Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Control Loop Elements And Their Contribution To Loop Performance

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Instrumentation File Reference: PCI10202

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance

CONTENTS

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EXPLAINING THE GENERAL SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION ....................................................... 1 Selection Considerations as Specified by Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-J-003, Basic Design Criteria ............... 1 Other Selection Considerations......................................................... 6 Primary Elements/Transmitters .............................................. 6 IDENTIFYING THE MOST COMMONLY USED TRANSMITTERS............ 9 Role of Transmitters .......................................................................... 9 Transmitter Types.............................................................................. 9 Transmitter Components ................................................................. 11 Simplified Transmitter Schematics .................................................. 12 Pneumatic Type .................................................................... 12 Electronic Type ..................................................................... 13 Resonant Wire Type ............................................................. 14 DESCRIBING THE MOST COMMON FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS USED IN PROCESS APPLICATIONS.................................. 18 Control Valve Terminology .............................................................. 18 Valve Body Types............................................................................ 20 Globe Styles.......................................................................... 20 Globe Style Three-Way Valves............................................. 23 Angle Valves ......................................................................... 25 Cage Valves.......................................................................... 26 Butterfly Valves..................................................................... 28 Ball Valves ............................................................................ 30 Eccentric Plug-Type Ball Valves........................................... 31 Control Valve Application Considerations ....................................... 32 IDENTIFYING OTHER CONTROL LOOP ELEMENTS AND THEIR ROLES ........................................................................................... 38
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Engineering Encyclopedia

Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance

Signal Converters ............................................................................ 38 Current to Pressure Signal Converters, I/P .......................... 38 Pressure to Current Signal Converter, P/I ............................ 39 Analog to Digital, A/D, or Digital to Analog, D/A ................... 40 Volume Booster .................................................................... 41 Valve Positioner .................................................................... 43 GLOSSARY ............................................................................................... 46

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Engineering Encyclopedia

Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance

There are various selection considerations involved in the proper choice of instrumentation for a process control loop. The general objective, within some constraints, is to select the best possible instruments for the given application. This should minimize future problems substantially and make the control of the process as easy as possible. The choice of instrument quite often is a compromise or tradeoff between the application requirements and the various attributes and limitations of the hardware available. Selection Considerations as Specified by Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-J-003, Basic Design Criteria There are design requirements for each type of instrument covered by individual Saudi Aramco standards and specifications. SAES-J-003 is the Engineering Standard which, together with its references, specifications, codes, forms and drawings, covers the requirements for the selection, design and application of process instruments and systems. SAES-J-003 states that the selection of instrumentation should normally take into consideration the following items:

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance

Some of these terms are straightforward and require no further explanation. Others might benefit from some further explanation. Reliability - Infers the probability that a component, piece of equipment or system will perform its intended function for a specified period of time, usually operating hours, without requiring corrective maintenance. Accuracy - This is one of the most difficult terms to understand due to various interpretations. It is poorly defined and means different things to different people. The term accuracy actually implies inaccuracy or error. The following accuracy related information is from ISA S-51.1, "Standard Process Control Terminology." Accuracy - In process instrumentation, degree of conformity of an indicated value to a recognized, accepted standard value, or ideal value. Measured accuracy - The maximum positive and negative deviation observed in testing a device under specified conditions and by a specified procedure. See Figure 1. Note 1: It is usually measured as an inaccuracy and expressed as accuracy. Note 2: It is typically expressed in terms of the measured variable, percent of span, percent of upper range value, percent of scale length, or percent of actual output reading. Accuracy rating - In process instrumentation, a number or quantity that defines a limit that errors will not exceed when a device is used under specified operating conditions. See Figure 1. Note 1: When operating conditions are not specified, reference operating conditions shall be assumed. Note 2: As a performance specification, accuracy (or reference accuracy) shall be assumed to mean accuracy rating of the device, when used at reference operating conditions.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

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The absence of a sign indicates a + and . Refer to the glossary for definition of these terms. OUTPUT MAXIMUM ACTUAL POSITIVE DEVIATION ACTUAL DOWNSCALE CALIBRATION CURVE HIGH OR POSITIVE PERMISSIBLE LIMIT OF ERROR SPECIFIED CHARACTERISTIC CURVE ACCURACY RATING ACTUAL UPSCALE CALIBRATION CURVE MAXIMUM ACTUAL NEGATIVE DEVIATION LOW OR NEGATIVE PERMISSABLE LIMIT OF ERROR SPAN MEASURED ACCURACY INPUT 0 100% ACCURACY RATING FIGURE 1 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3 . It is preferred that a + sign precede the number or quantity. dead band and repeatability errors.sign. hysteresis.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Note 3: Accuracy rating includes the combined effects of conformity. The units being used are to be stated explicitly.

If not satisfactory. Bias is the difference between the true value as established by the referencestandard reading and the most likely reading by the instrument (average of the instrument's readings). Precision is a characteristic of the particular instrument And can not be improved for a given device. usually at an additional cost. Precision relates to the ability of a measuring device to give or repeat the same reading or output for the same input.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Accuracy rating can be expressed in a number of forms. the only alternative is a more precise instrument. What we call accuracy is actually error and can be broken into its components of precision and bias errors. Thus we can describe the accuracy of a device at a point as follows: Accuracy (Error) = Precision Error + Bias Error where. The following five examples are typical: It may help our understanding of accuracy if we look at the term from a process instrumentation and control point of view. Accuracy can be improved by adding or subtracting bias errors from the instrument's readings. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4 . Bias errors are directional and can be calculated in a given application.

Operators learn to make good product without the need to know the absolute accuracy. In process work most of the time we deal with type (B) devices.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance To illustrate these terms let us look at the following example. Assume in this example we throw darts at a target with the following results: A HIGHLY ACCURATE DEVICE. These are precise or repeatable devices with some bias error. They can deal quite well with repeatable information produced by type (B) devices. The only exception is in custody transfer applications (buying and selling) where additional effort is put in to eliminate the bias errors and improve the overall accuracy. GOOD PRECISION WITH MINIMUM BIAS B PRECISE WITH BIAS ERROR C POOR PRECISION SMALL BIAS ERROR Looking at the results and relating the example to process instrumentation it is obvious that device (A) is the best to use and device (C) is the worst to use. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 .

rangeability is the ratio of the maximum flow rate to the minimum flow rate within the stated accuracy rating. Minimum Span . The maximum span of measurement that the primary element can be used to measure within its accuracy rating. Maximum Span .Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Other Selection Considerations Primary Elements/Transmitters Range . Rangeability (Turndown) . i. In flow applications.40 to 120°F SPAN 100°C 80 in H2O 160°F TYPE OF RANGE Zero based range Suppressed zero range Elevated zero range Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . Zero Elevation and Suppression . It is expressed by stating the lower and upper range values.) The selected primary element has to satisfy the zero value of the measured variable. The minimum span of measurement that the primary element can be used to measure within its accuracy rating. The selected primary element must have sufficient rangeability or turndown to satisfy the rangeability needs of the controlled variable. The selected primary element must satisfy the maximum span requirement of the controlled variable. The selected primary element must have the required span to cover the entire measurement.e. RANGE 0 to 100°C 20 to 100 in H2O . The range at which the zero value of the measured variable is not at the lower range value. The measurement span is the algebraic difference between the upper and lower range values. Span . this particular specification helps you to determine at what point during a startup the information of the primary element is accurate enough to switch a loop into automatic operation. The selected primary element must have sufficient range to measure the controlled variable throughout its operating range. (Check Glossary. The region between the limits within which a quantity is measured is the range of that measurement. The selected primary element must satisfy the minimum span requirement of the controlled variable.

Note: For the output of a first-order system forced by a step or an impulse.632A OUTPUT A t=0 t=0 STEADY STATE TIME 0 τ 2τ 3τ 4τ 5τ t A = (l .An output expressed as a function of time.e-t τ ) It takes the output of the device approximately five time constants (5τ) to reach its final steady state value. An accurate primary element is useless in an industrial application if it takes too long to respond to a process input. This is a specific measure of a response time. A good primary element should have a fast (short) response time. gives us information regarding how quickly the primary element responds to a specific input. INPUT A INSTRUMENT TIME A . In higher order systems. The time constant τ is a function of the resistance (R) and capacitance (C) associated with the measuring device. in seconds or minutes.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Response Time . there is a time constant for each of the first-order components. τ = RC =Time Constant. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 . resulting from the application of a specified input (step) under specific operating conditions. is the time required to complete 63.2% of the total change when forced by a step. The response time.2% of the final steady state value for a step input. Time Constant . It is the time required for a first order system to reach 63.

This curve shows the output variable of an element or device as a function of an input variable. Steady State Gains. drift and repeatability.05. subjecting the primary elements to undesirable levels of noise. In addition. then the gain of the element is constant and does not contribute to loop gain non-linearity. If the span was 10 in.e. PCI 102. of water the effects of noise would be three times as much for this span making the noise more difficult to handle. The selected primary element forms one of the elements in a loop and its input-output relationship will dictate the overall loop linearity. Reproducibility includes the effects of hysteresis. either through noise filtering techniques or better instrument applications techniques. The selected primary elements should be highly reproducible. On the other hand. Noise .Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Characteristic Curve (Input-Output Relationship) . In process instrumentation noise is an unwanted component of a signal or a process variable. Some measurements are inherently noisy. i. i. With this span the signal noise to signal span ratio is usually in a more acceptable level. dead band. of water. the measurement span should be selected in such a way that the signal noise to signal span ratio is at an acceptable level. if the primary element's input-output relationship is not linear. Noisy process measurements are not desirable and in certain control applications not acceptable.e. This means that there should be a closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the output for the same value of the input made under the same operating conditions over a period of time. A curve that shows the ideal value of an input-output relationship at steady state. Noise should be eliminated or minimized to acceptable levels. then its gain is not constant with consequences on overall loop performance. in boiler drum level applications the span of level measurement is typically 30 in. approaching from both directions. Reproducibility . if the input-output relationship of the element is linear. addresses these issues. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 .

The body of the transmitter (bottom works) contains a measuring element (transducer) that converts process conditions or parameters into motion. Transmitter Types Transmitters as purchased from vendors usually consist of two major components. These conversions allow the process parameters to directly relate in a known function (linear or square root. To complicate matters. such as increased throughput demands. or microprocessor-based components to convert the transducer signal into a standard signal suitable for transmission to other locations (centralized) in the plant.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Role of Transmitters Sensing a process variable is only the first step in process plant control. Another difficulty is regarding the response time of an element with several hundred feet of capillary tubing. The process fluids could be at high pressure or of dangerous chemicals which would create a hazardous condition in case of rupture or leakage. electronic. The transmitter head (top works) contains pneumatic. force or some other parameter. One operator cannot monitor information scattered around the plant to make wise operating decisions. This allows the centralization of control operations since signals can be sent longer distances and are of a uniform standard value. for example) to the output signal. It is impractical to locate all control instruments in a plant near the process. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . it is not easy to bring most measurements to a certain location in their original form. The information obtained must be used to make necessary process changes to adjust for external forces. These difficulties are overcome with the introduction of signal transmission systems. And. The additional dead time or lag produced by this system will not allow effective control. placing an operator at each controller would be an inefficient use of valuable manpower.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Smart transmitters are essentially the same as conventional transmitters. Recent introduction of digital transmitters provide an alternative and might change the picture in the future. The controller manipulates a control valve in the pipeline to adjust the flow rate. except that the microprocessor-based transmitter head has certain additional capabilities. The transmitter converts the d/p into a usable signal and transmits it to a remote controller. self diagnostics. in a field junction box. This may include remote calibration checks. In process instrumentation most transmission systems are either pneumatic or electronic devices working with analog (continuous) signals. PROCESS TRANSMITTER FT r FIC 1 FLOW INDICATING CONTROLLER SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES I P PRIMARY ELEMENT Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 . The schematic below shows the use of a differential pressure transmitter using an orifice as a primary device to determine flow in a pipeline. configuration and reranging with a hand-held communicator (at the transmitter. or from the control room).

Detector .The function of the detector is to detect the process signal input or primary element output. RESTRICTOR TYPICALLY 20 PSI AIR SUPPLY d = . Negative Feedback .The function of the amplifier is to amplify the detected signal.The function of negative feedback is to balance (stabilize) the mechanism allowing it to accept changes in the primary element's output.0006'' NOZZLE FLAPPER AIR AMPLIFIER OR RELAY DETECTOR FEEDBACK BELLOWS ( STABILIZER ) PROCESS SIGNAL INPUT (PRESS. These three components are shown below as part of a simplified pneumatic transmitter. FLOW.100 kPa ) INPUT TO CONTROLLER Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . LEVEL ) AIR SUPPLY TO AMPLIFIER AND DETECTOR OUTPUT ( 3 . 2.15 PSI ) ( 20 .TEMP. 3.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Transmitter Components Transmitter top works consist of three basic components. Amplifier . These are: 1.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Simplified Transmitter Schematics Pneumatic Type The actual force-balance pneumatic transmitter's simplified schematic may look like this: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 .

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Electronic Type The simplified scheme of an electronic force-balance differential pressure transmitter may look like this: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 .

The wire in this circuit is represented by the resistance. VIBRATING WIRE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER DIAPHRAGM BACKING PLATE WIRE ATTACHED TO DIAPHRAGM HERE SI OIL FILL WIRE ATTACHED TO BACKING PLATE HERE LOW PRESSURE SIDE HIGH PRESSURE SIDE OSCILLATOR OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 .Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Resonant Wire Type The resonant frequency of the oscillator circuit changes as a function of wire tension.

so both adjustments have to be checked iteratively until making a change in one adjustment does not affect the other. A second concern while calibrating is to check the transmitter's linearity by putting a 50% input to see if the output goes to 50%.Adjust a zero screw so that at 0% measurement input the output is 0% (usually 4 mA DC or 3 psi). The user or manufacturer.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance It is impossible for manufacturers to make transmitters customized to meet exactly the user process conditions regarding range and span. A non-linear transmitter requires either further calibration. In newer transmitters this could be the end of the calibration procedure. area classification. and process static pressures are some of the specifications of interest. This is not practicable and the price most likely not acceptable to the user.Adjust the span of the instrument so that at 100% measurement input. This act of ascertaining outputs of the transmitter corresponding to a series of values of the quantity which it has to transmit is called calibrating the instrument. Accuracy. the zero and span adjustments interact. Most electronic transmitters are either inherently linear or have built-in linearization functions. manufacturers make instruments to serve a broad range of conditions and applications. rangeability. motion-balance type pneumatic transmitters (angularity adjustment). Span Adjustment . however. Instead. must make sure the particular device has the correct specifications to meet the job requirements. minimum and maximum spans. with appropriate information regarding the span and range of measurements. In ordering the transmitter the user. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 . in the case of older. with manufacturer's assistance. the output is 100% (usually 20 mA DC or 15 psi). The calibration procedure usually involves the following adjustments: Zero Adjustment . in the case of forcebalance pneumatic transmitters which are inherently linear. In some older transmitters. must make adjustments to make sure the instrument meets the process requirements. or requires troubleshooting.

If the transmitter output increases with an increase in the measured process parameter. This is much more comfortable for the operator since a change of output directly relates to a change of input. the transmitter is reverse acting. contributes to achieving a negative feedback loop requirement of an odd number of reverse acting elements.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance TYPICAL TRANSMITTER CALIBRATION CURVE 20 16 An Actual Transmitter Curve Might Look Like This OUTPUT mA dc 12 8 NOTE: 4 mA = " LIVE " ZERO " Ideal " Transmitter curve 4 0% 0 PSI 0°F 25% 50% 100 PSI 500°F INPUT 75% 100% 200 PSI 1000°F Transmitters can be calibrated to be either direct acting or reverse acting. as one of the elements of the loop. The preferred choice in most applications is to have a direct acting transmitter. If the output decreases with an increasing process parameter. the transmitter is direct acting. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 . Keep in mind that the transmitter.

This implies that the transmitter gain is essentially a steady state concern.06 gives a thorough treatment of this subject.4 ) mA 16 mA = = ² IN ( 200 . The gain will change as follows: 100% 100% 1% KT = = = INPUT SPAN 100°F °F This gain is twice as much as the previous gain and will double the loop gain with the potential of making the loop unstable.e. The controller gain must be backed-off to accommodate the additional transmitter gain and maintain loop stability. 20 mA 100% OUTPUT K T = SLOPE OF CURVE = CONSTANT = ² OUT ( 20 . G T = KT GT ∠∅T Transmitters are fast acting devices with not much of a dynamic gain concern. i. Remember that the open loop gain is the product of all the elements' gains forming the loop and it dictates the loop response. 0 to 100°F range and a span of 100°F.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance The gain of an element as you recall is a vector made up of steady state and dynamic components.0 ) °F 200°F OR KT = 100% INPUT SPAN = 100% 200°F = 1% 2°F 4 mA 0% 0 INPUT 200°F If the transmitter is recalibrated to a new span of measurement. The gain of the transmitter could have dimensions and is the slope of the input-output relationship as shown below. The steady state gain of the transmitter was defined as the change of output divided by the change in input at a steady state. GL = GT × GV × GP × GC Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . that is. PCI 102. GT ∠∅T ≈ 1 ∠0°.

There have been tremendous advances through the introduction of microprocessors to improve the performance of the transmitters and process computers. The control valve is by far the weakest element in the loop. The control valve is constructed such that the stem lift (plug position) is related to the input signal.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance There are various selection considerations regarding the choice of the final controlling element used in regulating the supply to the process. liquid level. Most control loop problems evolve from and are somehow related to the final controlling element selected and sized for the particular application. and therefore receives much attention from control engineers and valve manufacturers. Before we get into the selection considerations let us look at the common control valve types along with the terminology. Control Valve Terminology A control valve is an engineered variable flow restriction. pressure. These innovations have had little effect on the the valve performance. temperature. and composition are maintained at desired values in the process. by means of which flow rate. There are various considerations involved in the selection of the valve for the particular application. The input signal to the control valve is the output signal from a controller. On some processes the final controlling element could be a damper or the speed of a motor but by far the most common final controlling element is the control valve. The relationship between stem position and the area open for flow is called the valve characteristic. This relationship is extremely important in determining the suitability of a given valve for a given service. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 .

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance The following diagram illustrates control valve terminology. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 .

angle and cage valves are linear actuated. Globe Styles The most common control valve body style is the conventional globe type. The valve characteristic depends on the shape of the opening between the valve body and plug and the pressure drop variations caused by the flow. The valve body-plug combination is essentially a variable restriction or orifice. while butterfly and eccentric plug and ball valves are of the rotary type. can be divided into two major portions.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance The valve. although it is declining in popularity in favor of the cage and rotary valves. or through current to pneumatic transducers (I/P) in electronic or digital applications. or operator. The upper portion forms what is referred to as the valve actuator. as seen. It is usually a spring loaded diaphragm actuated by the controller output either directly in pneumatic applications. The globe control valve can be either single or double-seated. New installations use fewer globe styles because of economic and performance advantages of these other control valves. Globe. Valve Body Types The two general categories of control valves are linear actuated and rotary actuated. The bottom portion of the valve (the valve body) contains a valve plug which is positioned by the diaphragm actuator. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . motor.

Single-seated valves are usually employed when tight shut-off is required. that is. or in sizes of 1 inch and smaller where the unbalanced forces acting on the valve stem is unimportant as a factor in actuator selection. Single-seated valves may have a top or top-and-bottom guided construction. Single-seat design also allows a somewhat higher flow capacity than top-and-bottom guided valves for a given orifice size.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Single-Seated .01 percent of the maximum valve Cv when subjected to an air test with 50 psi upstream and 0 psig downstream pressure. or top closure. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-J-700 specifies that single-seated globe valves shall be used in shut-off service and gas compressor recycle service. Tight shutoff in this case usually means that the maximum expected leakage is less than 0. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . and on the bottom of the body. the valve stem is guided within the lower portion of the valve bonnet.

Complete cancellation of these forces is not possible because of the hydrodynamic effects of the fluid that passes the plug contour at high velocity. thereby creating a dynamic imbalance between this force and the differential pressure acting across the upper-plug area. particularly.5 percent of the rated Cv because it is nearly impossible to close the two ports simultaneously. Here practical leakage approaches 0.Double-seated valve is generally top and bottom guided. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22 . Double-seated valves have upper and lower ports of different diameters (to allow withdrawal of the smaller plug through the larger port). This contributes to an unbalanced force condition which must be corrected by the actuator. the advantage of double-seated construction lies in the reduction of required actuator forces. However. if thermal expansion causes additional distortion after the valve is installed. because the hydrostatic effects of the fluid pressure acting on each of the two seats.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Double-seated . Fluid passing the lower seat (which tends to close the plug) has a further tendency to "suck" the plug into the seat. tend to cancel out opposite forces.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Globe Style Three-Way Valves Three-way valves are a design extension of a typical double-seated globe valve. A diverting valve might be used for a heat exchanger bypass where the heating medium enters Port "C. The remaining portion of the fluid then goes to the heat exchanger." Part of the fluid leaves Port "U" to bypass the exchanger. as shown. The body has an internal bridge to separate the right hand and the lower outlet. again depending upon the desired fail-safe action." to heat an independent process stream and then rejoins the bypass fluid stream from Port "U. Note that the plug has additional rib guiding in the orifice to compensate for the omission of the lower guide post. Either a direct or a reverse actuator is used. through Port "L. has a modified double-ported body with the lower plug seating opposite from the normal shut-off position. Here a distinction is made between a valve used for diverting service and one used for mixing or combining service. A typical three-way valve." Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23 .

are combined in a desired ratio and leave through the common Port "C. An upward movement of the plug decreases the flow passing Port "L" and at the same time increases the flow area for Port "U." Note again that skirt guiding is employed to provide additional guiding in line with the upper guide post. Here." The ratio between the amount of fluid coming through either Ports "U" or "L" is determined by the plug position.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance The drawing below illustrates a three-way valve used for combining or mixing service. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-J-700 specifies that the flange for the common port shall be marked "common" or "open". two separate fluids entering Port "L" and Port "U." respectively. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 .

which may lead to severe pipe vibration and noise. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 . an angle valve may be arranged to discharge directly into a vessel or other enlarged fluid volume. The underlying thought was to keep turbulence that is created by the throttling process away from the valve's internal parts. the energy conversion takes place in the downstream pipe. such as abrasive catalyst material. High pressure recovery means a low cavitation index and occurrence of cavitation under low or moderate pressure drops with liquid media.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Angle Valves Angle valves generally are single-seated valves with special body configurations. This allows for the process fluids to be totally drained between process steps or prior to start of the next batch. The streamlined interior passage of angle valves tends to prevent an accumulation of solids on the body wall. However. in doing this. Another characteristic is the relatively high pressure recovery obtained with the streamlined flow pattern. This allows them to additionally satisfy the need of an elbow to suit specific piping designs. In the latter. a discharge into the outlet pipe (with flow direction tending to close the plug) prevents erosion of the inside of the valve housing. This type of valve has been used for coking hydrocarbons and high pressure-drop service. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-J-700 specifies the use of only singleseated angle valves. thus avoiding damage to internal valve parts. Angle valves may also be used in cases where the piping layout does not allow the installation of a globe valve and may be used for handling certain erosive fluids. An additional advantage of the angle valve is the self-draining feature which is of value when handling certain dangerous fluids such as corrosive or radioactive liquids. If cavitation or flashing is inevitable.

often referred to as "quick change trim. The valve trim can be replaced. a substantial increase in seat leakage must be tolerated. The drawing below shows a typical top entry valve with balanced. as shown below." can easily be removed after removing the bonnet because of the absence of internal threads. tends to cancel out the hydrostatic forces acting on the plug and leads to a great reduction in the required actuator forces. However. As mentioned previously. The valve flow characteristic is achieved by shaped windows usually cast in the circumference of the cage.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Cage Valves Cage valves are a variation of the single-seated globe valve and the most often specified process control valve due to substantial advantages in typical globe valve applications. The valve plug then assumes the form of a flat disk. located in a groove near the top of the piston seals the upper plug area against the outlet portion of the valve. The cage and seat ring are sometimes designed as one piece. This balanced design. the biggest advantage of the top entry valve is the ease of maintenance. This is one of the reasons why this particular valve type has gained wide acceptance since its recent introduction. Valves of this type usually have streamlined body passage to permit increased flow capacity. A sliding seal. singleseated trim. without removing the valve body from the line. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 . So called "top entry" or cage valves have the advantage of trim removal. An important economic advantage is lower cost over the globe valve for the same flow capacity. The inner valve parts. as in double-seated valves. The valve plug can also be made as a piston having a hollow internal passage that permits the fluid pressure to communicate to both sides of the plug. if necessary.

This allows inherent flow characteristics such as linear. equal percentage and quick opening. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 .Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance CAGE VALVE SINGLE SEAT BALANCED The inherent flow characteristics of the valve can be changed by using cages with different openings.

tight closure on cryogenic fluids using a seal of Teflon or Kel-F. The dynamic torque acts in the closing direction and. which may be mounted either within the body or on the circumference of the vane. for low or moderate pressures. Actuator force requirements are dictated by a combination of two factors: the friction load imposed by side loading on the shaft due to the differential pressure. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-J-700 specifies that butterfly valves in hydrocarbon service shall be flange or lug-type design. Buna-N. The typical application range is in sizes from 3 inches up to 72 inches. This valve does not have standard ISA or API face-to-face dimensions. In all metal construction. including angle-seating and the use of piston rings. elastomer inserts can be adapted to give a tighter seal within the temperature limits of the insert material. Another design modification involves an eccentrically mounted vane to permit. is normally limited to a 60° opening.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Butterfly Valves The most common type of rotary valve used for control is the butterfly valve shown below. the vane-to-body clearance in the closed position gives a leakage flow that is generally equivalent to the leakage of double-seated valves (0. In designs recently introduced. Viton A. Many design modifications are available which minimize leakage. or for high temperature and special chemical services. or on unusual applications involving large flows at high static pressures but with limited pressure drop. Because of the simple body design. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 . special shaped vanes (Fisher-Fishtail and Masoneilan Mini-Torque) are used to reduce the dynamic torque and to permit 90 degrees operation for increased capacity on certain installations. in the conventional design. Wafer-type design butterfly valves shall be used in non-hydrocarbon service only. The shaft shall be of an one piece type and of Manufacturer's standard material. reaches a maximum at about 70 degrees open. ANSI body ratings are used but the valves are also rated for maximum pressure drop in the closed position and in the 60° open position. The most common body design is the flangeless "wafer" type for bolting between line flanges. A typical butterfly valve. and the dynamic torque induced by the flow around the vane.5 percent of the rated Cv). in throttling service. Typical linear materials are Neoprene. for example.

the butterfly valve. and compensation for the effect of pipe reducers in computing the valve capacity because of the high basic Cv rating. light weight. in sizes 3 inches and above. For moderate temperatures and pressures. A variety of bearing materials are available compatible with different process fluids. and space saving. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 29 .Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Design of the rotary shaft and its supporting shaft bearings are important in assuring the success of butterfly valves in control service. Properly selected. In selecting the valve. consideration must be given to the possibility of cavitation on liquid flow due to the high pressure recovery coefficient. the elastomer-lined valve includes the possibility of tight shutoff. For many years. These are located outside the rotary packing box and were not in contact with the process fluid. the possibility of damage due to water hammer with fast closing in liquid service. generally offers the advantages of simplicity. Bearing materials range from reinforced Teflon for very low to moderate temperatures and pressures. This simplified the bearing design. but resulted in eccentric loading on the packing. low cost. in combination with good flow control characteristics. up to combinations of the hard-facing alloys that permit use at temperatures well above 1000°F. outboard bearings were specified almost exclusively. The recent trend has been to use inboard bearings because of the availability of wear resistant and corrosion-resistant materials.

While reduced size is an economic advantage. The inherent flow characteristic of the full ball valve is equal percentage while the characterized ball is normally linear. Although initially designed for manual operation requiring tight shut off. Ball valves of larger size than required by flow calculations may be needed to avoid cavitation due to the inherent high recovery of the valve. Particles entrained in the fluid stream can become lodged between the ball and its seating surface causing rapid wear or erosion of special coatings applied to the ball to prevent fluid corrosion. Ball valves are supplied in two basic types. Ball valves use a full sphere or a portion of a spherical plug that controls the flow of fluid through the valve body. This also improves its tight shutoff capability. it should be noted that this valve reaches choked flow sooner and is prone to cavitation problems at lower delta p's since it is a high recovery valve. The major problem area with ball valves concerns the seating surface of the ball or segment and the surface of the ball itself. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30 . A practical method of limiting ball surface erosion is to use chrome plating on the throttling ball or contoured ball.000 psi and characterized ball valves are rated considerably lower to 300 psi. Consequently.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Ball Valves Another common rotary shaft valve is the ball valve. throttling ball valve supported entirely by seats and the characterized ball valve (hollowed out spherical segment) that turns on two short shafts similar in design to those of a butterfly valve. Throttling ball valves are rated for high pressure drops to 3. Ball valves have a high flow capability for a given size. their durability along with their ability to handle high-capacity flows has made them a good candidate for certain process applications. ball valves are often about onehalf the size of the pipe they are installed in.

The normal rotary stroke is 50 degrees and an essentially linear flow characteristic is obtained with a Cv rating similar to a high capacity cage valve. A typical version of this valve manufactured by Masoneilan. Inc. The popularity of this valve has increased substantially over the last few years. The plug (ball segment) operates on an eccentric path as shown above.TYPE CONTROL VALVE The ball valve can be characterized by using a segment of the ball. N PE O 50° CLOSED SHAFT CENTER Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 . The valve is suitable for flow in either direction. is undoubtedly responsible for its widespread use. An extra advantage of high rangeability adds to the incentive for eccentric plug valve application. when compared with more conventional designs. The low cost of this valve type for a given flow capacity. The rotating plug is constructed of silicon carbide and is unaffected by erosive materials that might be encountered in most services. Face-to-face dimensions are non-standard and should be handled for mounting purposes like the butterfly valve. One disadvantage is that the valve must be removed from the piping to replace the seat. is shown above.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Eccentric Plug-Type Ball Valves PLUG CENTER SEAT ECCENTRIC PLUG . It is supplied without flanges and is mounted between pipe flanges. Operating torque is low due to the eccentric motion of the spherical face. Seating action is positive and sliding seal problems associated with conventional ball valves is eliminated.

g. for venting or draining equipment) when failure of the control valve would not increase the severity of the emergency situation. for general valve selection criteria. The following valve designs may be considered: globe valves (2. Most of the relevant terms are thoroughly discussed in PCI 103. Refer to SAES-L-008. (e.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Control Valve Application Considerations Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-J-700 states the following regarding the design and application of control valves.and 3-way). Selection of Valves. Valve Body Material End Connections and Ratings Valve Trim Valve Trim Material Valve Actuator (Motor) Size Maximum Permissible Valve Noise Level Valve Action: Direct or Reverse Valve Fail-Safe Consideration: Action Desired on Air Failure Inlet and Outlet Pipeline Sizes and Schedules Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 . Mandatory design requirements are listed in the following sections. The following is a list of some of the selection considerations regarding the choice of the valve. angle valves. axial flow valves and rotary plug valves. Selection of control valve design shall be based on application. Our interest is to look at a few select items that affect loop performance. Control valves shall not be used as emergency shutdown (ESD) valves nor as emergency isolation valves (EIV). installation requirements. Control valve positioning may be included in ESD or EIV logic. butterfly valves. ball valves. Design guidance may be obtained from the Saudi Aramco Design Practices Manual and the references listed therein. operating conditions. and economic considerations.

Cvmin Pressure Information on the Valve Maximum Outlet Pressure Minimum Outlet Pressure Maximum Inlet Pressure Minimum Inlet Pressure Pmin and Pmax Across the Valve Pressure Drop at Normal Flow Pressure Drop at Tight Shutoff Valve Shelf (Inherent) Characteristics Installed Valve Characteristic Rangeability (Shelf and Installed) Dynamic Considerations Cavitation Flashing Fluid Properties: Temperature. Specific Gravity. Type of Fluid Valve Auxiliaries Valve Hysteresis Valve Positioners Power Loss Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 .Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Flow Capacity Required: Minimum and Maximum Flows Sizing. Cvmax. Viscosity.

through which a fluid passes. Flow Coefficient.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Let us investigate some of these items as they relate to control loop concerns. CV . Control Valve . Pmin / Pmax Ratio . To calculate this ratio it is necessary to know (calculate) the maximum and minimum inlet and outlet pressures. Valve Action . Flow Characteristic .A final controlling element. This ratio along with the selected shelf (inherent) valve characteristic provides the installed valve characteristic. It relates the actual flow to CV in a liquid flow application as follows: Q = CV ∆P G where: Q = Capacity in gpm CV = Valve flow coefficient ∆P = Pressure differential in psi G = Specific gravity of liquid Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 .The valve is one of the elements in the loop and its action direct or reverse affects the choice of controller action for negative feedback.S gpm of 60°F water which will flow through a wide-open valve with a constant pressure drop of 1 psi across the valve. It should always be designated as either inherent flow characteristic or installed flow characteristic.This pressure ratio across the valve varies due to the maximum and minimum flow rate across the valve. This is a special term.Relationship between flow through the valve and percent rated travel as the latter is varied from 0 to 100 percent.Is a capacity coefficient which is defined as the number of U. The flow coefficient is experimentally determined for each style and size of valve by the valve manufacturer. which adjusts the size of flow passage as directed by a signal from a controller to modify the rate of flow of the fluid.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 .An inherent flow characteristic which can be represented ideally by a straight line on a rectangular plot of flow versus percent rated travel.) Inherent Equal Percentage Flow Characteristic .An inherent flow characteristic which for equal increments of rated travel. INHERENT FLOW CHARACTERISTIC CURVES PERCENT FLOW 100 80 60 40 20 QUICK OPENING LINEAR EQUAL PERCENTAGE 0 20 40 60 80 100 PERCENT OF STEM POSITION Inherent Linear Flow Characteristic .Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Inherent Flow Characteristic .Flow characteristic when constant pressure drop is maintained across the valve. will ideally give equal percentage changes of the existing flow. (Equal increments of travel yield equal increments of flow at a constant pressure level. or (∆Pmin / ∆Pmax) = 1.

% AS ² PMIN ² PMAX =1 INHERENT CHARACTERISTIC 0 0 100 STEM POSITION. % AS ² PMIN ² PMAX =1 INHERENT CHARACTERISTIC 0 0 100 STEM POSITION. The curves change shape as a function of the valve plug characteristic and the ∆Pmin / ∆Pmax ratio across the valve. 100 ² PMIN << 1 ² PMAX FLOW. The slope of this curve dictates the gain of the valve at that particular operating point and loop performance depends on this actual characteristic.This is the actual input-output characteristic of the valve. % Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 . The installed valve characteristic of an inherent linear characteristic valve shifts towards a quick opening installed characteristic as ∆Pmin / ∆Pmax << 1. % The installed valve characteristic of an inherent equal percentage characteristic valve shifts towards a linear installed characteristic as ∆Pmin / ∆Pmax << 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Installed Valve Characteristic . 100 ² PMIN << 1 ² PMAX FLOW.

Maximum power loss through a valve occurs typically at 50-65% flow. the bypass valve in a compressor control application. Power Loss . Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 . Valves usually are limited in the speed with which they can move. or fully open.e. This information allows us to determine when to safely put a loop in automatic.In certain applications the speed with which the valve will respond is an important consideration. or remain in a fixed position. i.This is the ratio of maximum controllable flow to minimum controllable flow. Controlling at the higher flow rate lowers the power loss through the valve and provides the additional benefit of a higher production rate. i. It may be beneficial in some cases to minimize this power loss by running the loop at 8595% flow rate. The installed rangeability usually is less than shelf rangeability as a function ∆Pmin / ∆Pmax .This is not a control consideration but is an important safety issue. We would like to choose the failure mode of the valve so that if for any reason we lose our air supply. Stroking speed or stroking time for full stroke may be an important consideration in assessing how fast a valve moves. The speed of response depends mainly on the actuator used and its dynamic characteristics. usually the last position before the air supply failure. the air compressor fails. ball or disc to either fully close.e. The fail-safe characteristic of the actuator will cause the valve plug.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Rangeability or Turndown . RINSTALLED = RSHELF Pmin Pmax Dynamic Considerations . Valve Fail-Safe Consideration .

such as the transmitter. E/P. Signal Converters Current to Pressure Signal Converters. CURRENT SIGNAL FROM CONTROLLER PNEUMATIC SIGNAL TO VALVE ACTUATOR 4 . I/P Most loop applications today. whether pneumatic. electronic or digital. process and final actuator control strategies might dictate the use of various other elements in the loop. The I/P should be mounted as close to the valve as possible to minimize the transmission lag produced from pneumatic tubing. AIR SUPPLY PROCESS Other electrical signals such as voltage can be converted to pneumatic signals with a voltage to pneumatic converter. use pneumatic.15 PSI 6 .30 PSI 20 PSI 35 PSI etc. Keep in mind that high impedance voltage signals are susceptible to noise pickup.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Besides the major loop elements discussed so far. If the loop is electronic an I/P is used to convert the electronic signal into a pneumatic signal at the valve. air-operated valve actuators. controller. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 .15 PSI T I/P 3 .20 mA DC C r I/P 3 . It's better to use low impedance current signals around the plant and avoid noise pickup.

computers. Additionally conversion might be required to prepare the signal for inputting electronic recorders. The most common conversion is the 3-15 psi input for a 4-20 mA DC output.20 mA DC FC I/P FT 3 . indicators.15 PSI 4 . P/I Pneumatic signals are converted to electronic signals for a variety of reasons such as longer transmission distances or to eliminate (minimize) lag in tough to control pneumatic loops.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Pressure to Current Signal Converter. Notice that the conversion attempts to maximize the electronic transmission distances while minimizing pneumatic transmission distances.20 mA DC LONG TRANSMISSION DISTANCE CONTROL ROOM FLOW PROCESS Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 .15 PSI 4 . P/I 3 . etc.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Analog to Digital. A/D. or Digital to Analog. COMPUTER DIGITAL VOLTAGE OUTPUT CONDITIONER PID INPUT CONDITIONER DIGITAL VOLTAGE PULSE RATE OR FREQUENCY ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER 4 . each loop requiring its own A/D and D/A converter. D/A These are devices used to convert analog information to approximate corresponding digital information and vice versa in digital or computer applications.20 mA DC A /D I/ P T PROCESS FINAL ACTUATOR DIRECT DIGITAL COMPUTER CONTROL Computer applications as in Direct Digital Control (DDC) usually will handle several loops.15 PSI ENGINEERING UNITS PRODUCT D/A DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTOR 4 . Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 .20 mA DC 3 .

A volume booster placed in series between pneumatic tubing can increase the transmission distance as shown. or both. AIR SIGNAL IN 3 . It repeats the input pressure as output but with a larger volume (capacity) of air. It is used whenever a larger volume or a higher air pressure is required.15 PSI or 6 . To allow an increase in pneumatic signal transmission distances.15 PSI VB AIR SIGNAL OUT 3 . 300 FT 300 FT VB A /S Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 .Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Volume Booster This is a pneumatic device that acts as an isolating amplifier increasing the volume of air.30 PSI WITH 2 /1 AMPLIFICATION A /S In most applications the volume booster is a repeater. Volume boosters are pneumatic devices used in pneumatic applications primarily for the following purposes: 1. Pneumatic transmission distances typically are limited to between 200 and 400 ft. or the pressure of air. depending on size of tubing.

15 PSI CONTROLLER The volume booster in this application helps in speeding up the valve response.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance 2. while the volume booster with a higher air volume capability charges up the valve actuator improving the valve dynamics through faster response. The volume booster with a larger air supply could be set up to increase its output to 6-30 psi a gain of two in order to move a larger or more difficult valve actuator. C C m t=0 R∝ t=0 C = VOLUME OF VALVE ACTUATOR f CONTROLLER d 4 t=0 LAG In the pneumatic application shown above the output of the controller has to charge a large volume. The controller in this example charges up the small volume of the tube. where C is the capacity (volume) of the valve motor and R is the resistance of the tubing and is directly related to the diameter of the tube (d4). C m t=0 t=0 VOLUME BOOSTER 3 .15 PSI AIR SUPPLY 20 PSI f t=0 3 . The controller output will have a difficult time in moving the final actuator due to the long lag time. In addition to longer transmission distances a volume booster helps to isolate a controller from a large capacitive load of the actuator. the valve motor. τ = RC. The result is a long time constant. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 . through a small and possibly long tube.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Valve Positioner A valve positioner is a proportional-only controller whose main function is to eliminate or minimize valve hysteresis as shown. m Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 . bushings. etc. seal rings. WITH POSITIONER HYSTERESIS MINIMIZED HYSTERESIS STEM POSITION ( FLOW ) WITHOUT POSITIONER ACTUAL STEM POSITION ANYWHERE WITHIN HYSTERSIS BAND INPUT SIGNAL. m (m) m (r) VP (c) f VALVE WITHOUT A VALVE POSITIONER f VALVE WITH POSITIONER INSTALLED Hysteresis is caused by valve packing. plug seals. It usually deteriorates and becomes a greater problem in time.

Can be used as a volume booster to improve the dynamic response of a valve with a large actuator achieving a faster stroking speed. Can be used to change the valve action from direct to reverse and vice versa. This application excludes a fast loop like flow or liquid pressure where the implementation of a valve positioner may create other problems. a) Can be used to provide tighter shutoff through additional actuator loading pressure driving the pressure acting on the diaphragm to full supply pressure. the valve positioner can perform a variety of other tasks as listed below. Can be used as an I/P converter. Changing a 4-20 mA DC signal to a pneumatic 3-15 psi signal to the valve.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Since a valve positioner is a proportional-only controller its application in a control loop effectively makes the control strategy into cascade. Can be used as a characterizer. Some manufacturers allow output characterization through cams or other means. thus effectively changing the valve characteristics.07 takes a further look at this application when cascade control is discussed. PCI 102. b) c) d) e) f) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 . Can be used in valve sequencing (split ranging) for additional rangeability or turndown. Beyond this main function. however.

but together as a team provide the larger rangeability required by the particular application. the rangeability required may exceed 1000/1 and the control scheme must be designed to satisfy this requirement in order to achieve good control. A second application using two equal-percentage valves of different size and having a rangeability will produce an overall rangeability of (50) 2 or 2500. the practical rangeability of a control valve is limited to approximately 100/1 with most valves falling below 50/1. These rangeability values are sufficient for most control applications. The valves usually are of different size with a small overlap between the maximum flow of the small valve and the minimum flow of the large valve and only one valve open at any time. typically two valves. In split ranged or sequenced strategies. These additional rangeability concerns come up whenever a single control valve or other control element is not available to provide the required rangeability or turndown. VP1 FLOW IN VP2 m ( Controller Output ) FLOW OUT Calibrate VP1 so that valve operates from 3-9 psi (fully open at 9 psi). Logic must be provided in this scheme so that if the output exceeds the small valves' full flow capacity. In these situations a strategy known as valve sequencing or split ranging may be implemented. If the rangeability of each valve is 10 10 10 100 1 the overall rangeability would be 1 × 1 = 1 . This condition will continue until the flow decreases below the minimum flow of the large valve. The size difference should not be such that larger valves leakage rate affects the smaller valves operation. the larger valve will open and the smaller valve closes. such as pH. To maintain the overall equal-percentage characteristic only one valve should be open at any given time. the controller's output actuates more than one valve. This allows the individual valves to operate in the specific areas of their range.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance Valve Sequencing Examples . In the typical application as shown the valves are installed in parallel and their flow rates are additive. Despite some manufacturers' claims of high rangeabilities. 50 1 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 . Calibrate VP2 so that valve operates from 9-15 psi (fully open at 15 psi). In some applications however.

or load. parabolic. accuracy conformity (of a curve) control valve converter dead band differential gauge differential pressure drift fail-closed fail-in-place Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 . An undesired change in output over a period of time. which adjusts the size of flow passage as directed by a signal from a controller to modify the rate of flow of the fluid. alters the form of the information. A device that receives information in the form of an instrument signal. A condition wherein the valve port remains closed should the actuating power fail. environment. In process instrumentation. logarithmic. or ideal value. accepted standard value. degree of conformity of an indicated value to a recognized. without initiating an observable change in output signal. which change is unrelated to the input. A gauge having two connections and a means to measure and indicate differential pressure.g. The closeness to which it approximates a specified curve (e. The unit is psia. A condition wherein the valve port remains in the position it was when air supply was lost. Difference between two pressures.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance GLOSSARY absolute pressure Pressure referenced to zero absolute pressure (vacuum. upon reversal of direction. In process instrumentation. the range through which an input signal may be varied. the absence of pressure).) A final controlling element. through which a fluid passes. A converter is a special form of relay sometimes referred to as a transducer. etc. and sends out a resultant output signal.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance fail-open A condition wherein the valve port remains open should the actuating power fail. A collection of instruments or their application for the purpose of observation. or disc to fully close. upon loss of power supply.696 psi at sea level). The unit is psig. fail-safe final controlling element gauge pressure hysteresis impulse line instrumentation the connection between the instrument and the process. That property of an element evidenced by the dependence of the value of the output. for a given excursion of the input. The forward controlling element which directly changes the value of the manipulated variable. measurement or control. will cause the valve plug. or remain in fixed position. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 . ball. Pressure referenced to atmospheric pressure (14. A characteristic of a particular type of actuator which. fully open. upon the history of prior excursions and the direction of the current traverse.

The region between the limits within which a quantity is measured. corresponding to the transmitter signal.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance intrinsically safe equipment and wiring Equipment and wiring which are incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most easily ignited concentration. The system element that quantitatively converts the measured variable energy into a form suitable for measurement. etc. expressed by stating the lower and upper range-values. or transmitted. elevated-zero A range in which the zero value of the measured variable. flow. 0 to 150°F b. For example: -10 to +15 in H2O range. received. is greater than the lower rangevalue. 20 to 150°C pressure gauge primary element range range. Instrument to measure and indicate pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. Note 1: For example: a. The dial is graduated in units of pressure. temperature. suppressed-zero A range in which the zero value of the measured variable is less than the lower range value.. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 . (Zero does not appear on the scale.. -20 to +200°F c. measured signal.) For example: 20 to 100 in H2O receiver gauge Gauge designed to measure and indicate the output signal from a pneumatic transmitter. etc.

for full range traverse. under the operating conditions specified. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49 . The closeness of agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of the output for the same value of the input under the same operating conditions. the closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the output for the same value of input made under the same operating conditions over a period of time. approaching from the same direction.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance reliability (MTBF) The probability that a device will perform its objective adequately for. the period of time specified. repeatability reproducibility In process instrumentation. approaching from both directions.

(In a globe valve body. stem and stem pin. The primary function of the valve trim is to proportion the valve orifice area in such a manner that a prescribed relationship exists between flow capacity and valve plug lift. to provide very tight shutoff with minimal actuator force. The internal parts of a valve which are in flowing contact with the controlled fluid. Range -20 to 200°F. soft-seated valve positioner valve trim Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 50 . A control valve accessory which transmits a loading pressure to an actuator to position a valve plug stem exactly as dictated by the instrument pressure signal from an automatic controller. The internal parts of a valve which are in flowing contact with the controlled fluid.Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation Control Loop Elements and Their Contribution to Loop Performance span The algebraic difference between the upper and lower range-values.) Globe valve trim with an elastomer. Range 20 to 150°C. or other readily deformable material used as an insert. plastic. Note 1: For example: a. Span 220°F c. Span 130°C speed response (stroking speed) trim In control valve operation. Span 150°F b. cage. seat ring. this term describes the rate of travel of the actuator. Range 0 to 150°F. trim would typically include valve plug. either in the valve plug or seat ring. trim.

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