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Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington
Booker Taliaferro Washington April 5, 1856 Hale's Ford, Virginia, U.S. November 14, 1915 (aged 59) Tuskegee, Alabama, U.S.
Occupation Educator, Author, and African American Civil Rights Leader Signature
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pressured. 1856 – November 14." While his opponents called his powerful network of supporters the "Tuskegee Machine. at the church in 1881. Washington 3 • • • • Bible Christianity Islam Judaism Opposition and resistance • • • • • Timeline Abolitionism Compensated emancipation Opponents Slave rebellion Related topics • • • • Abolitionism Exploitation Indentured servant Unfree labour Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5. Overview Washington was born into slavery to Jane. greased palms. networked. He was the dominant leader in the African-American community in the United States from 1890 to 1915. educational and religious communities nationwide. Historians note that Washington. teaching Sunday School at African Zion Baptist Church. Washington attained national prominence for his Atlanta Address of 1895. waved the flag with patriotic speeches. his mother moved the family to rejoin her husband in West Virginia. and avoided antagonizing white Southerners with his accommodation to the political realities of the age of Jim Crow segregation. West Virginia. manipulated the media. strategized. educators and businessmen composing his core supporters. He advised on financial donations from philanthropists. cut deals. he married his first wife. After emancipation. with black ministers. in 1881 he was named as the first leader of the new Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He gained access to top national leaders in politics. winning wide support in the black community and among more liberal whites (especially rich Northern whites). raised money. rewarded friends. He built a nationwide network of supporters in many black communities. made threats. His father was a nearby planter. traveled with an entourage. In 1876. punished enemies. Washington's efforts included cooperating with white people and enlisting the support of . he spoke on behalf of the large majority of blacks who lived in the South but had lost their ability to vote through disfranchisement by southern legislatures. In other words. which attracted the attention of politicians and the public. signed autographs. making him a popular spokesperson for African-American citizens. and a white father.Booker T. He worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (now Hampton University) and attended college at Wayland Seminary (now Virginia Union University). Washington played a dominant role in black politics. and claimed to have no interest in partisan politics. author. orator. Fannie Smith. "advised. Representative of the last generation of black American leaders born in slavery. Washington returned to live in Malden. there Washington worked in a variety of manual labor jobs before making his way to Hampton Roads seeking an education. philanthropy and education. read minds with the skill of a master psychologist. he was an artful politician. an enslaved woman. always knew where the camera was pointing. and advisor to Republican presidents. in a rural area of the Piedmont region in southwestern Virginia. 1915) was an African-American educator." Washington maintained control because of his ability to gain support of numerous groups including influential whites and the black business. After returning to Hampton as a teacher.
intelligence and property. who demanded a stronger tone of protest for advancement of civil rights needs. During a difficult period of transition. 4 Career overview Washington was born into slavery to Jane. Most of the verses of the plantation songs had some reference to freedom. Some man who seemed to be a stranger (a United States officer. My Washington early in his career. he played no significant role in Washington's life. The youth worked in salt furnaces and coal mines in West Virginia for several years. where he worked to pay for his studies. financial power and understanding of the U. This contributed to blacks' attaining the skills to create and support the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. helping to raise funds to establish and operate thousands of small community schools and institutions of higher education for the betterment of blacks throughout the South. He attended Wayland Seminary in Washington.. She never identified his white father. and lasted later into the night. After the reading we were told that we were all free. a school established to educate freedmen. As a boy of 9 in Virginia. that this was the day for which she had been so long praying. and could go when and where we pleased.C.Booker T. This work continued for many years after his death. his autobiography. thrift. and often was asked for political advice by presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft.S. and his mother took them to West Virginia to join her husband. he did much to improve the working relationship between the races. while tears of joy ran down her cheeks.Wikipedia:Citing sources Washington was on close terms with national republican leaders. the Hampton president Samuel C. first published in 1901. in 1878 and left after 6 months. Up From Slavery. Washington was criticized by the leaders of the new NAACP. I presume) made a little speech and then read a rather long paper—the Emancipation Proclamation. he remembered the day in early 1865: As the great day drew nearer. then made his way east to Hampton Institute. She and the freedman Washington Ferguson were formally married in West Virginia. . It was bolder. especially W. is still widely read today. mother. Washington wrote 14 books. At the same time. said to be a nearby planter. E. he secretly funded litigation for civil rights cases. legal system. such as challenges to southern constitutions and laws that disfranchised blacks. the new normal school (teachers' college) in Alabama. She explained to us what it all meant. His work greatly helped blacks to achieve higher education. who was standing by my side. leading to the passage of important federal civil rights laws. D. there was more singing in the slave quarters than usual. and that cooperation with supportive whites was the only way to overcome pervasive racism in the long run." Northern critics called Washington's followers the "Tuskegee Machine". but fearing that she would never live to see. B. His family gained freedom in 1865 as the Civil War ended. He headed it for the rest of his life. and Booker took the surname Washington at school after his stepfather. I think. In addition to his contributions in education. Washington wealthy philanthropists. leaned over and kissed her children. Du Bois. Washington replied that confrontation would lead to disaster for the outnumbered blacks. After 1909. an enslaved African-American woman on the Burroughs Plantation in southwest Virginia.. Washington argued that the surest way for blacks to gain equal social rights was to demonstrate "industry. Armstrong recommended Washington to become the first leader of Tuskegee Institute. had more ring. In 1881.
philanthropy and education. Washington also helped with the Progressive Era by forming the National Negro Business League. a civil rights organization formed in 1909. Washington contributed secretly and substantially to legal challenges against segregation and disfranchisement of blacks. was consulted on race issues and was awarded honorary degrees from leading American universities. E. Throughout the final twenty years of his life. founded in 1891. Jim Crow-era South. He labeled Washington "the Great Accommodator". The local schools were a source of communal pride and were priceless to African-American families when poverty and segregation limited severely the life chances of the pupils. D. is still widely read today. The schools Washington supported were founded primarily to produce teachers. Washington had Tuskegee architects develop model Sculpture of Booker T. He gained access to top national leaders in politics. Washington at the National school designs. He visited the campus often and spoke at its first commencement exercise. located in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia. first published in 1901.000 schools and supporting resources for the betterment of blacks throughout the South in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. the model rural schools continued to be constructed. including Hampton and Tuskegee institutes. B. He believed that cooperation with supportive whites was the only way to overcome racism in the long run. he believed he could achieve more by skillful accommodation to the social realities of the age of segregation. Roebuck and Company President Julius Rosenwald.Wikipedia:Citing sources In his public role. Up From Slavery. construction and operation of more than 5. Du Bois advocated activism to achieve civil rights.Wikipedia:Citing sources His autobiography. he maintained his standing through a nationwide network of supporters including black educators. Sears. Washington Washington was instrumental in having West Virginia State University. with matching funds from the Rosenwald Fund. and businessmen. A major part of Washington's legacy. To address those needs. However.Booker T. editors.C. W. These individuals and many other wealthy men and women funded his causes. Washington's response was that confrontation could lead to disaster for the outnumbered blacks. Representing the last generation of black leaders born into slavery. as the state legislatures consistently underfunded black schools in their segregated system. Washington was criticized by leaders of the NAACP. graduates had often returned to their largely impoverished rural southern communities to find few schools and educational resources. To many he was seen as a popular spokesman for African-American citizens. Late in his career. ministers. Washington enlisted his philanthropic network to create matching funds programs to stimulate construction of numerous rural public schools for black children in the South. into the 1930s. Working especially with Julius Rosenwald from Chicago. especially those who supported his views on social and educational issues for blacks. Washington's work on education problems helped him enlist both the moral and substantial financial support of many major white philanthropists. The Rosenwald Fund helped support the Portrait Gallery in Washington. Washington was a dominant figure of the African-American community from 1890 to his death in 1915. raised large sums. inventor and founder of Kodak. Washington was generally perceived as a supporter of education for freedmen in the post-Reconstruction. especially after his Atlanta Address of 1895. He became friends with such self-made men as Standard Oil magnate Henry Huttleston Rogers. 5 . and George Eastman.
Booker T. Washington with his third wife Margaret and two sons. reliable American citizens. In his autobiography Up From Slavery. .5 million. Smith was from Malden. initially using space in a local church. people could go from poverty to success. Washington Jr.Wikipedia:Citing sources Washington next wed Olivia A. Washington purchased a former plantation. Born in Virginia. compared to its initial $2. she had studied at Hampton Institute and the Massachusetts State Normal School at Framingham. Shortly after the Spanish-American War. Fannie died in May 1884. They had two sons. he gave all three of his wives credit for their contributions at Tuskegee.Wikipedia:Citing sourcesWikipedia:Citing sources Marriages and children Washington was married three times. Washington met Davidson as a teacher at Tuskegee. leading to acceptance by white Americans. which became the permanent site of the campus. Booker T. adding programs and departments. He believed that blacks would eventually gain full participation in society by acting as responsible. and Ernest Davidson Washington. Washington 6 Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute The organizers of the new all-black state school called Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama found the energetic leader they sought in 25-year-old Washington. By then Tuskegee's endowment had grown to over $1. 1881. to become the present-day Tuskegee University. barns and outbuildings. and growing their own crops and Booker T. where she was promoted to assistant principal there. but teachers of farming and trades who taught in the new schools and colleges for blacks across the South. the same Kanawha River Valley town where Washington had lived from age nine to sixteen. He believed that with self-help. Washington helped raise funds to establish and operate hundreds of small community schools and institutions of higher educations for blacks. West Virginia. Washington. The next year. He believed that by providing needed skills to society. constructing classrooms. He maintained ties there all his life. The school expanded over the decades.Booker T. his students literally built their own school: making bricks. She taught in Mississippi and Tennessee before going to Tuskegee to work. both for learning and to provide for most of the basic University necessities. Washington and Smith were married in the summer of 1882. The new school opened on July 4. Both men and women had to learn trades as well as academics. Portia M. The main goal was not to produce farmers and tradesmen. They had one child. Under his direction. President William McKinley and most of his cabinet visited Washington. His first wife Fannie N. Washington's house at Tuskegee raising livestock. Davidson in 1885.Wikipedia:Citing sources The Tuskegee faculty used all the activities to teach the students basic skills to take back to their mostly rural black communities throughout the South.Wikipedia:Citing sources Washington expressed his aspirations for his race in his direction of the school. He led the school until his death in 1915. African Americans would play their part. before she died in 1889.000 annual appropriation.
Southern states disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites from 1890–1908 through constitutional amendments and statutes that created barriers to voter registration. The effect was that many youths in the South had to accept sacrifices of potential political power. Washington said. Their emancipation was an affront to southern white freedom. he believed they could not expect too much at once. along with voting rights and civic equality. He thought these skills that would lay the foundation for the creation of stability that the African-American community required in order to move forward. He argued that the surest way for blacks to gain equal social rights was to demonstrate "industry. reliable American citizens. "Free black people were 'matter out of place'. "I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has had to overcome while trying to succeed. Then W. civil rights and higher education.Booker T. He believed that an elite he called the Talented Tenth would advance to lead the race to a wider variety of occupations. a historically black college. They had no children together. 7 Politics and the Atlanta Compromise Washington's 1895 Atlanta Exposition address was viewed as a "revolutionary moment" by both African-Americans and whites across the country." This stance was contrary to what well-educated blacks in the North wanted. he partly organized the "Negro exhibition" at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. Du Bois wanted blacks to have the same "classical" liberal arts education as upscale whites did. E. intelligence and property. and the conciliation of the South. The . over time. Booker T." Both men sought to define the best means to improve the conditions of the post-Civil War African-American community through education. by a Southern accommodationist imposed on them primarily by Southern whites. which was overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.Wikipedia:Citing sources Along with Du Bois. Washington worked and socialized with many white politicians and industry leaders. His belief was that African-Americans should "concentrate all their energies on industrial education. but she helped rear Washington's children. rather than full equality under the law. Because they had only recently been emancipated. More blacks continued to vote in border and Northern states. taken by his friend Frances Benjamin Johnston. The source of division between Du Bois and Washington was generated by the differences in how African Americans were treated in the North versus the South." His approach advocated for an initial step toward equal rights. and accumulation of wealth. historian Clarence E. Walker said. thrift."  Washington valued the "industrial" education. Du Bois supported him. and authoritatively spoken for. Many in the North felt that they were being 'led'." This was the key to improved conditions for African Americans in the United States. would provide the proof to a deeply prejudiced white America that they were not in fact "'naturally' stupid and incompetent. but they grew apart as Du Bois sought more action to remedy disenfranchisement and lower education." Furthermore. Washington advocated a "go slow" approach to avoid a harsh white backlash. Southern white Democrats regained power in the state legislatures of the former Confederacy and passed laws establishing racial segregation and other Jim Crow laws. and voting such as poll taxes and literacy tests. Washington In 1893 Washington married Margaret James Murray. This action. as most lived in the South. He believed that in the long term "blacks would eventually gain full participation in society by showing themselves to be responsible. Much of his expertise was his ability to persuade wealthy whites to donate money to black causes. She was from Mississippi and had graduated from Fisk University. Blacks were solidly Republican in this period. of Hampton Institute's black students were displayed. as it provided critical skills for the jobs then available to the majority of African-Americans at the time. After their falling out. It would be this step that would provide the economic power to back up their demands for equality in the future. where photos. Washington did not understand that his program was perceived as subversive of a natural order in which black people were to remain forever subordinate or unfree. Murray outlived Washington and died in 1925. Du Bois and his supporters referred to Washington's speech as the "Atlanta Compromise" to express their criticism that Washington was too accommodating to white interests. B.
" The meeting began a close relationship that was to extend over a period of 15 years. The next day he contacted Washington and requested a meeting. Robert Ogden. in programs that continued many years after his death. Rockefeller. and Washington was a frequent guest at Rogers' New York office.Wikipedia:Citing sources 8 Wealthy friends and benefactors Washington associated with the richest and most powerful businessmen and politicians of the era. William Howard Taft. Rogers (1840–1909). which went before the United States Supreme Court in 1903. Collis Potter Huntington and William Washington's wealthy friends included Andrew Henry Baldwin Jr. black communities also helped their communities by donating time. such as the case of Giles v. seen here in 1906 as the Jeanes and Slater Funds. George Eastman. Henry Rogers A representative case of an exceptional relationship was Washington's friendship with millionaire industrialist and financier Henry H. Harris. Massachusetts summer home. his Fairhaven.Booker T. He was seen as a spokesperson for African Americans and became a conduit for funding educational programs. Along with rich people. countless small schools while visiting Tuskegee Institute. money and labor to schools. Churches such as the Baptist and Methodist also supported black elementary and secondary schools. Around 1894 Rogers heard Washington speak at Madison Square Garden.. Henry Rogers was a self-made man. were established through his efforts. who had risen from a modest working-class family to become a principal of Standard Oil. and had become one of the richest men in the United States. Henry Huttleston Rogers. Julius Rosenwald. the true depth and scope of their relationship was not publicly revealed until after Rogers' sudden death of an stroke in May 1909. Washington privately contributed substantial funds for legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement. Although he and the very-private Rogers openly became visible to the public as friends. . and aboard his steam yacht Kanawha. As a result. who donated large sums of money to agencies such Carnegie and Robert C. Ogden. John D. Washington exhibition expressed African Americans' positive contributions to American society. during which Washington later recounted that he was told that Rogers "was surprised that no one had 'passed the hat' after the speech. His contacts included such diverse and well-known personages as Andrew Carnegie.
he stopped and made speeches at many locations.7 million to aid the construction. Using architectural model plans developed by professors at Tuskegee Institute. Rosenwald established the Rosenwald Fund. a position he held for the remainder of his life. where his companions later recounted that he had been warmly welcomed by both black and white citizens at each stop. Washington revealed that Rogers had been quietly funding operations of 65 small country schools for African Americans. They were designed. and 163 shop buildings in 883 counties in 15 states. especially in the Southern states.977 schools. 217 teachers' homes. In 1912 Rosenwald was asked to serve on the Board of Directors of Tuskegee Institute. a $40-million enterprise which had been built almost entirely from Rogers' personal fortune. and had given substantial sums of money to support Tuskegee and Hampton institutes. The school building program was one of its largest programs. These schools became informally known as Rosenwald Schools. from Maryland to Texas. son of an immigrant clothier. Roebuck and Company in Chicago. The Rosenwald Fund made matching grants. Her contributions and those of Henry Rogers and others funded schools in many poor communities.Booker T. "Dixie". By 1908 Rosenwald. Jeanes In 1907 Philadelphia Quaker Anna T. .S. constructed and opened in 1913 and 1914 and overseen by Tuskegee. He also disclosed that Rogers had encouraged programs with matching funds requirements so the recipients had a stake in the outcome. requiring community support and fundraising. As Washington rode in the late financier's private railroad car. the facilities could accommodate one third of all African-American children in Southern U. Washington 9 A few weeks later Washington went on a previously planned speaking tour along the newly completed Virginian Railway. Anna T. Later in 1912 Rosenwald provided funds for a pilot program to build six new small schools in rural Alabama. Rosenwald endowed Tuskegee so that Washington could spend less time fundraising and more managing the school. had become part-owner and president of Sears. Julius Rosenwald Julius Rosenwald (1862–1932) was another self-made wealthy man with whom Washington found common ground. schools. Rosenwald was a philanthropist who was deeply concerned about the poor state of African-American education. Jeanes (1822–1907) donated one million dollars to Washington for elementary schools for black children in the South. By 1932. Black communities raised more than $4. Handbill from 1909 tour of southern Virginia and West Virginia. the model proved successful. the Rosenwald Fund spent over $4 million to help build 4. where their schools were underfunded.
The Washington Post elaborately described it as "the left hind foot of a graveyard rabbit. and industrial advancement" of African Americans. "The Austrian ambassador may have made off with Booker T. 1905 In an effort to inspire the "commercial. Up From Slavery. killed in the dark of the moon"." . its friends and allies. chocolate-colored typical little coon who blacks my shoes every morning. but he'd have a bad time trying to fill his shoes. was published in 1901. it became a bestseller and had a major impact on the African American community. Washington 10 Up from Slavery and an invitation to the White House Washington published five books during his lifetime with the aid of ghost-writers Max Bennett Thrasher and Robert E." Tillman opined that "The action of President Roosevelt in entertaining that nigger will necessitate our killing a thousand niggers in the South before they will learn their place again. Vardaman described the White House as "so saturated with the odor of the nigger that the rats have taken refuge in the stable". The Detroit Journal quipped the next day." Austro-Hungarian ambassador to the United States Ladislaus Hengelmüller von Hengervár. One of the results was a dinner invitation to the White House in 1901 by President Theodore Roosevelt. They were compilations of speeches and essays: • The Story of My Life and Work (1900) • Up From Slavery (1901) • The Story of the Negro: The Rise of the Race from Slavery (2 vol 1909) • My Larger Education (1911) • The Man Farthest Down (1912) Booker Washington and Theodore Roosevelt at Tuskegee Institute. Washington as a voter as I am to the cocoanut-headed. educational. agricultural.Booker T. When Washington's autobiography. and declared "I am just as much opposed to Booker T. Washington founded the National Negro Business League (NNBL) in 1900. claimed to have found a rabbit's foot in Washington's coat pocket when he mistakenly put on the coat. Washington's coat at the White House. Park. Vardaman and Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina indulged in racist personal attacks in response to the invitation. who was visiting the White House on the same day. Eventual Governor of Mississippi James K. Neither is fit to perform the supreme function of citizenship.
issue of 1940. Honors and memorials For his contributions to American society. Washington remained as principal of Tuskegee. Tennessee was named in his honor. Washington was granted an honorary master's degree from Harvard University in 1896 and an honorary doctorate from Dartmouth College in 1901. Senator John McCain. Booker T. In 1934 Robert Russa Moton. he was honored on the first coin to feature an African American. referred to Washington's visit a century before as the seed that blossomed into Barack Obama as the first African American to be elected President of the United States. Hampton University. Washington. was designated as the Booker T. was the first African American ever invited to the White House. 1956. The ship was christened by Marian Anderson. Washington became the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp. Half Dollar from 1951–1954. the house where he was born in Franklin County. the Liberty Ship Booker T. with a blood pressure more than twice normal. Washington's health was deteriorating rapidly. On April 5.S. arranged an air tour for two African-American aviators. 1940. . confirming what had long been suspected. Washington 11 Death Despite his travels and widespread work. At the end of the 2008 presidential election. Washington was honored on a 'Famous Americans Series' Commemorative U. Afterward he had the plane named the Booker T. Washington's coffin being carried to grave site. aggravated by overwork. as was a bridge spanning the Hampton River adjacent to his alma mater.Booker T. Washington's successor as president of Tuskegee University. Washington was named in his honor. as the guest of President Theodore Roosevelt in 1901. He was also depicted on a U. In 1942. In March 2006. the first major oceangoing vessel to be named after an African American. On April 7. he collapsed in New York City and was brought home to Tuskegee. with the permission of his descendants. at the age of 59. the defeated Republican candidate. titled "Can You Blame The Coloured Man". the hundredth anniversary of Washington's birth. 1915. A state park in Chattanooga. the Booker T. He was buried on the campus of Tuskegee University near the University Chapel. Booker T. where he died on November 14. Virginia.S. was well underway and expanding. His death was believed at the time to have been a result of congestive heart failure. Postage stamp. Several years later. At his death Tuskegee's endowment exceeded $1. examination of medical records indicated that he died of hypertension. the education of blacks in the South.5 million. Washington's greatest life's work. which was minted by the United States from 1946 to 1951. Washington. The visit was recalled in the 1927 song by Banjo Blues Musician Gus Cannon. Washington National Monument. Washington Memorial Half Dollar.
106. establishing.  Pole 1974. 96.  .1901 Working With the Hands . . p. p. called "Lifting the Veil. Du Bois . Washington Park in Malden.  . Washington Memorial on campus near the historic Emancipation Oak. The inscription at its base reads: He lifted the veil of ignorance from his people and pointed the way to progress through education and industry. middle schools and elementary schools across the United States have been named after Booker T.B. Washington Monument." was dedicated in 1922. 68.  .  Du Bois 1903. 41–59. and the president of WVSU.  Washington 1901. Washington In 1984 Hampton University dedicated a Booker T.  Washington 1972. West Virginia.1904 Notes  Harlan 1983. 130.with W.Booker T. 290. and the symbol of Black achievement in education. Special guest speakers at the event included West Virginia Governor Joe Manchin III.  Pole 1974.  Meier 1957.  . 888. p. p. Rowe. p. Musical selections were provided by the WVSU "Marching Swarm". 19–21.  Washington 1901.(editor) . 107.  . Washington.  . 34. 189.  Washington 1901. p. 2009.1907 Tuskegee & Its People . Washington. Malden attorney Larry L.  Crouch 2005.  Harlan 1983. p.  Harlan 1983. 980.  Harlan 1971. p. pp. 359. Washington. pp.  Anderson 1998. The event took place at West Virginia State University's Booker T. 4.E.  . p.  Bauerlien 2004. At the center of the campus at Tuskegee University. pp.  Norrell 2009. p. 12 Books • • • • • The Future of the American Negro . West Virginia State University dedicated a monument to the memory of noted African American educator and statesman Booker T. "a relationship between one of America's great educators and social activists." Numerous high schools.  . On October 19. the Booker T. in the words of the University.1905 Up from Slavery .  Du Bois 1903. The monument also honors the families of African ancestry who lived in Old Malden in the early 20th Century and who knew and encouraged Booker T.  Pole 1974.1899 The Negro in the South .  Harlan 1972.
Booker T.jstor. Washington in Biographical Perspective" (http://www. • Pole. Washington and Black Progress: Up from Slavery 100 Years Later. 46. Raymond (2009). "Commanding Performance: Booker T. ISBN 978-0-674-03211-8. The Historical Journal (JSTOR) 17 (4). favorable scholarly biography. Washington's secret financing and directing of litigation against segregation and disfranchisement. American Historical Review (JSTOR) 75 (6) • McMurry. 1890–1930: Washington.com/PM.jstor. • Harlan. "Booker T. • Norrell. • ——— (1971). 243 pp. Washington" (http:// www. St.jstor. • Strickland. Michael B (2010). • ——— (1988). James. and Randolph (http://www. Cary D (1996). jstor. qst?a=o&d=54406292). Belknap Press/Harvard University Press. 1856–1901. • ——— (Oct 1970). Booker T. 1860–1935 (http://www. Mark (Winter 2004).jstor. • Bauerlein.jstor.qst?a=o&d=104912065). • Brundage. Documents Booker T. The Education of Blacks in the South. Journal of Negro History (JSTOR) 59 (4): 337–51. African American Political Thought. Washington" (http://www.Booker T.org/ sici?sici=0022-4642(195705)23:2<220:TAROBT>2. .questia. .CO. Booker T. Scientist and Symbol (http://www. "Toward a Reinterpretation of Booker T. Washington: Black Leadership in the Age of Jim Crow. 2: The Wizard of Tuskegee 1901–1915.0.questia. Du Bois. Lawrence J (Oct 1974). Booker T.qst?a=o&d=104404815) (essays).com/PM. • ——— (1983).jstor. David L (1997). George Washington Carver.questia.org/ stable/2701723). The Journal of Southern History (JSTOR) 23 (2): 220–27. Washington (http://www. Washington (biography). Washington's Atlanta Compromise Address". JR (Dec 1974). Documents Booker T.2-F). • Wintz. Linda O (1982). • Smith. A revisionist study that emphasizes the content and influence of his philosophy as an entrepreneur. II.com/PM. in Gerster. Washington's secret financing and directing of litigation against segregation and disfranchisement. NY: Brandywine Press. (2003). The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (http://www. Garvey. Washington. 13 References Secondary sources • Anderson.com/PM.com/PM. Myth America: A Historical Anthology.org/stable/2638562). Patrick.org/pss/2206948). Booker T. Up from History: The Life of Booker T. Arvarh E (Dec 1973). August (May 1957). Washington: The Myth and the Man" (http://www.org/stable/ 4133693).org/stable/2717315). Washington" (http://links. James D (1988). "Review: Of Mr. • Smock. Washington       . Journal of Southern History (JSTOR) 37 (2). ed. W Fitzhugh. Chicago: Ivan R Dee. • Friedman. . Questia. JSTOR • Boston. Cords.qst?a=o&d=78995092) (scholarly biography).org/stable/ 1850756). Nicholas. . University Press of Florida. Washington and Others. Louis R (1972).questia. Booker T. • Meier.questia. ISBN 1-881089-97-5. "The Secret Life of Booker T. "Life 'In the Lion's Mouth': Another Look at Booker T. Washington in Perspective (http://www. The Children of Pride" (http://www. "Booker T. qst?a=o&d=106358296). Reviews in American History (JSTOR) 1 (4): 559–564. Robert J (2009). . . 1: The Making of a Black Leader.
"Chapters From My Experience III" (http://books. • "cumulative index" (http://www. Retrieved 2009-07-10.gmu.org/btw/volumes. fourteen volume set of all letters to and from Booker T. Booker T (Sep 1895).14/html/). Retrieved 2009-07-10.com/ books?id=Zm0AAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA13847). • ——— (October 1910).unc.com/ books?id=HsrkfU461xAC&pg=PA13505). Retrieved 2009-07-10. "Chapters From My Experience IV" (http://books. the German Empire.org/btw/Vol. The Souls of Black Folk. The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXI: 14032–39. Retrieved 2009-07-10.com/ books?id=3IfNAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA8352). "Chapters From My Experience II" (http://books. • ——— (January 1911).upenn. • Washington. • Washington. "3" (http://www.google. Harlan.historycooperative. "Chapters From My Experience VI" (http://books.library.com/ books?id=Zm0AAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA13783).html) • ——— (December 1906). ISBN 0-252-00242-3. The World's Work: A History of Our Time XX: 13505–22. History cooperative. Washington • Zimmerman. • ——— (November 1910).com/ books?id=Zm0AAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA14230). The World's Work: A History of Our Time XIII: 8352–54.html). Alabama in Africa: Booker T. 14 Primary sources • DuBois. The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXI: 13784–94. Andrew (2012). The Atlantic Monthly 78 • ——— (1901). UNC Library (http:/ /docsouth.theatlantic. John W (1972).html). "Chapters From My Experience V" (http://books. Other online full-text versions available via Project Gutenberg (http://digital. GMU.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=2376). Blassingame. Princeton: Princeton University Press.com/ books?id=Zm0AAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA13627). WEB (1903).google.com/ books?id=Zm0AAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA14032). "Chapters From My Experience I" (http://books. • ——— (December 1910). Garden City. Retrieved 2009-07-10. NY: Doubleday. The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXI: 13847–54. History matters. retrieved February 4. Retrieved 2009-07-10. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography (http://docsouth. Louis R. .google.google.historycooperative.edu/fpn/washington/washing. BTW.com/magazine/archive/ 1969/12/the-awakening-of-the-negro/5449/). • ——— (February 1911). "A Farmers' College on Wheels" (http://books. Retrieved 2009-07-10. Booker T. edu/d/39/). Bartleby. • ——— (April 1911).google. The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXI: 14230–38.unc.edu/fpn/washington/menu.google.com/114/3. The Atlanta Cotton States Exposition Address (http://historymatters. • ——— (September 1896). 2009. University of Illinois Press. and the Globalization of the New South.bartleby. "The Awakening of the Negro" (http://www.Booker T. The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXI: 13627–40. Documenting the American South. 14. The Booker T Washington Papers (http:// www. Washington.html). Washington.google.
• From Slave to College President:Being the Life Story of Booker T.+Washington) at Project Gutenberg • Booker T. Lyman (October 5 1921).loc. Page & Co. Washington Birthplace (http://www.ntis.com/?id=sVroBrOJL64C&pg=PA181).com/index_indiv0008405.virginia. Tuskegee University. • Booker T.Booker T.edu/d/39/) (speech). • "Booker T. American Studies. Dr. 2011.htm).historycooperative. Washington at Project Gutenberg • Booker T. American Writers: A Journey Through History. Booker T (1895).gov/rr/program/bib/btwashington/) (online resources).unc. • "Washington & Du Bois" (http://www. • Washington. CUNY) and the Center for History and New Media (George Mason University).dcmemorials. The Multiracial Activist. The Outlook (NY.gov/bowa/). Center for Media and Learning (Graduate Center.com/cgi-bin/fg. 10.html). Washington's 1909 Tour of Virginia on the newly completed Virginian Railway (http://www. Booker T. google. Legends of Tuskegee.10/html/128. US) 129: 181–82. IL. Washington (http://www. Retrieved Aug 18. London: Hodder & Stoughton.asp). Library of Congress • Frederick Douglass (http://docsouth.edu/~HYPER/DUBOIS/ch03. Naperville.historycooperative. Jan 01.org/author/Booker+T.10/html/122.findagrave. • Booker T.com/site/content/view/308/27/). Educator and social reformer. University of Virginia • Up from Slavery: An Autobiography (http://multiracial. Compromise (http://historymatters. Washington at Project Gutenberg. • "Up from Slavery: An Autobiography" (http://xroads.gutenberg.nps. by Emmett J.htm) (statue). CA.gmu. historycooperative. ON. • The short film What's A Heaven For? (1966) (http://www.allnumis. 1901. Washington (http://www. Garden City. 10. • Abbott.virginia.html). 2001.americanwriters. Washington papers digital archive (http://www. • Works by Booker T.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1073).wvculture.unc. Atlanta: American Social History Project. 1911.cr.edu/fpn/washeducation/ menu. searchable index to complete annotated text of all important letters to and from Washington and all his writings. US: JL Nichols & Co. NPS. WEB. • Dubois. Washington" (http://www. Toronto.org/details/gov. html). Scott • The Booker T. • "Booker T.com/coin/ united-states-of-america/half-dollar-1947-booker-t-washington-from-slave-cabin-to-hall-of-fame-24061) . html). A Criticism of the Atlanta Compromise (http://xroads. • Booker T. Washington 15 External links • An Autobiography: The Story of My Life and Work (http://docsouth.org/btw/Vol.html). Washington papers. • "Introduction" (http://www.gov/museum/exhibits/tuskegee/intro.ava02140vnb1) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more] • Images of the Half Dollar 1947 coin depicting Booker T.archive. History cooperative.org/btw/).org/btw/Vol. • "Comments about Henry Rogers" (http://www. Washington's West Virginia Boyhood" (http://www. WVH (WV culture) 32 (1). 1906.org/writers/washington. Retrieved 2009-07-30. Washington (http://www. University of Illinois Press. Find a Grave.edu/neh/doug1906/menu. National Park Service.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh32-1. Virginia. Washington (http://www.html). C-SPAN.html).nps. "Snap-Shots of My Contemporaries: Booker T. • My Larger Education: Being Chapters from My Experience (http://docsouth. NY: Doubleday.html). Washington" (http://books. c.edu/~HYPER/WASHINGTON/cover.unc.edu/neh/washstory/menu.
N petty253. Illegitimate Barrister. clown will eat me. VirginiaProp. Hobartimus.org/w/index. the Sculpture is by Image:Booker T. IstvanWolf.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AgnosticPreachersKid. Tillman. QQlulz. Black Widow. Spwinga78. Redd Foxx 1991. Ian Pitchford. Kirrages. Blackninja856. Biftp. Eloquence. Nixeagle. Fingerz. Satori Son. JuniperisCommunis. Bongwarrior. Punkkid223. Snowolf. NewEnglandYankee. Avenged Eightfold. Trusilver. Who. Newmanation. Jthacker6.wikipedia.wikipedia. IceCreamAntisocial. Some jerk on the Internet. Mrmdog. A D Monroe III. Reaper Eternal. Igoldste.jpg Source: http://en. Lugia2453. Gracenotes. Swavyscott24. Chick Bowen. Hickman993. TBloemink. LizardJr8. Crohnie. Lectonar.php?title=File:Booker_T_Washington_retouched_flattened-crop. Someoneinmyheadbutit'snotme. Dbertoncini. Jcaraballo. CynicalMe. Kurykh. Tygrrr.php?title=File:Booker_T. Gobonobo. Nunh-huh. Fastily. TeaDrinker. Rosspz. Zanimum.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: US Post Office License . C3PO the Dragon Slayer. Fritzpoll. Dori.jpg Source: http://en. Raul654. CWii.Article Sources and Contributors 16 Article Sources and Contributors Booker T. MarmadukePercy. Frecklefoot. Nickname97. Ground Zero. Michael93555.JPG Source: http://en. ExistentialBliss. WikiDao. JohnCD. Cfortunato. Jackol. SouthernNights. JNW. Khalilcox. Horselover Frost. Jossi.jpg Source: http://en. Bobduid. Neutrality. Coasterlover1994. AdjustShift.org/w/index. Chill doubt. HeckXX. Drmies.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Vaoverland at en. Flyer22. TheDJ. Gardnermike. Mynameinc. Youngamerican. John Reaves. Ronhjones. Eric.April. AeonicOmega. Hesperian.EasterBunny.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Booker T Washington File:Booker T Washington portrait . Grendelkhan. TheMulatoKid. St.php?oldid=544302855 Contributors: -. Rich Farmbrough.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Kenmayer. 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