinalis. a moderate amount at other seasons. PHLEUM PRATENSE (Timothy. and protect the roots from frost. viz. It is propagated by dividing the roots. with plenty of room and a good supply of water. DACTYLIS GLOMERATA (Cocksfoot). wash the place thoroughly with clear water.—Of value for table bouquets.. etc.—Suitable for mountain pastures." Guernsey Lily (Nerine Sarniense). winter bouquets.—See "Viburnum. AVENA FLAVESCENS (Yellow Oat Grass). alluvial soil. It is. and keep them in the dark till they are dried and the stems become stiff.—This hardy plant bears large leaves on stout foot-stalks. Green Fly. and also in water-meadows. potted in moss or cocoa-nut fibre in September.—Has gigantic leaves. and is sufficiently hardy to endure most of our winters. POA NEMORALIS (Wood Meadow Grass). however. barely covering it with very fine soil. Makes a fine addition to a sub-tropical garden. It prefers a moist.—Useful for cold. it will flower in August. Guelder Rose. It requires a light. 6 ft. Height. which require a mould composed of equal parts of peat. and keeping the surface damp. grows freely on light soils. Ornamental. Cut with as long stems as possible. Gunnera Scabra. Ripened cuttings may be rooted in sand. in length. They will flower when three or four years old.—A dwarf-growing. dry soil. and is very ornamental in the backs of borders. etc. or Catstail). 7 ft. Phalaris. Height. in diameter.—This hardy herbaceous plant bears light blue flowers in July.—Grows well on light. moist soil is its delight. and afterwards syringe them with clear water. rich. dry soil. sand. It requires a deep. POA TRIVIALIS (Rough-stalked Meadow Grass).ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM (True Sweet Vernal). It may be increased by division of the root. It can be propagated by division. —Scrape the gum off. Their common height is from 3 to 4 ft. They bloom in June.—Fine for sheep. desirable to give it some protection. The herbaceous kinds are . and let them remain undisturbed year by year. etc. strong soils. Hordeum Jubatum. those for bouquets or edgings. 1 ft.
increased by cuttings; the annuals are sown in the open either in autumn or spring. They bloom during July and August. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.
Habrothamnus.—These beautiful evergreen shrubs require greenhouse culture, and to be grown in sandy loam and leaf-mould. The majority of them flower in spring. Height, 4 ft. to 6 ft. Halesia Tetraptera (Snowdrop Tree ).—This elegant shrub will grow in any soil, and may be propagated by cuttings of the roots or by layers. The pendent white flowers are produced close to the branches in June. Height, 8 ft. Hamamelis (Witch Hazel).—An ornamental shrub which will grow in ordinary soil, but thrives best in a sandy one. It is increased by layers. May is its season for flowering. Height, 12 ft. to 15 ft. H. Arborea is a curious small tree, producing brownish-yellow flowers in mid-winter. Harpalium Rigidum.—A hardy perennial, producing very fine yellow flowers in the autumn. It will grow in any good garden soil, and may be propagated by seed sown in early autumn, or by division of the roots. Height, 3 ft. Hawkweed.—See "Crepis" and "Hieracium." Heartsease.—See "Pansies." Heaths, Greenhouse.—For their successful growth Heaths require a well-drained soil, composed of three parts finely pulverised peat and one part silver sand, free ventilation, and a careful supply of water, so that the soil is always damp. If they suffer a check they are hard to bring round, especially the hard-wooded kinds. Some of the soft-wooded Heaths, such as the H. Hyemalis, are easier of management. After they have flowered they may be cut hard back, re-potted, and supplied with liquid manure. The stout shoots thus obtained will bloom the following season. (See also "Ericas.") Hedera.—See "Ivy." Hedychium Gardnerianum.—A hothouse herbaceous plant, delighting in a rich, light soil, plenty of room in the pots for the roots, and a good amount of sunshine. In the spring a top-dressing of rich manure and soot should be given. From the time the leaves begin to expand, and all through its growing stage, it needs plenty water, and an occasional application of liquid manure. The foliage should not be cut off when it dies, but allowed to remain on all the winter. While the plant is dormant keep it rather dry and quite free from frost. It may be increased by dividing the roots, but it blooms best when undisturbed. July is its flowering month. Height, 6 ft. Hedysarum.—Hardy perennials, requiring a light, rich soil, or loam and peat. They may be raised from seed, or increased by dividing the roots in spring. H. Multijugum bears rich purple flowers. Height, 6 in. to 3 ft. Heleniums.—The Pumilum is a very pretty hardy perennial that may be grown in any soil, and increased by dividing the roots. It produces its golden flowers in August. Height, 1-1/2 ft. H. Autumnale is also easy to grow, but flowers a month later than the Pumilum, and attains a height of 3 ft. H. Bigelowi is the best of the late autumn-flowering species, producing an abundance of rich yellow flowers with purple discs. Flowers in August. Height, 3-1/2 ft. Helianthemum Alpinum (Rock Roses).—These hardy perennials are best grown in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings placed under glass in a sheltered situation. Bloom in June or July. Height, 1 ft. Helianthus (Sunflowers).—The tall variety is a very stately plant, suitable for the background or a corner of the border. Wellgrown flowers have measured 16 in. in diameter. The miniature kinds make fine vase ornaments. They grow in any garden soil, and are easily increased by seed raised on a hotbed in spring and afterwards transplanted. The perennials may be propagated by division of the root. They produce their flowers in August. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft. Helichrysum.—Fine everlasting hardy annuals, that grow best in a mixture of three parts peat and one part sandy loam. May be readily raised from seed sown in a cold frame in March, or cuttings taken off at a joint will strike in peat and sand. Bloom during July and August. For winter decoration the flowers should be gathered in a young state, as they continue to develop after being gathered. Height, 1 ft. to 6 ft, but most of them are 2 ft. high. Heliophila.—Pretty little hardy annuals, thriving best in sandy loam and peat. Sow the seed early in spring in pots placed in a gentle hotbed, and plant out in May. They flower in June. Height, 9 in. Heliopsis.—This hardy perennial is useful for cutting purposes, the flowers being borne on long stalks, and lasting for two or three weeks in water. It is not particular as to soil, and may be increased by dividing the roots. Height, 5 ft. Heliotrope.—Commonly called Cherry Pie. Sow the seed early in spring in light, rich soil in a little heat, and plant out in May. The best plants, however, are obtained from cuttings taken off when young, in the same way as Verbenas and bedding Calceolarias. They are very sensitive to frost. Flower in June. Height, 1 ft.
Helipterium.—A half-hardy annual, bearing everlasting flowers. It should receive the same treatment as Helichrysum. Blooms in May or June. Height, 2 ft. Helleborus (Christmas Rose).—As its name implies, the Hellebore flowers about Christmas, and that without any protection whatever. The foliage is evergreen, and of a dark colour. When the plant is once established it produces flowers in great abundance. The plants of the white-flowered variety should be protected with a hand-light when the flower-buds appear, in order to preserve the blossoms pure and clean. Any deeply-dug rich garden soil suits it, and it is most at home under the shade of a tree. It prefers a sheltered situation, and during the summer months a mulching of litter and an occasional watering will be beneficial. Readily increased by division in spring or seed. Height, 1 ft. Helonias Bullata.—A pretty herbaceous plant, bearing dense racemes of purple-rose flowers from June to August. It grows best in peat, in a moist position. It can be raised from seed or increased by division of the roots. Height 1-1/2 ft. Hemerocallis (Day Lily).—Old-fashioned plants of great merit. Planted in large clumps they produce a grand effect. They are easily grown in any common garden soil, and bloom in July. Height, 3 ft. H. Kwanso has handsome, variegated foliage. Hemp.—See "Canna" and "Cannabis." Hepatica.—This enjoys a rather light, sandy soil and a shady situation. The roots should be taken up and divided every second year. Well adapted for surrounding beds or clumps of Rhododendrons. Flowers in March. Height, 4 in. Heracleum.—Coarse hardy biennials, that may be grown in any kind of soil, and are readily raised from seed. They flower at midsummer. Height, 2 ft. to 4 ft. Herbs.—Thyme, Marjoram, Chervil, Basil, Burnet, Hyssop, Savory, etc., should be sown early in spring, in dry, mild weather, in narrow drills about 1/2 in. deep and 8 or 9 in. apart, covered evenly with soil, and transplanted when strong enough. Mint is quickly increased by separating the roots in spring, and covering them with 1 in. of earth. Sage is propagated by slips of the young shoots taken either in spring or autumn. If planted in light soil and in a sunny position it produces very fragrant flowers. Chives should be planted 6 or 8 in. apart: they are increased by division in spring. Penny Royal, like mint generally, will grow from very small pieces of the root; it needs to be frequently transplanted, and to be kept from a damp condition. Rosemary will grow from cuttings planted under glass in a shady spot. Thyme likes a light, rich soil, and bears division. Sorrel will grow in any soil, and the roots should be divided every two or three years. Chamomile roots are divided and subdivided in spring. Herbs should be harvested on a fine day, just before they are in full bloom. Tie them up in small bunches and hang in the shade to dry, then wrap in paper and store in airtight vessels, or rub the leaves to a powder and keep in tightly-corked bottles. They will retain their strength for a long time. Herbs, the Uses of Sweet and Pot.— ANGELICA.—A biennial. Leaves and stalks are eaten raw or boiled; the seeds are aromatic, and used to flavour spirits. ANISE.—Leaves used for garnishing, and for seasoning, like fennel; the seeds are medicinal. BALM.—A hardy perennial. Makes a useful tea and wine for fevers. BASIL, Sweet and Bush.—Half-hardy annuals. The leaves and tops of the shoots, on account of their clove-like flavour, are used for seasoning soups and introduced into salads. BORAGE.—Hardy annual. Used for salads and garnishing, and as an ingredient in cool drinks; excellent also for bees. CHAMOMILE.—A hardy perennial. Flowers used medicinally. CARAWAY.—A biennial. Leaves used in soups, and the seeds in confectionery and medicine. CHERVIL.—An annual. Useful for salads. CHIVES.—Hardy perennial. The young tops used to flavour soups, etc. CORIANDER.—A hardy annual. Cultivated for garnishing. DILL.—A hardy perennial. Leaves used in soups and sauces, also in pickles. FENNEL.—Hardy perennial. Used in salads and in fish sauce, also for garnishing dishes. HOREHOUND.—Hardy perennial. Leaves and young shoots used for making a beverage for coughs. HYSSOP.—Hardy evergreen shrub. Leaves and young shoots used for making tea; also as a pot herb. LAVENDER.—Hardy perennial. Cultivated for its flowers, for the distillation of lavender water, for flavouring sauces, and for medicinal purposes. MARIGOLD, Pot.—Hardy annual. Flowers used in soups. MARJORAM, Sweet or Knotted, and Pot.—Hardy annuals. Aromatic and sweet flavour. Used for stuffings and as a pot herb;
useful for poultry with croup. Winter. For flavouring vinegar. also used in salads. and pleasant. and is used for medical purposes. SAVORY. SKIRRET. Beneficial to horses and poultry.—Hardy ornamental shrub.—Hardy perennial. Decoction of leaves drank as tea. SCURVY GRASS. Young leaves and tops used for stuffing. SAVORY.—Hardy perennial. white. Its aromatic flavour makes it valuable as a pot herb. RUE. they have a nutty flavour. also in soups and sauces. Sprigs used for garnishing and the leaves in drink. Roots used as a radish. THYME.—Hardy evergreen shrub. TARRAGON.—Hardy evergreen shrub.leaves dried for winter use. the tubers are boiled and served up with butter. .—Hardy perennial.—Hardy perennial. and pickles. Imparts an acid flavour to salads and soups. meats. and sauces. Used for flavouring soups and salads. WORMWOOD. RAMPION. Sweet. soups. used also for stuffing.—The small leaves are eaten as watercress.—Hardy perennial.—Hardy perennial.—Hardy annual. SAGE. ROSEMARY. Broad-Leaved. Leaves used for medicinal drinks. SORREL. Summer. Broad-Leaved.—A hardy shrub.
—A handsome hardy annual Mallow. Height. Height. and cover with cocoanut fibre until the growth appears. suitable for a sunny bank or border.—These dwarf carpeting plants are of easy culture. provided the position is dry. crush them.—A free-growing hardy perennial. which will grow in common soil. to 2 ft. gritty sand. Cut the shoots through just under the lower joint. and sprinkle them every day in fine weather with water. and may be increased by putting down layers in the autumn. Water moderately. Grows best in a mixture of loam and peat. and plant out in May 10 in. and takes at least four years to grow into a good bush. The bulbs are not quite hardy. Hippophae. and transplant them to the border in the autumn for flowering the following May. Big bushes are best moved at the end of August. deciduous. (See also "Humulus Japonicus. or cuttings planted under glass. to 3 ft. Height. suitable for almost any situation. From June to September it produces orange-brown flowers. Height. 1-1/2 in. well-drained soil. setting them 6 in. Height. Select side branches having two or three joints and leaves. and bloom in May. when they may be planted out. Hibbertia Dentata. Each joint having an eye will furnish a plant. C.—Very neat. and increase by dividing the roots. Flowers in August. Homogyne Alpina. to 6 in. 1 ft. gather the berries when ripe. 6 ft. Height. but the plant is of very slow growth. and the same distance apart. Rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn) flowers in May." Hippocrepis. therefore they should be removed indoors before frosts appear. deep. thriving in ordinary soil. requiring a greenhouse for its cultivation and a soil of sandy loam and peat.—An evergreen twining plant. of dry earth.—This pleasing hardy evergreen shrub thrives best on a deep.—A very pretty species resembling miniature barley. 3 in. Any soil is suitable for them. layers. The less pruning they receive the better. Hollyhock. Height. Sow the seed any time from April to June. free-flowering kinds. of the old wood attached will strike root. and increased by layers or cuttings of the roots. loamy soil. Sow seed in March. and when the flowers fade abstain from supplying moisture. cut it also about 2 in. and may be propagated by seeds. light." Holly (Ilex). and cover it with 1 in. If the cuttings are taken in autumn pot them off in 60-sized pots. Caprifolium Brachypoda and the evergreen C.—See "Rocket. and the roots bear division. from October to January. In the autumn plant them where they are to bloom. Height. For pot culture put four or five bulbs in a 5-in. and water plentifully until settled. Aurea-reticulata has beautifully variegated leaves. but not showy. —Hardy herbaceous plants flowering in April. Grow from seed in spring and transplant into sandy soil.—Interesting hardy biennials. are increased by dividing the root. Blooms in June. They will grow in any light.—See "Stauntonia Latifolia. and mix them up with a little sandy loam. but will grow in any good soil. Plant in rich. Cuttings of young shoots having 1 in. Sow the seed about the second week of March in very rich soil. covered from May to July with golden Pea-shaped flowers. leaving the leaf entire. or from the old plants in autumn. Hesperis. to 8 ft. Cuttings may be taken as soon as the flowers appear. Plant in equal parts of loam. Hippeastrums. They may be trimmed in spring. 6 ft. sandy loam. mixed with ornamental grass. apart. It grows freely from seed. above the joint. 6 ft.—These rapid twiners thrive in any loamy soil. It succeeds well in the shade. after the leaves begin to fall. place in a cold frame. and keep them in a cold frame till the spring. 1-1/2 ft. warm situation. Honesty (Lunaria). It is not particular as to soil.—See "Amaryllis.—Ornamental shrubs. and cover with litter. etc. Hieracium (Hawkweed).—May be raised from seed or cuttings.Herniaria Glabra. Hibiscus Africanus. Hibiscus Syriacus (Rose of Sharon). which render it very ornamental.—Very pretty hardy trailing perennials. Dig them up and sow them in March. 6 ft. autumn-flowering shrub. Height. 12 ft.") Hordeum Jubatum (Squirrel-tail Grass) . Hop. Height. H. which root readily under glass. and protect them from heavy rains with a good layer of leaves. sandy soil. They may be grown in any ordinary light garden soil. Honeysuckles. Homerias. the shining seed-pods make a handsome addition to winter bouquets. pot.—A useful hardy climber for covering verandahs. 6 in. Choice varieties may be grafted or budded on to the common sorts in June or July. and leaf-mould. deep. Sow in March in slight heat. When dried." Heuchera. Sempervirens are handsome. and is increased by cuttings taken in spring or summer and kept under glass. It flowers in July. In June (having soaked the bed thoroughly overnight) remove the young plants to a nursery-bed. covering it . and they may be increased by division. shelter from the sun. in rich. Press the earth firmly round the roots. 1-1/2 ft. Height. hardy American perennials. sheltered spot. 2 ft. For outdoor cultivation plant the bulbs in a dry. They can also be propagated by cuttings taken in the autumn and planted in a shady. apart. bury them in a hole 3 ft. 3 in. mixing the earth to a puddle before planting.—A hardy. Any common soil suits them. summer-houses. and may be increased by cuttings. To grow Holly from seed. Holboellia Latifolia. Height.—Beautiful little South African plants.
They bloom continuously from April to July. and keep the surface of the soil moist till the grass appears. verandahs. watering it if it is dry. the leaves of which are splashed with white. Hotbeds. and it may be increased by cuttings planted in sand under a handglass. then potted off and kept in the greenhouse till the second year. or 6-in. Plant from September to December. putting more in at intervals of two or three weeks until the end of December. dark place for three or four weeks until the roots have made considerable progress. and finally removed to the conservatory or sunny window.—See "Sempervivum.—A hardy annual Hop of rapid growth. Shake the compost well up. 3 in. Those with single blossoms are preferable. The best way to increase it is by slips taken from the roots. or more each way than the size of the frame.—Take dead leaves and stable-straw. The plants may then be taken out. Place the pots on a bed of ashes in a cold frame. which is evergreen and elegant when in flower in June. The top of the bulb should be just above the surface. and a moist but well-drained situation is what they delight in. its glistening white flowers being produced at all seasons. planted between large stones.—See "Glaucium. Though the varieties are very dissimilar in appearance. and placed in pots on terraces or the lawn it is very effective. Then mark out the bed. Hyacinths. taking care that the temperature is not below that which is poured away. Height. Stand the glasses in a cool. Turn it over four or five times during a fortnight. and gradually hardened off. If intended to be grown in pots the best time to begin potting is early in September. Fill the glasses with pure pond or rain water." Houstonia Coerulea. Hyacinthus (Muscari ). or in beds and borders. high. 3 ft. pot. gradually exposed to the light. variety is also sweet-scented. Hovea Celsi. the leaves of which when slightly bruised yield a strong odour. loamy soil suits it best.—(Japanese Hop). When planted in beds or borders. place the bulbs about 4 in. 6 ft. Increased by seed sown in gentle heat in February. It grows in moist vegetable mould. A sandy loam and peat soil is most suitable. 1-1/2 ft.—A very hardy race of spring-flowering bulbs. and not hang over the sides. Care. but in this position they need protection from severe frosts.—A remarkably handsome and graceful plant. and cover the whole with cocoanut fibre or cinder-ashes to the depth of about 4 in. or three may be placed in an 8-in.—Very pretty and hardy. 1-1/2 ft. Height. It may be propagated either by seed or division. etc. then gradually inure to the full light. they all produce a good effect. Place the frame on the bed. Height. When planted in pots and placed in a cold frame they show to most advantage. The seed should be raised on a gentle hotbed. It generally succeeds better in such a position than in the greenhouse." Horseradish. Horn Poppy. In about a month roots will have formed with about 1 in. or on any light ground through which the roots can make their way readily. but needs protection in winter. The mats used for covering the frames in frosty weather should be made to fit the top. Keep a thermometer in the frame. A mixture of leaf-mould and sand. The soil should be rich and light. Height. add another lining to the back and other side. and bears transplanting at any season. It is equally suitable for the centre of beds or large borders. to 8 ft. 2 in. They succeed fairly well in any good garden soil. Flowers in July.—This small alpine creeper is a profuse bloomer. Height. and when this again declines. The soil under the bulb should not be pressed down. and put a piece of charcoal in each glass. putting a little silver sand below each one. Hutchinsia Alpina. This may be done at any time from October till frost sets in. Height. Humea.—These hardy little evergreens are more generally known as Bluets. September is a good time to start the growth. to Make. in glasses. Humulus Japonicus. It requires little or no attention beyond pinching out the tops when running to seed and keeping the ground hoed. with the dung. or white. and change the water when it becomes offensive. bearing fine spikes of deep. leaving the lights off for four or five days to allow the rank steam to escape.—A greenhouse shrub.—This hardy perennial produces erect white flowers with blue corolla in June or July. but give greatest satisfaction when the ground is rich and light. and so on from time to time as occasion requires. . Horminum Pyrenaicum. in the proportion of two double loads for a three-light frame. when it may be turned out into a warm situation. It will grow in any ordinary soil. allowing 1 ft. A sandy soil suits them best. is required to prevent its roots over-running and choking other things. rich soil. One bulb is sufficient for a 5-in. The doubles do best in pots. The following are well-known varieties:—BOTRYOIDES (Grape Hyacinth). Flowers in July. of top growth.very lightly. rich blue flowers in compact clusters on a stem 6 to 9 in.—Plant in October or February in deep. or it may be grown on a heap of cinder-ashes. deep and 6 in. They make charming ornaments for rock-work. Height. so that the bulbs just escape touching it. and afterwards beat it down equally with the fork. apart. and blooms about May. put a small inverted pot over the top of the bulb. especially when planted in good large clumps. A deep. Useful for covering arbours. and as soon as the temperature falls below 70 degrees apply a lining of fresh dung to the front and one side of the bed. pot. For growing in glasses select the firmest and best-shaped bulbs. however.—May be grown in pots. Good loam mixed with old manure and a little leaf-mould and sand suits them very well. as they are of stronger constitution than the doubles. Sweet-scented. The Alba. 20 ft. Houseleek. as it is apt to be injured by damp.
MOSCHATUS (Musk Hyacinth). Height. . The greenhouse varieties thrive best in a mixture of loam and peat. to 2 ft.—Pretty little hardy annuals that may be easily raised from seed sown early in March in any garden soil.—Ornamental evergreen shrubs. 6 ft.—A fine. The old stems will also strike if planted in a sheltered situation. dwarf plant suitable for any soil. 1-1/2 ft. Thrives in any position and equally suitable for indoor or outdoor decoration. July is their flowering season. They bloom in June. 2 or 3 in. Height.—Bears very fragrant purplish flowers. 5 to 6 in. gracefully surmounted with from twenty to fifty pendent. CANDICANS (Galtonia). bell-shaped snow-white flowers. in length.Hyacinthus—continued. in sandy soil. PLVMOSUM (Feather Hyacinth). sheltered position and rich soil. Hypericum (St. resemble much-branched slender coral. 1 ft. long.—This shrub delights in a moist. Hymenanthera Crassifolia. thriving best in a compost of loam and peat. Height. to 4 ft. 3 ft. Its massive sprays of fine blue flowers. arranged in curious clusters. or they may be cut down to the root and covered with manure. Hymenoxys.—Favourite dwarf shrubs. in height. Very free-flowering and fine for massing. It is similar to the Cape Hyacinth. and also make fine plants for pot cultivation. but they prefer shade and moisture. under glass. They are well suited for the front of shrubberies. They are increased by cuttings planted in sand and subjected to a little heat. RACEMOSUM (Starch Hyacinth ). Height. The flowers are produced in June and July. hardy.—The white Cape Hyacinth. or Spire Lily. Young cuttings placed in sand under glass will strike. but flowers in denser spikes. summer-flowering. Any soil suits the hardy kinds. and protected from frost. bulbous plant 3 ft. It may be increased at any time from cuttings of the young side-shoots.—Rich dark-blue or reddish-purple flowers. The plants should be cut back when they have done flowering. These may be increased by seed or division. A hardy. Hydrangea. John's Wort).
ensuring good drainage. add it to the chips. table decoration. Incarvilleas may be propagated by seed sown. 1½ ft. The Ipomoea Horsfalliae. Success is mainly secured by allowing plenty of root-room. and can be increased by seeds. Ipomoea. still give the least possible amount of water. or later on in a shady spot in the open border. which may be carefully removed at the end of April. the soft rose-pink. Insects on Plants. Ipomopsis. and the young plants set out in the border of the house in May in light. bearing large and magnificent flowers ranging in colour from white to deep purple. Delavayi makes a fine solitary or lawn plant.—The Iris is the orchid of the flower garden." India-rubber Plants. and will grow in any soil if not too dry and exposed. giving the young plants protection in a frame during the first winter. Iresines. and come up year after year with but little attention.—To destroy insects on plants wash the plant with Tobacco-Water ( which see). Inula Royleana (Fleabane). then remove them to a light. During this period be careful not to over-water them. and lasts a long time in water. It thrives in almost any soil. has a lovely appearance. with enough water merely to keep them moist. damp soil. and place it in a cold frame. but difficult to cultivate.—See "Mesembryanthemum. or for the pillars or rafters of the stovehouse. The English Iris blooms in June and July. It soon increases if left undisturbed. Height.—A hardy perennial which flowers in November. Use it two or three times during spring and early summer. or by division of the roots. The tuberous roots may be planted at any time in autumn. When they have taken root place them near the glass. I. 11/2 ft. giving it very little water. which are carried on stout stems well above the foliage. appearing in June and July. 4 in. The Leopard Iris (Pardanthus Chinensis )is very showy. and taking great care not to injure the roots. is more suitable. 2 ft." Ilex. Replace them in the frame for a week or so. and leaf-mould. When the leaves appear. Height. and flowers in July or August.—See "Holly. Iris. its orange-yellow flowers." Indigofera. some being self-colours.. Some gardeners steep the seed in hot water before sowing it. and place in a uniform temperature of 60 or 70 degrees." Ice Plants. I. its blossoms are the most rich and varied in colour of hardy plants. It will grow in any garden soil. greenhouse culture.—Half-hardy perennials. long.—See "Canna. I. and greenhouse culture. of easy culture. for vases.—These hardy annuals grow freely in any rich. are smaller. however. They make a good contrast to Canariensis. The perennial kinds are increased from cuttings taken from the small side-shoots placed in sand in a brisk bottom-heat. spotted purple-brown. fern-like foliage and racemes of pink or purple Pea-shaped flowers in April.—See "Ficus." Indian Shot. Height.—See "Candytuft. Decora Alba bears its white flowers in July." Impatiens Sultani. They require a sandy loam or peat soil. and it is advisable to cover the roots in winter with a pyramid of ashes. while others are prettily marbled. pour on some boiling water. Height. Height. and make it up to I gallon. 1/8 ft. its leaves being from 1 to 3 ft. in light. 3 ft. deep. Height. and the combinations of colours very different. of quassia chips in a muslin bag. though a sandy one suits it best. 2 ft. Australis has elegant. If plenty of light and air be given. They are quite . Or put 1 oz. pots in equal parts of sandy peat and loam. to 10 ft. The German Iris is especially suitable for town gardens. it is exceedingly useful.—Ornamental hardy herbaceous plants. airy part of the greenhouse for the winter. The seed is generally sown in April on a hotbed or under glass. The Spanish Iris blooms a fortnight before the English. This is propagated by layers. They bloom in August. Height. well-drained soil. using the same kind of soil as before. but must be treated as a stove evergreen. or by grafting on some stronggrowing kind. as it is very free-flowering. insert them thinly in 48-size pots filled with coarse sand.—Beautiful evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of the young wood planted in sand under glass will strike. In spring shift them into well-drained 4-1/2-in. 2½ ft.—These beautiful climbing plants are very suitable for covering trellis-work. with its bright scarlet flowers. Incarvilleas. Height. Mimulus-shaped flowers. 6 ft. appearing in May. Care should be taken not to disturb it in spring. however. as soon as it is ripe. Ionopsidium. Its flowers. and stir well. pots. If grown in the open they often shed their seed.—Take cuttings of these greenhouse plants in autumn. and is strikingly effective when planted in clumps. but the best way seems to be to sow it in July in 3-in. For cutting. May be raised from seed sown early in spring on a hotbed.—A very beautiful half-hardy biennial. they will flower in July or August. They are suitable for the border or the rockery. loam.I Iberis. a shady position is indispensable. Indian Corn. etc. of soft soap. It thrives in loam and peat mixed with a little dung. rich soil. thin out the plants to three or four in each pot. dissolve 1 oz.—See "Zea.
placing them near the glass. rich.hardy. Plunge the pot in ashes in a frame or cold pit. 1 ft. blotched with yellow. or may be propagated by division of the roots in autumn. sheltered position.—Plant out of doors from September to December. yet open. blotched with yellow. and plant them out when well rooted. to 1-1/2 ft. and in a moist. Irish Gold-Blotch. and give careful attention to the watering. Rhomboides Obovata. They are readily raised from seed. leaves margined with white. and Silver Queen. Height. small leaves blotched and marbled with white. and silver sand. situation. crumpled leaves. The following are the principal choice sorts:—Aurea Spectabilis. large white-blotched leaves. Ixias are also known under the name of African Corn Lilies. 1-1/2 ft. Ixias. Isopyrums—Hardy herbaceous plants of great beauty. plant slips in a north border in sandy soil. sandy soil. in a sunny. palmate-leaved. To increase them. . selecting a sunny position. Lee's Silver. silver variegated. rich soil suits the common Ivy. plant four bulbs in a 5-in. with silvery variegated leaves. Pupurea. leaf-mould. large leaves. leaves broadly marked with white. and withhold water until the plants appear. Maderiensis Variegata. Conglomerata. pot in a compost of loam. the more tender kinds require a lighter mould. Rhomboides Variegata. Latifolia Maculata. in light. Marmorata. For indoor cultivation. nearly related to the Thalictrums. a good hardy variety. Keep them moist through the autumn. a slender-growing variety. with a bronzy shade on the edge. edged with white. They flower in July. small leaves of a bright green changing to bronzy-purple. Height. The best time for planting them is October or November.—A deep. Cavendishii. deep green foliage. slender-growing. When making free growth remove them to the conservatory or greenhouse. greyish-green leaves. They will grow in any ordinary soil. Ivy (Hedera). but flourish best in vegetable mould. Elegantissima.
They are excellent early flowers. J.—A hardy perennial which produces a profusion of heads of blue flowers in June.—These are favourite plants for training over arbours or trellis-work. Sabina. The leaves should not be cut off when withering. Height. 1 ft. Plant in autumn. The stove and greenhouse sorts should be provided with a mixture of sandy peat and loam. or division. and has very sweet flowers. and continues to bloom till August. Joss Flower. grafting. Flowers in August. They may be propagated by seeds. and may be grown in the open in the same manner as Hyacinths. Unofficinale is likewise adapted for town. The purple Jacobaea is a great favourite of the public. Jacob's Ladder. Five or six bulbs in a 5-in. and should have the protection of a frame during the winter. J.—See "Polemonium. and covered with a handglass.—These useful conifers prefer dry chalk or sandy soils. J. It enjoys a peat soil. placing sand round the bulbs. They may all be increased by cuttings of ripened wood planted in a sandy soil under glass. pot make a very pretty bouquet. and will grow freely from seeds sown in autumn or spring. Height. Height. cuttings. and Tamariscifolia do well on steep banks and rock-work. The hardy kinds will flourish in ordinary soil." Jasione Perennis (Sheep Scabious). but allowed to die down. and very odoriferous. Best not disturbed too often. Job's Tears. kept shaded. . They bloom in July. or by cuttings of firm young shoots planted in a sandy compost.—These are quite hardy. Japonica. 1 ft. They bloom in April. It delights in a rich. but will thrive in any ground that is not too heavy. bearing confinement well. Nudifolium produces an abundance of bright flowers after its leaves have fallen. Revolutum needs protection in severe weather. 12 ft. J." Juniper (Juniperus). It can be propagated by seeds.—See "Coix Lachryma." Jonquils. 1 ft. Height.J Jacobaea (Ragwort).—See "Chinese Sacred Narcissus.—May be raised from cuttings in the same way as Verbenas. and is very suitable for town gardens. light soil. Jasminum. and for growing against walls.
Kale.—This hardy. The plants require very little water.—Showy greenhouse succulent plants. Kohl Rabi (Turnip-rooted Cabbage). Koelreuteria Paniculata. and they flower in July. and having a bottom-heat.—A greenhouse evergreen twining plant of a very beautiful order. and placed under glass. and needs pure air. 6 in. and may be increased by layers or root cuttings.K Kadsura Japonica." Kalmia Latifolia. 4 ft. Kerria (Corchorus). Other varieties of Kennedyas range from 2 to 10 ft. which soon become rooted. and they may be increased by placing cuttings of the young shoots in a sandy soil on a slight hotbed in spring. It produces its flowers in May. The cuttings should be left for twenty-four hours to dry before they are planted. 2 ft. will strike. or in March in slight heat. this vegetable is strongly recommended for garden cultivation. and is delicious when cooked while still very small and young. Cuttings of the young wood planted in sand. Kaulfussia. . Height. They flower at midsummer. which may be grown in any garden soil. Height. but requires a sheltered position. to 1 ft. They all need to be well drained and not to stand too near the pipes. It thrives best in loam and sandy peat. It may also be sown in autumn for early flowering. Height.—Beautiful hardy shrubs. turfy loam is suitable for them. The flowers are produced from June to August. Sow in March. and can be propagated by cuttings of the young wood.—This is a beautiful creeper for a south or west aspect. placed under a glass. and transplant to deeply-dug and liberally manured ground.—Sow this pretty hardy annual in April in the open border. and subjected to heat. taken at a joint. Height. Height. from each other.—This is an ornamental tree bearing long spikes of yellow flowers in July. 4 ft. It will grow in any soil. It is increased by pegging down the lower branches. Height. 10 ft. and give support to the heavy heads of bloom. at a distance of 15 in. Pinch them back so as to produce a bushy growth. It requires to be grown in peat or good leaf-mould. A light. Kennedya Marryattæ. It will succeed in any light soil. as it is both productive and nutritious. blooming in July. Kalosanthes. which thrives best in a compost of sandy loam and peat.—Though mostly grown as a farm crop. It produces a wealth of flowers in large clusters.—See "Borecole. dwarf evergreen shrub is deservedly a great favourite. 6 in. Cuttings may be struck in sand.
A deeply-dug. in heat. flourishing best in a mixture of equal parts of loam. Lamium. Height.—A hardy annual of a rather pretty nature. producing elegant eggshaped tufts of a silvery-white hue. Among other of the hardy annual varieties may be mentioned the Candelabrum-formed. flowering from March to July. Pot in December in a compost of fibrous loam.—See "Viburnum Tinus. 1 ft. and are increased by cuttings of the ripened wood. and can be increased by seed.—Charming greenhouse plants for pot or basket culture. For perennial Larkspurs. with leaves 1 ft. and is fine for ornamenting bouquets. leaf-mould. It makes a very desirable greenhouse plant. They are propagated by cuttings of the young wood. the latter being the plan usually adopted. July is their flowering month. (See also "Epigaea. and sand. and when the desired height is reached a well-balanced head is cultivated. Laurel. suitable for flower-beds or borders. to 2-1/2 ft.—This climbing shrub has fine ornamental foliage.—The greenhouse and frame kinds grow in any light soil. (Sow Thistle-Leaved Lettuce). place as near the glass as possible.—An ornamental. according to their varieties. and good drainage.—These plants are mostly of a hardy herbaceous description and of little value. The flowers are produced from September till frost sets in. Height. Latifolia (Everlasting Pea) flowers in August. Height. but not handsome. but has longer spikes and larger and more double flowers. other varieties at different times. They like a dry and warm situation and rich.—Handsome plants when in flower. peat. Height. and never allow the soil to become dry." Laurus. where it proves hardy." Lady's Mantle. and it may be increased by seed or division of the roots. to 1 ft. they will take root easily. in length and 9 in. and peat suits it best. They are charming flowers for beds or mixed borders.—See "Cypripedium. but a compost of leaf-mould. Height. Larkspur. Laurestinus. sand. Lasthenia. If cuttings are placed in sand. and sand. half-hardy perennial shrubs bear Verbena-like blossoms. bushy. and its leaves are roundish and of a lively green. when they will flower in June. and require but little attention beyond watering. L. and only require the same treatment as ordinary annuals. It will grow in any good soil." Lagurus Ovatus. the Emperor. Lantana. Sow in March. in breadth. Lallemantia Canescens. They may be planted in any garden soil. Lathyrus. Lapagerias require partial shade. Lactuca Sonchifolia." Lavatera. plunged in heat. but it may also be sown early in the spring. and can be propagated by seed or division. Height. see "Delphinium. They are grown both as bushes and standards. 1 ft. Height. sandy loam suits it. and only give a little water till they have produced their second leaves. Lauro Rotundifolia is beyond dispute the best of all Laurels.—The Stock-flowered Larkspur is of the same habit as the Dutch Rocket. and some of the perennial kinds by division of the root. Lapageria Rosea. from May onwards. any eyes that break out on the stem being rubbed off with the thumb. Height. Height. Height. 1 ft.—Stove evergreen shrubs. May is the month in which it flowers. 10 ft. They will grow well in any kind of soil.L Lachenalia. rich soil. in other positions protection should be afforded. 2 ft.—A beautiful climbing plant which bears large rose-coloured flowers in May.—See "Alchemilla. but maintain good drainage. to 8 ft.—Laurels will grow in any good garden soil. The Hyacinth-flowered is an improved strain of the Rocket. hardy perennial. Sweet. and can be increased either by cuttings or by division. where they will require supports.—This hardy annual is commonly known as Hare's-Tail Grass. 20 ft. It blooms in May. which may readily be grown from seed sown in the spring. and keep the ground moist till the seed germinates. 1 ft. No more heat is required than will keep out the frost. plenty of water.—See "Bay. It is of neat habit and enjoys the sunshine. The standards are produced by choosing a young Portugal plant and gradually removing the side-shoots on the lower part of the stem. It is distinctly ornamental. 1 ft. it is of free growth and of dense habit. 6 in. It can be grown in any light. The seed is sown in March to produce summer and autumn blooming plants. and the Ranunculi-flowered. 5 ft. light soil. Ladies' Slipper Orchid. Autumn is the best time for sowing the seed.") All Laurels may be propagated by cuttings and by layers.—Bees are very fond of this blue hardy annual. under . to 1-1/2 ft. the larger kinds being well adapted as backgrounds to other plants in the shrubbery. It is most suitable for a south or west aspect. Lardizabala Biternata.—These dwarf. (Cape Cowslips)." Lasiandra. 1 ft. Height.
if sown in spring they will bloom in autumn. An accumulation of moss upon a lawn can only be cured by underdraining. They grow freely in almost any soil. A north border is a suitable position in the summer months. and sand. to 18 in. or it may be raised from seed. taken in autumn and planted 4 in. Rake the seed in lightly. 6 in. or 3 bushels. which are produced in August. as the young plants are easily ruined by frost. sheltered position. as they are less exposed to the sun. Leschenaultia.—Hardy perennials. Lettuce. Liatris Pycnostachya. The most suitable soil is a light loam mixed with brick rubbish. most at home in equal portions of loam. They should stand from 6 to 9 in. 1-1/2 ft.—A popular white-foliaged bedding plant. and the remainder transplanted to a dry. will strike. sprinkle it with guano or soot just before a shower of rain.—Sow early in March. Young plants should be raised every three years.—See under "Carnations. Lawns—To make or renovate Lawns sow the seed on damp ground during March or April. are much prized. Lewisia Rediviva. light ground in drills 6 in.—Sow early in February on a slight hotbed. and at intervals till the middle of September for later crops. to strengthen. which may be increased by dibbling cuttings in sandy soil and placing them in a cool frame. or by seed as soon as it is ripe. others as late as August. each nearly 1 in. apart. Height. under glass." Layering. if it has an inclination to scald and burn up. deep. Height. light soil—peat for preference. If this is done in autumn they will flower in April and May.—Neat greenhouse evergreen shrubs. It is a perennial and quite hardy. The Cos Lettuce requires to be tied up to blanch. flower in June. 3 ft. gravelly soil is what it likes best. Lawns. and may be increased by layers. Height. Leontopodium. for improving old ones. Shrubs for. Cuttings may be struck in sand under glass. 12 in. but need protection in winter. Agnes' Flower. Height. Leucanthemum (Hardy Marguerites).—See "Doronicum. thriving best in sandy peat. long. To form a thick bottom quickly on new Lawns sow 60 lbs. Lavender (Lavandula Spied). and give a little weak liquid manure occasionally. They are multiplied by cuttings. Water liberally in dry weather. Leptospermum. between each plant and the rows 18 in. this should be done ten days before it is wanted for use. Frequent cutting and rolling is essential to success. If the grass is inclined to grow rank and coarse it will be much improved by a good dressing of sand over it. the flowers resembling Hops of a purple colour.—A hardy shrub whose sweetly-scented flowers. per acre. The seed should be sown in rich." Leptosiphon. Height. and are propagated by seeds or division. to 1 ft.—Ornamental plants. and do not run to seed so quickly. dropping in a cluster of from six to eight blooms. Leucojum (Snowflake). of good light mould on the top of it. sending up late in summer a dense cylindrical .—A curious old herbaceous perennial. and are propagated by cuttings of the young wood under glass. but in any case not later than September. and carefully weed the ground until the grass is well established. The spring snowflake blooms in March. They will grow in any soil. and prick out the plants in rich soil. Gradually earth up as the stems grow. Leopard's Bane. long. peat. the summer variety in June.glass. and also on rock-work. Handsome plants. Increased by off-sets from the bulb. afterwards roll with a wooden roller. 1 ft. They flower in June. For early summer supplies sow outdoors in March. to 5 ft. Height. Leycesteria Formosa. to the acre. Some of the plants raised in September should be wintered in a cold frame. Height. having the soil broken down fine on the surface. Cabbage Lettuce does not need to be tied. Some bloom in June. to 5 ft. and prick out into a well-manured and warm border.—Also known as St.—Charming hardy annuals which make nice pot-plants. succeeding best in peat soil. A dry.. or protected with hand-lights. Height. During April and May it produces large flowers varying in colour from satiny rose to white. every petal being tipped with green. 2 ft. The flowers are pure white.—Elegant greenhouse shrubs. 20 lbs. in a sheltered position. Leek. sheltered border.—This makes a pretty rock-plant. As soon as they are large enough. The hardy herbaceous species grow well in any common soil. The annuals are sown in the open in spring. but requires plenty of sun. deep under a hand-light or in a shaded. 4 ft. They are very attractive in beds or ribbons. For large exhibition Leeks sow in boxes in February. The June and July sowings may be made where the plants are intended to remain. They are evergreen. apart. Leucophyton Browni. and may be increased by seed or division of the roots. It is readily propagated from seed sown in spring.—See "Shrubs for Lawns. if possible. Cuttings about 8 in." Ledum (Labrador Tea). delighting in a mixture of turfy loam. Plant out in June in trenches 15 in. The latter is a much more vigorous plant than the former.—Low-growing American evergreen shrubs. They are most suitable for rock-work. 3 in. sandy loam being preferable. with plenty of old manure at the bottom of the trench and 6 in. Height. wide and 18 in.—Same treatment as Chrysanthemum. now seldom met with. plant them out in very rich. and sand. It is increased by division of the root. peat. Bloom is produced in June. 3 in.
which strike readily in good mould. For VALLOTA (Scarborough Lily). and one of the best ornamental hedge plants in cultivation." Lily of the Valley. light. LANCIFOLIUM make very fine pot-plants. In four or five years' time they will make fine bulbs. Libertia Formosa. The new shoots should be cut back in May. coarse sand.—The narrow foliage and spikes of pure white flowers. Privet will grow in any soil or situation. of very rapid growth. and needs no protection during winter. For PARDALINUM (the Panther Lily) and SUPERBUM mix the garden soil with three parts peat and one part sand. plant them in a nursery-bed. MARTAGON (or Turk's Cap) requires the same treatment as the Candidum." For PERUVIAN LILIES. high. but it does not do to keep it for any length of time in a room where there is gas. and before severe weather sets in cover them with a dressing of well- . but in the latter case they must have a thick covering of dry ashes in winter. Should they decline. 3 ft. see "Clivias. and keep the ground moist. L. which are round. early in March. see "Agapanthus." For CAFFRE LILIES. air. leaf-mould. and the tips of them used as cuttings. as they will not stand being kept out of the ground long. They are increased by off-sets. the conservatory. Height. When these fall with a touch they are planted in rich. As soon as these are taken from the parent bulb. Height. friable. after two years they may be transferred to the garden. 1 ft. Lilac—See "Syringa. and fresh loam. sandy soil. All the other varieties will succeed in any good garden soil enriched with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. If the soil is of a clayey nature it should be loosened to a depth of several feet. and the flower border. L. It needs a rich. and FORMOSISSIMA (or Jacobean) Lilies. loamy soil. which should be well stirred before planting. A cold frame will answer the purpose. They should occupy a rather shady position. If grown in pots place them. apart. The pots should have free ventilation. deep. see "Alstromeria. mulch the surface with old manure. but the seeds will take longer to germinate.—The Lily is admirably adapted for pot culture. When flowering has ceased. from October to March. Japonicum is likewise ornamental and hardy: Tricolor is considered one of the best light-coloured variegated plants grown. The roots may be divided in the spring. CANDIDUM (the Madonna. see "Amaryllis. or they may be placed in a sunny situation in the border. When all frost is over place pans under them. BELLADONNA. Coriaceum is a slow-growing. and will flourish in any light soil or situation. rich soil. A few lumps of horse manure should be placed round for these roots to lay hold of. The Lancifolium and Auratum varieties have a delicious fragrance. pot form a good group. and to be protected during the winter with a thick covering of litter.—This is a winter-flowering plant. of mould. The soil should consist of equal parts of loam and peat. This Lily is quite hardy. thick. its slender red and yellow tubes of bloom being very effective." For ST BERNARD'S and ST BRUNO'S LILIES. Lilium—continued. and sand. AURATUM and SZOVITZIANUM (or Colchicum) thrive best in a deep.purple spike 2 ft. and good peat or leaf-mould added. —Set the roots in bunches 1 ft. produced in May and June. After once planting they require but little care. especially for towns or smoky situations. encourage new growth by giving it plenty of water. Lilium seed may be sown in well-drained pots or shallow boxes filled with equal parts of peat. 2 ft. and should not be disturbed oftener than once in three years. Ovalifolium is a handsome hardy evergreen. shining green leaves. They are propagated by off-sets. with the exception that a little sand should be added to the soil." For AFRICAN LILY. highly-manured loam. see "Anthericum." Lilium. Cover the seeds slightly with fine mould and place the boxes or pots in a temperature of 55 or 65 degrees. It is very useful for table decoration. Six bulbs planted in a 12-in. as established plants bloom more freely than if taken up annually. about 6 in. Let them grow slowly. compact bush with very dark. and supply freely with air and water. pot. Give very little water. and leathery. Ligustrum (Privet). To produce fine specimens in pots they should be grown in a mixture of light turfy loam and leaf-mould. and sunlight. Libonia Floribunda. render this hardy perennial very ornamental. to make it sufficiently light. in well-drained. or White Garden Lily) should be planted before the middle of October. and is easily grown in a cool greenhouse. and the bulbs be covered with 1 in. Height. When the flower-stems grow up they throw out roots. but plenty air in mild weather. in groups of three. It is propagated by dividing the roots. Give a thin covering of manure during the winter. TIGRINUM (Tiger Lily) also receives the same treatment as the Madonna. They are increased by the tiny bulbs which form at the axis of the leaves of the flower-stem. sandy soil. light earth. in rich. For outdoor cultivation plant the bulbs 4 to 5 in. loam. apart. Three bulbs are sufficient for an 11-in. take them up in September and re-plant at once in fresh.—L. and is readily increased by cuttings planted in the shade in spring. if possible.
pot—any light soil will do—plunge the pot in a sheltered part of the garden. Height. They flower from March to July. Linum (Flax).—A fine plant either for the wall or border. but not too wet. Prune as soon as flowering is over. It grows well in a compost of peat and light. shallow pans of leaf-mould and sand. bearing orange-coloured flowers. which will grow in any ordinary soil. or from cuttings taken young and placed under glass. and is propagated by separating the creeping stems after they are rooted. Aurantiaca. It enjoys a peat soil. and adapting itself to any soil. Linaria. where they will bloom in June or July. and when large enough prick them out about 1 in. Planted against a wall in the open air. L.—See "Saxifrage. Its blue flowers are produced in June. and produce their flowers in April or May. The hardy perennial. shrubby kinds may be increased by cuttings placed under glass. Height. Lobels Catchfly. The Linum Flavum. it makes a pretty pot-plant. they should be kept in a cool place and perfectly dry when their season is over: by watering they will soon come into foliage and flower again. and unsurpassed for brilliancy. Height.—See "Nigella. If grown in pots. easily raised from seed sown in spring. and thinned out or transplanted with a good ball of earth. Height. Height. During growing time abundance of water is needed. remove all the young shoots (those at the base of the plant are best. which are slightly fragrant. and also does well in the open when planted in a shady position.—A hardy annual bearing graceful drooping racemes of crimson blossom. The other annuals are raised in spring. and if they have a little root attached to them so much the better). to 10 ft." Lonicera. The Scarlet Flax is an annual. native. or in a frame having a slight bottom-heat. The hardy. As the different varieties do not always come true from seed. Height. light soil. rich soil. 4 in. They should not be disturbed. it grows 9 in. 1 ft. They should be struck early in summer.—See "Tomatoes. When flowering has ceased. 2 ft. From this they may be removed to the forcing-house as required to be brought into bloom. They are propagated by cuttings planted in a sheltered position. Flowers are produced in June and July. sandy loam.—A rare. Height. and attaining the height of 10 or 12 ft. Linarias flower from July to September. in height. They grow well in any loamy soil. It requires a light soil. they will flower abundantly in June. 2 ft. 1½ in. Plunge the pots in cocoanut fibre and maintain an even temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees.rotted manure. 1½ ft. from 3 ft. placed in peat and silver sand. but the protection of a greenhouse is necessary in winter. Bipartita is suitable for an autumn sowing. L. L. A mixture of loam and peat makes a fine soil for the greenhouse and frame varieties. It is increased by cuttings of the previous year's growth. apart." Lovelies-Bleeding (Amaranthus Caudatus). and are easily increased by seed sown in spring. Sprinkle a little silver sand or very fine mould over the seed. L.—Hardy deciduous shrubs. or at the bottom of trellis-work. 1 ft. it is best to propagate by means of cuttings taken in autumn. cut it hard back. or Golden Flax. and make good plants for rock-work. The seeds ripen freely. Alpina. Height.—See "Silene. and may be sown any time between April and June. Height. It may . should be sown in April. shade them from hot sunshine. light mould. Limnanthes Douglasii. or in August. Cuttings of the young wood may be struck under glass. Lophospermum. Besides the annuals there is a half-hardy climber. turfy loam." Love-in-a-Mist. For forcing put ten or twelve "buds" in a 5-in. needing no special culture.—This succeeds best in rich. and should be sown in autumn to produce bloom in June. Height.—Very elegant and beautiful hardy annuals.—A frame creeping perennial which flowers in June. They like a rich. to 1 ft." London Pride. It requires the same treatment as other half-hardy perennials. They may then be planted out in light. Height. very free-flowering. Linnaea Borealis. 6 in. or take up the old plants before the frost gets to them. and plant out at the end of May. plunge the pans in a hotbed under a frame. and plant them thinly in well-drained. evergreen trailer. and bears brilliant yellow flowers. shaded and kept cool. and may be grown from seeds sown on a slight hotbed in spring. The seed should be sown in the open at the end of March. even by digging among the roots.—Very elegant half-hardy climbers. 1 ft. Makes a fine border plant." Love Grass.—A hardy perennial. Luculia Gratissima. From July to September it bears pale pink flowers. They must be grown in a moist and shady situation. so as to be well rooted before winter sets in.—See "Eragrostis. or they may be sown in spring for flowering at a later period. at which time growth must be encouraged by giving a higher temperature and frequent syringing. and if necessary transplanted in the autumn. Love Apples. Lippia Reptans. but it is not suitable for pot culture. is very suitable for pot culture. Lobelia. and when they are rooted remove them to the greenhouse till spring. Triornithophora is a biennial. evergreen creeping perennial. place in a greenhouse. 10 ft. Lithospermum Prostratum. but the plants have a stinging property.—These effective plants may be raised from seed sown in January or February in fine soil. afterwards put each single plant in a thumb-pot. Loasa.—The flowers are both beautiful and curiously formed.—These all do best in a light.
they merely require the same treatment as other hardy perennials. and may be raised from seed or increased by dividing the roots. Lysimachia Nummularia (Creeping Jenny ). A deep. Lunaria. They flower in June and July. Chalcedonica. It is of the easiest cultivation. They flower in July. They grow freely in light. and is eminently suitable either for rock-work or pots. It flowers in August. of different varieties. Height. Beyond the care that is needed to prevent the double varieties reverting to a single state. Lythrum. if taken off. or Catchfly. commonly known as Ragged Robin. Height. though rather straggling. and when once established requires merely to be kept in check. When in flower it is attractive. Lychnis. —This hardy perennial has something of the appearance of a tall Speedwell. deserve to be cultivated on account of the brilliancy of their flowers.—Though old-fashioned flowers. L. The roots may be divided either in November or early in spring. loamy soil. and a sheltered position is of advantage. to 3 ft. and as it blooms from July on to September it is worth a place in the border. 3 ft.—See "Honesty. 8 ft. 2 ft. but a rich loam suits them best. They may be grown in any soil. 2 ft. Every little piece of the creeping root will." Lupins. or by cuttings placed in sand under glass and subjected to heat. to 4 ft. but need dividing frequently to prevent them dwindling away. these still rank among our most beautiful annual and herbaceous border plants. rich. is perhaps the most showy variety.be increased by layering. to 3 ft. and the flowers are produced in July. but L. The seed germinates freely when sown in March. rich loam is most suitable for its growth.—Hardy perennials which. Height. Height. Viscaria Plena. . Height. 6 in." Lysimachia Clethroides. make a fresh plant. Lyre Flower. is a very beautiful plant.—Very handsome hardy perennials which thrive in any garden soil. The best season for this operation is early in spring.—See "Dielytra.—This plant is extremely hardy.
or in beds by themselves. or by cuttings under glass. They may be raised from seed sown in April in any garden soil. It is propagated by seed sown in heat. The hardy perennials succeed in any good garden soil. For old gardens liquid manure is preferable to stable manure." Marguerites (Chrysanthemums Frutescens). laid down in autumn. They bloom in June or July.—A charming little evergreen.—The flowers of this hardy perennial are produced in April and May. bearing throughout the whole summer a number of berries on the main branches. of superphosphate of lime with ½ lb. For established fruit-trees use.—A hardy annual of a rather handsome order. Mandevillea Suaveolens. scattering 1 oz. It does not make a good pot-plant. mix 1 lb. to the square yard round the roots. They flower in April. Height. (See also "Calendula. In pruning adopt the same method as for the vine or other plants which bear flowers on wood of the same year's growth. A noble plant for a spacious frontage. of guano and 20 gallons of water.—Handsome evergreen shrubs. It flourishes in any damp soil. is a very powerful and rapid fertiliser. and if lime or chalk be added it will keep in good heart for years without becoming too rich. but in the warmer weather it may be planted on rock-work in sandy loam and vegetable mould. Maple.—See "Acer. equal quantities of muriate of potash and nitrate of soda. They are raised from seed sown in a slight heat in March. Mahonia. but delights in partial shade. The greenhouse varieties thrive in a mixture of loam and peat. Height. Being only half-hardy. and somewhat resemble miniature Lily of the Valley. Tulipshaped white flowers. Peruvian guano. 4 ft.") Margyricarpus Setosus (Bristly Pearl Fruit). in showery weather. The plant is not particular as to soil. 10 ft. Malva. and is increased by layers. They grow best in a compost of sand. Flowers in August. Laurel-shaped leaves.") . Marigolds.M Madia. but finds a suitable home in the border of the conservatory in equal parts of peat and sandy loam. Height. The annuals are poor plants. or by division of the root. It should be forked in directly it is put upon the ground. to 6 ft. for too strong a stimulant is as injurious as none at all. 2 ft. Some of the varieties bloom in June. peat. 1 ft.—One of the best fertilisers of the soil is made by saturating charred wood with urine. In ordinary cases loam with a fourth part leaf-mould is strong enough for potting purposes." Malope. 6 in. Superphosphate of lime mixed with a small amount of nitrate of soda and forked into the ground is also a fine manure. to 2 ft. and loam. and continue to bloom during August and September. Cuttings planted in moist peat under a handglass will strike. The African and tall French varieties make a fine display when planted in shrubberies or large beds. A good manure is made by mixing 64 bushels of lime with 2 cwts. The greenhouse kinds should be grown in rich earth: these are propagated by cuttings planted in light soil. useful for covert planting or for grouping with others. Manures. 1½ ft. and no liquid except plain water should be given until the plants have been established some time. others in August. and likewise make fine pot-plants.—Handsome and free-flowering half-hardy annuals. The seed should be sown in May in a shady situation. and plants that have occupied the same ground for a considerable time.—A fine climbing plant bearing very sweet white flowers in June. and will flower about eight weeks after it is sown." "Tagetes. of procumbent growth. A temperature of from 40 to 50 degrees in winter. Seed may be sown at the end of July. and cuttings root easily if planted in sand under glass. 20 ft. 6 in. but is more expensive than that made from lime and salt.—Very ornamental plants. In whatever form manure is given. and may be propagated by cuttings or by layers of ripened wood. whether in a dry or liquid form. (See also "Anthemis" and "Buphthalmum. to each gallon of water. but in most places requires to be grown on a wall. more especially the greenhouse varieties. and highly-scented. rhubarb. Maianthemum Bifolium. Height." and "Calthus. and planted out at the end of May in any good soil. while the dwarf French kinds are very effective in the foreground of taller plants. Maize. Height. 1½ ft. This may be drilled in with seeds in a dry state. and are increased by seed sown in the autumn. or it may be propagated by layers. of salt. Height. The plant will grow in any soil. Charred cow-dung is ready for immediate use. It is rather tender. and pour 2 or 3 gallons round each root every third day while the plants are in vigorous growth. care must be taken not to administer it in excessive quantities. Magnolia Grandiflora. to 2 ft. Syringe the leaves daily during the hot season.—A handsome. in the proportion of 1 oz. Height. For roses. it requires protection from frost.—See "Zea.—Very beautiful hardy annuals having soft leaves. hardy evergreen.—The White Paris Daisies are very effective when placed against scarlet Geraniums or other brightly-coloured flowers. This is sufficient for one acre. Height. Liquid manure should be of the same colour as light ale. Herbaceous plants are better without manure. and more suitable for the conservatory than the open air. They will grow in any light soil. Height. and from 55 to 65 degrees in summer should be maintained. Height. 6 in. and merely require the same treatment as other half-hardy perennials. with large shining.
At the approach of frost take the roots up and store them in dry ashes or sand.—Sow from January to June in pots plunged in a hotbed. Height. Maurandia Barclayana. to 2 ft." Mathiola Bicornis (Night-scented Stocks). Height. placed against a wall or trellis-work.Martynia. It does very well in the open during the summer. rich earth.—This is a half-hardy annual of little interest so far as its flowers are concerned. or at most three. Meconopsis Cambrica(Welsh Poppy ). but it deserves to be more generally grown. Megasea. rich soil. 3 in. as they are liable to damp off at the collar if they have too much wet. however. It is raised from seed. and may be increased by seed or by off-sets from the bulbs. but it will not live through the winter in cold clay soils. melons each. perfection being afforded them during the winter. are best grown in pots. They require no water while in a dormant state. It may be grown in any light. Mertensia Maritima and M. which may be grown in any soil. When the plants have made four or five leaves. by division of roots. Height. Height.—This evergreen thrives best in fibrous peat to which a fair quantity of silver sand has been added. Menispermum Canadense (Moon seed). On deep soils it is best grafted on the Pear stock.—Treat as other hardy aquatics. It grows in any soil.—A hardy perennial. Melittis Melissophyllum (Large-flowered Bastard Balm ). Mathiola. 2 ft. fibry. flowering in July. 1 ft. is easily raised from seed. Marvel of Peru (Mirabilis). in very sandy soil. and is easily increased by dividing the roots. Height. Menziesia (Irish Heath). on light. to 6 in. make it a desirable rock-work plant. the plant must not be kept too dry. Any special variety may be grafted on to the seedlings. They require a strong. and its branched violet flowers. Mentha Rotundifloria Variegata (Variegated Mint ).—This handsome perennial is not often seen. Mazus Pumilio. loamy soil. 2 ft. hardy. Menyanthes. A light. Height. .—Half-hardy perennials. They may be increased by seed sown in light soil in July or August and planted out in the border in spring. The Nottingham and Royal are also excellent varieties. and blooms in July. and transplanted at the end of May. deciduous shrub. Height. Mertensia. The soil should be light and rich. sandy soil suits it best. Melon.—A pretty diminutive herbaceous plant. 1 ft. They make fine border plants. Do not allow them to ramble after the fruit has begun to swell. Cuttings can be taken either in spring or autumn. 1 ft. They will grow in any garden soil. but to grow it to perfection.—Handsome half-hardy. Matricaria. nor allow the plants to bear more than two. and blooms in June. followed with black berries. Any soil suits it. 1½ ft. peat. When the plants are sufficiently advanced transplant them singly into pots of light. Its pale green foliage is seen to advantage in carpet bedding. and can be propagated by seed. where they will flower in June. the temperature of which should not be under 80 degrees. fragrant annuals.—Singular plants. It flowers in July.—This hardy herbaceous plant flowers from April to June.—See "Stocks. sandy soil it may be grafted on the White Thorn. Melissa Officinalis. with a little rotten manure worked in. They flower in July. Parviflora. Height. which are very handsome when in flower. it should be planted in rich loam. In the greenhouse it reaches perfection. 1-1/2 ft. While excessive moisture is injurious. Keep the plants well thinned and water carefully. at the end of April. with yellow flowers in June. Height. Medlars. The Hero of Lockinge is a grand white-fleshed variety. Height. Height.—A favourite hardy annual whose lilac flowers are fragrant towards evening. and sand. put forth from June to September. They may be grown from seed sown between February and May on any ordinary soil. It may be increased by transplanting. the best condition for it is to be constantly damp. but do best in peat. and adorn equally the greenhouse or the open. but will not stand the cold. The Dutch Medlar is most prized. Height. It is increased by division of the root. set them out in a house or hotbed having a temperature ranging from 75 to 85 degrees. It may be grown from seed or multiplied by division. which to grow to perfection should be placed in a mixture of loam. The seed should be sown in a frame in March. often found on English rocks. and usually trained to a standard form. and keep them in the stove or greenhouse. Massonia. 10 ft.—A hardy perennial. 1½ ft. Height.—A pretty slender-branched. Height.—These hardy perennials flower from March to July. so that it can more conveniently be taken indoors in the winter. beyond cutting away cross-growing branches. 1½ ft. placed in gentle heat. When grown in peat and sand in an open situation it survives from year to year. the rooted stems which run under the surface of the ground. and is mostly grown as a foliage plant. especially as it will thrive in almost any soil. and may be increased by division of the roots any time after the latter month. No pruning is required. or it may be raised from seed.—These trees will grow on any well-drained soil. The seed should be sown on a hotbed in March. as it bears the largest fruit. Slips torn off close to the stem will root in sand under glass. or by planting cuttings in spring in a sheltered spot. and are propagated by division. and Blenheim Orange is a handsome scarlet-fleshed sort. 2 ft. 1 ft. climbing.—An ornamental hardy perennial.—This elegant twining plant is best grown in pots. 10 ft. It flowers from June to August.
Flowers in July. and keep it in the greenhouse in a growing state. Height. or oak tree on the underneath part of a branch and insert some well-ripened berries. or may be increased by root-division either in the autumn.—May be grown in any garden soil. The roots may be confined by means of tiles or slates. Pot it in good loam. The Mignonette tree is produced by taking a vigorous plant of the spring sowing. and cover with a frame facing the west. Michauxia Campanuloides. and the third season it will have become a fine shrub.—These shrubs are often called Sensitive Plants. and transplant when all fear of frost is over. see "Medlars. or stumps of trees. It thrives in loam and peat to which a little dung has been added. Keep the plants well watered until established. and removing all the lower shoots in the autumn.—For treatment. and is increased by division of the root. Height. 1½ ft. Height. In the border they should occupy a hot and dry situation. but requires a southern position and protection in winter. (See also "Diplacus. The frame and greenhouse kinds grow best in a rich.—These half-hardy. Height. Some few are very pretty. to 3 ft." Mimosa. blooms in July or August. Height. 2 in. afterwards give a little liquid manure. light soil. 3 ft. but removing all the flowers. They thrive in any soil or position. Michaelmas Daisies (Starworts). Propagated by seeds in the same way as other biennials. sandy loam. 2 ft. Height. which. bearing from March to June white campanula-like flowers tinged with purple. become very troublesome. It is a native of our shores. Another sowing should be made about the middle of August. and when fully expanded the flowers are creamy-white. or increased by division of the root. to 5 ft. Let the first of these be made the second week in July in light. Mint. By the spring the stem will be woody. Milkmaid. apart. 9 in. and a third one in February. sowing the seed in April on sandy soil.—See "Bergamot. and is freely propagated by seeds. If grown in pots they thrive best in a light. They may be grown from seed sown in slight heat from February to May. delights in a peat soil. 1 ft. changing to orange-yellow. and thin out to a distance of 9 in. It is not particular as to soil. in gentle heat. will grow in any soil. Height. as the birds would devour them. they merely require to be kept from frost. pot off before frost sets in. on erect stems. and is well adapted for arbours. on account of the leaves of several of the species of this genus shrinking when touched. Mimosa Pudica exhibits most sensibility. Monardia Didyma (Oswego Mint. The annuals may be sown where they are to flower. Let the same treatment be given it the second year. Height. Mildew. They vary in height from 1 ft. They must be raised in a greenhouse or on a hotbed. produced on long racemes.—This is an attractive border biennial. Mimulus (Monkey Flower). Sow the seed on a hotbed in March. afterwards giving them a syringing of clear water. but flourish best where there is a due proportion of sunshine. It may be made to bloom during the winter by picking off the blossom in the summer and autumn." Meum Athamanticum. but of no special beauty.—These pests may be destroyed by placing in their runs worms that have been kept for some time in mould to which carbonate of barytes has been added. or Horse Balm). or in the spring. Moles. They grow well in loam and peat with a little sand.Mesembryanthemums (Ice Plants). Cuttings of the more succulent kinds should be allowed to dry a little after planting before giving them water. harden off. 4 ft. Mignonette. and may be multiplied by cuttings. of nitre to each gallon of water.—See "Carduus.—A numerous family of hardy herbaceous perennials. When young the buds are a vivid red. May be increased by cuttings taken in autumn. trellises.—Raise the bark of an apple.—A hardy perennial which bears slender racemes of white flowers in April. Mespilus. They may also be raised from seed. to 12 ft.") Mina Lobata. Height. while others can only be ranked with wild flowers. 6 in. 1-1/2 ft. If the berries were inserted on the top of the branch the operation would result in failure. or with a solution of nitre made in the proportion of 1 oz." Milk Thistle. feathery green foliage. as soon as they have done flowering. to 1½ ft. Prick the young plants out in May. —A hardy perennial with graceful. rich soil. giving them the same treatment as the previous. then tie the bark down neatly with raffia or woollen yarn. They bloom in June and July. They are easily raised from seed.—See "Cardamine. Flower in July.—Showy half-hardy perennials which thrive in moist and shady situations and in almost any soil. Mitella Diphylla. Another good remedy is to scatter sulphur over the leaves while the dew is upon them. Height. annual succulents have a bright green foliage covered with ice-like globules.—A charming half-hardy annual climber. plunge them in old tan or ashes. 8 ft. To obtain bloom during the winter and spring successive sowings are necessary.—Syringe with a strong decoction of green leaves and tender branches of the elder-tree. Cuttings of the young wood root readily in sand under a glass. if not held in check. It makes a pretty rock plant. bearing singularly shaped flowers." .—For summer-flowering plants sow the seed in spring. but require to be planted in a warm situation or to have greenhouse care. A dry pit or frame is sufficient protection in the winter. It is increased by runners. pear. Mistletoe. sown early in spring.
as this would prove fatal to them." Montbretia. and when well and equally fermented. deep and 2 in. hardy in nature but requiring a good amount of sunshine to make it bloom. affording good drainage to the plants. the first thing to do is to ensure a good drainage to the ground. Mulberries. then go over the grass with a heavy roller. The corms should never be kept long out of the ground." Muhlenbeckia Complexa. 2-1/2 ft. mixing it well together and beating or treading it firmly. In addition to the Large Black and the White (Morus Alba) the New Weeping Russian White may be recommended.—See "Hyacinthus. which is seldom met with. It may be propagated by cuttings of wood one year old with a heel two years old attached. Morna Elegans.—These plants flower in May. shiny foliage and stout spikes of rose-coloured flowers in whorls. and may be increased by cuttings. those sown in February will flower in the open in the autumn. then a plentiful supply may be given.—A very decorative climber. or a little under. Height. shady position is most congenial to it when placed in the border. and beat it down evenly and firmly. Mulching. wide and 2 ft. to the half-acre. and weak growth and few flowers are the result. For early flowering sow the seed in September: for later blooms sow in February in slight heat. but the fruit wants plenty of sunshine to bring it to perfection. 2 in. which are like small Gladioli. Finish off with a covering of clean straw or hay about 1 ft. It will grow in any good loamy soil. 6 ft. Musk (Mimulus Moschatus). It forms rosettes of large. Now give a covering of loamy soil. They are very sensitive to cold. The flowers. which will be from ten to fourteen days. Height. It likes a rich. 2½ ft. deep.—This is a pretty hardy perennial for rock-work. It requires to be grown in loam and peat. Height. They may also be grown in pots. If it makes its appearance on the lawn. Mountain Avens. Height. make the surface fine and firm." Mushrooms." Morrenia Odorata. and usually appear in from four to six weeks after planting. Morina (Whorl Flower). and require the same treatment as Ixias. Seed sown in autumn make fine. sandy soil is best for its growth.—See "Convolvulus. Morisia Hypogaea. It is readily propagated by division. rake the moss out. Height. and it can be increased by cuttings of hardy shoots taken early in summer.—Any good soil will grow the Mulberry. suitable for the greenhouse or stove. and is raised from seed sown as soon as it is ripe.—To eradicate moss from fruit-trees wash the branches with strong brine or lime water. but very little should be given till the Mushrooms begin to come up. Should moss give trouble by growing on gravel paths. The tree is hardy. They may be grown in any warm cellar or shed." Monk's-hood. The soil should be light and sandy. Plant 3 in. A moist. which make it one of the most attractive of Thistles." Monkey Puzzle. Morning Glory. and flowers in July. Turn and mix it well every few days. producing fragrant cream-coloured flowers in July. The only pruning necessary is to keep the branches well balanced." Muscari. Moraea Iridioides.—Take partially dry horse manure and lay it in a heap to ferment. under a frame or handglass. 2 in. apart. also by division in August. Avoid over-watering.—Very graceful and showy plants.—An ornamental hardy perennial. sprinkle the ground with salt in damp weather. A well-drained. and apply nitrate of soda at the rate of 1 cwt. Water when necessary with lukewarm water. Autumn is the time to do this." Muscari Botryoides. It flowers in May.—See "Dryas.—See "Aconite. 3 ft. is increased by seed sown in the autumn. make it into a bed 4 ft.—See "Araucaria. Those sown in September will bloom in the greenhouse in May. Moss. Height. at a temperature of from 55 to 60 degrees. deep and 6 in. When the temperature of the bed falls to 75 degrees.—For sowing in the open choose a shady border. well adapted for pot culture. in a bottom-heat. under glass. For summer blooming the seed is sown early in spring. deep green. are produced on long branched spikes and are excellent for cutting. and should not be placed out of doors before the end of May.—Beautiful half-hardy annuals. Height.—An ornamental shrub. light soil. not forgetting that the fruit is borne on the young wood.Monetia Barlerioides. apart in sandy loam and leaf-mould. deep. 6 in. early-flowering greenhouse plants. half-hardy perennial. and water it well before .—See "Hyacinthus. pot off. the spawn may be inserted in pieces about the size of a walnut. Mustard and Cress. 3 ft. as they shrivel.—A well-known sweet-scented. thick. Height. 1½ ft. Though they are hardy it is well to give them a covering of litter in winter.—See "Soil.—See "Mimulus. 2 in.—A good twining plant for the greenhouse. and may be increased by cuttings planted in sand. Monkey Flower. When grown in tubs or large pots in the greenhouse the fruit attains the perfection of flavour.
May is its flowering time. and may be increased by seeds or layers. The seed must not be covered. It will grow in light. the former should be sown four days before the latter. They succeed best in a mixture of sandy loam and peat and on a south wall. The annuals like a dry. 6 ft. Height. Height. 4 ft. to avoid the possibility of grit being sent to table.—See "Smilax. and cut the crop when the second leaf appears. rich soil. but thrives best in peat. and the new Chinese Mustard is larger in leaf than the old variety. . As the Cress does not germinate so quickly as the Mustard. 6 ft. This may be removed as soon as the seed germinates. For winter use it is best sown in boxes and grown in a frame. The curled leaf Cress is the best. Near the sea they prove quite hardy. and is very pungent in flavour. and its foliage is scented like the myrtle. Height. or young cuttings will strike in sandy soil under a handglass. the seed being covered with flannel kept constantly moist. Cerifera is treated in precisely the same manner.—Will strike readily if the cuttings be placed in a bottle of water till roots grow. They flower in June or July. Let the seed be sown thickly at intervals of seven or fourteen days from March to September." Myrtle (Myrtus). M. Most of them may be increased by root division. and are grown from seed sown in March. and then planted. Gardeners mostly prefer to grow it through coarse flannel. Myrsiphyllum Asparagoides. such as the edges of ponds or ditches.—This hardy deciduous shrub is very ornamental. sandy soil. 6 in. but simply pressed into the surface of the soil. Keep the ground moist. and all of them by seed. Height. but they also do well in pots among Alpine plants.—The perennial varieties of these beautiful plants grow best in moist places. Myrica Gala (Candleberry Myrtle).putting down the seed. Myosotis (Forget-me-not).
and plant out in May as soon as all fear of frost is over. Ferns.—A tamarix-like shrub. Night-scented Stocks. as they are very showy when in flower.—Pretty. to 1 ft. In fact. Nigella. Chrysanthemums. are both curious and ornamental. and the plants transferred to the garden about the middle of May. a species of Fennel-flower.N Narcissus. July. The soil should be light and dry.—See "Daffodils. and compact hardy annuals.—A most beautiful half-hardy annual of the Antirrhinum class. well worth cultivating. The seeds may be sown in pots in September or in the open ground early in spring. Affinis bears long. A light sandy or gravelly soil is the best to produce a wealth of bloom. white flowers in July. sow the seed in autumn. and the plants are 4 to 5 ft. and may be increased by root-division.—Very showy half-hardy annuals. Cuttings of the young wood will strike under glass. and spring and summer cuttings of all sorts. and plant out in May in rich. It requires a light. Height. Sow the seed early in spring on a hotbed. Perhaps the best known among them is N. or on a hotbed in spring. They flower in July and August. Nierembergia (Cup Flowers). Atriplicifolia may be sown in the open in the autumn. Nuttallia. 1 ft.—A very useful plant for hanging baskets. Will grow in any soil or situation. It is of easy culture. Height.—These hardy annuals. The bloom is produced throughout June. Fairchild's. N. apart.—See "Mathiola.—Hardy annuals that are suitable for the border. They succeed best in a moist and shady situation. It needs a moist position.—Require the same treatment as the Peach. It flowers in July. and when the second or third leaf appears the plants are put into small pots and placed in a frame till the end of May.—These shrubs thrive in ordinary soil. Virginica produces immense leaves and pink flowers. 6 in. black and green Tea Plant. 3 in. Nectarines. and Red Roman are useful varieties. Height. In cold districts it is better to grow it in the greenhouse. Nemophila. tubular. and overhead sprinkling with soft water is very beneficial. N.—These are among the most useful of our hardy annuals. and 1 ft.—See "Guernsey Lily." Nolana. Nepeta Glechoma Variegata. Nierembergia Rivularis. Rhododendrons. Hispanica. to 2 ft. 9 in. They flower in July. rich soil. or Love-in-a-Mist. when they are transferred to the border. They flower in July. sow in the open in March. 6 ft. to 2-1/2 ft. Treated thus they flower from June to September. Torreyi bears white Spiraea-like flowers. and when grown in circles are very striking. The seed is sown on a hotbed in spring. and does well as a window plant or in a cool greenhouse. N. to 2 ft. but prefer a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould.—This herbaceous plant is of a creeping nature. Red Currants. Height. Lord Napier. If wanted to flower early. and is increased by division. harden off. high. Nemesia. —Hardy Camellias. The tall-growing climbers make a gay background to a border. Height. and is eminently suited for a sheltered position on the rockery. and of great service for ribboning. and a Peach stone often produces a Nectarine. 6 ft. Neilla. 1-1/2 ft.—These elegant half-hardy annuals grow well in any light soil. producing a display of the brightest of colours throughout the entire summer. and are equally valuable for trellis-work. and grows to the height of 3 ft. Height. Morello Cherries. 3 in. while the dwarf varieties are first-class bedding plants.—This pretty Moss-like plant is fairly hardy. It can be trained as a pyramid or allowed to hang down. They should stand 20 ft. Nerine Sarniense. 9 in." Nasturtiums. the Nectarine stone sometimes produces a Peach. Increased by cuttings placed in sand under glass. Height. Sow the seed in March or April in slight heat. Height. Humboldt. They only require sowing in the open in spring—but not before the middle of March—to produce flowers in July and August. N. It is easily increased by dividing it early in the spring. which are very effective. Neuvusia Alabamensis." Nertera Depressa (Coral Berry). succeeded by orange-coloured berries. in many cases it is employed as edgings. and . delight in peat or vegetable mould.—This early-flowering shrub is only hardy in the south and south-west of our country. Nicotiana (Tobacco Plants ). North Borders. sweet-scented. and August. The flowers are produced in July. neat. Height. The seed should be sown in spring on a gentle hotbed. bearing clusters of white flowers early in spring. and are increased by cuttings of the young wood. light soil. and if required for late blooming. it has deep green ovate foliage and large saucer-shaped white flowers. Plants suitable for. The soil should consist of leaf-mould and sand.
3 in. Nymphaea Alba. Height. Racemes of white flowers are produced during February and March.—A hardy aquatic perennial. and may be increased by dividing the roots. Height. suitable for pots or rock-work. It flowers in June. . The seed should be sown early in spring on a gentle hotbed. Nycterina. using a light. 1 ft. frequently found in our ponds. Height.may be increased by division. rich soil. and the young plants transferred to the pots or open ground at the end of May.—Exquisite little half-hardy plants. 2 ft.
kept shaded for about a fortnight. apart. (2) from South Africa. and (4) our native varieties. using equal parts of live sphagnum and fibrous peat. and when they have grown 6 in. yet constantly moist. and hardened off before the winter. It is increased from cuttings taken in summer. in fine loam and leaf-mould. when they must be planted in the open. this plant is useful for cutting for vases.—A charming hardy evergreen of a shrubby nature. by cuttings. or it may be propagated by taking cuttings in summer. For exhibition Onions sow in boxes early in February in a greenhouse. 6 in. The rooted shoots may be divided in spring or almost at any other period. by separating the pseudo-bulbs. O. Mexican. and may be increased by division of the roots. heavy soil. Ononis Rotundifolia (Round-leaved Restharrow ). The Silver-skins do best on a poor soil. very suitable for dry spots in rock-work.—Popularly known as the Beautiful Marjoram. and blooms from June to September. 6 in. after the tops have died down. into other boxes. warm part of the greenhouse. During winter only a very little moisture should be given. Onopordon. the third and fourth slight protection during winter. but if needed it may be increased by division. It produces its flowers in March. When once established it is best not to disturb it. (3) from the South of Europe. 1-1/2 ft. rich. when about 1 in. and to be planted where it can obtain plenty of sun. sweet-scented flowers in summer: a chalk soil suits it admirably. Orchis Fusca (Brown Orchis ) may likewise be planted in the open. apart. The Tripoli varieties attain a large size if transplanted in the spring.—This hardy herbaceous plant is very pretty when in flower. Olearia. Opuntia Rafinesquii (Hardy Prickly Fig ). and is increased by dividing the roots in autumn. or by seed. largely mixed with charcoal. Give one good watering as soon as the potting is finished. It requires a well-drained vegetable mould. in case of the Dendrobiums. It is perennial and hardy. well suited for ornamenting borders. The seed should be sown early in March for the main crop and for salad and pickling Onions. They flower in August. The bloom is in its best condition in October. and left in ridges during the winter. Level the ground. Orchis Foliosa (Leafy Orchis) may be grown in the open ground in good sandy loam.—Plant these Orchids firmly in well-drained pots. It will grow in any ordinary garden soil. Height. in a sheltered position. the plants from which will flower the first season if sown early in spring. delighting in a temperature of from 60 to 70 degrees and an abundance of water during summer. sown as soon as it is ripe. edgings. Origanum Pulchellum. 1 ft. It is most effective in clumps. Height. apart. by cuttings. 1-1/2 ft. and is propagated by separating the branches at a joint. and a profusion of white. and to place them in houses having as near as possible the same temperature and humidity as that to which they are accustomed. Height. The pots in which they are grown should be filled with fibrous peat and sphagnum moss. 2 ft. and in August for summer use. across. high put them in a cool frame until the middle of April. and suitable for rock-work. and grow well in any good. give gentle heat and plenty of air. 6 in. They bloom in June and July.—The four classes into which these charming and interesting plants are divided may be described as (1) those coming from the tropics. rich soil. The annual and biennial kinds are sown in the open in spring. Sow the seed any time between March and June.—The Evening Primroses are most useful and beautiful plants. 3 ft. Haastii has foliage resembling the Box. and are often 6 in. Height. Omphalodes Verna. It grows best in peat with a little sand.O Odontoglossum Grande. excepting those intended to be gathered while small. As their natural character differs so widely it is necessary to ascertain from what part of the globe they come.—These evergreen shrubs thrive in peat and loam. and allowing them to dry for a day or so before putting them into the soil. Height. Height.—A dwarf hardy Cactus with sulphur-coloured flowers. Onosma Taurica (Golden Drop ). Height. to 4 ft. . placed in a cucumber frame. The flowers succeed one another from June to November. but good drainage is essential. and stand them in a light. They require the protection of a frame or greenhouse during winter. Oncidium Sarcodes. the second a greenhouse. Height.—Half-hardy perennials of a rather interesting nature and of easy cultivation. and. They will require very little more water until the roots have taken hold of the soil—only sufficient to keep the pseudo-bulbs from shrivelling—and during the winter months scarcely any moisture is needed. or rock-work. They are propagated by dividing the root stocks. The perennials may be increased by dividing the roots. and abundant drainage ensured. All the species are free-flowering. Onions. 1-1/2 ft. to 8 ft. 3 in. then filled up with fibrous peat and sphagnum moss. produced from June to August. Where the ground is not suitable it should have had a good dressing of rotten manure the previous autumn. and thrives in a dry situation with a sunny aspect and in a sandy soil. Thin out to about 6 in. The first require a stove.—A most beautiful orchid. Orange. and is increased by seed. Height. spotted and streaked with venetian red. The pots should be two-thirds filled with crocks. The blooms are yellow. and produce flowers in July. beds." Orchids. and make it very firm just before the time of sowing. high prick out. the soil to be well drained. to 4 ft.—Require a deep. Oenothera. 1 ft.—A hardy perennial which may be grown under the shade of trees in ordinary soil.—See "Choisya.
—A hardy herbaceous. peat. It flowers from May onwards to September. Some of the varieties have fibrous roots: these will bear dividing. O.—These hardy perennials bear elegant Pea-shaped blossoms. The variegated varieties are very beautiful. and is propagated by seed only. Umbellatum (Star of Bethlehem) is a pretty little flower often found in English meadows. Height. and sand. The seeds of these may be sown in the open in spring. Height. Height. borders. or by seeds. While in a dormant state the bulbs should be kept almost dry. They are increased by off-sets from the bulb. They grow well on chalk soils. The soil in which it is grown must be well drained. and like a dry situation.—A newly introduced evergreen shrub very similar to the Holly. It throws up large heads of starry flowers.—A genus of very pretty bulbous plants that thrive well in a mixture of loam. surface-creeping perennial of singular beauty as regards both leaf and flower. After they have done flowering they should be kept dry until they begin to grow afresh. which are produced in great abundance. and once established may be left undisturbed for years. Height. 6 in. They may be increased by cuttings of the young shoots with a little old wood attached. and are easily increased by root-division in the spring. or rock-work. flowers in May.—These elegant hardy evergreen shrubs succeed best in light. Take it up before the frost sets in and store it in a dry place. to 6 ft.Ornithogalum. It will grow in any good garden soil. 9 in. As soon as new life starts in spring the roots may be divided. 9 in." Oxythopis Campestris. 1 ft. Oxalis. or it may be grown in water like the Hyacinth. to 3 ft. and the position it occupies must be well shaded from the rays of the midday sun. to 3 ft. sandy loam. It is a fine plant for pot culture. It is perfectly hardy and may be treated in the same manner as that plant. a peat one being preferable. or they may be grafted on to common Privet. The plants will grow readily in any light soil. Height. . as it requires no moisture while in a dormant state. Osmanthus. Ourisia Coccinea. It is propagated by off-sets. Arabicum bears a large white flower with a shiny black centre.—O.—See "Bugloss. They flower in June. Height. 4 ft. or will grow in any light soil. It may be planted in the open early in spring in sandy loam and peat. which should be sown where the plants are intended to be grown. the cut bloom being admirable for mixing with fern leaves. Orobus. In September the flowers are produced. 2 ft. Height. The hardy species should be planted in a shady border. where they will grow and flower freely. 6 in. is quite hardy. Othera Japonica. Ox-Tongue. Most of the tender kinds may be reared in a frame if protected from frost in the winter.—A hardy perennial with lemon-yellow flowers in June and July. They are equally suitable for pots.
Height. Plants potted in September and placed in a cold frame. Tree Paeonies require protection in winter. They may also be increased by dividing the roots in April or May. The shrubby species are multiplied by cuttings taken in August or September. As early in March as the weather will permit level the surface and sow the seed in drills 15 in. or by seeds. They are easily raised from seed sown where they are intended to bloom. yet be sheltered from mid-day rays. as it induces forked and illshaped roots. Palms from Seed. When the plants are 2 or 3 in. and sand. New varieties are raised from seed. it is increased by seed. They may be propagated by seed or by division of the roots. and shaded from the hot sun. and grows well in equal parts of peat and loam with one-sixth part sand. It is propagated very easily by suckers taken off in spring or summer. deep in 2-in. and planted in a sheltered situation. They flower at midsummer. or they may be left in the ground till required for use.—A handsome class of plants." Pancratium. They should be planted where they will get all the morning sun. They may be taken up in November and.P Pachysandra. yet protected from cutting winds. light soil. after cutting off the tops. Thin out or transplant. 1 ft. Parsnips. It will succeed in almost any soil. The bulbs should be placed in a composition of three parts light. Pansies (Heartsease). Sulcatum. it must therefore be watched during dry weather and watered if necessary. but the application of fresh manure should be avoided. Pampas Grass. The plant likes a good loamy soil mixed with . Parsley takes longer than most seeds to germinate. They may also be increased from cuttings taken in August. merely pegging them down and not slitting them on account of their tendency to damp off. The perennials may also be increased by dividing the roots. Passion Flower. 2 ft. They will grow in any soil or situation. Their habit of growth is somewhat like that of the Amaryllis. by which the new varieties are obtained. Height. and may be increased by suckers from the roots. In the winter months it should be watered carefully.—This early hardy perennial has ornamental foliage and blooms in April. They are admirably adapted for growing in pots in the greenhouse. the next in June for succession. apart. and another in August or September for spring and early summer use. by suckers. Plicatum is highly ornamental and hardy. P. as the roots and stems must be kept dry.—These showy flowers are most at home in a rich. 1-1/2 ft. P. Average height.—These beautiful flowering plants are mostly hardy enough to endure our winters.—Grow well from seed sown in July or August on a raised bed of light earth. are fine for specimens. Cover the pots with glass and stand them in the warmest part of a hothouse.—Handsome ornamental grasses. Paeonies. Capillare is an annual.—See "Withania. stored in a pit or cellar in damp sand. but is best grown as a conservatory or window plant. thin them out to 9 in. During the autumn a little liquid manure is beneficial. sandy loam and one of vegetable mould. Three sowings may be made during the year: the first in spring for late summer and autumn use. A rich. then put them singly 1 in. and keep the soil just moist. to 2 ft. The herbaceous kinds are increased by dividing the plants at the roots.—See "Gynerium. placed in a temperature of 75 degrees. apart. P. Re-pot as soon as the roots have filled the old ones.—For table decoration or vases this is a most useful plant. They can likewise be increased by layers. to 6 in. Altissimum. 1 ft. loamy soil suits them best. They are increased by off-sets from the roots. April. and may be propagated by grafting on to the others.—Soak the seed in tepid water for twenty-four hours. pots filled with equal parts of loam. Panicum. it has a Palm-like appearance. in an open and airy situation." Pampas Lily of the Valley. selecting young side-shoots and planting them in light earth mixed with silver sand. While the plants are blooming they should be supplied with liquid manure. high. The cuttings should be kept in a cool frame.—These succeed best in a rich soil.—In order to grow Parsley to perfection it is necessary that the ground be well drained. Pardanthus Chinensis. September. moderately moist. and is of quick growth. They may also be planted in the open ground under a south wall. or May. leaving a bud on each slip. and P. suitable for bouquets or edgings. Papaver (Poppy). Most of the plants flower in July. Let the ground be trenched two spits deep and left ridged up as long as possible. but in the summer it is improved by syringing with warm water. Shade from strong sunshine. to 3 ft. or protected in the open from rain and frost with a covering of mats supported by arches. Pandanus Veitchi (Variegated Screw Pine ). an annual. apart. leaf-mould. It requires a warm greenhouse where a temperature of 60 or 70 degrees can be kept up throughout the year. Height varies from 1 ft.—See "Iris. —Cuttings of the young shoots strike readily in sand under glass. will be valuable for winter use. and the soil should be rich and light. covering it with half an inch of fine soil. or by layers. Height." Parsley. with a piece of the old wood attached. a most elegant greenhouse plant.
The flowers are borne on seasoned growth of the current year: this fact must be considered when pruning the plants. The fruiting of young trees may be accelerated by lifting them when about five years old. and the root should be well protected in winter. and Waterloo for fruiting in July or August. and so equalise the flow of sap. The earliest varieties may be sown from November to February. In orchards standards should be from 20 to 25 ft. thin the same out to 6 in. remove any exhausted and weak wood. keeping the soil moist till the seed germinates. To ensure good fruit. When grown under glass a day temperature of 50 degrees. for gathering between June and September. It is propagated by layers or by grafting it on to the Horse-chestnut. if deep and well pulverised. and stake the taller varieties as soon as the tendrils appear. Verulam. but for the earliest crop a poorer soil. Some of the pruning may be done in summer. apart. round the edges of pots filled with nice. and the young wood be cut away in sufficient quantity to produce a well-balanced tree. Black Pear of Worcester. A sheltered position with a south or south-western aspect should be assigned those grown out of doors. After gathering the fruit. The early wrinkled varieties may be sown from March to June. merely keeping the walls near the pipes and the paths damp. Peas under 3 ft. though any soil that is well drained will produce good fruit. apart. Peaches should stand 20 ft. which should. falling to 45 degrees at night.—These well-known and favourite hardy perennials are very useful for covering trellises. they are best grown dwarf. one of the best fertilisers being well-decayed farmyard manure. leaving all that is of the thickness of a black-lead pencil. then discontinue it. is a great favourite. will give the best results. There are over 500 varieties of Pears. and ripens in July. a south wall should be chosen. Rivers's Early. apart as soon as it attains the size of a small pea. except when the trees are bearing fruit heavily. and Countess Guiglini makes a capital greenhouse plant. the ground lightly stirred with a fork and left to sweeten. and crop the intervening spaces with early dwarf vegetables. November and February are the most favourable months for planting. The main crop round varieties may be sown from February to May: these will be ready to gather in July and August. leave the leading branches untouched. etc. Aston Town. Pitmaston Orange. and mulching the ground. and the well-known Bellegarde for succession in September. wash the trees daily. Keep the flowers dry and free from frost by means of an overhead shelter. below the surface of the soil. Height. Doyenné du Comice is one of the best-flavoured. below the surface of soil. Everlasting (Lathyrus Latifolia). apart. and if on a light soil a mulching of manure will be beneficial. To keep the foliage clean. Train the shoots about 6 in. The following may be recommended for outdoor cultivation:—Hale's Early. to 1 rod. As soon as the pods are setting apply weak liquid manure to the roots when the ground is moist. Crimson Galande. A good syringing once a week with the garden hose will keep the trees vigorous and free from insects. so it is no easy matter to give a selection to suit all tastes. only be used so long as the cold weather lasts. Sow main crop and late varieties at intervals of fourteen days from March to May: these will be ready to gather in July. Peaches. Syringe the leaves daily until the flowers are produced. 10 ft. removing all the wood-buds except one at the base of the shoot and one at the point. if sown from January to April. cease once more the syringing until it is gathered. Beurré Hardy is delicious in October and November. syringe once a day with water. Dagmar. deep. On light soils they should be grafted on to Pear stocks. Passiflora Cærulea is fine for outdoor culture. Where there is no greenhouse or frame the seed may be planted. and the foliage should be syringed freely.—For the production of heavy summer and autumn crops a rich and deeply-stirred soil is essential. and September. Should scab make its appearance on the leaves. Water of the same temperature as that of the house should in all cases be used. They will grow in any garden soil. Keep them well watered in dry weather. on the warmest and most sheltered border: these may be gathered in May and June. As soon as the fruit is set the syringing should recommence. but on heavy soils they are best worked on the Quince. Pavia Macrostachya. When planted in quantities.—These are best grown on a strong loam mixed with old mortar. apart. apart. and Vicar of Winkfield are among the best. In pruning. Williams's Bon Chrêtien. and ripens its fruit in October. providing they are afforded shelter from cold winds. As a rule. Peas. Any soil suits it. Dymond. When possible. When the fruit begins to ripen. gradually increasing it so that 65 degrees by day and 55 by night is reached at the period of blossoming. and is very prolific. while for stewing purposes Catillac. and apply liquid manure to the roots in sufficient quantities to keep the soil moist during the time the trees are at rest. about ½ in. spray them occasionally with Bordeaux Mixture.peat.—This is a deciduous hardy shrub or tree which bears elegant racemes of white Chestnut-like flowers in July. The second early round. will be ready for gathering in June and July. Clapp's Favourite. Comte de Lamy. spreading out the roots 1 ft. but let all cross shoots be removed. Avoid giving manure at all times. but a few may be named as most likely to give satisfaction. When the plants are strong enough they may be placed in their permanent . but they can be more easily gathered if a few small twigs are used to keep the haulm off the ground. and Golden Eagle for a late sort.—Wherever Apples are a success Pears will grow. and Josephine de Malines are all reliable for dessert. A good plan is to arrange the rows 10 or 15 ft. and another mulching applied when the weather becomes hot and dry. 3 or 4 in. but they are not particular as to position. however. If sown in successive lines the space between the rows should correspond with the height of the variety grown. Pears. and Royal George are all good under glass. to which tiffany or canvas can be attached. Pitmaston Duchess. in height do not require sticking. Beurré d'Amanlis ripens in August. and a stronger application afterwards if necessary. and may be raised from seed sown early in spring in slight heat. but directly the leaves fall is the time to perform the main work. and then covered with fine mould. light soil. Peas. so that they will be 1 ft. During the hot months the roots require a copious supply of water. When the plants are a couple of inches high draw the earth neatly round them. and when the stoning period is passed remove every alternate one. The roots should be carefully arranged at equal distances apart. is sufficient to start with. dwarfs 12 ft. The mulching should be raked off in the spring. Louise Bonne de Jersey succeeds in almost any soil and in any situation. then admit air freely. Dagmar. using the minimum strength at first. and covered with a sheet of glass. August. this may be continued until the fruit is nearly ripe. varieties. Beurré Giffard makes a fine standard.
loam and decayed leaves form a good compost for them. deciduous. As the seeds are very minute. Many of the species improve by age. Pelargonium. Some perennials. These cuttings will flower the first year. Philadelphus. and plant out at the end of May. long may be taken at any period—the middle of September is a good time. which will strike at any season in heat. arbours. to which they will cling. and in April and May for succession. Height. They flower at midsummer. They are easily increased by cuttings sown in sand under glass.—These most beautiful and profuse blooming hardy annuals will grow almost anywhere. they are divided into classes of Hardy. It blooms from May to October. Petunias. and a moist but well-drained position. and may be increased by small off-sets from the roots. 10 ft. or greenhouse. Tender perennials may be sown as directed above. Peas. and the plants transferred when strong enough to their flowering quarters. Height. which. suitable for trellis-work. which should not be disturbed for a year. Height. to 12 ft. but a mixture of loam and peat is most suitable. Arundinacea is the well-known perennial Ribbon Grass. Canariensis is the useful canary seed: it may be propagated from seed on any soil. see "Syringa. Perilla Nankinensis. The tuberous-rooted ones should be kept quite dry while dormant. or it may be sown in a sheltered position during August or September to stand the winter. loamy soil. Phacelia Campanularia. It is a good plan to mulch the roots with leaf-mould or well-rotted manure. forming large clumps or bushes. Moisture is best supplied by standing the pots up to the rims in water.—An American evergreen shrub. transplanting in the autumn to their flowering quarters. Perennials. harden off.. Carnations. it is easily grown from seed." Pernettya. and is easily raised from seed sown in spring. especially if placed under glass. 1-1/2 ft. or it may be sown in August and September in a sheltered position to stand the winter. and Tender plants. These are called evergreen perennials. 3 ft. or the covering of a mat or litter. Cuttings root readily in either soil or sand. Half-hardy plants require artificial heat to germinate their seed. make fine bedding plants for a summer or autumn display. They flower in July and August. For cultivation. Pergularia. except for its foliage.—Among the best of our flowering shrubs. They require good drainage and plenty of air and light while in a vigorous state. but usually they do not bloom till the second season. as soon as growth begins. rich blue. as for instance Antirrhinums and Pansies. Height." . Pentstemon. and increased by dividing the roots.—These are plants that die down during the winter. They may be sown during March and April in frames or a greenhouse.—These ornamental half-hardy perennials prefer a mixture of sandy loam and vegetable mould. or at any period of their growth. Hardy perennials do not require artificial heat to germinate the seeds. flower the first season. They require protection during winter. Height. Saxifrages. improves the plant. do not die down. such as is afforded by a cold pit. It will grow in any soil. It may also be increased by dividing the roots in spring. If sown between May and the end of August they will flower the following spring and summer. and must be gradually introduced into the open. light soil. frame. but spring up and produce new stems annually. When the plants are 2 or 3 in. It is increased by layers in September. P. etc. but they prefer a dry soil that is both rich and light. to 2 ft. The seed may be sown in April. Seeds sown in March or April.—A plant of little merit. A rich soil suits them best. and the root allows division. Old roots may be divided.—A hardy. high a few twigs may be placed among them. It flowers in July.—This may be grown on any damp or marshy soil. Some. Sweet. 6 ft. these should be placed under a handglass in sandy loam and leaf-mould. Seed may be sown from March to midsummer.—The shrubby kinds will grow well in any rich soil. The stock is increased by division of the roots. May also easily be raised from cuttings. Height. thrives best in sandy peat. Pot off singly. but retain their leaves. but are the most easily cultivated of all plants. if judiciously done. Half-hardy. and the more liberally they are gathered the longer the plants will continue to bloom. and prefers a light. Peppermint.—A superb. They bloom from June to September. Height. which is of a rich bronze purple. like all of its class. 8 ft. It may be grown in any good soil. etc.—See "Vinca. twining shrub.quarters. but will grow in any rich. 1 1/2 ft. it delights in partial shade. The flowers are produced in July. The seed should be sown as early in March as practicable. which. hardy annual. Height. Height. 2 ft. It may be raised in the same manner as other half-hardy annuals. Cuttings of the young side-shoots about 6 in.—P. and may be increased by layers or by cuttings placed under glass. Phalaris. Periwinkle. such as Pinks. which will grow in any soil. but care must be taken that they do not damp off. they should be covered merely with a dusting of the finest of soil. It bears a cream-coloured flower in July. Like annuals. producing a wealth of sweetly-scented flowers. but the plants should be kept constantly under glass. Flowers are borne in June.—Very fragrant twining plants. Periploca Graeca.—This charming hardy perennial is deserving of a place in every garden. when many will bloom the first season. at a temperature of from 65 to 75 degrees. 1-1/2 ft. Most of the hard-wooded varieties are more easily increased by cuttings from the roots. 1-1/2 ft. Height. 5 ft.
—Will live in almost any soil. Phormium Tenax.—A very pretty hardy perennial. and free-growing greenhouse everlasting shrubs. in height. Height. Height. It requires a rich soil and plenty of room for its widespreading branches. light soil is most suitable for the stove and greenhouse kinds. Phyteuma Hallierii. June or July is their flowering season. and may be propagated by dividing the roots. 3 ft. 1 ft. Phygelius Capensis. Flower in July. 3 ft. Height. It may be increased by seed or division. 20 ft.—As a tall specimen tree nothing is more graceful than the Corsican Pine (Pinus Laricio). ranging in colour from white to purple. with a little bottom heat. pots. Strobus Nana is a curious dwarf variety. 1-1/2 ft. light soil in a warm position.. It is increased by off-sets from the root. compact. Phillyrea. from 1 ft. 1-1/2 ft. Do not set the roots too deep. It is increased by suckers. as too much wet is injurious to them. Picotees." Pimelias. and is a fine lawn plant. Height. Do not give too much water. 1 ft. loamy soil suits them best. or by sowing the cones in spring. Its leaves. but must be given a well-drained position. In March re-pot them. Physalis (Winter Cherry ). July and August are their flowering months. P. placed in sandy peat. which are green in summer. Height. Alkekengi. Height. for mixed borders. bearing bunches of pretty black berries. Place them in light. and cover them with a handglass. but as much air should be given as is possible. 1 ft. Pimpernel. They are increased by pipings taken in May or June. Platycodon (Japanese Balloon Flower). Phytolacca Decandra (Virginian Poke). and can be readily increased by seed or division. The hardy kinds will grow in any soil. Francheti produces seed-pods over 2 in. 6 ft. The Argentea Aurea is also of dwarf habit. Height. The crust of the soil should be level with the collar of the plant.—For richness of colour and duration of bloom there are few plants that can rival either the annual or perennial Phlox. to 2 ft. These should be planted out in October." Pinguicula Grandiflora (Great Irish Butterwort). P. but let the collar of the plant be on a level with the soil. —A greenhouse herbaceous plant which succeeds best in rich loam. P. Towards the end of September they may be planted out in beds or potted off in rich. Drummondi for beds. to 5 ft. sandy soil. Flowers are produced from June to August. Protect the plant from damp in winter. Piping. Height. or shoots. long. Phlox. also by cuttings.—A very fine herbaceous plant. etc. The plant is propagated by seeds. but is hardy enough to be grown on a warm border. they flower in July.—This effective hardy perennial will grow in any rich. The Pinus may be increased by layers. They also bear division. If the pots are put into a frame the plants will require very little water during winter. but will thrive in any light soil. Height. It should occupy a cool position.—An American evergreen shrub which grows best in peat.—See "Anagallis. 2 ft. C. covering them lightly. and they must never lack moisture.—This consists in drawing out the young grass. using 8-1/2-in. to 4 ft. taken off in May. Physostegia. and the perennials may be increased by cuttings placed under glass. They may be grown from seed or young cuttings 2 in.—See "Carnations.—Hardy and elegant herbaceous plants. and are increased by seed. They may be raised either from seeds or from cuttings of the young growth. It gets its name from its leaves being set at regular intervals round the branches. and can be raised from seed sown in March. light loam. and the French perennials. It will thrive in any soil. and should receive bold treatment. Flowers in June. cuttings of which root freely under glass. Pinus. rarely exceeding 3 ft. blooms from May to August. They like a rich soil. like the ribs of an umbrella. It flowers in August. They are easily raised in spring from seed. 6 ft. in rather sandy soil. It is larger than that of the old Winter Cherry.—This effective border evergreen will grow in any ordinary garden soil. The most suitable soil consists of three parts sandy peat and one part loam. Height. Height. or the seed may be sown in autumn. Decussata. The trailing kinds are very suitable for small pots or rock-work. It may be grown in any damp soil and increased by division. 4 ft.—A rich. or by division.—This handsome. from May to July being the time for doing so. It has dark green shining leaves.—A greenhouse perennial bearing carmine and yellow flowers in June. after they have opened out. hardy bog-plant produces deep violet-blue flowers in August and September. It grows well in a mixture of sandy loam and peat. requiring a sandy soil. . change to a bright golden colour in winter. the Cherry-like fruit of which is edible and makes a fine preserve.—This evergreen climber is a good plant for training to the rafters of a greenhouse. Height. 2 ft. P. to 2 ft. but be well sheltered from winds. Its white flowers are produced in July. with good drainage. Height. and is quite hardy.—Ornamental hardy herbaceous plants.Philesia.—Very beautiful. from the joints of Pinks. They flower in August. Height. and does well everywhere. Cuttings will strike under glass. Phlomis (Lion's Tail). It flowers in August. In either case they must not be planted too deeply. Physianthus Albens. The Umbrella Pine ( Sciadopitys) is a very striking conifer. and may be increased either by layers or cuttings. A rich. but if large blooms are required rich earth is essential. Pinks. in diameter.
—Almost any soil will grow this useful fruit. Pot in equal parts of loam. Height. Plums. For growing on walls the following kinds may be recommended: Diamond. top the shoots. They are easily raised from seed sown in March. and other decorative designs. 4 ft. and Kirke.—See "Cephalotaxus. this hardy herbaceous perennial forms a pleasing spectacle when planted in moist soil under trees. peat. For pyramids and bushes. which must be stopped occasionally so that fresh side branches may be thrown out. 3 ft. long. 1 ft.") Polygonatum.—A very pretty. In exposed positions protection may be afforded by a row of damson trees. The bush form merely require the removal of any dead wood and of cross-growing branches. Any soil suits them. and water sparingly. They are easily raised from seed sown in March or April. 1 ft. Height. and Belle de Louvain for cooking. or May Apple).Platystemon Californicus. Poinsettia Pulcherrima. flowering in November.—A beautiful evergreen shrub for a greenhouse. Height.—These pretty evergreens will grow in any soil. Polygala Chamaesbuxus. Occidentalis is a charming greenhouse climber. Plant in a moist situation in a rich. A mixture of peat and chopped sphagnum is what it likes. Take the new growth off when it is 3 in. with a good bud or crown on each.—Sow the seed late in autumn in well-drained boxes of light. which of course must be kept at the desired length. it likewise makes a splendid pot-plant. and can be propagated in September by cuttings of half-ripened wood having a heal. Larpentae is good for a sunny border. central shoot. It flowers in March. P. Height. The pots are usually plunged in wet sand or ashes on a northern border. Sultan. from November to March. and Belgian Purple are good sorts. The single varieties only are florists' flowers. loamy soil. The hardy annual varieties of Polygala are obtained by seed sown in peat." Podolepis.—Hardy annuals bearing yellow and red and white flowers. The trees are frequently attacked by a small moth. and place it under glass in a propagating house. Capensis Alba is a greenhouse evergreen shrub. White Magnum Bonum. To increase it. but give enough to keep the plants moist. its blue flowers being produced in early autumn. P. and bring forth their flowers in August.—A stove evergreen shrub which produces lovely crimson bracts in the winter. and growing to a height of 2 ft. These flower at midsummer. 1-1/2 ft. Cuttings may be struck in peat in a rather warm temperature. in light soil: it bears terminal clusters of rich violet-purple flowers in September. and fresh soil given. Height. apart. The flowers. Prince Engelbert. Plumbago. grows best in a rather shady position in a loam and peat compost. Pond's Seedling. In pruning wall trees the main object is to get the side-shoots equally balanced. A pyramid-shaped tree is useful. Pleroma Elegans.—Hardy perennial border plants of an ornamental character and of the easiest culture. Many varieties are suitable for growing on walls or sheds. planted in a sandy soil. Richardsoni is most commonly met with.—Grown chiefly for its foliage and berries. The seed requires no artificial heat to germinate it. and syringe the leaves frequently. place under glass. This should be done late in the summer or in the autumn. and the trees washed in winter with caustic potash and soda. Podocarpus. A mixture of loam and peat is most suitable for their growth. and kept near the glass in a greenhouse. The situation should be somewhat sheltered. . variegated grass. In early spring cut down the branches to within three or four eyes of the old wood. Early Prolific. It flowers in April. These cuttings. In this case the fallen unripe fruit should be gathered up and burned.—This showy evergreen shrub needs a greenhouse treatment. ( See also "Solomon's Seal. where they are trained into fans. Poa Trivalis. known as the Plum Fortrix. Polyanthus. Height. It flowers in July. Polygala Dalmaisiana. 6 in. Coe's Golden Drop. Polemonium (Jacob's Ladder). During May and June the plant produces small white Dog-rose-like flowers. and produces its flowers in May. It may be increased from seed or by division of the roots. It is increased either by seed or division. which are borne in May or June. Young trees may be planted at any time. Height. Soil—three parts peat. Height. and needs but a minimum amount of attention.—A hardy evergreen trailing plant requiring a peat soil in which to grow. May is the time at which it blooms. Victoria. but the earlier it is done the better. P. Plant in sandy loam. It is propagated by cutting the roots into pieces several inches in length. 1 ft. and they merely require sowing in the open either in spring or autumn. and to prevent the growth advancing in the centre. A bush tree about 7 ft. and a little sand. and Jefferson for dessert. 1-1/2 ft. Height. in height is undoubtedly the best form of growth. but it must not be overlooked that until the trees are well established a great deal of fruit is necessarily lost by the severe pruning and disbudding which is required to bring the tree into shape. Plumbagoes require very little attention in winter. and bloom from June to August.—Pretty hardy annuals which thrive in a sandy soil. which eats its way into the fruit and causes it to fall. In orchards Plums should stand 20 ft. will form new plants. and sand. as cordons. 1 ft. The roots should be divided each year as soon as they have flowered. if laid aside for a day to dry and then planted under glass. light. cover it very lightly. which will cause it to throw out new ones. rich mould. P. Podophyllum Peltatum (Duck's Foot.—These pretty herbaceous plants are quite hardy. and is easily grown by training one straight. 6 in. give plenty of water to the roots. Height. dwarf-growing. Height. They flower in June. 2 ft. when the ground is friable. The Polyanthus is a species of primrose. one part turfy loam. are mostly white.
Allow one sprout to each tuber or set." Prunella Grandiflora. and are propagated by cuttings taken in autumn and planted in a sheltered situation. etc. is sufficient for others. The hardy kinds may be sown in the open. airy situation. and on these some rough mould so as to ensure perfect drainage. The soil used for potting should be moist. and a mixture of light loam. The seed may be sown at any time from March to July in a pot of two-year-old manure. Fuchsias etc. as it soon loses its germinating properties. At the beginning of February stand the tubers on end in shallow boxes. Pratia Repens (Lobelia Pratiana).—This pretty little creeping perennial is very suitable for the front of rock-work. Prince's Feather.—See "Ligustrum.—An ornamental hardy annual. It is necessary that the pots used be perfectly clean. Pot firmly. The shoots root of themselves and must be kept in check. Primroses. should be grafted on to the single ones. At the bottom of the pots place a few layers of crocks. The greenhouse varieties are among the most useful of our winter-flowering plants. if new. it is safer to pot it off in autumn and place it in a cold frame throughout the winter. peat for slowgrowing." Portulaca.—See "Arnebia. but not clammy. high ridge the earth up about them. and is propagated by division. and silver sand in sufficient quantity to make the whole porous for quick-growing. pick it off.—See "Papaver" and "Stylophorum. and are succeeded till cut off by frost." Prophet's Flower. and may be increased by dividing the roots or by seeds treated like other hardy perennials. and. putting the cuttings into light. as it retards the growth of the tubers. or by layers. A rather light. May be propagated by cuttings of the shrubs or the root.—The seeds of the hardy annual species of this genus may be sown in a sheltered open spot in spring. 6 in. like Ericas.—This requires a deep. bearing scarlet flowers in August. such as Pelargoniums." Primulas. and the Primrose.—A pretty hardy perennial. In order to supply water readily the pots must not be filled up to the rim. hard-wooded plants one-third of each pot should be occupied with drainage. rich soil. Potatoes. or rock-work. and expose them to the light to induce the growth of short. one-third its bulk of leaf-soil. bearing dense spikes of flowers from May to August. They may be planted at any time from the end of February to the end of March in rows 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 ft. Poppies. deep and from 6 to 9 in. otherwise they would absorb the moisture from the soil to the detriment of the roots. in a light. They will grow in any common soil. 2 ft. 6 in. producing tall spikes of dark crimson flowers and purple-tinted foliage. placing the sets 6 in. Lift the plant carefully so as not to break the ball of earth round the roots. It flowers in June. and stand them near the glass. It grows well in any ordinary soil. It requires a well-drained vegetable soil and all the sun it can get. 1-1/2 ft.—Great attention must be paid to this important gardening operation. Potting. hot sandy positions where scarcely any other plant would live. pot off into 4-1/2 in. It should be borne in mind that the seed must be new. hard-wooded ones. Give shade till the plants have recovered themselves. and left rough on the surface during the winter. The half-hardy annuals should be sown thinly in boxes during March and placed in gentle heat. dry soil where it can get a good amount of sunshine. suitable for a front border or rock-work. and fill in with mould round the sides. and in the case of hard-wooded plants ram the earth down with a blunt-pointed stick. purple sprouts. rubbing off the rest. There is a dwarf kind. or Pomegranate. and give the remaining ridges an additional covering of earth. loamy soil and a warm. the Polyanthus.—This genus embraces the Auricula. Height. Height. apart. Directly flower appears. Height. Its brilliant and striking colour admirably adapts it for small beds. leafmould. well manured and trenched. else they will choke other things. soft-wooded plants. 1 ft. They should be taken up and stored in October. Potentilla. These flower in March or April. 1ft. The roots may be divided as soon as the plants have done flowering. Tie a sheet of paper over the pot and plunge it in a hotbed. rich loam is most suitable for strong-growing plants. but not covering it with the soil. Height. 6 in. The shrubby kinds are well adapted for the fronts of shrubberies.. after which the leaves assume beautiful autumnal tints. asunder. When they are strong enough to handle. As soon as growth appears keep the ground well stirred with the hoe to prevent the growth of weeds.Plants succeed best in a rich soil. They flower at midsummer.—This strong-growing creeping perennial plant is not particular as to soil so long as it can enjoy plenty of sunshine. When the plants make their appearance remove the paper and place the pot in the shady part of the greenhouse. Though pretty hardy. soaked in water for several hours previously. They may be raised from seed. Harden off and plant out in May. and when the tops are 4 to 6 in. edgings. It is not particular as to soil. to 3 ft. pots. .—Handsome herbaceous plants with Strawberry-like foliage. and it will succeed in dry. They keep well this way. Flowers are produced in June. thoroughly drained. Sufficient moisture will be communicated to the seed by keeping the paper damp. It is self-propagating. Polygonum Brunonis (Knotweed). or the roots can be divided. which requires heat. rich mould. Camellias. If short of storage room dig up every other row only. as soon as the weather permits. Pomegranate. For all delicate. The double kinds of Punica. hard. soft-wooded ones may be left rather looser. Height. but a depth of 1-1/2 in.—See "Primulas. and merely requires sowing in the open in spring to produce flowers in July. Height. Calceolarias. It flowers in August. Privet. or fine." and "Streptocarpus.—Ground intended for Potatoes should be dug deeply in the autumn. Height.
It can be most freely multiplied by layers.—Valuable for soups and pies in winter. The cuts should be clean and level. being the most suitable time to do so. shortening the long roots to within 6 or 8 in. Height. 10 ft." Punica Granata Nana. It blooms in June. to remove any shoots that cross each other. They flower in July. and when a saw is used should be made smooth with a chisel and covered with grafting wax. It is raised from seed. Height varies from 6 in.—See "Cydonia. and continue in bloom till May.—The greenhouse kinds grow in any rich soil. as well as all useless and dead wood. or in the open during March and April for later growth. and cuttings will strike in sand under glass.—See "Heleniums. and in summer the young shoots are an excellent substitute for Asparagus. and can be increased by seeds or suckers.—Beautiful early-flowering trees. Pyrethrum. and to obtain a well-balanced head.—This charming bulbous plant may be grown in any light. see "Gourds. 6 in. the soil must be opened again the following season and the remaining roots cut through. and propagated by division at any time. Root-pruning has for its object the suppression of over-vigorous growth and the restoration of old trees to a bearing condition. late in summer. suitable for a moist. which turn to a golden yellow in autumn. care being taken not to injure the young fibrous roots. For their cultivation. where its long frond-like leaves. The soil in which it is placed should be a light.—Hardy perennials that require but little attention. and are increased by seeds sown in heat in February if wanted for early use. 4 ft. Prunus. Height. may be grown in any common soil.—A handsome hardy plant. to 3 ft. Puschkinia (Striped Squills). Young plants produced in this way in the autumn require the protection of a frame during the winter. Ptelia Trifoliata (Hop Tree ). They flower in April and May. The bulbs may be separated when the clumps get overcrowded. Pulmonarias (Lungworts). Height. In all cases as little wound as possible should be presented. rich loam. and to saw through two-thirds of the strongest roots. which will grow in any soil. rich mould. the end of February being usually suitable. The mode of procedure in the case of old or unproductive trees is to open the earth in autumn 3 ft. Pyrus Japonica. The hardy kinds are not particular as to soil so long as it is not cold and wet. 8 in. from the stem of the tree. Pumilum. or will bear dividing. Height. The crowns may be divided either in autumn or spring: each eye or bud will make a fresh plant. of the stem. after the worst of the frosts are over.—This is very suitable for planting on the borders of still waters." . It may be done either in August or in the winter when the sap is at rest. The opening is then filled in with fresh mould. produce a fine effect.—The main objects to bear in mind in Pruning any kind of bush or tree are to prevent a congested growth of the branches. and cutting away any bruised or injured roots before the trees are first planted out. and is propagated by layers.Pruning. Should the growth still be too vigorous. Height. If planted in a warm position it will begin to flower in March. after the tops have died down. and young cuttings planted under glass root readily. It consists in taking off all the small fibres.—A greenhouse deciduous shrub which flowers in August. Pyrola. especially for fruit-trees. but is rather hard to grow." Pumpkins. shady situation. but the former period is generally acknowledged to be the better. provided it is drained well. 1 ft.
It is propagated by seed sown as soon as it is ripe. Quinces. In orchards they should stand 1 rod apart. will take root. loamy soil. A good watering with liquid manure will swell the fruit to a large size. long. so as to let in light and air and form nicely shaped trees.Q Quaking Grass." Quercus Ilex. . The pruning should be done as soon as the leaves fall. mulched with leaf-mould. Cuttings of stout stems 6 or 8 in.—See "Briza.—A handsome evergreen Oak. Keep the branches well thinned out and cut them regular. delighting in a deep.—Plant in autumn in a moist but well-drained soil. and kept watered in dry weather. pegged down in the soil and detached the following year. but the surest method of propagation is by layers. firmly and deeply planted in a shady situation.
the young plants may be pruned early in November.—These troublesome pests which appear in the heat of summer. and store in sand in a cool place. apart. Some. 5 ft. the old bearing shoots are cut clean away. with lime or sulphur." Red Spiders. will flower the next season. and plant in rich soil. Alaternus and R. and set in groups of three in rows 6 ft. the second one to 2 ft. 8 in. Ranunculus. dried. and increased by seed. or by cuttings planted under glass in the shade. suitable for moist interstices of rock-work. producing long spikes of white flowers in June. if necessary. in height. while absorbing plenty of moisture. If taken in October. Suckers are drawn by the hand from the old roots any time between October and February. Rhamnus (Buckthorn). February. flowering in June. and at the end of August the tops of the tall ones are pinched off.—See "Jacobaea. They may be grown in any soil.—A rich. Follow on with sowings in the open till the middle of September. Cuttings will strike in sand under glass. and is increased by dividing the root. Seed may be separated from the fruit. Cover them with sand." Ramondia Pyrenaica. enriched with well-rotted cow-dung. Raphiolepis Ovata.. rather moist. and make most graceful plants for pot culture.. and by occasionally washing the walls. peat. such as R. and are very suitable for planting near the sea. Yellow Antwerp.—A pretty dwarf perennial. Retinospora Filifera. and sown early in February on a gentle hotbed. Rhodanthe (Swan River Everlasting). Sow at intervals for a succession. attain large proportions. pot. The Black Spanish and China Rose should be sown during August and September for winter use. Northumberland Filbasket. Raspberries. selected from the best semi-double varieties. though some prefer to do it in October. apart. As soon as the year's crop is gathered. They may likewise be increased by off-sets and by dividing the root. It is usual to cut one cane to the length of 3 ft. Height. Peat soil suits it best. They flower in May or June. so that the roots. When they are grown tall pinch off the tops. Seeds. Prick off into good rich mould. Height. and March. When the leaves have fallen all the suckers are drawn out and the canes pruned (about four being left to each root). the young canes are drawn closer together. or by training them in the shape of a fan on a south wall.. It flowers in May. During the height of summer it is in full beauty.—See "Lychnis. It may be grown in any light soil. to 12 in. hardy evergreen shrub. may be got rid of by constantly syringing the plants attacked. The canes are then tied and manure applied. and also for salads. but prefer a sheltered situation. Protect during winter with a covering of dry litter. Radishes should be liberally watered in dry weather. etc. placing four plants in a 5-in. Catharticus. Rampion. Prince of Wales. If grown from seed it takes two years before flowers are produced. will not rot through being continually in stagnant water.—These beautiful everlasting flowers are half-hardy annuals and are suitable for beds or ribbons. apart. and then with mould. A compost of loam. and the soil made rich and light some time before sowing commences.—See "Scale." Ragwort. February is probably the best time for planting. The plants are poisonous. placing them 2 or 3 in.—A large-growing. Red-hot Poker. Red Antwerp. the former reaching 30 ft. and sand is their delight. and White Magnum Bonum are all good sorts. Carter's Prolific. About May they are. Lift in November. Latifolius has handsome broad leaves. They may be propagated by layers or by seed. and thin out to 4 in. Height. and the latter 10 ft.—See "Tritoma. Rheum Palmatum. Train them and keep down suckers. It should be planted in a slanting position. moist.—Beautiful evergreen shrubs. covering the seeds lightly with fine mould.—For an early supply sow on a gentle hotbed under a frame in January. They produce their fruit on oneyear-old canes. but well-drained loam. R.R Radish." Red Scale. . It does well in rich loam. For succession sow thinly on a warm and sheltered border early in March.—Fine evergreen shrubs. sown early in October and kept growing during the winter. and the suckers that are exhausting both soil and plant removed.—The roots are used in cooking. It may be increased by division in spring. 4 ft. thinned out again. For winter use sow in April in rows 12 in. Water freely in dry weather. which wood is of no further use. but perhaps the best way is to tic them about equal distances apart round hoops supported by light sticks. deep and 4 or 5 in. which should be removed in spring before the foliage appears. loamy soil is most suitable for their cultivation. and a sunny situation. of hardy habit and quick growth.—This species of rhubarb makes an effective plant for the back portion of a border. apart.—These prefer a good stiff. Press the tubers (claws downwards) firmly into the soil. Ragged Robin. and the third to within a few inches of the ground. They thrive best in fibrous peat or a rich. The general way of training them is by tying the tops together. harden off by the middle of May. The claws may be lifted at the end of June and stored in dry sand.
—A pretty. or in a compost of sandy. 3 ft. Sow the seed early in spring in a slight heat. Ricinus. or Palma Christi (Castor-oil Plant. The seed should be sown early in spring in pans of peat soil. and flowers in March. where they will flower in autumn. and readily increased by cuttings. They may be propagated either by layers or cuttings. etc. then plant them out 4 ft. then harden off.—A hardy perennial having immense bronze foliage. 10 ft. but the ground must be well drained. and need to be frequently divided. while R. The best time to divide them is just after they have done flowering. be transplanted in spring. well-drained soil is its delight. and on dry soils should be planted in trenches. The colours vary from crimson to white. 1 ft. The best position for them is a sheltered one where they can get a moderate amount of sunshine to develop the flower-buds. evergreen. rich. Height. Rhododendrons may. harden off gradually. Large roots may be divided in autumn or early spring. and when the soil becomes dry stand the pans in water nearly up to the rims until the surface is moist. When the last of the crop has been pulled. They may also be propagated by cuttings. A light. Height. It flowers in June. If it is desired to shift their position spring is the best time. Robinia. Height. 4 ft. Rock Rose. Place the pans in a frame. 3 ft. Most of the Rockets give forth greater fragrance towards evening. while the Locust Tree ( Pseudo-Acacia) grows to the height of 40 ft.—Seed may be sown thinly during April in drills 1 ft. —A fine herbaceous perennial with very bold leaves. and placing large flower-pots over the plants to bleach them. flower in May and onwards. and it should have sufficient sun to ripen the wood. They are propagated by layers or seeds. 1 ft. if care be taken not to break the ball of earth round their roots.).—A pretty evergreen stove shrub. when they should be potted off. Height. It may be forced out of doors by covering the ground thickly with stable manure. Rhubarb. and are increased by layers. Height. It is increased from off-sets from the root. to 6 ft. In the greenhouse it should not be placed near the pipes. The annual and biennial kinds merely require to be sown in the open border. It may be sunk in the flower-border during the height of summer. Rhynchospermum (Trachelospermum) Jasminoides. turfy loam.—Plant in October in peat. Rhododendrons. After potting the seedlings remove them to a cooler house and keep them near the glass. The young shoots of R. Height. and while in bloom the plants are very handsome. peaty soil. It is more suitable for the greenhouse. The Pea-shaped flowers vary in colour from cream to purple. and the small wooded kinds by slips torn off close to the stems. They like plenty of moisture.." Rocket (Hesperis).—See "Gunnera. fork in a dressing of old manure. and are perfect gems for pot culture. but if forced in a frame the light need not be excluded. 2 ft.—See "Arabis." Rhus (Sumach). Rhubarb. apart in deeply trenched ground into which a good quantity of well-rotted manure has been worked. None but the earliest kinds should be selected for forcing. and flowering early in spring. from each other. and covered very lightly. the Rose Acacia (Hispida) reaching 10 ft. and put out at the end of May in a warm. which succeeds best in a compost of light loam and peat. It succeeds in sandy loam and peat. They bloom at the end of May.—All these shrubs have fine. Cuttings placed in sand under a handglass in heat will strike. 10 ft. and the soil kept constantly damp with water of the same heat. Used largely for winter bouquets. and produces in July deliciously fragrant white flowers at the ends of the branches. and placed under glass in heat. Height. Height varies. Thin out the plants 12 in. 3 ft. Those sown in March may be planted in the open in June. It thrives best in a moist. October. growing in any ordinary soil. and may readily be increased either by seed or division. planting them out again in the spring. 4 ft. growing in any soil. and it may be propagated by seed or by cuttings under glass. woody climber for the conservatory. and keep close in the frame till fresh roots are produced. They grow in any soil.—The foliage of these half-hardy annuals is very ornamental. though it may be grown in the open in summer.light soil." Rodgersia Podophylla. Rock Cress. Their flowering season is June. the next best being October. Height. but must be taken indoors before frost sets in. The temperature of the seed-pots should be kept at from 60 to 70 degrees. every portion of the root that has a crown will make a fresh plant. surmounted with fluffy pink seed-vessels. Height. July is its time for flowering. It is a fine plant for rafters or trellis. when desired. planted in sand. Rhodochiton—This evergreen climber makes a fine plant for trellis-work. Glabra Laciniata resembles a tree fern. rich soil. and March. A succession of bloom may be obtained by sowings made in August.—Lovely shrubs. A light. and prefer a warm situation. Cotinus are clothed with round leaves which change to bright crimson and orange. with a good proportion of decayed leaves and charred refuse.—Well-known shrubs. Pot off when strong enough to handle. and let them grow on till the following April. Chilian. to 1-1/2 ft. Rogiera Gratissima. flowers from May to July. . which is often trained to a single stem so as to form a standard. Fern-like foliage which changes colour in autumn. sheltered spot. Richardia Aethiopica. 8 ft. Height. Height. Ribes (Flowering Currants). The plants like a rich soil.—See "Cistus" and "Helianthemum. even after the flower-buds are well advanced. rich mould is best for it. apart. Lift it in September and winter in the greenhouse. They may be raised from cuttings either in autumn or early spring. It needs a good supply of water. to 10 ft.—The hardy perennials like a light. is of easy culture.
At midsummer it produces an abundance of greenish-yellow flowers. yet open and exposed to the sun. On this a good layer of fine mould should be placed. long. It likes a dry yet rich and light soil. if preferred. except in the case of those planted in spring. transplanting it in the autumn into a light. which will generally be found where the leaves are curled up.—See "Blackberries.—A hardy evergreen shrub which thrives in any rich soil. If the plants are standards they require to be firmly staked. as well as in spring-time. In the case of standards a covering of bracken fern or straw must be tied round the heads. Ruta Patavina (Rue of Padua). Great care must be taken not to expose the roots to the cold air. then spread them out carefully on top of the mould. Apply a top-dressing of farmyard manure to the beds before the frosts set in. but which retains a certain amount of moisture. but it may be continued with safety until the commencement of March. Pruning should be done in March. Height. 6 in. loamy soil.—See "Hibiscus Syriacus. The majority of climbing and pillar roses do not require to be cut back. is the most suitable. Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis). 3 ft." Rubus. of the spring's growth.—A good. After the first year of planting most of the artificial manures may. At the first sign of frost the delicate Tea and Noisette Roses need to be protected. Roses may be propagated by cuttings in the summer or autumn. Precaution is necessary not to plant too deeply. water freely in the evening. Three weeks after planting tread the earth again round the roots. if planted in spring." Rudbeckia (Cone Flower. It blooms in August and September. )—Hardy annuals yielding yellow flowers in July. It can be raised from seed. when the beginning of April will be early enough. dwarfs should have the soil drawn up over the crowns. Keep a sharp look-out for maggots in the spring. but five or six eyes may be left on those of stronger growth.—This hardy evergreen shrub is a species of Rue. 1 ft.—This grand white-flowered Poppy Tree is quite hardy. taken with 1 in. but naturally succeed best in deeply-worked. choosing a sheltered site. Cut away all of the wood that is unripe. Green fly can be eradicated with tobacco wash. Its fragrant purple flowers are produced in February. rich soil. 2 ft. Cuttings of the ripened wood. The slips should be 5 or 6 in. A fortnight before planting the holes should be dug out 1-1/2 or 2 ft.—This hardy evergreen shrub should occupy a dry and sheltered position. deep. will strike root freely. Cuttings may be struck under a handglass. deep. well drained. Dwarf growers should be cut back to within two or three buds of the previous year's growth. and will grow in any light. in no case exceeding 1 in. Cow manure is especially valuable for Tea Roses. above the mark which the earth has left on the stem. 4 ft.—See "Viscaria Coeli Rosa.—For rock-work this hardy perennial is very useful. Roses. but nothing is better than farmyard stuff. and may be increased by seed or by division. Height. or exhausted and dead. of the previous year's wood attached. When the ground is quite ready for their reception dip the roots in a pail of water. and tread it firmly. so that the roots do not come in contact with the manure. and will grow in any garden soil. They may be increased by division in October or November. These must be destroyed by hand-picking. Height. If the summer be dry." Rose of Sharon. and may be increased by division of the root. Ruta Graveolens. Rose Campion. Rose of Heaven. as this will both nourish and protect the roots. Height. or they may be loosely covered by straw. They may also be increased by grafting or by separating the suckers. They are readily grown from seed sown early in spring. Height. in which it flowers freely in August. well-manured ground. or cuttings may be struck under a handglass.Romneyi Coulteri. Ruscus Aculeatus (Butchers Broom). or in March in a frame or under a handglass. and plenty of old manure thrown in and trodden down. A little bottom-heat is beneficial. . The position should be sheltered. Fork it in carefully in the spring. it being only necessary to take out the useless wood. keeping them as near as possible at the depth at which they were previously grown.—A pretty hardy perennial which may be grown from seed sown in autumn. rich. rich soil. loamy soil. The latter part of October or November is the most favourable time for planting. It enjoys a good. In pruning standards aim at producing an equally balanced head. Mildew may be cured by sprinkling the leaves with sulphur while dew is on them. Height. 2 ft. fill in the earth. be used. Height. which object is furthered by cutting to buds pointing outwards. 3 ft.
curious both in leaf and flower.—This hardy evergreen shrub grows freely in any soil. sandy soil. keep the tubers dry till spring. 1 ft. Flowers are produced in July and August.—Sow the seed in any good garden soil—deep sandy loam is best—towards the end of April in drills 1 ft. The seed. in a moderately cool house having a moist atmosphere.S Saffron. Savoys. The leaves of S.—A hardy perennial. while the stove species require to be placed in heat. appears. Salvia. which may be readily raised from seed sown in March or April. should be sown early in spring. If grown out of doors the tubers must be lifted before frost sets in. Sarracenia. well worth cultivating. and are also used for flavouring soups. Heights vary. For early flowering raise the plants in the autumn. selecting the strongest first. It is most convenient to grow the rare and tender kinds in pots. but S. The silvery variegated variety (Variegata). and is propagated by division of the root. hardy annual trailers. Salpiglossis. high remove them to a nursery-bed. Height. from each other. Spring. and are easily propagated by seed or division.—See "Hypericum. They flower in August in the open. but prefers a moist one. John's Wort. forming a rosette.—See "Bulbocodium. rich soil or vegetable mould suits it best." Sanguinaria Canadensis (Bloodroot).—Useful deciduous shrubs. Ocymoides. light soil. apart. on account of its trailing nature. the pots may stand up to the rims in water for a while when the ground wants moisture. sandy soil. or Soap Plant. They may all be propagated by cuttings or by division. the shrubby varieties by cuttings of the young wood planted under glass in March. apart. and merely require ordinary treatment. A light but not over-rich soil suits them best. The seed may be sown in the open border early in spring. A rather light. is propagated by seed sown in July. They flower in June.—Very beautiful half-hardy annuals which are greatly prized for cut bloom. and young cuttings of the branching species root freely if planted under glass.—Interesting. The herbaceous kinds are increased by dividing the roots. Officinalis. They bloom in June and July. 2 ft. in gentle heat: to prevent it being washed away. The perennials are increased by seed or by division of the root. Propagated in spring by detaching rooted portions from the parent plant and planting them in moist. It requires a light. Let them remain till they are about 6 in. and thin the plants out to a distance of 6 in. and winter them in a frame or greenhouse. and when the plants are 2 in. shade. Height.—This makes a good window or cool greenhouse plant.—See "Arenaria.—These beautiful Alpine perennials delight in a light. St. and keep the mould only just damp until the foliage. Height. Height. light soil. and moisture. if stirred in water form a lather strong enough to remove grease spots. Saxifraga Sibthorpii is very . from 9 in. Coccinea and S. sandy loam. and is increased by cuttings. Height. and are increased by division. and it blooms in March. When the foliage fails. S. and easily grown in a rich. apart. Their flavour is greatly improved if they are frozen before being cut for use. Patens. It will grow in any soil. according to the kinds. 6 in. Santolina.—Sow the seed in March or April. in the centre of which spring up large violet-like flowers.—Curious herbaceous plants. Saintpaulia Ionantha. is fine for contrasting with others. Nigra Aurea has golden foliage. requiring to be grown in pots of rough peat. to 1 ft. It flowers in July." Salix Reticulata. and S. and wintered in a frame. Sauromatum Guttatum.—This useful herb likes a rich. Height. Calabrica make fine rock-work plants. 18 in. Sand Wort. 2 in. Height. as they require the protection of a frame in winter. They are prepared for table in the same manner as Parsnips. Salsafy (Vegetable Oyster). 6 in. The annuals and biennials may be sown in the open early in spring.—A dwarf creeping plant whose dark green leaves eminently fit it for the rock-work or carpet bedding. which follows the flowers. The roots may remain in the ground till required for use. Flower in June. which are most commonly met with in gardens. 1 ft. The tubers should be planted 5 in. They produce their golden and brown and yellow flowers in July. Saponaria. or by seed. Saxifrage. to 2 ft. The annuals may be sown either in autumn. also by division of the tuberous roots. It is a continuous bloomer. Sanvitalia. deep and 3 in. or in the open in April.—The leaves of this plant spread themselves laterally just over the soil. by cuttings. which is very minute. in well-manured soil. Sambucus (The Elder). then transplant them. and produces unattractive brown flowers in September. grow to a height of 2 ft. and is suitable for town gardens." Sage. Height. S. 2 ft.—These grow best in a mixture of sandy loam and peat or decayed vegetable soil. high. or be lifted in October and stored in the same way as Beet or Carrots. filled up with sphagnum moss.—Very showy flowers. or preferably on a hotbed at the same period. Pot the tuber in good loam and leaf-soil.
Height.—In order to protect seeds against birds. insects. 2 ft. The size of a seed is a nearly safe guide as to the depth at which it should be sown.. or it may be kept in an airy part of the house. but to have large roots they should be left till they are two years old. and when large enough to handle. For a succession of bloom sow in the open border early in the spring. It delights in a light. and is also useful for rock-work. Height. This vegetable is scraped and thrown into cold water for a few hours. and is quite hardy. when sown too shallow in a dry time. but it may be raised from seed sown in March or April in rows 1 ft.—An elegant and curious trailer. and remove all flower-shoots as they appear. or shoot. Thin out the young plants to 6 in. and it flowers in August.—See "Crambe Cordifolia. Height." and "Perennials. or they may be lifted in October and stored like Beet.—Red Scale may be easily overcome with a strong solution of soft soap applied with a sponge. etc. light soil is most suitable for their growth. the seed is apt to rot. It requires a rich. In dry weather give a liberal quantity of liquid manure. The seed should be sown evenly.—Extremely beautiful and showy annuals. 1 ft. 6 in. Scilla roots are poisonous. If the plant is badly attacked it is best to destroy it. it is hardy. and sand.—This well-known hardy perennial is suitable for pots or rock-work. will soon make root. and keep the young plants in a frame or greenhouse throughout the winter. Vegetable seeds. White Scale is harder to deal with. Scutellaria. The ground should be light. which is best grown in a loamy soil. apart. .—Two of the most important points in the sowing of seed are the proper condition of the ground and the regular and uniform depth at which the seed is sown. producing abundant spikes of Izia-like flowers about 2 ft. apart. They are hardy. As to the time for sowing. Seeds require light. to 6 in. They make good rock-work plants. Schizopetalum. and may often be seen growing on the roofs of cottages and on walls. They require but very little water. one from the other.") Scale. and the pips of Apples and Pears for double that time. The greenhouse varieties merely require protecting in the winter. and sheds its seed freely. and are easily raised from seed. S. and moisture for their germination.suitable for the lower and damper parts of rock-work.—See "Statice. wet ground. It may be increased from seed sown in April. and rodents. They bloom in June. the Protection of. such as Haricot Beans and Peas. see "Annuals. and in all cases should be freshly dug so as to communicate air and moisture: it should be neither too wet nor too dry. Sarmentosa (Mother-of-Thousands) is a fine hanging plant for greenhouse or window. Scillas (Squills). and is readily increased by division or cuttings. These should be planted in sandy loam and old brick rubbish. They may perhaps be ready for use in August. Scorzonera. General height. Height. 1 ft. or Kaffre Lily ). The seed may be sown at any time between March and midsummer.—Very useful spring-flowering bulbs. Siberica especially looks well when grown in pots with Snowdrops. They all bear division of the root. Umbrosa (London Pride) makes a neat border. (See also "Cephalaria. and transplant in February or March into well-trenched. and do well in any position in light soil." Sedum (Stonecrop). rich soil in rows 2 ft. while very small flower-seeds merely require to be just covered. 1-1/2 ft. light soil. asunder. should be used.—The hardy kinds are well known. where it will bloom in June. Scabious." Seeds. air. or sandy loam and leaf-mould. Cuttings." Seakale. S. there may not be sufficient moisture to cause it to sprout. which grow freely in common soil.—See "Glaux. 3 in. To get perfection of bloom they require deep planting. such as that of Quassia and Gentian. 1 ft to 3 ft. Sea Cabbage. Height.—This singular and delightfully fragrant annual does best in a mixture of loam. Beans and Peas of all kinds should be sown about a couple of inches deep. bitter liquids.—A most lovely autumn-blooming plant. Keep the plants to one crown. The more tender kinds are suitable for the greenhouse." "Biennials. after being laid aside for a day or two to dry. The hardy perennials flower in July. Cropping may commence after the roots have been planted two years. Height. Sea Lavender.—These plants will grow in any good soil. then boiled in the same way as Carrots and Parsnips. They flower in April. They flower in July and August. transplant in the autumn. 2 ft.—Sow in March in light soil in rows 18 in. Scyphanthus. For instance. The most favourable time for seed-sowing is just before a gentle rain. mostly 4 in. When mixed with Crocuses and Snowdrops they produce a very charming effect. A rather poor. soak them in water containing 20 or 25 per cent. of mineral oil.—Ornamental and floriferous hardy biennials. For early flowering sow the seed in autumn. Height. but some grow as high as 1-1/2 ft. place in a greenhouse. Seed-Sowing. peat." Sea Milkweed. For soaking the finer seeds. Sow the seed in pots in the spring. should be soaked for twelve hours. and are easily increased by off-sets. Schizostylis Coccinea (Crimson Flag. It is suitable for pot-culture or planting outdoors. heat. If sown too early on cold. sandy soil. Thin the plants out to about 7 in. S.—The readiest way of propagating this useful vegetable is by off-sets. apart and the plants 15 in. Height. Sempervivum (Houseleek). Syringe frequently with strong soapsuds heated to 120 degrees. It flowers in June or July. plant out in the open border. They may remain in the ground till wanted for use. deep. Schizanthus. more may be given when they are in flower. and in such a condition that the young roots can easily penetrate it. in the rows. high.
Fine for table decoration. The seeds are sown on a hotbed in spring. 3 ft. Skimmia.—Plant the bulbs in November. 4 ft. Irish Yews. and freely water the plant in summer. 1 ft.—Deciduous shrubs may be transplanted at any time during late autumn or winter when the ground is not too wet. and in the morning they may be gathered up and dropped into strong brine. rich soil.—Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria Imbricata)—mix wood ashes and burnt refuse with the soil. In July. In April and May it produces pearly-white flowers. It blooms in April or May.—A sharp watch should be kept over all slugs. and constant visits paid to the garden at daybreak for their destruction.. Height. Cupressus Lawsoniana Erecta Viridis. apart.—To prevent snails crawling up walls or fruit trees daub the ground with a thick paste of soot and train oil. and covered with a handglass. with the exception of about 1 in. Sidalcea. having oval leaves. Silene (Catchfly).Senecio Pulcher (Noble Crimson Groundsel ). potted off when strong enough. There is no . S. Snails. but when necessary the crowns may be divided in autumn. Slugs. Shrubs for Lawns. Height. all of which. A light. which is moderately hardy. delighting in a light.—See "Mimosa. The shrubby sorts are increased by cuttings planted under a handglass.—See "Trifolium Repens. well-drained soil are needed for this flower. It is a lovely plant for rock-work. and preferably with a heel of old wood.—A hardy. Sow the seeds of the annual varieties early in April where they are intended to bloom. when the tops are dying down. Vervaeneana. 6 in. will grow anywhere.—This hardy annual somewhat resembles the Cucumber. but is scarcely worth growing except as a curiosity. Malvaeflora bears beautifully fringed. It is a climber.—A light loam suits this plant. but wood ashes. The Cercis tree is also well adapted for lawns. It is also increased by the rootlets. Silene Pendula. It is readily increased by cuttings. such as good loam. or in February or March. and the bulbs 6 in. Thujopsis Delabrata." Shallots. The dwarfs make fine rock-work ornaments. Height. rich soil suits it best. but in wet weather the lime soon loses its power. It is very useful for cutting. rich. Shamrock. and dibbling them into light soil. A mixture of peat and loam or leafmould and sandy loam suits it. Candida has pure white flowers closely arranged on the upper part of the stems. They will grow in any good soil from seed sown in autumn and protected during the winter.—Elegant plants. and keep a sharp look-out for slugs. Semperaurescens. taking care to spread the roots well out. 3 ft. which produces during July and August large deep orange-yellow flowers resembling a Sunflower. Senna. or charcoal powder with a little guano.—Neat-growing. 2 in. The soil should be moist.—A greenhouse climbing plant that is admired for its foliage rather than its bloom." Shortia Galacifolia. and transferred to the open border early in June. 3 ft. Yucca Recurva (the best hardy plant for vases). Flowers are produced in June and July. slightly notched at the margins. but not sunny weather being most suitable for the operation. Sicyos. and can be increased by dividing the root. in rows 9 in. Cuttings of shrubs or trees may be taken in September. Height. dwarf evergreen shrubs having Laurel-like leaves. If fresh cabbage leaves are strewed about in the evening the slugs will congregate under them. It may be planted in early autumn or spring. Silphium Aurantiacum. but not wet. It may be propagated by cutting the roots into pieces 5 or 6 in. and flowers in August. Height. is a good length for the cuttings.—Very pretty hardy perennials. Bladder. Standard Rhododendrons. 4 ft. warm. which turn to a brilliant crimson during the autumn and winter months. The flowers are produced in autumn." Sensitive Plant. animal manure does not agree with them. when sown in the autumn. of sand on top.—A warm position and a deep. Keep the temperature of the house up to 60 degrees throughout the winter. healthy soil. Standard and Pyramid Hollies. Sisyrinchium Grandifolium(Satin Flower. 5 to 8 in. Train the shoots up string. should be buried. which send up small growths in spring. to 1-1/2 ft. Height. which is fatal to them. Protect from damp and frost. They rejoice in a clean. It does not like being disturbed. Evergreen shrubs may be moved either early in autumn or in April or May. one from the other. Height. S. but thrive best in peat and loam. The roots of the herbaceous kinds may be divided in spring. and producing a profusion of scarlet berries in winter. lay them in the sunshine to dry. placed in a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould with 1/2 in. Height. Yucca Gloriosa (a perfect picture). satiny pink flowers. Shrubs. long. or they may be increased by division of the roots. The ground may also be dusted with fresh lime. Thujas Orientalis. or Rush Lily ).—See "Colutea. Smilax. lift the bulbs. They succeed in any ordinary soil. damp. somewhat Campanulate in form. Keep the soil just damp and give shade. and are propagated by cuttings placed in heat under glass. creeping Alpine evergreen." Sheep Scabious. makes a pleasing show of pink flowers in the spring. and it delights in partial shade. Thujopsis Borealis (of taller growth). during the autumn and winter it does not need much moisture. It flowers in July.—A good and hardy border perennial.—See "Jasione. of easy culture. may be used. then store them in a cool place.
4 in. Throughout late summer and autumn it produces masses of golden flowers. otherwise the cold. leaving the surface soil dry and the roots of the plants unnourished. If this is done in the autumn or early winter to a new garden.—See "Achillea. Height. rich soil. below the surface. If the clods are turned over the grass will rot and help to improve the ground." Snowball Tree. Though suitable for certain fruit-trees and a few other things. and let 2-in. It increases very rapidly. make V-shaped drains. say about 2 ft.—Loam is a mixture of clay and sand. and about one spade deep. even by digging among the roots.—See "Viburnum. Plants having a soft or woolly foliage should never be wetted overhead.—See "Fritillarias. and one copious application is far better than little and often. and hold water. or 5 in. 2 ft. Soot-Water. fine ashes or coarse sand thrown over the rough clods after trenching will greatly improve it. and may be increased by dividing the root in the spring. damp earth will rot the roots of the plants.—For room and window plants soot-water has this advantage over coarse animal manures. so as to loosen and expose the soil as much as possible to the action of the air. or in leaf-mould with a liberal addition of sand. Height." Snowberry. deep. It should be applied in a clear. but should not be sprinkled over the leaves in a hot sun nor in cold weather. it is best to dig it deep. rich soil. Hoeing must be constantly attended to. but those with hard and shiny leaves may be freely syringed.—A graceful hardy plant bearing white pendulent flowers on long curving stems. The plants should not be disturbed. It is easily made by tying a little soot in a coarse canvas bag and immersing it in a pail of water. Should the soil be clayey.—See "Halesia. few flowers will grow in it. or other porous substances.—These small herbaceous perennials should find a place in all Alpine collections. or chalk and loam. to 6 ft." Snowflake. especially when in full growth. that while the latter are unhealthy and apt to taint the air. Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum Multiflorum). Plant freely in light.—These are most effective in clumps." Snow in Summer. They grow best in sandy peat. Marl is a compound of chalk and clay. and they require a moderate amount of moisture. Should the ground be clayey.—A useful hardy perennial for the back of borders." Soil and its Treatment.—See "Antirrhinum. Watering the plants carefully is of great consequence. Soldanellas. They flower from March to May. both to prevent the soil becoming exhausted of its nourishment by the rapid growth of weeds. thin state to plants in bud or in full growth .—See "Arabis. The tender annual varieties may be sown on a hotbed in spring. some of which have ornamental foliage. and when the latter abounds it is called light. sheltered situation. Height. 1 ft. Water may be given to the roots at any time. Avoid treading it down as much as possible. and leave it in large clods to the pulverising action of the frost.—See "Leucojum.remedy so effectual for their destruction as hand-picking. pipes lead to a deep hole made at the lowest part of the garden and filled with brick rubbish. Digging should be done when the ground is fairly dry. through which the water may drain. The manure may be forked into the soil in the spring." Snapdragon. Cuttings planted in sand under glass strike readily. the former is purifying and has no unpleasant smell. They may be planted at any time from September to December. Solidago (Golden Rod). The soil in which they are grown should be light and rich. Flowers in May. Snowdrop Tree. and placed in the border at the end of May in a dry. after which it is easily raked level for spring planting.—Showy greenhouse shrubs. Drainage is one of the most important considerations in the cultivation of flowers. and left alone for three or four years. when they may be taken up and divided. It is not over-particular as to soil. 3 ft. When the former predominates it is termed heavy loam. Solanum. 2 ft." Snowdrops (Galanthus). about 3 in. Height. where they will flower in June. over the roots of trees and plants in the autumn to keep them warm and moist. Evening or early morning is the best time. in a shady position or under trees. and because when the surface becomes hard and cracked the rain runs through the deep fissures. Mulching consists in spreading a layer of stable manure. Snake's Head Lilies. Trenching is the process of digging deep. and upwards." Sneezewort. They grow best in a light.—See "Symphoricarpus. new land thus treated will not require manuring the first year. They may be increased by dividing the roots in April.
—A hardy perennial which will grow in any soil. For forcing. thriving best in loam and peat. 3 or 4 ft. Spartium Junceum(Yellow Broom). Cut the leaves frequently. delicate white flowers in June. Sorrel. If the flowers are dried they will keep their colour for a considerable time.—See "Trientalis. but rather dwarfer and compact in growth.—May be grown in any moist situation in sandy soil. apart." Star of Bethlehem. 6 ft. if sown in March. keeping the soil fairly moist. and are not particular as to soil. the herbaceous varieties by division of the roots in autumn. will produce flowers in July. Sphenogyne Speciosa. The annuals. thin out to 1 ft." Spigelia Marilandica.—See "Abies. from May to August.—A greenhouse evergreen climbing plant. Southernwood (Artemisia Arborea). apart Sow Perpetual Spinach or Spinach Beet in March in drills 1 ft.—Sow in March or April in any garden soil. —An exceedingly handsome and attractive greenhouse evergreen shrub. May is its flowering season. and thin the plants out 9 in. rich one is preferable. but it is best to sow it in heat in March." Stachys Coccinea. 5 or 6 in.—See "Commelina" and "Tradescantia. then bringing it into the warm house. if potted early in the autumn. Height.—An elegant hardy annual. Height. They will bloom in March or April.—Closely allied to the Ixias. Sow the seed early in spring on a gentle hotbed in loam and peat.—For summer use sow the round-seeded kinds at intervals of two or three weeks from February to the end of July in rows 1 ft. They may then be removed indoors and forced rapidly. New Zealand Spinach may be sown in the open during May. and may be increased by cuttings placed under a bell-glass or in a warm pit. harden off. 3 ft. keeping the roots moist. by layers. if peat cannot be obtained. Sparaxis. 1 ft. pots. Spiraeas. Statices require a good amount of water. supplying them with an abundance of water. Their elegant flower spikes are invaluable for bouquets and table decoration. and may be made to flower at Easter by potting it in rich. It forces well. and produces bunches of fragrant. when a fresh crop will be produced.—The greenhouse and frame varieties succeed best in sandy loam and peat. though a moist. Height.—This beautiful free-flowering shrub will grow in any garden soil. or by cuttings taken in autumn. 3 ft. Invaluable for pot-culture. Spiraea Aruncus. and bears division. pot. plunge in ashes in a cold frame. being the general growth. and may be propagated by cuttings in loam and peat under glass. Stauntonia Latifolia. The plants may be forced for winter use. ." Spergula Pilfera. choosing the warmest spot for its growth. Protect from frost and wet in the winter. 2 ft. Height.—Any soil suits this odoriferous bush. and. is very valuable for winter decoration. The hardy herbaceous kinds are very suitable for the front of flower borders. cover with the finest of soil. plant the clumps in 6-in. Spiraeas bloom at different periods. Pull before it runs to seed. apart. and is propagated by seeds. Height. deep. but keep the roots moist while they are growing. Height. Staphylea Colchica(Mexican Bladder Nut). 1 ft.—Placed in the open ground these make splendid plants. Spider Wort.during the summer months. It flowers in August. For indoor cultivation plant four to six bulbs in a 5-in. light soil.—This scarlet hardy annual is fine for bees. equally beautiful and varied in colour. and it is readily increased by cuttings or by division. and thin out to a distance of 3 or 4 in. It is desirable to cut away the flower-stems and to divide the roots every two or three years. It may be propagated by suckers from the roots. It may be grown in any soil from seed sown in March or April. well-drained. the seed should be soaked for twenty-four hours before it is sown. Spruce Firs. Stachys Lanata. and keep them in a cool frame until they are well rooted.—A hardy evergreen shrub which will grow in any soil. Height. 10 ft. In dry weather give a liberal supply of manure water. in rich. Specularia Speculum. on a sheltered border. When making full growth remove them to a sunny window or conservatory. It flowers in July. withholding water till the plants appear. Cuttings may be struck in sand under glass. to plant it out in June. after hardening it off. Height." Statice (Sea Lavender). Star Flower. apart.—See "Ornithogalum. The bloom is produced in July. 1 ft. and vary in height. to 1-1/2 ft. shaded from the sun. apart.—See "Venus's Looking-Glass. 1 ft. and water them carefully.—From August to October this hardy perennial produces tubular crimson and yellow flowers. placing it in a cold frame till the middle of January. The shrubby kinds are increased by layers or cuttings of the young wood. It finds a congenial home in damp peat. For winter use sow the prickly-seeded variety in August and September. and transplant at the end of May to a soil composed of loam and leaf-mould. and may be freely increased by seeds or division. It is of little value. If the ground is hot and dry. but thorough drainage must be ensured. For outdoor cultivation plant them early in September. Sparmannia Africana. which needs a peat and loam soil and plenty of room for its roots. loamy soil. Spinach.
2 ft. 1 ft. Auguste Nicaise. they will flower in the autumn. Remove from the old plants all runners not required for new beds before they take root. It flowers in May. Height. It is therefore more suitable for a cool house than the open air. only a small amount of moisture should be given in winter.—The soil most suitable for the growth of this fruit is a rich. It requires a light. see "Fragaria Indica. and merely requires the same treatment as other perennials. thin out to 9 in. It likes a rich soil. one part leaf-mould. and is increased by cuttings struck in heat. sandy soil is indispensable for its growth.—See "Arbutus. When the plants have several leaves pot off singly in vegetable loam and river sand. which root readily under glass if kept shaded. If the following winter be severe they must be protected with mats." Strawberry Tree. BROMPTON. It may also be increased by division. and occasionally a little manure-water may be given. Seed sown in February in slight heat will produce plants for flowering in July. Should it be desirable to transplant them to another part of the garden. Lord Suffield. if sown in June or July they will flower during the following June. with an eastern aspect. March. Young cuttings may be struck in sand. and during winter maintain a temperature of 55 degrees. GREENHOUSE OR SHRUBBY species grow best in a mixture of light soil and sand. Height. Some growers give supports to the fruit by means of forked-shaped pegs. They bloom in July. and Samuel Bradley are excellent sorts. and bearing from July to September large light blue flowers. 9 in. When 2 or 3 in. Height. April." Streptocarpus (Cape Primrose). 1-1/2 ft. Height. Spread out the roots and avoid deep planting.—See "Sedum. Any desirable varieties may be propagated by cuttings. July or early in August is the best time to make new beds. In March cut it into shape. Gunton Park.—Sow very thinly during the first week in May in a rich.—This pretty evergreen twining plant is most suitable for the greenhouse. Stenactis (Fleabane). and is propagated by off-sets.—A hardy perennial which produces bright yellow flowers in August. or leaf-cuttings may be taken under a bell-glass. but owing to the late period at which it flowers its blooms are liable to be cut off by frosts. OR TEN WEEKS' STOCKS. Height. to 1-1/2 ft. and it is also increased by division.—See "Mathiola Bicornis. Height. Grow slowly in small pots. and in February put them in their flowering pots. 9 in. or they may be propagated by dividing the plants. Royal Sovereign. Height. unless the warmest and most sheltered position be assigned to it.—This plant is a greenhouse perennial. During the summer syringe it frequently to keep off red spider. and throughout the summer and autumn. high. from plant to plant. Stonecrop. showing great variety of colours. 10 ft. Height. and most attractive in the border. Those taken out may be re-planted in the flower border. Stocks— ANNUAL. rich soil. and flourishes in a mixture of loam and leaf-mould. Give plenty of air and shade them from the sun. adhesive loam. During growth it needs a liberal supply of water and to be kept near the glass. Streptosolen Jamesoni. 10 ft. The flowers are produced from October to December. but if the ground be not then available runners from the old plants may be planted in peat on a north border and lifted with good balls of earth to their permanent bed in the spring. 6 in. Stephanotis. President. and May for succession. and a little silver sand. or Poppywort). In transplanting reject those plants having a long tap-root: they generally prove to be single. from white to violet and crimson. Keep a sharp look-out for snails and slugs. King of the Earlies. Height.It flowers in April. The soil should be rich. Sir Joseph Paxton. and re-pot it as soon as new growth starts. Set them firmly in rows 2 ft. apart and 18 in. Stylophorum (Celandine Poppy. or Intermediate Stocks are sown in March or April. The plants like plenty of water. sandy border. and is increased by cuttings planted in sand under glass. apart.—A handsome herbaceous perennial which is quite hardy. light. 2 ft. Imperial. deep." If Emperor. Stokesia Cyanea. In dry seasons liquid manure is highly beneficial. March or April will be found the best time to remove them. with a gentle heat. as they exhaust the crown. those sown in May will continue to flower till Christmas. Sternbergia Lutea. NIGHT-SCENTED STOCKS.—A hardy border plant with long spiny foliage. and use liquid manure till they begin to flower. A light and rather rich soil or vegetable mould suits it best." Strawberries. They may be grown from seed. and cuttings of these Stocks root readily under glass. —During May and June this hardy and handsome plant produces fine yellow . The seed may be sown early in March. Another sowing may be made in August and September.—A good compost for this greenhouse evergreen shrub is two parts sandy loam. It may be increased by dividing the roots in spring. Vicomtesse Héricart de Thury. For Ornamental Strawberries. and is of neat habit. that sown in March or April will flower in August and September. Noble. Shade the plants till they are established. 1 ft.—Showy hardy perennials which make fine bedding plants. keeping the ground moist until it has germinated. A rich. Stipa Pennata (Feather Grass). while others lay straw down to keep the fruit free from grit. but need good drainage. Stobæa Purpurea. which is produced in great quantities.—One of the most graceful of our ornamental grasses.—Sow the seeds in February. from each other.
and S. Height.—See "Peas. Sweet. Height varies from 4 ft. and can be increased by seed sown in autumn or early spring. 4 ft.—See "Scabious." Sweet Scabious.—Ornamental shrubs requiring a light soil for their cultivation. S.—See "Rocket. 1-1/2 ft. Cuttings of the young growth planted in sand under glass strike readily. Sweet William. are hardy. —A graceful and charming cool greenhouse plant. Sunflower. They can be raised with little trouble from seed sown thinly at any time between March and midsummer where they are to bloom. but any of them may be grown in a tolerably good soil." Swan River Daisy. but to have them to perfection they should be placed in light. They bloom in August." Sweet Rocket. Thistle-shaped hardy annual flowers. or cuttings may be taken either in spring or autumn." Sweet Peas. Height. to 10 ft. It accommodates itself to any soil. 2 ft. Height. 4 ft.—See "Helianthus. Height.—See "Alyssum. with Fern-like evergreen foliage and pure white flowers. Swallow Wort.flowers. Height." Swainsonia Galegifolia Alba. which are borne from April to November. June is the month in which they flower. They may be raised in any garden soil from seed sown in March or April. 3 ft. and may be increased by division. light one. Japonica has Snowdrop-like flowers. Syringa (Lilac. and may also be increased by dividing the old plants in spring.—A handsome species of St. Symphoricarpus (Snowberry). Height. Peter's Wort.—See "Brachycome. The shrubs will grow in any ordinary soil.—See "Asclepias. Obasa Lilyof-the-Valley-like scented flowers. 1-1/2 ft.)—There are many choice varieties of these favourite shrubs.—Sweet-scented. loamy ground mixed with a little old manure and sand. Styrax." Sweet Sultan. even thriving under the shade of trees." Swamp Lilies. and readily propagated by suckers." Sweet Flag. 1-1/2 ft. Symphytum Caucasicum. They produce their flowers in July. and deservedly favourite border plants. which are very useful for cutting. They are propagated by layers or by suckers from the root.—See "Acorus. They are best propagated by layers. and will flower in August. which are produced abundantly. which may be grown in any good soil. ." Sweet Alyssum. to 12 ft.—See "Zephyranthes.—Hardy perennials. They will grow in any soil or situation. Height. The soil most suitable for it is a mixture of loam and sandy peat.—Well-known hardy perennials. They bloom in May or June. but prefers a rich.
—See "Buphthalmum. Radicans will grow in the open against a wall. which may be sown either in autumn or spring. to 30 ft. and may also be increased by division. they therefore need greenhouse care. as they need protection in winter. The China varieties are somewhat tender.—Effective little perennials for rock-work. sandy soil.—Pretty greenhouse evergreen shrubs which produce pink flowers in July. and placed in the open at the end of May in a rich. Thymus. the flowers being produced in July. and when sufficiently large and strong. They require a rich. It flowers in July. peat.—A fine climbing plant with handsome foliage and an abundance of fine yellow flowers. Thladianthe Dubia. 3 in. Tagetes (French and African Marigolds). Thalictrum. place in a cold frame to harden. but will grow in any rich. growing best in a light. Syringe frequently in warm weather to induce a quick growth. They may be propagated by cuttings of the roots placed in sand under a handglass." Thumbergia. 6 ft.—Ornamental evergreen shrubs of a twining nature. the plants gradually hardened off. Thrift. needing a greenhouse for their cultivation. it is best to raise them by seed. to 6 in. loamy soil mixed with a little sand. Height. but they are only halfhardy. Height. and plant out at the end of May in rich soil. They may all be propagated from seed or by cuttings. and. The Biota Elegantissima is one of the most unique hardy shrubs cultivated. suitable for the backs of borders.—Half-hardy annuals. The hardy kinds like an exposed position. and makes a fine pot-plant." Tellima Grandiflora.—A beautiful twining shrub belonging to the Passiflora family. 2 ft. the Chinese Arbor Vitae (Biota Orientalis) is most desirable. They grow well in any light soil from seed sown in spring or autumn. Another effective yellow variety is the Semperaurescens. 4 ft. and may be propagated by cuttings planted in the open either in spring or autumn. Height. No special treatment is required. 20 ft." Tecoma. its flat. As the plants suffer by division. Height.—A feathery-foliaged hardy perennial. Thermopsis Montana(Fabacea). 11 ft. as is evidenced by its luxuriant growth along the parades at Eastbourne.—This hardy herbaceous plant will grow in any ordinary garden soil. and may be grown from seed sown in heat (65 to 75 degrees) early in spring.—This hardy perennial produces spikes of yellow Lupin-like flowers from June to September. Tetratheca.—Hardy Fern-like perennials.T Tacsonia. Height. but prefer a moist situation.—Neat feathery plants. 1 ft. Cuttings of young shoots placed under glass in a sandy soil will strike. spray-like leaves are bright green above and silvery below.—See "Armeria. —A hardy and very ornamental perennial with round bronzy foliage and spikes of white flowers at midsummer. 1 ft. very elegant when in flower. They flourish best in a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould. One of the most beautiful of all evergreens is the Thuyopsis Dolabrata. or loam and peat. rapid-growing climbers are extremely pretty when in bloom during June. and is easily raised from seed or increased by division. Height. light soil. Height. Height. Their flowers are produced in July and August. Cuttings of these should be placed in sand under glass. when they will flower in August. and September. mostly of conical shape. which retains its colour throughout the winter. Cuttings of the young wood planted under glass in a sandy soil will strike. It is a quick grower. useful for mixing with cut blooms. To increase it. They thrive in any soil. Telekia. The soil should be light and rich. T. Tansy. . 1-1/2 ft. Sow on a hotbed early in spring.—Very decorative conifers. when properly treated. Height. light soil. The hardy kinds will grow in any soil. The greenhouse and stove varieties require a soil of loam and peat.—These slender. and sand. and deserve a place in the garden. dry. Taxus. They flourish in a soil consisting of equal proportions of loam. Thuya (Arbor Vitae). it delights in a heavy soil. It should be provided with a rich soil.—See "Yew. and require protection from frost. by cuttings or division. Teucrium Scorodonia. divide the roots. but a warm situation is needed to make it flower. Cuttings strike readily. 8 ft. They are easily increased by seed sown in spring. pot off. Quite hardy. 1 ft. as the flowers are produced upon the lateral shoots. to 10 ft. Height. or to be planted in a warm situation. Tamarix. it requires frequent stopping. rarer kinds should be grown in pots. very suitable for banks and thriving at the seaside. It succeeds best in peat. Height. August. and presents a bright golden appearance. where a small dome-shaped bush is required. For sheltered positions. and indispensable to the shrubbery. The seed should be sown on a hotbed in March or April. They flower in June and July. and rejoice in shade and moisture. to 2-1/2 ft. a profuse bloomer. and by layers. and.
6 in. Watering should cease as soon as the blossom-buds appear.—This tuberous perennial is quite hardy. light soil suits them. There are other varieties of Tradescantia. They flower during June and July. 6 in. disturbing the roots as little as possible. with a still smaller blunt article. The bloom is produced during May and June. and other members of the Brassica family must be transplanted. Tritelia. Let the ground be kept moist. and when the second leaf appears. . This is a deadly poison to insects. or May. Tomatoes (Love Apples). Trifolium Repens Pentaphyllum. Tobacco Plants. 6 in. When grown under glass Tomatoes need to be trained in much the same way as Grape Vines." Torch Lily. Cauliflowers. Tigridia (Ferraria. 6 in. In a light. Mexican Tiger Flower. The soil must be light and rich. or they will be a failure.—A gorgeous flower of exceptional beauty. For pot-culture plant the bulbs in sandy loam and peat. and is propagated by seed or division.—These hardy herbaceous plants are very suitable for rock-work or the front of a border. St. Trientalis Europæa (Star Flower). and flourishes in partial shade. plunge them in a cold frame. and is increased by layers of the young shoots in summer. Constant attention must be given to removing all useless shoots and exposing the fruit to air and light. in a sandy loam enriched with a liberal amount of leaf-mould. Shelter from cutting winds. they all make good border plants. Height. Confine the roots to a narrow compass by means of slates placed just beneath the surface of the soil. high pinch off the tops to prevent further growth and throw strength into the fruit. —A showy. Height. Height. Apply with a soft brush. Height. early-flowering White Aconite. placing them 3 in. Broccoli. to 1 ft. but the roots of good-sized plants may be divided. Trees. but well drained. and putting a little silver sand round each bulb before covering it with the soil. they flower in April.—See "Dentaria. it should be planted in leaf-mould with which a large proportion of sand has been mixed. and plant out as soon as fear of frost is over. 1 ft. Place them in a cucumber-house or other gentle heat.—A hardy herbaceous plant. Height. having fine foliage. or.—Those intended to be grown in the open should be raised from seed sown the first week in March in pots of very rich. 6 in." Torenia.—To grow this native perennial to advantage.—These greenhouse herbaceous plants bloom in May. Trillium Erectum (Wood Lily). Tournefort.—Plants may be transplanted as soon as they are large enough to handle. must not be transplanted. keeping them near the glass and well watered.Tiarella. but is succeeded on the next by fresh ones.—These stove and greenhouse plants require a rich soil. yet moist. It thrives in ordinary soil. They must be lifted carefully with a small trowel. Shade them from sun for one or two days.—See "Crambe Cordifolia.—A hardy herbaceous perennial. When the plants are 3 or 4 ft. apart. etc. better still. and are continuous bloomers. Protect them in winter with a covering of dead leaves. John's Wort (Hypericum Calycinum). and it is propagated by runners. Height. thrive in any situation.. Height. or other strong tobacco. It will grow in any good soil. such as Golden Feather. flowers in August. April. Traveller's Joy (Clematis Viorna ). deciduous perennial. Train to a single stem and remove all lateral growths. 1 ft. Lettuces. 12 ft.—Ivy. Tricyrtis. The plant does not increase very fast. Plants that Flourish under. Plant the bulbs in the sunniest spot out of doors during March. Each bloom lasts only one day. Celery may be transplanted in June or July. puts forth its white flowers in June. or if they are very small. but likes shade and moisture. The blossoms appear in July or August." Tobacco-Water. light mould. It is used largely for edgings. Toothwort. to 8 in. against a south wall fully exposed to the sun. in a pint of water.—Boil 2 oz. Kale. deep and 6 in.—See "Tritoma. It flowers in May and June. It should be done when the ground is wet. and keep them dry and free from frost. in deeply-dug and moderately manured ground. but thinned out. with a rather dry and buoyant atmosphere. take them up when they have done flowering. to 9 in.—This hardy climbing plant grows best in a light soil. Height. hardy. They may be increased by seed or division. 1 ft.—See "Nicotiana. Height. and may be propagated by seed or division." Tradescantia Virginica (Spider Wort ). except in periods of very severe drought. bearing pretty white star-like flowers on slender stalks. Height. of shag. Root crops such as Carrots. Turnips. 9 in. It may be increased by dividing the roots at the end of the summer. Transplanting. Cabbages. rich soil it will flower in July. and preferably in the evening. Tiarella Cordifolia (Foam Flower). They may be increased by off-sets or seeds. Towards the end of May remove them to a cold frame to harden off. An average temperature of 60 degrees should be maintained. popularly called the Tiger Iris ). The blooms are produced during May and June.—A charming spring-flowering plant. In dry weather they should be well watered twelve hours before they are disturbed. They are not particular as to soil. Parsnips. and withhold water until the foliage appears. A rich. so that a continuance of bloom is maintained. pot them off singly.
with very handsome foliage.. with crimson. if it is left in the ground. hardy herbaceous plant. For outdoor cultivation choose a sunny. well trodden.—Drainage may be considered as the chief means of success in the cultivation of these showy spring flowers. Tunica." Turkey's Beard. sandy.—To obtain mild and delicately-flavoured Turnips a somewhat light. and (3) Bizarres. may be increased by seed or by dividing the root. Height. water moderately. and divide the bulbs every two or three years.—See "Bignonia. SPECIOSUM (scarlet). and they retain their bloom longest in a shady situation. In winter. Put three bulbs in a 5-in. 6 ft. leaf-mould. TUBEROSUM (yellow and red) is quite hardy. sandy soil. the soil and atmosphere being moderately moist. placing them near the glass. with a yellow ground having marks of any colour. Tropæolums— JARRATTI (scarlet. placing five or six bulbs in a 5-in. LOBBIANUM (various colours). 6 in. sheltered position. Height. one. either in lines or groups. and giving careful attention to watering. Tritoma (Red-hot Poker. Height. trellises. dried.—Same treatment as "Dianthus. and September. The plant is hardy and flowers in May. then remove the fibre. if desired. Well adapted for covering wire globes. August. to 2 ft. As soon as the leaves begin to decay the bulbs may be taken up. Trollius Asiaticus. and black) are remarkable for a slender and graceful growth. and to be protected in a frame from wet and frost in the winter.—See "Xerophyllum. or black marks. POLYPHYLLUM (yellow) succeeds best against a south wall. and treat in the same manner as the Hyacinth. Plant in autumn. The best time to plant is March or October. For a first . and transfer the most forward plants to the conservatory. keeping the colours separate. Tulips are divided into three classes: (1) Roses. but with lilac. and silver sand. They may also be used for bedding if planted thinly and kept pegged down. Remove this in May. Tritonias. By many it is considered advisable not to disturb the plant too often.") Trumpet Flower. PENTAPHYLLUM (red) is slender and graceful. The annuals merely require to be sown in the open in spring. having also a white ground. graceful. which should be dug deeply and mixed with rotted manure. luxuriant and slender growth.It looks well in clumps on the front of borders. Plunge them in a hotbed. purple.—Plant the bulbs in January in a mixture of sandy loam and rotten dung. It may be raised from seed sown in the autumn. Height. When required to fill vases. Plant from September to December. The bulbs should be planted during October and November about 3 in. 1 ft. moist soil. long. Tulips. pink. apart. and are among the most useful bulbs for pot-culture. orange.—Of wild.—A pretty. It is hardy. deep and 5 in. (See also "Canary Creeper. The greenhouse varieties may be increased by cuttings placed in sandy soil under glass. using a small pot for each bulb. It likes a light but moist soil. Plant at the beginning of October in an eastern aspect or at the base of a north wall. and grow on in a house with a uniform high temperature and moist atmosphere. suitable either for the conservatory or for outdoor culture. suitable for the border. The flower spikes grow 18 to 27 in. and is a particularly fine climber. Height. of sawdust. and flowers in May. and withhold water until the foliage appears. has rich abundant glaucous foliage. surround the plant with 2 in. when they may be planted in a sheltered part of the garden. For a succession of bloom place the roots in a cold frame and cover with cocoanut fibre until growth begins. shift the plants into larger ones. By this method exactitude of height and colouring is ensured. or Torch Lily ). pot. and an elegant climber. or leaf-mould. and water liberally with liquid manure till it blooms. but deep. etc. in the soil. it is a good plan to grow them in shallow boxes. When the pots are full of roots. rich. Increase by division or by suckers from the root. They flower in July. sandy soil.—Elegant dwarf climbers. etc. but they will thrive in any ground that is well drained. The soil they like best is well-rotted turf cut from pasture land and mixed with a moderate amount of sand. to 10 ft." Tuberose. Trollius Altaiense (Globe Flower). be forced as soon as the shoots appear. They may.—A very pretty herbaceous plant. rich soil is most suitable.—Requires a rich. etc. and transfer them when in flower to the vases or baskets." Turnips. with a light. Bury the roots 4 in. Bloom may be had all the year round by planting in succession from September to June. and using a compost of loam. or may be grown in window-boxes. The tuberous-rooted kinds should be taken up in winter and kept in sand till spring. and grown on in light. rich soil is necessary. Fine for covering walls and fences. (2) Byblomens. 9 in. deep. and keep them dry until the plants appear. festooning arches. when a moderate amount should be given. The crown of the plant should not be more than 1½ in.—These somewhat resemble miniature Gladioli. and stored away. or scarlet marks. For pot-culture the single varieties are best. 1 ft. and may be planted in any situation. pot and six in a 6-in. Generally a light. which have a white ground. taking care that the temperature does not fall below 60 degrees. When in full growth they may be removed to the conservatory. Plunge the pots in ashes in a cold pit or frame. Give protection in frosty weather by covering with dry litter.
crop sow the Early White Dutch variety in February or the beginning of March on a warm border. For succession sow Early Snowball at intervals of three weeks until the middle of July. For winter use sow Golden Ball, or other yellow-fleshed kinds, early in August. Thin each sowing out so that the bulbs stand 9 in. apart. To ensure sound, crisp, fleshy roots they require to be grown quickly, therefore moist soil and liberal manuring is necessary, and the ground kept free from weeds. If fly becomes troublesome, dust the plants with quicklime early in the day, while the dew is on them, and repeat the operation as often as is necessary. Tussilago Fragrans (Winter Heliotrope ).—A very fragrant hardy perennial, flowering in January and February. It will grow in any good garden soil and bears division. Height, 1 ft. Twin Flower.—See "Bravoa."
Ulex Europaeus Flore Pleno (Double Furze).—This elegant, hardy, evergreen shrub likes a rich, sandy soil, and may be increased by cuttings planted in a shady border and covered with a handglass. Height, 5 ft. Umbilicus Chrysanthus.—This little Alpine plant should occupy a warm, sheltered, and dry situation, and be protected with an overhead screen in wet seasons. The soil it most enjoys is a mixture of peat and coarse sand. Its procumbent stalks emit roots. This new growth may be transplanted in the spring or early summer months. Height, 6 in. Uvularia.—Beautiful hardy perennials, producing drooping flowers from May to July. They succeed best in a light, sandy soil, and may be increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.
Vaccineum Myrtillus and V. Uliginosum. —Attractive deciduous shrubs. They require to be grown in peat or very sandy loam. In April or May they produce flowers. They can be increased by dividing the creeping roots. Height, 1-1/2 ft. Vaccineum Vitis-Idæa (Red Whortleberry).—A neat native shrub which, with its flowers and clusters of bright red berries, is very attractive in autumn. A rich, light, sandy soil, moist but well drained, is necessary, and the position should be sunny so as to ripen the berries. It may be increased at any time by division. It flowers from May to October. Height, 9 in. Valeriana.—An ornamental hardy perennial. It will succeed in any garden soil, and merely requires the same treatment as ordinary perennials. It is readily increased by dividing the roots, and produces its flowers in July. Height, 1 ft. Vegetable Marrow. —Sow in pots during March or April, and place in a cucumber frame or on a hotbed, and cover with a handglass. Harden off, and plant out about the third week in May in ground previously prepared with a heavy dressing of good stable or farmyard manure, protecting the plants at night for the first week or so with a handglass or large flower-pot. Do not allow the roots to feel the want of water, and keep a sharp look-out for slugs. Seed may also be sown in May in the open. The best way of proceeding in this case is to dig a pit 2 ft. deep and the same in width, fill it with fermenting manure, and put 1 ft. of light mould on top. Let it remain for a week so that the soil may get warm, then sow the seed, and cover it with a handglass. Train the shoots so that they may have plenty of room, and pinch off the tops when the plant has attained its desired length. Venidium.—Hardy annuals, which are best raised from seed sown early in March on a slight hotbed, and grown in turfy loam, or loam and peat. They bloom in May. Height, 1 ft. Venus's Car.—See "Dielytra." Venus's Looking-Glass (Specularia Speculum).—A pretty hardy annual, bearing a profusion of Campanula-like flowers in July. Suitable for beds, pots, hanging baskets, or rock-work. It flourishes most in a compost of sandy loam and peat. The seeds are best sown in autumn and wintered in a greenhouse, but they may be raised on a hotbed early in spring. Cuttings of the young wood planted under glass root freely. Height, 9 in. Venus's Navel Wort. —A charming hardy annual for rock-work. The seed should be sown early in spring in good garden mould. Height, 6 in. Veratum.—Handsome foliage plants. They are quite hardy, and delight in a rich soil. July is the month in which they flower. They may be raised from seed, or propagated by division. Height, 5 ft. Verbascum.—A hardy annual, which produces a profusion of showy flowers in July, and is very suitable for the backs of borders. It will thrive in any soil, and is easily raised from seed sown early in spring. Height, 3 ft. Verbena.—This charming half-hardy perennial succeeds best in light, loamy soil. It seeds freely, and roots rapidly by being pegged down. It is usual to take the cuttings in February, as spring-struck plants prove best both for growth and flowering. Place a score of cuttings in a 48-sized pot containing 1/3 of drainage material, covered with 1 in. of rough leaf-mould, then filled to within 1-1/2 in. of the rim with equal parts of loam, leaf-mould, or peat and sand, with 1/3 in. of sand on the top. Make the soil firm at the base of the cuttings, and water level. It is, however, more easily obtained from seed raised on a gentle hotbed, and the plants thus raised are more robust and floriferous. It flowers in July. Height, 1 ft. Verbena, Lemon-scented.—See "Aloysia." Veronica.—This graceful evergreen, commonly called Speedwell, bears handsome spikes of autumn flowers, and makes a good conservatory or sitting-room plant. It stands the winter out of doors in a sheltered position with a dry sub-soil. The annual varieties may be sown in autumn for spring flowering. Any light, rich, moist soil suits them. The hardy perennial kinds are increased by dividing the roots, and the greenhouse varieties by seeds or cuttings. The different species flower from July to October. Height, 1 ft. to 10 ft. Vesicaria Graeca. —A small hardy evergreen shrub, suitable for rock-work or edgings. It likes a light, dry soil and an open situation. It may be propagated by seeds, which are freely produced; but the readiest way to increase it is by cuttings of the sideshoots, taken as early as possible so as to become well rooted before cold weather sets in. It flowers from April to June. Height, 6 in. to 8 in. Viburnum Opulus (Guelder Rose, or Snowball Tree ).—A very elegant and hardy deciduous shrub, which will grow in any soil, and may be increased by layers, or by cuttings planted in the shade under glass. It blooms in June. Height, 12 ft. Viburnum Tinus (Laurestinus).—This well-known and much-admired evergreen shrub produces masses of white flowers through the winter months, at which season it is especially ornamental. It is generally propagated by layers, but where a number of the plants are required they may be obtained from autumn cuttings planted in the shade and covered with a handglass. Height, 5 ft.
Vitis Heterophylla. from 2 ft. and is of easy culture.—The hardy perennials are suitable for the front of flower borders or rock-work. Virgin's Bower. and will grow in any moist soil. Other varieties of Viscaria are graceful and effective in beds. 1 ft. The herbaceous kinds are increased by seed or division of the roots. and only require the usual care bestowed upon hardy annuals. or the Chinese Vine. Height. which strike root at the joints like the Strawberry. dry.—For the most part greenhouse shrubs. peat. It will grow in any soil. to 12 ft. Violets. The hardy kinds. and 1 in. of silver sand round the roots prevents decay. or lines. Lutea. V. Dog-toothed Violets will grow in any light soil. but will not bloom unless planted 9 in. and will grow in any common garden soil.—These vines are hardy. shady situation. Height. Vines. 9 in. and will grow in any rich soil. Virginian Stock." Violas. enjoying a shady situation. 6 in. July is the month in which they flower. is a rapid grower. Height.—A hardy and good perennial for rock-work. and also by layers. and the annuals by seed sown in the open in spring.—May be propagated by layers or cuttings. to 6 in. —This pretty little hardy annual is readily raised from seed sown on a border in autumn or spring. ." Viscaria Coeli Rosa (the Rose of Heaven). It is increased by seed. It is not particular as to soil. Height.—Sow in April. Vinca (Periwinkle). Purpureus has purple leaves. 3 in. Young cuttings planted in sandy loam and covered with glass will strike. and a favourite for covering unsightly walls. Virginian Creeper (Ampelopsis Hederacea). masses. sheltered spot in September. choosing a damp. They may be raised from seed sown early in spring in a warm situation.—Plant the runners or off-sets in May in loam and leaf-mould. or may be increased by runners. The flowers are produced in June and July. Virgilia. such as V. grow in any light soil. and sand. Height.—Many of these are variegated and very showy as rock-work plants. and are increased by laying down shoots in autumn or spring. the shrubby varieties by cuttings planted under glass. Many choice greenhouse evergreens bearing fine circular flowers and shining foliage are also included under the name of Vinca. or on a warm. Russian and Neapolitan Violets may be made to flower throughout the winter and early spring by placing them in a stove or warm pit. One of the best manures for Violets is the ash from bonfires. 2 ft. but the smaller species succeed best when grown in pots in a mixture of loam. V. deep. White Violets like a chalky soil. They are propagated by cuttings. Coignettae. also by division of the roots. 1 ft.Vicia Pyrenaica. requiring to be grown in a compost of loam. they are hardy and early. The plant is also known as the Five-leaved Ivy. They may be multiplied to any extent by pegging down the side-shoots in April. has very noble foliage. Height. having compact tufts of green growth and producing deep crimson flowers in May and June. and sand. peat. The common Violet flowers in March and April. Autumn is the best time to plant them.—See "Clematis. which are very effective. They may be planted under the shade of trees.—See "Grapes. Height.
All the varieties force well. The seed may be sown where it is intended for them to bloom either in autumn or spring.—The hardy perennial kinds thrive best in pots. putting two plants in each pot close to the sides. Wand Plant. pot off into 3-in. and apply. Height. which are raised on a hotbed in March. Height. Train to a single stem 8 to 10 ft.—Free-flowering. applied when hot.—Very beautiful half-hardy annuals. and may be increased by cuttings. one in September and the other in February. and the pots to be well drained. and a dry situation.—Plant the bulbs during January in sandy loam with a little peat. and protected during winter in a frame. Waitzia. From March to May it bears yellow Strawberry-like flowers. apart. When large enough to handle. 1-1/2 ft. but keeping the frame closed for two or three weeks. Place them in a dry and airy situation and near the glass. As well as flowering early in spring. 6 in.—Sow in prepared places. or it may be raised in spring in the open ground. and it may be increased by seed or division. They require a sandy peat and leaf-mould." Wasps.—To destroy Wasps rinse a large bottle with spirits of turpentine. —These may be destroyed by strong brine. with deep green foliage. Height. Height. pots. then watering once a week. and thrust the neck into the principal entrance to their nest. of oil of vitriol with 6 gallons of water. Waldsteina Fragarioides. and shift them into larger ones when they have made sufficient growth. 1½ ft. deciduous shrubs. therefore. but cover the frame with mats during frosts. The annuals. White Scale. Height. apart. Give all the air possible in fine weather. high. which should be high. deep and 1-1/2 ft. and keeping them in the greenhouse. removing all the side branches as soon as they make an appearance. where it will bloom in June. light. Weigelia. 2 ft. 6 ft. They may be had in flower from May to August by making two sowings. It may also be grown in a frame in September from cuttings placed 6 in. in sluggish brooks and moist situations. Or mix ½ lb. and require no special culture. Wall-flower (Cheiranthus). They may also be increased by shoots torn from the stems of old plants. The Dwarf Prolific makes a good bush tree. Height. needing no special treatment.—These favourite hardy perennials prefer a rich. the flowers being produced in profusion along the shoots in April. stopping up all the other holes to prevent their escape. —A hardy and pretty trailing rock plant. the soil in which should be kept moist. as too much water is as destructive to them as too little. sprinkling them daily. yet sheltered from frost. The plants will grow in any soil. if they are planted out.—See "Galax. and varying in colour from white to deep crimson. Weeds in Paths. The fumes of the spirit first stupefies and eventually destroys the insects. apart." Whitlavia. they often bloom in the autumn. or it may be grown on a shady border if kept moist by frequent waterings. It may be sown in autumn. Water-cress. It is best when grown quickly. In a few days the nest may be dug up. They flower in April. but more suitable for the greenhouse than the open flower-bed. 3 in. 1-1/2 ft.W Wahlenbergia.—The Nuts for raising young trees may be planted at any time between October and the end of February. hardy. it should not be done before the beginning of June. . during spring. taking care not to get the vitriol on the hands or clothes. Any soil suits it.—See "Scale. Two of the best tallgrowing varieties are Thin-shelled and Noyer à Bijou. may be planted out in May in a warm situation.—A hardy annual. Watsonia. They are unable to stand the least frost. Thin out to 2 ft. The following year they may be planted in their permanent position. Walnuts. sandy soil.
and then giving the plant a good watering. as a long layer will root at every joint. Stir it well. suitable alike for rock-work or the border. it may also be propagated by seeds or division. being in advance of the Snowdrop. Windflowers. to Preserve. Though of slow growth at first. It flowers in April. Wood Lily.Whortleberry. four parts. Wistaria. and when once established the roots may remain undisturbed for any length of time.—A hardy climbing plant. from rotting. but very dense and of a dark green. It may also be grown as a small tree for the lawn or centres of large beds by keeping the long twining shoots pinched in. in a very short period. Plant in early autumn. attaining a height of 20 or 30 ft. —To each 5 lbs. the flowers being white. It may be raised from seed. forty parts. powdered chalk. linseed oil. and use while hot. It needs a light. shady position. Witch Hazel. 1 ft. three hundred parts.—See "Vaccineum.—See "Hamamelis. throwing up spikes of blue flowers from May to July. fifty parts. and with it water the surface of the lawn. Flowers are produced from December to February.—See "Tussilago.—See "Physalis. Cuttings will strike in sand." Withania Origanifolia (Pampas Lily-of-the-Valley ). when well established it is very free-growing and perfectly hardy. piles. of newly-slaked lime add 15 gallons of water. one part. etc. The tubers may remain permanently in the ground. Wulfenia Carinthiaca. If too thick. Height.—See "Aconite. let it settle. This composition when dry attains the consistency of varnish." Wigandia Caraccasana. buried at intervals just beneath the surface of the soil.—This noble wall plant may be abundantly produced. For the border the best traps are small potatoes with a hole cut in them. The Worms will come to the top and may be swept up." Winter Heliotrope.. In the bleakest days of winter this little flower covers the ground with its gilt spangles.—A pretty and hardy perennial from the Corinthian Alps. 10 ft. Most effective when planted in masses. as soon as the foliage dies down. Worms in pots may be brought to the top by sprinkling a little dry mustard on the surface of the soil. to Destroy." Winter Aconite (Eranthis Hyemalis)." Worms. then add red lead. It will also grow from cuttings of the plant and root.—See "Trillium. more linseed oil may be added. but it does best in a light mould and a moist. as it is liable to rot in the open. Winter Cherry. resin." Wood.—This is one of the very first of flowers to bloom. During winter place it in a frame. or they may be lifted and divided in summer. etc. Any soil or situation suits it.—Before using mould for potting purposes it is advisable to examine it carefully and pick out any Wire-worms that are in it. sandy soil and plenty of moisture when in growth. sulphuric acid. Mix well together. draw off the clear portion. merely removing the stems as soon as they are destroyed by frost. Wolf's Bane. one part. Height. and becomes extremely hard.—A stove deciduous shrub which thrives best in a mixture of loam and peat." Woodruff. dip the parts to be sunk in the earth in the following composition:—Fine. rich.—See "Anemones. Cuttings in sand will strike if placed under glass and in heat. Heat these together in a boiler. The foliage is small. hard sand.—See "Asperula. . or under trees." Wire-worms. —In order to prevent wooden posts.
1-1/2 ft. 2 ft.X Xeranthemum. slender foliage.—A showy hardy perennial with tufts of graceful. Xerotes. curving. 2 ft. . it is very handsome. in a dried state.—Herbaceous plants. when it bears spikes of white flowers. rich soil to produce flowers in July. Xerophyllum Asphodeloides (Turkey's Beard ). They are of the easiest culture. and may be increased by wellripened seed or by division. They flower in June. Height. Height. Height. rich soil. which thrive well in any light. merely requiring to be sown in spring in light. It does best in a peat border.—These charming everlasting annuals retain. their form and colour for several years. and are readily increased by dividing the roots. From May to July.
sandy loam. T. and does well on rockwork. Adpressa. loams and clays suiting it admirably. They are increased by suckers from the root. Yucca Recurva has fine drooping leaves. and have the habit of palm-trees. but it is not very particular as to soil. rich soil suits them all. A light. popularly known as Adam's Needle thrives best in dry. 2 ft. etc. the centre of beds. it is very suitable for the front of large borders. Dovastonii is a fine Weeping Yew with long dark green leaves and extra large red berries. Height. .Y Yew (Taxus). and is excellent for hedges. Yuccas are mostly evergreen shrubs.—This plant. or sub-tropical gardens. and bloom in September. terraces. The Yew likes shade and moisture. Yucca. are very beautiful. The Japanese variety. It is quite hardy. to which it imparts a tropical aspect. The dark green leaves of the Irish Yew (Baccata Fastigiata) make a fine contrast with lighter foliage. There are many other good sorts. ornamental vases. They make handsome plants for lawns. is a pleasing evergreen having dark green leaves and large scarlet berries. It bears a white flower.—For landscape gardening the old gold-striped (Baccata Aurea Variegata ) is most effective. The Common Yew ( Baccata) grows dense and bushy. and is suitable for vases.
well-drained soil. and supply with water during the growing season. to 1½ ft. light. but it will germinate in ordinary soil in May. the foliage being striped green and white.—This is best raised in a hotbed early in spring.—A fine half-hardy annual ornamental grass. Zephyranthes (Swamp Lilies). gravelly. The flowers are produced in July. Zea Japonica Variegata (Striped Japanese Maize). 1 ft. Height. Height. and planted out in June 1 ft. 9 in. to 3 ft. It grows freely in a sunny position in any dry. Height. rich soil.Z Zauschneria. The seeds must be raised on a gentle hotbed in spring. well deserving of cultivation. . It requires a sunny situation.—A genus of very pretty annuals.—Plant on a warm border in a rather sandy. Zinnia. The cultivation is the same as the foregoing.—A Californian half-hardy perennial plant which bears a profusion of scarlet tube-shaped flowers from June to October. and growing to the height of 3 ft. Take up and divide every second or third year. Give protection in severe weather. 2 ft. Zea (Indian Corn). and is increased by division of roots or by cuttings. apart in the richest of loamy soil and warmest and most sheltered position. Height 1 ft.
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