Department of Civil & Geological Engineering

CE 463.3 – Advanced Structural Analysis Compilation of All 2013 Labs Using SAP2000
T.A: Ouafi Saha Professor: M. Boulfiza

Objectives: • Give an over view of the basic commands of SAP2000 • Use of SAP2000 to solve various structural problems • Develop the ability to continue a self-learning process • Check and solve assignment questions 1. Introduction to Computation Modeling in Engineering:

Conceptual Design Modeling Physical, Mathematical, Computational Operational and Economical Simulation Experimental, Analytical and Computational Analysis Listing, Photography, Computer graphics and Virtual reality Design Prototyping Testing Fabrication

Engineering process from Conceptual idea to Fabrication (The Finite Element Method – A Practical Course. by G.R. Liu, S.S. Quek)

2. Computation Hardware tool: Input Central Unit Output Simplified scheme for Computer 3. Computation Software tool: Pre-Processor Import, Interactive Processor Interpretation of data, Detection of Errors, Formation of Sys. Eq., Solve Sys., Iteration Post-Processor Visualization, Design Simplified scheme of a computer software 4. SAP2000: SAP2000 is a program based on The Finite Element Method (FEM). It is one of a long list of software packages having the FEM as their kernel. A non-exhaustive list is available at this address: The program is edited by a company named CSI (Computer and Structure Inc.) founded in 1975. The very first version of SAP was SAP, followed later by SOLIDSAP and SAP IV. With the development of PC computers, SAP was released in two major versions SAP80 and SAP90. Basically these two versions and the previous ones were based on TEXT files for both input and output. In 1996 the first version of SAP2000 was released, it had an integrated graphical user interface working completely under Microsoft Windows. The choice of SAP2000 in this course is mainly due to its civil engineering orientation and to its relative ease of use. SAP2000 has an integrated graphical user interface similar to some older versions of Autocad’s interface. Various documents and tutorials are available: • Built-in help and PDF documentation. • • A search in google or youtube with keywords “sap2000 tutorial” leads to plenty of documents and videos, but try to start with the easiest ones.

5. Basic Steps to Solve a Structural Problem using SAP2000: 1. Start-up by choosing units, setting up grids or by choosing a model from the library 2. Define materials, element properties, loading patterns, analysis cases and combinations 3. Draw the model using the powerful graphical interface and selection and editing tools 4. Assign displacement boundary conditions (supports) 5. Assign loads (forces, moments, displacements, pressure, temperature…) 6. SOLVE system, use simplification if possible 7. Display Output in graphical and/or tabular form 8. Analyze results 6. List of the Labs: Lab 1 – Simple Beams and Frames .......................................................................................... 4 Lab 2 – Truss Structures ........................................................................................................ 14 Lab 3 – Elaborated Beam and Frame Structures.................................................................... 19 Lab 4 – SAP2000 Plane Elasticity ......................................................................................... 25 Lab 5 – Dynamic Analysis ..................................................................................................... 39 Lab 6 – Geometric Nonlinearity and P-Δ effect .................................................................... 53 Supplemental Material for SAP2000 – Convention used ...................................................... 58


Choose New model > select appropriate units and click on grid only In the next dialog box enter the appropriate values 4 . each segment is .usask.usask.Lab 1 – Simple Beams and Frames 1. Login using your nsid. you can also save the link to your desktop and execute Units kN. Section or http://www.engr. m. Simply supported beam http://www. C Material Concrete. Two possible ways to model it Steps: Start SAP2000 by using: internet explorer pointing at the url address http://www.engr.5m.

Close 3D window and choose view for the 2D view Select Define > Section Porpertires > Frame Sections… then click on Add New Properties Select Concrete and Rectangular section 5 .

3 as Width Click on Ok twice as five consecutive elements. make Draw the Beam sure the section in the flying box is Beam. Select Node B. Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed… enter 15 under Uniform Load Select Element B-C. End drawing by esc or double click. Assign > Joint > Restraints… then select Try a quick run and see how to neglect self-weight http://www. Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed… enter 15 under Uniform Load 6 .Name the section Beam and enter 0. Assign > Joint > Restraints… then select Select Node F. starting from the origin to each next key point.5 as Depth and Select Element

5 in Force Global Z Before Solving. Menu Analyze > Set Analysis Options… Click on Plane Frame You can see that the only active DOF’s available are the two translations X and Z and one rotation RY. and particularly loading Menu Display > Show Load Assigns > Frame/Cable/Tendon… The screen should show a beam like the following Our beam can be treated in two dimensions as a 3 DOF system. Assign > Joint Loads > Forces… enter -45 in Force Global Z Select Node E. 7 .Select Node D. This can considerably reduce the size of the problem for a very fine mesh (high number of elements and nodes). Assign > Joint Loads > Forces… enter -22. take a look at the final configuration.

it is time to analyze our results and decide if they are acceptable or need to be reviewed in some way. It is recommended to save your work on a regular basis. Now.Now we can run the Analysis or F5 or Menu > Analysis > Run Analysis… Make sure to turn off the analysis of Modal Case Click on Run Now You will be prompted to save your work if it has not been done yet. Check deformed shape. Support reactions Internal forces and moments 8 . C Neglect self-weight Material E=200 000 MPa. Simply supported Beam http://www.2. three specific points need more details. The model definition is done following the same steps as in the previous examples. Material definition: Go to menu Define > Materials … then click on Add New material Material name Based on Other Put 0 to avoid self-weight E=200 000 MPa Same as 200e9 n m Section definition: Menu Define > Section Properties > Frame Sections … then click on Add New Property … Section type Other General 9 . Section I=2000 106 mm4. 12m 8m Units kN. find vertical displacement at the concentrated load.

Neglect self-weight Menu Define > Load Patterns … Change Self Weight Multiplier to 0 in the DEAD load pattern and click on Modify Load Pattern. then OK. 10 . Make sure to not include self-weight as well by putting material weight = 0.All values can be 0 except 6 4 I33=2000 10 mm Change default name FSEC1 to your preferred Select Material MAT defined in previous step Make sure your beam has the section SEC defined above and that this section is made of the particular material MAT.

Then display the moment diagram. if necessary.Run your Analysis. But for this example there is no difference Deflection 0.0384m A better way to do it is by defining our structure with nodes at the desired locations. In this case add a node at the location 12m. Show Forces/Stresses > Frames/Cables … Choose Moment 3-3 Location 12m Usually we use Absolute. 11 .

Analysis of Plan Frame. then put the For the horizontal displacement at point A click on the Show Deformed Shape button mouse pointer close to the point A. R2=Ry=0. with and without a node at point C.3.09117.012. 4). U2=Uy=0. Material and Section (don’t forget to add the cross section A). Simply loaded Frame 4m 4m C 2m 4m A Material E=200 000 MPa 6 4 Geometrie I = 500 10 mm 2 A = 2000 mm At least two ways to define our structure are possible. With a node at C We can use the grid system X (0. the only difference is to look for U3 = -0. the horizontal displacement parallel to X axis is U1 = -0. Unit and Grid. U3=Uz=-0. Support and Loads. We are not using the Y axis so fare. Draw the structure either with a step at point C or without.008 (in this case in the opposite X direction) because local and global axis have the same orientation for the nodes. 4. R3= Rz=0) Displacements are given in the distance Unit. The steps to find the vertical displacement at point C are the same as those for point A.008. Rotations are given in radian according to the right hand rule. These values are given relatively to the undeformed shape. a bubble appears showing information about that point. The steps to define the structure are almost the same as in the previous examples. Point A (U1=Ux=-0. 2. You can also right click on the node to see these values more precisely in a box. R1=Rx=0. 12 .04317 in the negative Z direction. 8) and Z (0.

8) and Z (0.Without a node at C We can use the grid system X (0. Then right click on the horizontal element. 2. 4). 13 . For this purpose show the moment 3-3 diagram. To show the detailed results Select mid-span Select Absolute to get vertical displacement with respect to the global axis (XYZ) Note: positive in -2 direction If you get a little difference with the hand calculated values try to explain why. In this case we do not have a node at point C and the determination of the vertical displacement is done by displaying the information of the horizontal element (8m beam).

Lab 2 – Truss Structures 1. C) Grids X ( E = 200 000 MPa 2 A = 10 cm Neglect self-weight What is the vertical displacement at P? 2m P = 15 kN 2m 3m New features: Edit Coordinate Systems/Grids The same steps: • Units (kN. The easiest way is to put all other geometric properties = 0 except the Cross Sectional (axial) Area.2. Only Cross section different from 0 • • • Draw the model Assign Supports Assign one concentrated load at point P To avoid having warnings in the solver module. Simple Truss Structure http://www. m. 2) Choose XZ view • Define Materials: we need only E=200 GPa. Y(0). keep only UX and UZ DOF in the Analysis Options 14 .5). Element properties: we need only A = 10 cm2 Many ways to do the analysis of Truss Z (0.

only the Axial Forces are present 15 .Keep only UX and UZ.784 10-4 m Internal forces In this case. The vertical displacement of point P is then U3 = -5. No rotation • • • SOLVE Display Output Displacement and forces Analyze results Deformed shape We can have the displacement of any node (joint) by right clicking on it.

Edit Divide. • Import section To use a section profile from the SAP2000 database. . Elaborated Truss structure 9). Releases . go to Define > Section Properties > Frame Sections … then click on Import New Property … Select the type of the section profile “Double Angle” and the path for the section database should be C:\Program Files (x86)\Computers and Structures\SAP2000 15 Then select “SECTIONS8. 0. Steel Self-Weight = 0 4m 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m The Top and Bottom chord section is double angle 2L5x5x7/16 The Braces section is rectangular 7x25 mm2 New features: Import sections. 4). 16 . Use the following grid specification: X (-9. m.What are the maximum internal forces in these cases? Follow the same eight steps. perfect welding in all joints. Z (0.PRO” file. hinges in all joints.Compare the three cases . C Mat. only braces are hinged. Y (0).What is the maximum deflexion in each case? .Run three 30kN 25kN 25kN 25kN 25kN Units kN. The new features are explained below.

two lower chords and two upper chords. and divide them into 3 segments each. Assign > Frame > Releases/Partial Fixity … 17 .Path: C:\Program Files (x86)\Computers and Structures\ SAP2000 15 Local Disk C: SECTIONS8. “2L5x5x7/16” in this case.PRO common Profile DB Finally. select the appropriate section from the list. Edit > Edit Lines > Divide Frames … • Releasing the hinged elements Select elements. • Edit divide option Select the four elements.

00 2m 2m Find internal forces and the deflection at the applied load point.html 18 .edu/7111/projects/SAP_2000/SAP_2000_trusses. Additional Examples 4m 4m Units kN.memphis.3.ce. m. C Self-Weight = 0 E = 200 GPa 2 A = 1500 mm 50. Another detailed Truss example http://www.

then Menu Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed … Select Load Name Other Possibility for Unit conv Force or Moment? Coordinate System and Direction Up to four definition points for the load Make sure to select the right option To used in case of uniform load over the whole frame element Possible way of combination At relative or absolute distance from node i Value of the load Local axes rotation For the local axis convention refer to the supplementary document. Let’s try to rotate the right end support by 30° counter clockwise. Menu Assign > Joints > Local Axis … 19 . You can access it by selecting the frame element. but not the only possibility.Lab 3 – Elaborated Beam and Frame Structures Select the extreme right node. Concrete Self Weight = 0 New features: Elaborated Loads. Continuous Beam http://www. C Mat. available on the class web site. The angular unit in SAP2000 is the Units t. is the distributed load over frame elements. m. Local Axis Load pattern possibilities The most used.

youtube.5 l/2 3 t/m 4t 3.What are the extreme vertical deflections of the beam? .What are the reactions at each support? . In which kind of situation should we use it? Questions: .0 l/2 6. Concrete Self Weight = 0 P 60 25 Sections in cm New features: Sections. Simple Frame with enhanced loading and different cross sections http://www. . C Mat.0 55 25 5t 125 15 6 t.Plot the internal forces and moment diagrams. 20 .m Units t.0 2 t/m 4t 1.Why -30? Displacement loading.5 2.0 3. Display. m.0 5. Try to find and explore.What about the axial force after support rotation? 2.5 1. Local Axes Visualisation Section possibilities For the Tee section go to Menu Define > Section Properties > Frame Sections … Click on Add New Property… then Select type Steel and section Tee For Dimensions Name Convention refer to the supplementary document (available on the class web site).

distances. 21 .What values.Name Material. . and M) . and directions should we use for the two intermediate concentrated loads? Check supplementary document.5m New features: Load Combination. .Extract all results for point P (Displacement and internal forces).Plot internal forces diagrams (N. C Material Concrete 2 Section 300x650mm Self-Weight included in Dead Load WD PD 5m 2. Questions: .What would happen if we forget to modify the concrete material? 3. use Menu View. 4000 Psi for Concrete t3 =70 cm t2 =125 cm tf =15 cm tw =25 cm Quick preview of the Section Axis Visualization and Extruded View To change the visualisation default options. Load Combination (ref. m. CE321) Dead Load = WD = 10 kN/m and PD = 60kN Live Load = L1 = 15 kN/m Live Load = L2 = 15 kN/m Units kN. Output stations. T. Set Display Options (Ctrl+E) Check Frame/Cables/Tendons Local Axes and Extrude View. Tabular Output.

Load Combination Use Menu Define with Load Patterns, Load Cases, and Load Combinations commands.

We define first three load patterns D, L1, L2 as linear static. When assigning the loads, make sure to assign them to the appropriate load pattern. Define the load combinations. Consider the following combinations: 1.4 D 1.25 D + 1.5 L1 1.25 D + 1.5 L2 1.25 D + 1.5 (L1 + L2) 0.9 D + 1.5 L1 0.9 D + 1.5 L2 0.9 D + 1.5 (L1 + L2) Output stations By default SAP2000 uses 1 intermediate point (on top of the two end nodes) to show internal forces. When this is not sufficient, it is recommended to use more intermediate points. Five to nine output stations seems to be reasonable. Select the elements for which you want to modify the output station, and go to Menu Assign > Frame > Output Stations…

Tabular Output Graphic output is very friendly and useful, but sometimes difficult to analyse or to visualise. An exhaustive listing of the input and/or output is in these cases inevitable. To see the structure parameters in tabular form use Menu Display > Show Tables… or Ctrl + T There are many functionalities to explore.


Questions - Which one, of the previous combinations, gives the Maximum Positive Moment and which one gives the Maximum Negative Moment? - Why is it important to consider the combination 0.9 D since it is smaller than 1.25 D? - Plot the linear envelope for these seven combinations. 4. Multi Story Building


Units kN, m, C Mat. Steel Self Weight = 0 Beam S10x35 Column1 W10x45 Column2 W10x15

3m 4m





New features: Modify Grid, Editing, Selection


Choose 2D Frames from the new model. Enter portal Frame Dimensions as shown below.

For Section Properties click on button to access the sections dialogue box. Click on Import New Property… then select material steel and click on I / Wide Flange. Then Select S10x35 for beams and select W10x45 for columns. Modify Grid according to our example Menu Define > Coordinate Systems/Grids… click on Modify/Show System… Change Values for coordinates X and Z Grid Data as required such as X (-12,-6,0,5,12) and Z (0,4,7,10) and check Glue to Grid Lines box.

Another way to reach the same result is to use Menu Edit > Move and/or Replicate Selection - Selection of the basement nodes (difference between right and left) - Selection by Element Properties - Selection by Coordinate Specification Questions: - Find the position and the value of the Maximum Base Reactions. - Find the position and the value of the Maximum horizontal displacement. - What change would you suggest for the structure to be more balanced? - Do the same Analysis assuming the horizontal forces multiplied by two. Is it possible to implement the change in a single action?


Rectangular Plate under Uniform Tension (Plane Stress) http://www. Material and Section Definition Define a Material having E = 200 GPa and v = 2 20 cm Units kN. General Definitions For Plane problems. choose Menu Define > Section Properties > Area Sections… 25 .youtube. For simplicity. In section definition. Z is not used Choose kN/cm Show Grid Lines Reduce Bubble Size ii. cm. C Mat. the grid system should look like this one 4 cm 3 Grids for X and Y centered at 0.3. Steel Self-Weight = 0 Thickness = 3mm 2 kN/cm New features: Plane Element i. usually we work in the XY Plane instead of the XZ used for Frame structures.Lab 4 –SAP2000 Plane Elasticity 1.

doubleclick 3 1 2 26 . then click on Add New Section Choose a name Select Plane-Stress and leave Incompatible Modes Choose the material previously defined Choose the material previously defined iii.Select Plane in the section type. Drawing the Model Draw the four plane elements in the XY plane using Draw Poly Area tool It is common to draw the quadrilateral element starting from the lower left corner and continue counter clockwise. 4.

iv.6 / 2 = 0.6 kN. By symmetry.3 cm) = 2. 27 . 3 medians and 2 corners. 1 and 2 v. we know that the central node will not move in either X nor Y direction. all nodes on the Y axis will not move in the X direction. to have more accurate results. Nodes (joints) For the right side. by loading the nodes or by loading the elements. Select the four elements and go to Menu Edit > Edit Areas > Divide Areas… Divide each element into 4 by 2 elements according to convention (supplemental) Some recommendations are given in the reference manual about the aspect ratio of the elements. due to geometric and loading symmetry.4 kN in the +X direction. Displacement Boundary Conditions Even if there are no apparent supports in the initial problem.3 kN. Loading Condition Two possible ways exist for applying the loads. One should follow them to get the most accurate results. Also. In this case. For corner nodes f = 0.We need a finer mesh. The load distribution will be as follow: For median nodes f = 2. the total load is F = (2 kN/cm2) x (4 cm) x (0.4 / 4 = 0. Select all nodes on the Y axis and specify Translation Restraints in direction 1. we must specify some restraint conditions for the program to avoid a singular stiffness matrix. We also have 5 nodes. the same loads are applied to the left side. then select the node at the origin and specify Translation Restraints in both Directions.

vi. we only change face 2 by face 4. we have a uniform pressure in the outward direction. 28 . negative pressure (outward direction) Face 2 (Supplemental doc) For the left side. Select the four right edge elements > Assign > Area Loads > Surface Pressure (All)… -2. Analyse the System In plane elasticity problems. Remember to save your work. to neglect self-weight and to disable modal analysis. only two displacements are considered.Element (Area) For the right side. Menu Analyze > Set Analysis Options … Then Run the analysis.

Start a blank file with only grids. we have uniformly distributed longitudinal horizontal stresses over the whole solid. the structure will be drawn using three elemental parts. As SAP2000 is not extremely powerful in 2D and 3D modeling.vii. Z(0) Set Auto-merge tolerance to 0. Discussing Results As we may have expected we can say: . Neither shear stresses nor longitudinal vertical stresses exist in the solid. Steel Self-Weight = 0 Thickness = 2 mm 15 mm New features: Pipe and Plate Module Only half of the structure will be Symmetry R=10mm r = 5mm F=0.In the displacement diagram. the effect of positive Poisson’s ratio is clearly seen.1 kN Units kN. Y(-10. C Mat.15.10).1 kN F=0.0. mm.5.In the stress diagram.1mm or you will have a strange mesh 29 .youtube. X(0.1 mm. 2.25). . Display Output We can see the deformed shape as: And the internal stresses (S11) as viii. Menu Option > Dimensions/Tolerances… Set auto merge to 0. Tension Connection plate http://www.

and reduce the number of nodes.Start with rounded plate with circular hole Menu Edit > Add Model From Template … then click on Pipes and Plates The main parameters are highlighted.. 30 . We need to delete the left half part of the circle. merge all the elements then divide them into 4 elements in the vertical direction. For this purpose it is better to leave only one slice of the model. The final step is replicating the slice to reproduce the final form.

from the Edit Menu. Make sure to enter the parameters as in the figure below. Save your file from time to time! 31 .Select all elements in the previous screen and apply Replicate commad.

. 32 .Rectangular plate with circular hole Menu Edit > Add Model From Template … then click on Pipes and Plates We should remove the right half side of the rectangular plate and move the remaining part 15mm in the X direction (right). using the Move command from the Edit Menu.

Run the Analysis 33 . For the analysis we will only consider displacements in the X and Y directions..1kN in X direction.Last Rectangular part We draw a big rectangle and divide it into 4 parts in X direction and 16 parts in Y Direction. One concentrated nodal load will be applied to the node at coordinate (20. 0) F = 0. The final model should look like the figure above. Due to Symmetry. the same boundary conditions as in the first example will be applied here as well.

34 .Output Time for some nice pictures Deformed shape (effect of concentrated Load) Resultant Displacement Contour Lines The three stress components in the local axis and the Von Mises stress.

The same Problem 2 will be done using .com/default. The geometric file used by this software is a text file containing the following data 1 2 4 1 2 3 4 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 25 25 0 10 10 20 20 10 10 -10 -10 10 10 0 5 5 -5 -5 0 0 10 10 0 0 5 5 5 5 0 35 .com/watch?v=vrSO462W39U Another efficient way to model two dimensional and three dimensional structural problems is to use the import functionality of SAP2000. It is possible to use a simple modeling software such as Automesh2D. freely available from the website Import 2D models http://www.htm. Many formats are supported by the program. but the data must be prepared in a strict form.automesh2d.DXF import function.

dxf File … the select your file. 250 elements are chosen. use Menu File > Import > Autocad . In SAP2000. Before importing the model into SAP2000. The final step in this software is to export the meshed structure in dxf format. Select upward direction Select from which layer import which elements 36 .The next step is to mesh the structure using the easiest auto-mesh function. This layer will be used by SAP2000 to import the appropriate model. it is usually recommended to edit the mesh in Autocad and copy all lines in a specific layer.

37 . Additional Examples 4. the central circle and the two big corners.1. m. Steel Self-Weight = 0 Thickness = 7. Select all and Menu Edit > Edit Areas > Divide Areas … Delete the unwanted plane parts. The load is uniformly distributed over the length. See video for more details. Delete also the frame elements as they don’t belong to our desired model. but we need Plane element. . Check deflection and maximum stress. 4. Remember we imported the model as frame elements.0 m Follow the same steps as Problem 1. take care about unit conversion.The next step is to draw a Plane element enclosing the whole imported model. 4. must be converted to node concentrated forces or uniformly distributed pressure. add a uniformly distributed load = 1 kN/cm2 in compression at the top and bottom faces of the plate.2.5mm 0. The final step is to divide the big plate element into the shape of the little frame lines. Cantilever Beam (Thick theory) 3kN/m Units kN. Done! At least for the geometry modeling part.2 m 2. Plane Stress Repeat Problem 1. C Mat.Compare this solution with your classic beam analysis. http://www.html The Model under SAP2000 3D model from the U of A website 38 . Bracket Compare the solution of the given example Bracket. The web link is a pointer to the University of Alberta tutorial for Ansys.SDB with the one given by Ansys.

3). this may simplify data input.3) ii.596sec k 3EI / h3 3 × 200. Otherwise. conversion will not be obvious. m) as principal units so mass will be in kg. Loading Condition Since we are just looking for the dynamic properties of our structure we don’t need a loading condition. Natural Mode for a Single Degree of Freedom system http://www. Make sure to choose the appropriate Material for this section. Z(0. Drawing the Model Draw a frame from point p1(0. A simple grid system may be X(0). define a frame section having moment of inertia I3=100. Also. v. but you must be careful on the meaning of each possibility. Y(0).com/watch?v=HTOt2uJgdRg Let’s start with a simple single degree of freedom system composed of a column fixed at its base and a concentrated mass at its top.0) to p2(0. We need to know the natural frequency and period of this structure. General Definitions It is HIGHLY recommended to choose (N. M = 20 000 kg E = 200 GPa I = 100 106 mm4 h = 3m M 20 000 ( kg ) × 33 ( m3 ) m m T = 2π = 2π = 2π = ( N / m 2 ) × 100.0. Material and Section Definition Define a Material having E = 200 GPa and v = 0. Version 14 of SAP2000 allows you to enter mass as weight. Boundary Displacement Conditions Assign a fixed restraint to the base of our element. Select the top node (joint) Assign > Joints > masses … 39 .3.Lab 5 – Dynamic Analysis 1. iii.10−6 ( m 4 ) i. iv. but we need to assign a concentrated mass to the top of our column.

Select Menu Display > Show Tables … 40 .Select Mass Mass in kg in local 1 axis N. m. Analyse the System Simplify analysis by choosing XZ Plane in “Set Analysis Options” menu Make sure to set MODAL to run in the “Run Analysis” dialogue box. vii. Then Run the analysis. no need to run Static analysis. sec lead to kg vi. Display Output An easy way to see the dynamic characteristics of the system is to use the tabular form output.

viii. The natural frequency is f = 1. Discussing Results As we can see.6776 Hz and the circular frequency is ω = 10. the same period T = 0.541 rad/sec 41 .596075sec as the hand calculated one is obtained.

. v = 0. .com/watch?v=O1rZRojOf4c Let’s study the structure shown in the next figure. Roof will be modeled in four different ways. 1) .3. .All members are made of steel. Ic h M E.Define grids X(0.No need for static analysis 42 . Ib l E.Add section W310x74 by importing I/Wide flange from CISC database .All members’ self-weight is new material Mat (E=200E9.Draw Special Joint at the middle of the roof E.3. Natural Mode for a Single Degree of Freedom one storey Building http://www. m.2.Structure works in XZ plane. l = 6m.Assign concentrated mass to that joint = 30000 in local 1st direction as mass. Self-weight=0) .106mm4 h = 3m.Structure is fixed at its base. M = 30 000kg. Ic h .6) Y(0) Z(0.The only existing mass is concentrated in the roof. .Only planar XZ degrees of Freedom are needed for this problem . Columns W310x74 (from CISC data base) Ic = 165. C units . Quick steps: . (§ expl. E=200GPa.Fix foundation .Choose N.3) . Assumptions: .Draw the frame using the same section for all parts .

243478 sec f = 4.284162 sec f = 3. As we see from the figure.1071 Hz 43 .a. The reason is that only the compression in the roof beam has been constrained. This constraint is usually used to model concrete slabs or decks. Roof as Normal beam Just like we have already defined our structure In this case Ib = Ic The roof is very flexible. T = 0. the structure is stiffer but this condition is not realistic. T = 0. This does not lead to a big change in the example under consideration. This enforces the selected joints to maintain exactly the same distance from each other while moving in the XY plane. we can use the Equal Constraint.28251 sec f = 3. T = 0. Use of Diaphragm Select all three top nodes then go to Menu Assign > Joints > Constraints … Select diaphragm in the first dialogue box and keep Z axis selected in the second dialogue box.5191 Hz b.5397 Hz Alternatively. In this case choose all DOF to be equal.

How can you find it with SAP2000? 44 . Increase the stiffness of the roof beam Remember to remove constraints before doing this step.234911 sec f = 4.2569 Hz d. Select the three nodes of the top and Assign > Joints > Restrains … This is the closest “realistic” condition to the use 12 EI of the formula k = 3 for column stiffness.5501 Hz Why do you thik the above result is different from yours? Theoretical period calculated with formula above is T=0. h T = 0. No rotation in the top beam Remember to set the property modifiers to 1 again.c. It’s clear that the top slab is almost horizontal.219775 sec f = 4.2009sec. T = 0. Select the top beam then Menu Assign > Frame > Property Modifiers … In this case we are multiplying the flexural stiffness (Moment of Inertia I3) of the top beam by a factor of 10.

3.All bays are 6m wide. C units (so we can use kg as unit for mass) .Change grid lines Z (8. v = 0. 12) to (7. Ic h Find the three natural modes for horizontal displacement.Self-weight of all elements is neglected.3. E=200GPa. . . 10) respectively. .Fix foundation .Slabs are considered infinitely rigid.Add new material MAT (E=200E9.Choose N. check on “glue joint to gridlines” before validating .Assign a resultant concentrated mass to each level: 25000 to the roof.The first floor is 4m high and the other are in 3m spacing. m. position of the concentrated mass along X axis does not matter. don’t forget to choose MAT as material . .Mass of each 6m segment slab is 25000 kg.3.Use the predefined 2D Frame Model 3 Stories @4m high 3 Bays @6m width . Self-weight=0) .Add section SEC as General where you put only I3=15E7mm. . 50000 to the second floor and 75000 to the first floor (my choice was to prescribe them along the second column) 45 .Delete unwanted parts from the drawn model . Ic=150. .106 mm4.Moment of inertia of all columns. Multi Degrees of Freedom Building Consider the following 3 stories building To simplify.Material used is steel.Since we are restricting our structure to move only along the horizontal direction.Select all structure elements and assign “SEC” to them . v = 0. Quick steps: . as long as it is at the slab levels . E. we assume: .

412Hz 46 .Run the analysis with No static analysis T1=0..876Hz. f3=7. T3=0.Select all nodes above foundation and assign restrained rotation about local 2nd axis .20508sec.785Hz.Only planar XZ degrees of Freedom are needed for this problem . T2=0. f2=4.Select all nodes above foundation and assign horizontal diaphragms to each level Horizontal Diaphragm Each level .13491sec and f1=1.56032sec.

f1=2.Self-weight of all elements is neglected. we have two stories and rotation about local 2nd axis is blocked.13729sec.35944sec. Two Degrees of Freedom System with Time History Analysis http://www. I1 = I2 = 450.Define the Harmonic function. we need to add a concentrated static unit load in the Dead Load Case. In addition there is a harmonic concentrated load at the top level F(t).h = 3 m.106 mm4 formula) . I2 E.4. v = 0. I1 M2 M1 h h Use modal analysis to find the two fundamental frequencies. f2=7. Menu Define > Functions > Time History … In the first dialogue box choose Sine and click on Add New Let’s assume the simplified 2 DOF system shown below: . . .Since we have the dynamic Concentrated Load at the top level.Material used is steel E = 200 GPa. further functions can be generated later. Two differences are however worth mentioning.No rotations are allowed at the two levels (so we can use k = 12 EI 3 h F(t) E. T2=0. . 47 .3. M1 = M2 = 50000 kg. in the second dialogue box change just the name of the function to SIN1. A first run will result in: T1=0. even if we don’t need to run the static load Analysis. Solution: Modal Analysis: The first part will be done just like the first Time History Analysis: The second part needs more concentration! .

. to avoid direct integration numerical perturbation. in this case SIN1. If you want to see the transient solution (starting from time t = 0 sec) click on Transient. (1E7 is a bit exaggerated). Menu Define > Load Cases … Click on Add New Load Case … button Choose a name for the load case First choose Time History For Steady state choose Periodic Change Function to SIN1 and Scale factor to 1e7 then click on Add Change to finer time step Neglect the damping effect Scale Factor has been used because the unit dead load introduced previously (1N) is not big enough to move the system. To neglect the effect of damping. Now Run! The analysis A good way to display the results for time history analysis is to use the built-in plot engine Menu Display > Show Plot Functions… 48 . It is highly recommended to use Time Step Data in accordance with Time History Function Definition. click on Modify/Show… button under other parameter and put 0 for constant damping for all modes.Define a new Load case for the Time History Analysis.

Click on Define Plot Functions… Define once for 2 then for 3 The final step is to add these three Plots to the vertical Functions side and click on Display 49 . I have chosen the two horizontal displacements of the concentrated masses and the unit harmonic load.We need first to define our probing stations.

36sec (Transient) 50 .Period of SIN1 = 1sec (Periodic) Period of SIN1 = 0.

Period of SIN1 = 0. Additional Examples 5. Joint3 is still the node where the load is applied. l = 6m M l/2 E. But in this case it is not moving at all.14sec (Transient) Period of SIN1 = 0. Compare the results with hand calculated formula.I l/2 M l/2 E. E = 200 GPa.I l/2 51 .157sec (Periodic) Note that in the last run. Find the fundamental period and frequency of the following beams with a lumped mass at midspan. M = 10 000 kg. I = 150 106 mm4.1. Can you explain why? 5.

and three concentrated masses.5. Repeat example 3 using the simplified model shown below.3. M3 M2 I2 I1 M1 I3 5. made of one vertical column.2. 52 . Try to use the weight as masses and compare the results.

we will use only one in this example Menu Define > Load Cases … 53 . Loading Condition Assign a concentrated load under the DEAD load case to joint p3 equal to -100 kN in the Global Z axis. Y(0).3 Don’t define frame section. v. In this case. the deformation due to an applied static vertical load will include second order effects caused by the eccentricity of the axial load. General Definitions Choose (kN. m. C) as principal units and a grid system X(0.0.0. P-Δ Effect http://www. Material and Section Definition Define Material (MAT) having Self-Weight = 3) ii.0. 0.3) and finish it in point p3(0. Z(0.1.Lab 6 – Geometric Nonlinearity and P-Δ effect 1.1). I i.0) to p2(0. just draw the model. Boundary Displacement Conditions Assign fixed restraints to the This example will illustrate how to use SAP2000 to include geometric nonlinearity in a static analysis. Δ P E= 200 GPa h=3m Δ = 10 cm P = 100 kN Default Section h E. E = 200 GPa and v = 0.3) iv. Drawing the Model Draw a frame from point p1(0. and then change the default section material to MAT iii. There are two main methods to include P-Delta effects in Sap2000.

then Run the analysis. vii. (Small triangle at the top left of the main graphic interface window. see red circle below) Difference in the Horizontal (U1) Displacement between Linear and non Nonlinear analysis 54 .Choose a name for the load case Choose Static load case Select nonlinear type Select P-Delta Add the Dead vi. Display Output Open a second display window to see the linear and non linear results on the same screen. Analyse the System Select XZ plane frame in the analysis option to reduce the problem size.

For simplicity assume all the nodes to be articulated (truss structure). ρ = 0 kN/m3 Section A = 4000 mm4 P = 10 kN ltotal = 4 m Run the analysis twice one with Δ1 = 10 cm and the other with Δ2 = 5 cm.00 Δ ltotal Material E= 200 GPa. You may need to specify the moment releases of the members. 55 . v = 0. 2. Geometric Nonlinearity The second example will illustrate how to include large deflections in a static nonlinear analysis for a typical case of geometric instability. the only difference is the definition of the static nonlinear analysis case.3. named here NL.Flexural Moment (M3-3). To solve this example follow the same steps as usual. Note that those values are obtained using a scale of 10 times the actual vertical loading 10. Constant in the column for the classical linear analysis and varying according to the deformation shape for the nonlinear analysis.

For Δ1 = 10 cm.05 56 .1 to 0. there is no inflection (members in compression) For the second run with Δ2 = 5 cm.Static Nonlinear P-Delta + Large displacements Run the analysis twice. the first run with Δ1 = 10 cm. Go to Menu Edit > Interactive Database Editing … Select Model Definition > Connectivity Data > Joints Coordinates > Table: Joint Coordinates Then change the Z coordinate of the appropriate node from 0. it is better to do a database editing instead of redrawing the whole structure from scratch again.

the nonlinear analysis leads to an inflected beam (members in tension) whereas the linear analysis still shows a compression in the members. Additional Example Repeat example 1 for the column loaded with vertical and lateral forces. 3. we ended up with two completely different results for the linear and the nonlinear analysis. As you can see from these two runs. Px Py h E.For Δ2 = 5 cm. Try different values of Py and see what happens when the vertical load gets close to the critical value Pcr (Euler critical load for the first mode). I 57 .

Right-hand rule and color convention 1 2 3 Right-hand convention for positive rotation 58 .Supplemental Material for SAP2000 Convention used 1. Y. Z is +Z upward and Gravity acting in –Z. Axis and Convention: The default orientation of the Global system of coordinates X.

Version 14 April 2009 . Frame element internal forces and moments: Extracted from 33 59 .pdf.2.

page 21 60 . Predefined Sections: Extracted from SapBasic.pdf.3. Version 14 April 2009 .

page 38 61 . Shell Element Convention: Four and Three nodes shell element connectivity and face definition Extracted from SapBasic.pdf. Version 14 April 2009 .4.

page 47 62 .5.pdf. Version 14 April 2009 . Forces and Stress Convention for Shell Element: Extracted from SapBasic.

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