Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217 – 227 www.elsevier.

com/locate/powtec

Axial transport and residence time of MSW in rotary kilns Part I. Experimental
S.-Q. Li a,b,*, J.-H. Yan a, R.-D. Li a, Y. Chi a, K.-F. Cen a
a b

Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China Department of Thermal Engineering, Tshinghua University, Beijing, 100084, PR China

Received 17 October 2000; received in revised form 28 December 2001; accepted 31 December 2001

Abstract Experiments on the influences of operational variables on the axial transport of both heterogeneous municipal solid waste (MSW) and homogenous sand are conducted in a continuous lab-scale rotary kiln cold simulator. Compared with sand, the residence time of MSW has a relatively large discrepancy with the ideal normal distribution due to the trajectory segregation of MSW components. The residence time at different axial zone is quite different due to the varied bed depth profile along the kiln length. MSW has a longer mean residence time (MRT) and a lower material volumetric flow (MVF) than sand because of the higher hd than sand. The increment of both rotating speed and kiln slope reduces MRT, and increases MVF. Exit dam has a significant impact on the MRT and the influence of internal structure group consisting of various axial ribs and circular ribs is mainly determined by the height of circular ribs. Inside wall roughness also has effect on MRT through changing the bed regimes. For a case with the certain inlet and exit bed depths, the product of MRT and MVF holds at a constant within the limits of experimental errors in spite of the changing experimental variables. D 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Keywords: Rotary kiln; MSW; Axial transport; Mean residence time; Material volumetric flow

1. Introduction Rotary kilns have been widely employed in chemical and metallurgical industries as heterogeneous noncatalytic gas – solid reactors. The typical applications include drying or heating of wet solids, mixing or grinding of powders, calcining of limestone, clinkering of cementitious materials, reducing of iron ore or ilmenite, etc. [1– 3]. Rotary kilns continue to find new applications in such gas –solid reactions, despite challenges from newer and more specialized reactors such as fluidized bed and spouted bed. In recent years, rotary kilns have played an important role in the thermochemical treatment of municipal solid wastes (MSW). Rotary kiln system is one of the most promising incineration processes since it can simultaneously treat wastes as liquids or solids of various shapes and sizes and easily achieve the flexible adjustment by altering kiln inclination, rotational speed, etc. Rotary kiln as a primary gasification chamber, followed by a secondary combustion chamber, can fulfil the complete destruc*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-10-62782108. E-mail address: lishuiqing@hotmail.com (S.-Q. Li).

tion and detoxification of hazardous wastes, meanwhile minimize emissions of dioxins and heavy mental. All these unique features enable rotary kiln irreplaceable in MSW incineration. ‘Siemens Schwelbrenn’, ‘Noell Conversion’ and ‘Westinghouse O’Connor’ processes are updated representatives of rotary kiln incinerators [4,5]. Pyrolysis, on the other hand, is an attractive alternative to incineration as a waste treatment option with respect to minimum environmental emissions and maximum resource recovery [6,7]. Rotary kiln pyrolyser also has many unique advantages over other types of reactors. For instance, slow rotation of inclined kiln enables the well mixing of wastes, thereby the more uniform pyrolytic products. Also, the flexible adjustment of residence time can make pyrolysis reaction perform at a perfectly optimum condition conveniently. With a view to different resource recovery option, rotary kiln can be properly designed to yield mainly the synthesis gas, e.g., ‘Landgard’ Process [8], or to make the high calorific tars as well as porous carbon black, e.g., ‘Kobe Steel’ Process [9]. Mean residence time (MRT) of solids through rotary kiln is one of the most important parameters, which not only directly influences mass and heat transfer, but also deter-

0032-5910/02/$ - see front matter D 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. PII: S 0 0 3 2 - 5 9 1 0 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 1 4 - 1

/ Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 mines chemical reaction degree of gas and solid phase. Although rotary kilns have been extensively used as reactors for MSW incineration or pyrolysis. which are relatively homogeneous in nature. the inlet bed depth instead of material feed rate were selected as one of the operating parameters. That is. [26] studied the mechanism of radial segregation. kiln geometry parameters and material properties. stating that a difference in the dynamic reposing angles of two pure components is a necessary (though not sufficient) condition of band formation. (6) Position plate.1. Impacts of material characteristics (in terms of the dynamical angle of repose).8 m). Nakagawa et al. Experimental 2.3 mm in diameter and 1. (4) Feed chute. Subse` hl and Kingma [11] and Kramers and Kroockquently. The rotational speed is variable within the range of 0. (11) Supportor. (3) Tracer addition point. exitend dam and internal structures) and operational parameters (i. kiln geometry characteristics (i.. The angle of kiln inclination can be easily adjusted between 0j and 5j by altering the height of the supporter at kiln inlet end. Simplified formulas of MRT and MVF are proposed on the basis of the experiment results in Part II of this work. Setup A cold simulator of rotary kiln. the residence time distribution (RTD) in rotary drums were researched by Abouzeid and Fuerstenau [16] and Sai et al. Therefore. 0. Li et al. [19] performed corresponding investigations in a high-temperature kiln. [24] recently employed magnetic resonance imaging to study axial segregation. The cylinder was made of plexiglass so that the solid motion can be viewed. In addition. In order to optimize the design and operation of rotary kiln. The feed rate of materials was adjusted to a certain amount that keeps the inlet depth of the solids on a desired value during each run.-Q. 1. as shown in Fig. (7) Belt wheel. 1. was employed for the experiments.3 Â 1. respectively. (13) Exit chute. Va ewit [12] made further experiments on the holdup as well as MRT in a horizontal or inclined cylinder. (10) Slope angle adjustor. (2) Belt conveyor. respectively. Gupta et al. Donald and Rosseman [22] firstly performed experimental studies in a horizontal system and identified three patterns of segregation: radial. In order to study the impact of internal structures on solid material motion. The grouped types and Fig. it is necessary to develop the simplified empirical expressions to enable the proper predicting of the volumetric flow of material (MVF) as well as MRT. 2. the inlet depth of solid bed responds to the feed rate of materials. Wightman and Muzzio [21] emphasized that a research community focusing on the segregation of multimixed particles in rotary cylinder. which was kept at 70 mm in all runs. axial ribs and circular ribs were specially designed. previous researches on axial transport in rotary kilns are mostly concentrated on the studies of small cementitious and metallurgical particles. However. comparative studies are conducted between homogeneous sand and irregular MSW in a rotary kiln cold simulator (I. 0. axial and end longitudinal. Schematic of rotary kiln cold simulator ((1) Funnel. (5) Rotary cylinder.D. kiln inclination and rotational speed) on both MRT and MVF are examined.e. [10] originally conducted the experimental research on the solids’ MRT in rotary cylindrical kiln and derived the empirical equation of MRT correlating various operational variables. so far. Boateng and Barr [25] and Bridgewater et al.8 mm in length. [23] described qualitative mechanisms of axial segregation. (9) Jockey wheel. (12) Varible motor.5– 10 rpm (revolution per minute).e. In this part. Sullivan et al. there have been few attempts on extrapolating the experiences and correlation developed from homogeneous materials to heterogeneous MSW. 2. while Schofield and Glikin [20] studied them in an intensive gas-flow fleeting kiln.. and Rutgers [15] considered the influences of shapes of kiln entrance and exit end faces. . [18] using atomic absorption spectroscopy methods. roughness of kiln wall. or by Wes et al. Matchett and Sheikh [14] studied the effect of both number and angle of axial flight. as the practical field-scale rotary kiln was concerned. which is practically equal to the flow rate of materials under the steady state. More recently. Furthermore. (8) Position wheel. The effect of internal structures is one of remarkable research community. one to one. [17] adopting tracer stimulusresponse techniques. under the same operational conditions.218 S. shown schematically in Fig. Groen et al. [13] studied the effect of ring formation. Chatterjee et al. (14) Sample collector).

9 and 35. though that of homogeneous sand has been described in detail [16 – 18]. it is infeasible to label every tracer and measure its time one by one in such a short time interval. This measurement is done under one of the most general bed rotation cases of the kiln.9 wt.% wood chips. size and heterogeneous property.%. (3) Longitudinal ribs). However. The steady-state flow rate of materials. but a probability distribution. i¼1 ti E ðDti Þ. the inlet-time differences of three group were taken into account). rolling regime. which has higher density. the residence time of solids through rotary kiln is not a constant. the slope of the plate with respect to the horizontal line is just the wall friction angle of solids. f. hd of sand is about 29. increased dramatically (69 – 243%) with finer emery cloth setting.% papers and 33. A layer of tested solids is laid on the plate. Table 1 The grouped types and geometric factors of internal structures Group No.% tyres).% waste tyres.% paper plates and 33. the mean and variance of residence time are experimentally obtained by the stimulus-response techniques of tracers. is fixed on the adjustable shear plate. the inside kiln wall are covered by the finer or coarser emery cloths. was measured by collecting sample successively within a certain time and quantifying it.0 wt. 17. r 2c ð 2Þ .9 wt.2. the residence time of tracers in each sample interval was recorded (here. f increased only about 6– 25% from the finer emery cloth to the coarser one. all tracers are divided into three groups and dyed red. As shown in Table 2. In fact. homogeneous sand was used as another category for a contrast. / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 219 geometric factors of the different kinds of axial ribs and circular ribs are listed in Table 1. the friction coefficient. The latter is measured by a special shear-plateanalyzer with an easy adjusting shear angle. 2. The physical properties of both kinds of materials are given in Table 2. they were collected after a certain time interval. Then. the bulk characteristics of solids in terms of the dynamic angle of repose. [27]). The mixture has irregular shape. which are quite similar to those of original mixed wastes (i. Li et al. In order to study the influence of wall roughness on MRT and MVF. Thus.5j. Experimental methods To determine MRT and MVF. In this work. At that time. Also. The ratios of three kinds of tracers are 47. At the kiln outlet. and it can reflect the real dynamical bulk characteristics of solids in kiln. ð 1Þ Fig. Also. One was reconstituted MSW consisting of 49. 16. the system must be adjusted to achieve the steady state. 2.. Here hd is measured according to the Rotating Drum-Method (Henein et al.7j while that of MSW mixture is 48. exert significant influences on the transport and mixing of the solids in the kiln. which has the same roughness with the tested wall. the kiln rotates at 4 rpm and fill ratio of solids in the kiln is about 15% –20%. 15 paper plates and 36 waste tyres. Axial ribs Number Exit dam 1 Exit dam 2 12b-4n 12b-7n 12n-4n 12b-4b – – 12 12 12 12 Height (mm) – – 20 20 10 20 Circular ribs Number 1 1 4 7 4 4 Height (mm) 30 50 30 30 30 50 2. As was reported in earlier literatures [11 – 20].-Q.S. Generally. until all tracers finished their excursion through the kiln. The wall friction factor of solids is defined as the tangent function of the wall friction angle.e. compared to the smooth inside wall.9. Schematic of internal structures ((1) Cylinder. Materials Two categories of materials were employed for experiments.3. As is widely known. which is reached when the output of materials is equal to the feed rate of materials.1 wt. (2) Circular ribs. regular shape and similar size.0 wt. A plate. it is difficult to feed all tracers to kiln inlet end at the same time. 5 papers and 12 tyres). white and yellow (each of which consists of 3 wood chips. the method for RTD measurement of MSW is hardly available in current literatures. 49. As the steady state is reached. Meanwhile.2 wt.% wood chips. hd. The mean and variance of residence time of the tracers are expressed below: MRTc I X i¼1 I X ðti À MRTÞ2 EðDti Þ. For all hd measuring of various materials. 17.1 wt. volumetric or molar. the plate is gradually tilted until the solids begin to fall along it. experiments were taken by introducing the dyed tracers consisting of 9 wood chips. Hence. three groups of tracers are successively fed to the kiln inlet and the corresponding inlet time for each group is recorded.

3 51. where I is the sequence of sampling interval. (2) The usage of exit dam can also increases r or rr. The comparison between experimental results and theoretical calculation for RTD of both sand and MSW are shown in Figs. the effect of each variable both on MRT and MVF will be discussed accordingly.003 0.% woods. Therefore.02 to 0.9 52.e. .7 225 1342 True density (kg/m3) 646.% papers and 33. f3 are wall friction factor of solids with none. sizes and densities.0 – 2.0 wt. Results and discussions Table 3 summarizes the detailed experimental results for MRT (together with r and rr) and MVF of the MSW in rotary kiln simulator with various rotating speeds. respectively. the probability of tracers by experiment in each sample interval (Dti) fits well with the theoretical normal distribution function.421 0.1 wt. In the following sections.0 691. bulk characteristic and wall friction factors of materials Materials Wood chips Paper plates Waste tyre Mixed MSW * Sand Shapes Cylindrical Tabulate Arcuate – Nodular Bulk density (kg/m3) 371.: E ðDti Þ ¼ N ðDti Þ= I X i¼1 N ðDti Þ: ð 3Þ Usually.5 29. but on the homogeneous particles instead. According to Donald and Rosseman [22]. but the impact on variance is less appreciable than that on MRT. especially for such a system with a limited ratio of length to diameter (L/D = 6).251 0. f2. Li et al. However. As for sand.525 0. Meanwhile. 3 and 4. For instance. Abouzeid and Fuerstenau [16] concluded that residence time of dolomites in rotary kiln is approximately subjected to a normal distribution by employing the axial dispersion model. kiln slopes. In fact. rr from range [0.02.220 S.7 f1 0. finer and coarser emery cloth setting on inside wall. it must be stated that the measuring error of RTD’s r and rr is quite high due to the segregation of MSW properties.902 1.102 1. 0.563 0.6 2660 Sizes (mm) U25 Â 30 30 Â 30 Â 3 10 Â 5 Â 30 – 1.768 * Mixed MSW consist 49. internal structures and wall roughness are given in Table 3.% tyres. the visible axial segregation) that has been studied and emphasized in a batch kiln system by some investigators [21 – 24] does not occur in this experiment. Much valuable information can be obtained as follows. However. there exists a relatively large discrepancy between experimental value and theoretical curve. 3. Gupta et al.5 104.2. the alternate band formation in batch system may not arise in continuous system where the length of system is not adequate for particles to demix.4]).. [23] stated that a difference in hd of all pure components at a particular rotation speed is one of the necessary (though not sufficient) conditions of band formation.g.05] to range [0. exit-end dams. the axial segregation causes the deviation of measured RTD from the normal distribution (this view will be further verified in Part II of this work). exit-end dams. ** f1. i. while rr varies or keeps in a narrow range from 0.5 278. (3) Employment of internal structures promotes both r and rr remarkably by one order of magnitude (e.941 1. (1) Increasing rotating speed or kiln slope leads to relatively slight increment of r. other than rr2 of MSW is much larger than that of sand under the same condition.0 hd (j) 47. 0.0 777.9 wt. and ti is the retention time of tracers in the ist interval.480 0. the alternate band formation of the various components (i. Residence time distribution of MSW and sand The previous studies on residence time of solids in rotary kiln are scarcely concentrated on the heterogeneous MSW. E(Dti) can be expressed as the ratio of the number of tracers in ist sampling interval to that of the total tracers.1.331 1. Thus. it is induced that the axial segregation of MSW in kiln won’t be violent enough to form alternate bands. It can be explained that. which satisfies the relation: rr2 ¼ r 2 =MRT2 : ð 4Þ 3.05. it is noted that.930 0.7 1020.724 f3 * * 0. the measuring precision of both MRT and MVF can doubtlessly reach an expected level because of their statistical averaged characteristics. In addition. internal structures and walls of different roughness. Dti is the interval of the ist sampling interval. the variance in residence time would arise from axial segregation instead of axial mixing (particle collision). the relative variance is used to express the dispersing extent of RTDs. the hd difference among three components of MSW is not significant.9 48. From Table 2.941 2. more attention is paid to discussions on MRT/MVF rather than r/rr in the following paper.e.-Q.. The rotating speed is only an order of magnitude smaller than that in the study of Gupta et al. kiln slopes. The detailed r and rr of RTD of MSW under various rotating speeds. 17. as tracers consist of three components with various shapes.407 f2 0. / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 Table 2 Summary of properties. for MSW.

33 2.84 1.53 2.67 6.98 8.48 3.33 0. as the bed depth and the fill ratio of solids in cross-section are different at the different axial position.22 0.28 0.62 2.62 2.40 2.32 5.40 2.15 9.27 2.19 0.53 8.37 0.40 1. Li et al.67 12.84 r 0.98 1.40 2.47 12.23 3.62 3.80 19.40 2.051 0.19 0.18 0.40 2.26 3.40 2.037 0. according to the mass conservation theory.00 1.30 6.40 2.20 4.90 9.19 0.95 15.85 12.24 2.45 4.03 15.40 2.20 0.81 0.56 2.09 2.40 2.84 2.58 4.40 2.23 0.40 2. nearly all the experimental/theoretical works of solid transport are concentrated on the overall residence time through the kiln inlet to outlet.20 0. it has various reaction zones along the axis and the solids have different properties in every zone.62 2.70 2.62 1.67 16.40 2.94 2.34 7.23 0.82 1.60 2.042 0.28 4.-Q.69 2.56 1.40 2.40 1.97 0.27 1.80 1.75 12.36 4.23 0.96 1.030 0.20 11.44 1.07 3.78 15.18 1.12 2.05 11. The residence time of solid passing a special reaction zone can be obtained by integration of the bed axial velocity along the age of this i zone.92 15.20 0.13 0.40 9.40 2.67 19. / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 Table 3 Overall experimental data for MRT and MVF of MSW with different variables Run number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Internal structure Smooth wall Rotated rate (rpm) 2 3 4 4 4 6 8 3 4 4 4 6 8 3 4 4 4 6 8 3 4 4 8 4 2 3 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 Inclination (j) 2. the axial velocity along kiln length increases gradually.02 1.33 0.10 1.37 24.27 0.14 4.18 0.40 2. Thus.23 0.89 6. the axial cascading velocity of solids is not constant along the kiln axis.40 1.81 0.22 1.24 0.S.043 0.26 0.80 6.27 1.04 1.27 0.43 0.87 1.40 2.24 0.29 2.27 10.67 13.95 26.25 0. respectively.62 15.65 2.40 1.71 1.20 0.049 0.30 0.27 Finer emery cloth setting Coarser emery cloth setting Exit dam 1 (30 mm) Exit dam 2 12b-4n 12b-7n 12n-4n 12b-4b * The inlet depth of solid bed in all runs is 70mm (23% of inner diameter).81 2.64 2.04 3. d(quA)/dx = 0.83 8.024 0.033 0.18 4.95 13.40 2.50 2.81 0.31 0.20 0.92 14.026 0.023 0.12 21.47 4.73 2.24 5.85 2.24 0.34 0.40 1.40 2.57 3.09 1.33 1.90 11. the residence time in different zone along kiln length is quite different. It is due to the decrement of the bed depth or the fill ratio along the kiln axis.78 16.38 0.27 5.29 0. as for the practical rotary kiln reactor.71 2.67 24. Thus.40 1.87 8.16 4.62 MRT (min) 11.91 1.26 0. Figs.40 2. it is essential to know the detailed residence time of the solids in each zone. It can be seen that the axial velocity of particles increases along the axial direction.81 0.62 2.20 0.40 1.67 4.81 0. ti ¼ mz ziÀ1 dz=uðzÞ where z represents kiln axis and i .62 2. By the way.43 0.08 9.75 3.23 0.40 2.47 2.93 12.62 2. up to now.22 0.28 0.25 5.037 0. Axial velocity distribution along kiln length For end-open system.69 3.58 7.21 0.23 0.81 0.25 0.54 0.92 7.045 0.65 221 rr 0.24 0.56 8. 3.40 2.11 2. That is.37 0.2.02 1.26 4.16 0.40 1.15 4.16 2.75 MVF (l/min) 1.61 3. 5 and 6 give the axial velocity of sand and MSW under different axial points.81 0. However.20 22.82 4.

Influences of particle characteristics on MRT and MVF The comparison of MRT and MVF between sand and MSW under the same conditions is shown in Figs.625 (1/1. 7 and 8.30].43 times of the latter.3. [28]. u(x). Axial speed distribution of MSW along kiln axis. Influences of rotating speed and kiln slope The impact of rotating speed on the MRT and MVF of heterogeneous MSW is shown in Fig. the times of a particle entering the active layer per unit time increases. it can be seen that sinhd of MSW is 1.50 times of that of sand. 4. 9. Contrarily.31]. the zone’s sequence. MRT increases approximately in linear fashion as sinhd of material increases. 3.4. The MRT of MSW is greater than that of sand for all runs.222 S. Axial speed distribution of sand along kiln axis. Residence time distribution of MSW. 5. / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 Fig. Perron and Bui [29]). Fig. it is obtained that the former is about 1. while MVF is subjected to the inverse proportional function of sinhd. Residence time distribution of sand. 6. Therefore.-Q. which further results in the increase of the particle’s axial displacement per unit time (namely. Thus. while MVF increases gradually. 3. respectively.48). Fig. MRT decreases and MVF increases. Li et al. Axial velocity. MVF of MSW is less than that of sand with the multiple of 0. These conclusions are consistent with those acquired from the homogenous small particles by others [11. 3. particle’s axial velocity) [18. can be calculated through the empirical correlations (Lebas et al. while solids in the stagnant region under bed surface only turn around the kiln axis without any axial displacement. From the regress curve in Fig. As the rotational speed increases. It may be explained that the axial transport of solids mainly occurs in the active layer of bed surface. . As rotational speed increases from 2 to 8 rpm. From Table 2. These conclusions will be verified subsequently by the theoretical analysis in Part II of this work. the conclusion is drawn: the material’s characteristics exerts its influences on the MRT and MVF mainly in terms of hd. Fig. 7. MRT decreases nearly in inverse proportional fashion of rotating speed.

The affecting extent made by the 50-mm dam is almost twice of that made by the 30mm dam.S. the combination of two reasons above cause the remarkable increase of MRT. Fig.18 to 3. The higher height of dam has.-Q. 12). the more remarkable effect it has on MRT. which finally causes MRT to decrease and MVF to increase. As for the 30-mm dam.3% and 35. Fig. the MRT decreases in an approximately linear fashion from 11. respectively. 10 indicates the effect of kiln slope on the transport behavior of MSW. Comparison of MRT between MSW and sand. As shown in Fig. 9. the corresponding augment is 165% and 138% for MSW and sand.0% and 71. 7. .2% (shown in Fig. respectively. it causes the increment of bed depth in kiln.4% longer than that with no end constriction. 8.. Fig.28 to 5. MRT of MSW and sand with the 30-mm dam (about 10% of inner kiln diameter) are 78. Fig.5. i.40j. and for the 50-mm dam. / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 223 Fig. It is doubtless that the usage of exit dam is an effective method to control the MRT and MVF of solids. Comparison of MVF between MSW and sand. Effect of kiln slope angle on MSW transport behavior. respectively. Li et al. It is possible that the increasing kiln inclination causes the increment of the gravitational force component in the axial direction of individual particle during its cascading. MVF decreases when employing exitend dam. Effect of rotational speed on MSW transport behavior.5% and 27. the increment of the solid axial velocity.7% of inner diameter). This increment of flow area in cross-section will decrease axial cascading velocity. 11. the reduction of MVF of MSW and sand are 34. the corresponding reduction is 58. When kiln slope angle increases from 0. while MVF rises from 2. Influences of exit-end dams The exit-end dam exerts significant influences on the MRT and MVF of solids in a rotary kiln.73 l/min.e.58 min. it is noted that exit dam has no such apparent impacts on relative variance rr as it has on MRT.9%. However. 10. In addition. 3. as seen from Table 3. On the other hand. First. either. Finally. The reasons for above conclusions lie in two aspects.62j to 2. the usage of exit dam reduces the slope of the solid bed and then the axial cascading velocity of particles. As for a higher 50-mm dam (about 16.

11. the internal structure groups labeled 12b-4n. Effect of various internal structures on MRT of sand.14].-Q. 14. the MRT in 12b-7n case is slightly longer than that in 12b-4n case for both MSW and sand. with the increasing height of axial ribs from 10 to 20 mm (12n-4n ! 12b-4n). 13 and 14 illustrate the influences of four groups of internal structures (listed in Table 2) on the MRT of MSW and sand. the 30-mm exit dam promotes MRT with 78. whose circular ribs is also 30mm height. Effect of exit end dam on MRT. Figs. The impacts of internal structures on MRT are different with various groups consisting of a certain number of axial ribs or circular ribs. as the height of circular ribs increases from 30 to 50 mm (12b-4n ! 12b-4b).224 S. 14). while the impacts of the height of axial ribs is inexplicit.0%. 13. the MRT changing tendency of MSW and sand is inconsistent or inexplicit. 12b-7n and 12n-4n. Fig. Influences of the internal structures The internal structures inevitably affect the axial transport of solids [13. Since the exit dam (regarded as one special circular rib) does not exert the same apparent effects on rr as it does on MRT. which not only changes the solid’s dynamic angle of repose. The detailed conclusions are drawn: as the number of circular ribs in an internal structure group increases (12b-4n ! 12b-7n). For instance. the great promotion by one-order of magni- Fig. 3. It is found that all these four kind of internal structures seriously increase MRT of solids. Effect of various internal structures on MRT of MSW. however. it is concluded that influences of the internal structure group on MRT are dependent on the height of circular ribs. Fig. The influence of circular ribs on MRT can be explained by their similarity to the exit dam whose influence has been already tested to be remarkable. The impact of axial ribs on MRT is quite complicated. .40j (Fig. only promote the MRT in range of 75% to 108% with MSW under an condition of rotating speed at 4 rpm and inclination at 2. here. 12. the increment of MRT from 12b-4n to 12b-4b case is more remarkable. According to above. respectively. but also kicks up some particles from the bed surface to the freeboard space. These conclusions can be verified by the experiments. Effect of exit end dam on MVF. / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 Fig. Li et al.6. However.

hd slowly increases up to about 59. 12b-7n and 12n-4n are considered. dynamic angle of repose and internal-structures. the rolling regime also dominates the bed behavior (that is. which implies that the overall fill ratio of solids to kiln vessel is a constant at 15%. hd increases from 48. in spite of the changing of rotational speed or kiln slope. Thus. The relationship between MRT and MVF As discussed above. Fig.480. The variation of both hd and bed regimes greatly increases MRT.e. 12b-7n or 12n-4n not only similarly enlarges the exit-end bed depth from 0 to 30 mm (while the bed depth at kiln inlet holds 70 mm). the solid bed in a case of smooth wall may perform at a slumping regime. As observed. and its changing tendency is contrary to that of MRT. it holds around 25 l (that’s. Effect of inside wall roughness on MVF of MSW. Fig. Fig. overall fill of solids reaches about 18 f 19%). / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 225 Fig. 16. When f increases to 1. but also expands the bulk characteristics of solids along all kiln length.7. the variation of MRT is small.251. with further increase of f from 1. Finally it is drawn that the overall fill ration or holdup of solids within kiln is just relevant to the inlet bed depth. when one of the variables. kiln slope. MRT increases significantly. 3. the advanced cataracting regime is not yet formed). Effect of inside wall roughness on MRT of MSW. the variation of MRT has the reverse tendency with that of MVF. The influences of inside wall roughness The inside wall’s roughness.003 to 1. which is expressed as Holdup = MRT Â MVF.3 l. in which the solids cascade as periodic ‘avalanche’ through the kiln and have a short MRT. designated by the wall friction factors of solids ( f). 16. In addition. When f continues to increase to 1. Fig. The employment of 12b-4n. the increment of MRT is not apparent.5j.7 to 25. It can be explained that the variation of f greatly changes the bulk characteristics (in terms of variation of hd) and further changes the bed regimes of solids. When f increases to 1. When the inside wall is smooth with f at 0. the product of MRT and MVF keeps around 19. This conclusion is much meaningful to the scaleup or design rotary kiln reactor. has significant effects on axial transport. exit bed depth and usage of internal structures.8.251 (the coarser emery cloth setting). 3. Thus. 17 shows the product of MRT and MVF (i. the holdup increases from 19.003 (viz. holdup) under different run. However. such as 12b-4n. in which the values of MRT and MVF are obtained from Table 3. tude of rr may be attributed to the presence of axial ribs (Table 3). changes. Relationship between MRT and MVF. MRT is rather short. such as rotational speed. As far as the internal-structures. the finer emery cloth is set on inside wall). In a case of smooth wall with open exit end. It is apparent that the product of MRT and MVF is just the holdup of solids in kiln. .7 l.-Q. the impact of f on MVF of MSW is shown in Fig. MVF decreases gradually with the increasing f. but independent of some operational parameters such as rotational speed or kiln slope.003.S. 15. Li et al.5j to 58j and the rolling regime is well formed. 17. 15 presents the variation of MRT with the various f.

J. 25 (1980) 21 – 29. Schofield.G. Muzzio. Drinkenburg. it can also be used as an adjusting tool of the kiln. Eng. Transport of solids through horizontal rotary [11] L. Powder Technol. Metall. Inst. Trans. on MRT mainly depends on height of circular ribs. Trans.Q. M.02 to 0. [19] G. U. / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 4. A.H. Yang. X.D. Li. 72 (1992) 139 – 147. An improved model of particle motion in cascading rotary dreyers. Philip. MRT is approximately a proportion function of sin hd. [16] A.P. Longitudinal mixing of granular material flowing through a rotary cylinder: Part I. Abouzeid.T. it is essential to know the detailed residence time of the solids in each divided zone besides that of the whole kiln.W. 41 (1963) 272 – 280. The passage of granular solids through inclined rotary kilns. Grorneveld. [9] P. Inst. Experimental studies on municipal solid waste pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale rotary kiln. Brimacombe.G.D. Metall. [3] A. X. Rapra Technology. (4) The difference of the MRT/MVF between the heterogeneous MSW and regular sand is related to their dynamic angles of repose. Kingma.R. Impact of internal structures. (7) The effect of roughness of inside wall on MRT and MVF can be explained by that the variation of f between the wall and the solids directly changes the bulk characteristics of the solids in kiln and further changes the motion regime of the bed. Li. 1986. [17] P. T. Anal. Metall. D. [2] A.W. Appl. 50076037) and partially by . Damodaran.J. Descriptive and theoretical.J. Zhejiang provincial National Science Funds of China (No. It results in a relatively large discrepancy of experimental RTD with ideal normal distribution. B 14B (1983) 375 – 381.K. 1987. Dufton. Suresh. Li. Acknowledgements This research was supported mainly by Nation Natural Science Funds of China (No. The Value and Use of Scrap Tyre. Groen. M. P. which implies incoming research intensive.S. J. Metall.V. It is implied that the axial ribs will have great effect on rr. [18] G. J.3j. A. Va cylinders. J. X. A study of the hold-up in rotary drums with discharge end constrictions. The variance (r or rr) of MSW is greater than that of sand.5j and hd of the contrastive sand is about 29.1 wt. 68 (1990) 139 – 148. M. Li et al. Rotary dryers and coolers for granular fertilizers. 384 (1927).G. Dynamics of simulated municipal solid waste in a rotating device.M. Trans.% wood chips. Kramers. Henrich.P. Flow of materials in rotary kilns used for sponge iron manufacture: Part I. Li.J. Matchett.Q. Mines Tech.05.M. Bur. Combustion and gasification kinetics of pyrolysis chars from waste and biomass. Fuerstenau. [14] A.G. Huang and Z. Croockewit. A. Decleer. Li for helpful discussion about rotary kiln transport processes.Z. Technol. Energy 24 (1999) 209 – 218. G. 1 (1952) 259 – 265. England. Sullivan. V. S.% waste tyres. [7] A. Trans. [15] R. Proc. Sathe. S.K. (6) The exit dam has remarkable impact on MRT of solids. but is independent of the drum rotation speed. However. which are composed of axial ribs and circular ribs. Sci. Trans. Rutgers.D. Des.I. Passage of solid particles through rotary cylindrical kilns. Stemerding. [8] W. Eng. S. The design of rotary driers and coolers. Z. 17. Srivastava. J. 98 (1998) 125 – 134. Mixing of granular material in a drum undergoing rotating and rocking motions part II segregating particles. 20 (1965) 1079 – 1087. Ralson. The r of RTD shows the same fashion as MRT with various rotating speed or kiln slope. [6] A. K. Porter.S. (3) The axial cascading velocity of particles increases along the axial direction due to the decrement of the bed depth or the fill area along the kiln axis. Trans. Zhang to this work is gratefully acknowledged.P.J. Disposing of solid wastes by pyrolysis. Wightman. O. Powder Technol. Powder Technol.D. 1 (1952) 253 – 258. Elsevier. 40 (1962) 183 – 190. Sci. A. Glikin. A. Sai. Conclusion (1) The reconstituted MSW consists of 49. [20] F. Chatterjee. Mukhopadhyay. The contribution of Dr. Symp. Sci.A. (2) The distribution of residence time of MSW arises from the axial segregation of different components. RC99041). Chem.D. Pyrolysis 49 (1999) 221 – 241.W. Wes.D. Eng. 9 (1975) 98 – 99. Sci. Effect of ring formation within the kiln. [4] E.% paper plates and 33. Sheikh.226 S. but not the axial collisions. C. ` hl. Chem. Eng. thus. Sci. B 21B (1990) 1005 – 1011. Pap. Effect of some operational variables.M. A. Li.V. Chem.9 wt. exit dam (or circular ribs) does not exert the same apparent impact on rr as it does on MRT. Srivastava. These variables are both considered as flexible parameters to adjust the kiln peformance in the practice. P. Flow of materials in rotary kilns used for sponge iron manufacture: Part III. We are grateful to Dr. S. B 13B (1982) 369 – 378. Pyrolysis of solid waste in a rotary kiln: influence of final pyrolysis temperature on pyrolysis products. F. (5) Increasing either rotating speed or kiln slope results in the decreasing MRT and increasing MVF. hd of MSW is 48. S. Maier. while rr keeps in a narrow range from 0. Scaling down of the calcination process for industrial catalyst manufacturing. Amsterdam. The dynamic angle of repose (hd) reflects the bulk characteristics of solids in kiln. Sathe. [13] A.0 wt. B 14B (1983) 393 – 399. (8) For a case with given inlet and exit bed depths. S. Delva. Surender. Appl.-Q. Li. Z. W. J. Environ. Eng. The presence of internal structures increases the holdup of solids. Chem.C. Chem. Rumpel. [12] H. The value of hd increases with the enhancement of wall roughness. Watkinson. Anal. Pyrolysis 50 (1999) 149 – 162. Schaefer. Solids mixing and residence time distribution in a horizontal rotary drum reactor. Limestone calcination in rotary kiln. P. the holdup in terms of the product of MRT and MVF holds at a constant within the limits of experimental errors. Res. Bu ¨ rkle. Chatterjee. References [1] S. [21] C. Powder Technol. It is noted that the known phenomenon of alternate band formation does not occur in such a continuous system. J. [10] J. -M. Thus. Ferment.-C. [5] W. M. Basis for the Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts. Chem. Sankaran. Residence time distribution and material flow studies in a rotary kiln. Int. Meza-Renken. while MVF is an inverse proportion function of sin hd. 13 (1976) 177 – 184.

[28] E. [26] J. 23 (1979) 159 – 167. Fukushima. Chem. Donald. Bhatia. B 14B (1983) 191 – 204. Munro.K. W.L. Chem. Sci. Altobelli. Rotary cylinder: solid transport predicted by dimensional and rheological analysis. 52 (1997) 4423 – 4428. Particle mixing and segregation in failure zone—theory and experiments. 68 (1990) 61 – 68. Axial segregation of particles in a horizontal rotating cylinder. 51 (1996) 4167 – 4181. Experimental study of transverse bed motion in rotary kilns. particle movement and bed depth profile in rotary kilns. 76 (1993) 241 – 245. Stephens.J. 73 (1995) 173 – 179. Eng. Chem. Particle motion and mixing in a rotary kiln. Ablitzer. R. D. Sci. Eng. J. Experimental study of residence time. Metall. Boateng. Li et al. J. Lebas. 227 [27] H. J. Houzelot.R. [29] J.A. Foo. A Monte Carlo method for simulating dispersion and transport through horizontal rotating cylinder. Nakagawa. Henein. B. E. 46 (1991) 1517. Rosseman. 7 (1962) 922 – 924. Eng. Perron. D. J. / Powder Technology 126 (2002) 217–227 [22] M. Br. Trans. Woodle. A. S. Chem. Mixing and de-mixing of solid particles part III industrial aspects of mixing and de-mixing. J.-Q. [24] M.B. Powder Technol.K. . Gupta. [30] R.D. Brimacombe. Hanrot.S. Chem. Rogers. Sci. Modelling of particle mixing and segregation in the transverse plane of rotary kiln. [25] A. D. S.T. [31] G. F. Bui. [23] S. A. Barr. Eng. Eng. 41 (1985) 147 – 158. Powder Technol. Watkinson.S. NMRI study: axial segregation of radially segregated core of granular mixtures in a horizontal rotating cylinder. P. Khakhar.M. Can.A. Can. Chem. Powder Technol. Eng.P. Caprihan.V.V. Bridgewater.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful