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1. Distinguish clearly, giving examples between pin, axle and shaft. 2. How the shafts are formed ? 3. Discuss the various types of shafts and the standard sizes of transmissions shafts. 4. What type of stresses are induced in shafts ? 5. How the shaft is designed when it is subjected to twisting moment only ? 6. Define equivalent twisting moment and equivalent bending moment. State when these two terms are used in design of shafts. 7. When the shaft is subjected to fluctuating loads, what will be the equivalent twisting moment and equivalent bending moment ? 8. What do you understand by tensional rigidity and lateral rigidity. 9. A hollow shaft has greater strength and stiffness than solid shaft of equal weight. Explain. 10. Under what circumstances are hollow shafts preferred over solid shafts ? Give any two examples where hollow shafts are used. How are they generally manufactured ?

1. A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of 3000 N-m and a torque of 10 000 N-m. The shaft is made of 45 C 8 steel having ultimate tensile stress of 700 MPa and a ultimate shear stress of 500 MPa. Assuming a factor of safety as 6, determine the diameter of the shaft. 2. A shaft supported at the ends in ball bearings carries a straight tooth spur gear at its mid span and is to transmit 7.5 kW at 300 r.p.m. The pitch circle diameter of the gear is 150 mm. The distances between the centre line of bearings and gear are 100 mm each. If the shaft is made of steel and the allowable shear stress is 45 MPa, determine the diameter of the shaft. Show in a sketch how the gear will be mounted on the shaft; also indicate the ends where the bearings will be mounted? The pressure angle of the gear may be taken as 20. 3. A shaft made of mild steel is required to transmit 100 kW at 300 r.p.m. The supported length of the shaft is 3 metres. It carries two pulleys each weighing 1500 N supported at a distance of 1 metre from the ends respectively. Assuming the safe value of stress, determine the diameter of the shaft. 4. A line shaft is driven by means of a motor placed vertically below it. The pulley on the line shaft is 1.5 metre in diameter and has belt tensions 5.4 kN and 1.8 kN on the tight side and slack side of the belt respectively. Both these tensions may be assumed to be vertical. If the pulley be overhang from the shaft, the distance of the centre line of the pulley from the centre line of them bearing being 400 mm, find the diameter of the shaft. Assuming maximum allowable shear stress of 42 MPa. 5. A shaft is supported by two bearings placed 1 m apart. A 600 mm diameter pulley is mounted at a distance of 300 mm to the right of left hand bearing and this drives a pulley directly below it with the help of belt having maximum tension of 2.25 kN. Another pulley 400 mm diameter is placed 200 mm to the left of right hand bearing and is driven with the help of electric motor and belt, which is placed horizontally to the right. The angle of contact for both the pulleys is 180 and = 0.24. Determine the suitable diameter for a solid shaft, allowing working stress of 63 MPa in tension and 42 MPa in shear for the material of shaft. Assume that the torque on one pulley is equal to that on the other pulley. 6. A shaft is supported on bearings A and B, 800 mm between centres. A 20 straight tooth spur gear having 600 mm pitch diameter, is located 200 mm to the right of the left hand bearing A, and a 700 mm diameter pulley is mounted 250 mm towards the left of bearing B. The gear is driven by a pinion with a downward tangential force while the pulley drives a horizontal belt having 180 angle of wrap. The pulley also serves as a flywheel and weighs 2000 N. The maximum belt tension is 3000 N and the tension ratio is 3 : 1. Determine the maximum bending moment and the necessary shaft diameter if the allowable shear stress of the material is 40 MPa. 7. A steel solid shaft transmitting 15 kW at 200 r.p.m. is supported on two bearings 750 mm apart and has two gears keyed to it. The pinion having 30 teeth of 5 mm module is located 100 mm to the left of the right

hand bearing and delivers power horizontally to the right. The gear having 100 teeth of 5 mm module is located 150 mm to the right of the left hand bearing and receives power in a vertical direction from below. Using an allowable stress of 54 MPa in shear, determine the diameter of the shaft. 8. A mild steel shaft transmits 20 kW at 200 r.p.m. It carries a central load of 900 N and is simply supported between the bearings 2.5 metres apart. Determine the size of the shaft, if the allowable shear stress is 42 MPa and the maximum tensile or compressive stress is not to exceed 56 MPa. What size of the shaft will be required, if it is subjected to gradually applied loads? 9. Design a shaft to transmit power from an electric motor to a lathe head stock through a pulley by means of a belt drive. The pulley weighs 200 N and is located at 300 mm from the centre of the bearing. The diameter of the pulley is 200 mm and the maximum power transmitted is 1 kW at 120 r.p.m. The angle of lap of the belt is 180 and coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.3. The shock and fatigue factors for bending and twisting are 1.5 and 2.0 respectively. The allowable shear stress in the shaft may be taken as 35 MPa. 10.A solid steel shaft is supported on two bearings 1.8 m apart and rotates at 250 r.p.m. A 20 involute gear D, 300 mm diameter is keyed to the shaft at a distance of 150 mm to the left on the right hand bearing. Two pulleys B and C are located on the shaft at distances of 600 mm and 1350 mm respectively to the right of the left hand bearing. The diameters of the pulleys B and C are 750 mm and 600 mm respectively. 30 kW is supplied to the gear, out of which 18.75 kW is taken off at the pulley C and 11.25 kW from pulley B. The drive from B is vertically downward while from C the drive is downward at an angle of 60 to the horizontal. In both cases the belt tension ratio is 2 and the angle of lap is 180. The combined fatigue and shock factors for torsion and bending may be taken as 1.5 and 2 respectively. Design a suitable shaft taking working stress to be 42 MPa in shear and 84 MPa in tension. 11. . A hollow shaft is subjected to a maximum torque of 1.5 kN-m and a maximum bending moment of 3 kN-m. It is subjected, at the same time, to an axial load of 10 kN. Assume that the load is applied gradually and the ratio of the inner diameter to the outer diameter is 0.5. If the outer diameter of the shaft is 80 mm, find the shear stress induced in the shaft.