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Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
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Chapter : Instrumentation For additional information on this subject, contact
File Reference: PCI10206 E.W. Reah on 8750426
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CONTENTS PAGE
DESCRIBE ACCEPTABLE TUNING CRITERIA USED IN THE PROCESS
INDUSTRY........................................................................................................................... 1
Acceptable Responses................................................................................................ 1
Overdamped ................................................................................................... 1
Critically Damped .......................................................................................... 2
Underdamped ................................................................................................. 2
Tuning Criteria Using Error Minimization Approaches............................................. 4
Quarter Amplitude Decay Criteria.................................................................. 4
Tuning Criteria Using Integral Error Minimization........................................ 5
Introduction to Robustness......................................................................................... 8
Robustness...................................................................................................... 8
Robustness Plots............................................................................................. 8
MAKING PID ADJUSTMENTS AND OBSERVING THEIR EFFECT ON
LOOP RESPONSE................................................................................................................ 12
Proportional Band or Gain Adjustment...................................................................... 13
Proportional Band or Gain Adjustment Summary.......................................... 15
Integral Adjustment.................................................................................................... 15
Proportional Plus Integral Adjustment Summary........................................... 18
Derivative Adjustments.............................................................................................. 18
Proportional Plus Derivative Adjustment Summary ...................................... 20
PID Adjustments........................................................................................................ 20
PID Adjustment Summary ............................................................................. 21
Interacting And Noninteracting PID.......................................................................... 22
APPLY THE VARIOUS TUNING METHODS USED IN THE PROCESS
INDUSTRY........................................................................................................................... 26
Reasons for Tuning Methods ..................................................................................... 26
ClosedLoop Methods................................................................................................ 26
ZieglerNichols and CohenCoon Constant Amplitude Cycling
Method ........................................................................................................... 26
Damped Oscillation Method........................................................................... 27
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Trial Error Constant Cycling Method............................................................. 28
OpenLoop Methods .................................................................................................. 30
ZieglerNichols CohenCoon Process Reaction Method................................ 30
Integral CriteriaDriven OpenLoop Methods................................................ 32
WORK AID 1: SUMMARY OF MAKING PID ADJUSTMENTS AND OBSERVING
THEIR EFFECT ON LOOP RESPONSE ................................................ 34
Work Aid 2A: Application of Tuning Methods Commonly Used in the
Process Industry, Procedure for Trial and Error
Constant Cycling Method ................................................................ 35
Work Aid 2B: Application of Tuning Methods Commonly Used in the
Process Industry, Procedure for ZieglerNichols and
CohenCoon Constant Amplitude Cycling Method ......................... 37
Work Aid 2C: Application of Tuning Methods Commonly Used in the
Process Industry, Procedure for Obtaining a Process
Reaction Curve and Optimum PID Settings from
ZieglerNichols or CohenCoon Process Reaction
Method............................................................................................. 39
Work Aid 2D: Application of Tuning Methods Commonly Used in the
Process Industry, Procedure and Sumary of Integral
CriteriaDriven OpenLoop Method ................................................ 42
GLOSSARY.......................................................................................................................... 44
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DESCRIBE ACCEPTABLE TUNING CRITERIA USED IN THE PROCESS
INDUSTRY
Acceptable Responses
The following are the acceptable response choices.
Overdamped
This is a safe sluggish response. Measurement takes a very long time to reach steady state
without any oscillations. There is a very large area (error) under the curve and a gain of much
less than 0.5.
OVERDAMPED RESPONSE
LARGE AREA
(ERROR)
LOAD
MEASUREMENT
TIME
r
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Critically Damped
This is a somewhat less sluggish and safe response that achieves steady state as fast as
possible with very minimal oscillations. There is a large area under the curve and a gain of
less than 0.5.
LOAD
MEASUREMENT
TIME
CRITICALLY DAMPED
r
Underdamped
This is considerably more responsive. It is an oscillatory type of response that achieves
steady state much faster and has less area under the curve. The gain of underdamped
response is approximately 0.5. Most tuning criteria leads to some version of underdamped
response.
UNDERDAMPED RESPONSE
LOAD
MEASUREMENT
TIME
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Responses are compared to decide which response is best for a given application. If safety is
the primary concern, speed and efficiency can be sacrificed and a critically damped response
might be the best choice. If the objective is to eliminate the error and achieve steady state as
quickly as possible after an upset, then some form of underdamped response will be the
choice. Generally most of the better tuning techniques lead to an underdamped response,
with some decay ratio and a specific speed of response (period.)
LOAD
MEAS.
TIME
COMPARISON OF ACCEPTABLE RESPONSES
1  OVERDAMPED
2  CRITICALLY
DAMPED
3  UNDERDAMPED
1
2
3
r
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Tuning Criteria Using Error Minimization Approaches
In a feedback control loop, a load upset or a setpoint change will produce an error on which
the controller acts. The objective of a welltuned loop is to eliminate the error as quickly as
possible by bringing the measurement equal to the set point.
Quarter Amplitude Decay Criteria
Quarter Amplitude Decay (QAD) is one of the most common underdamped response criteria.
In this particular type of response, the controller gain is adjusted so that the amplitude of each
successive cycle is one quarter of the previous amplitude. Unfortunately, this criteria does not
completely define the response. Beyond an amplitude decay ratio, it gives no other
information as to what the optimum period of the response should be. This is not a true error
minimization technique, the response shown below is in the right direction.
QUARTER AMPLITUDE DECAY CRITERION
LOAD
UPSET
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
TIME
r
A
A/4
A/16
q
c
A/2
There is no mathematical justification for the QAD response. Its popularity and acceptance
are due to its open loop gain, which between 0.5 and 0.6 (0.5 for a proportional controlled
loop and 0.6 for a proportional integral [PI] controlled loop) seems to be a reasonable
compromise in damping and period. The measurement stabilizes at a steady state value in a
reasonable number of oscillations leaving an adequate safety factor before the loop can
become unstable. The main criticism of QAD as a criterion is that it gives no information
about speed of response, or period of a loop, and as such, it does not indicate an optimum
response. In two or three mode controllers such as PI or PID there are an infinite number of
settings that will give you a QAD response, only one of which will have the correct period for
optimum response.
QAD can be justified for a loop controlled by a proportionalonly controller. Since there is
only one adjustment in this controller, PB or gain, which only affects the damping of the loop,
QAD response seems to be an acceptable compromise.
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Tuning Criteria Using Integral Error Minimization
The objective of a welltuned feedback loop is to eliminate the error as quickly as possible.
Most tuning criteria use some error minimiziation technique to accomplish this. These
techniques are especially useful if energy is used to make the product. Minimization of the
area (error) under the curve leads to less energy consumption and higher efficiency. There
are various error minimization criteria, each having certain advantages and limitations,
different minimum area objectives and different PID settings. The response of a given
criterion depends on the actual process being controlled.
r
c
AREA = ERROR
TIME
The area under this curve is the error and the integrated error criterion objective is to
minimize this area. The following is a discussion of the various criteria that have been
applied to minimize error. Keep in mind that controlmode choices will be PI or PID since
integral is a must to eliminate error.
Integrated Error (IE) attempts to minimize the error integrated over time.
IE = ∫ e dt
The controller settings obtained, PI or PID for minimum area, should help in minimizing the
energy consumption in the loop, and allow for more efficient production.
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Integrated error can be calculated from the PID algorithm using the noninteracting PΙD
algorithm. The output of this algorithm at time t
1
is
m
1
=
100
PB
¸
¸
,
_
e
1
+
1
I
⌡
(
⌠
t
1
t
o
edt  D
dc
1
dt
If a load upset occurs,
m
2
=
100
PB
¸
¸
,
_
e
2
+
1
I
⌡
(
⌠
t
2
t
o
edt  D
dc
2
dt
Since at steady state,
e
2
= e
1
and c
1
= c
2
or D
dc
1
dt
= D
dc
2
dt
m
2
 m
1
=
100
PB(I)
⌡
(
(
⌠
t
2
edt
t
1
∆m =
100
PB(I)
(IE)
IE =
∆m(PB)(I)
100
We can see from the above equation that the IE = f(∆m).
If we analyze this equation, we see that if the manipulated variable returns to the same output
value after integration, then ∆m = 0, and the IE must also be equal to zero.
The major criticism of the IE criteria is that it may lead to controller PID settings that could
result in uniform oscillation, the limit of stability.
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0
+
–
š 2š
IE =
⌡
(
(
⌠
2π
sin x dx = 0
o
If a sinusoidal oscillation takes place around the set point, all the plus errors cancel the minus
errors giving an IE = 0.
Integral Absolute Error (IAE) avoids leading the response to uniform oscillation as the IE
criteria might do. It makes sure that damping will occur.
IAE =
⌡
(
(
⌠°
  e dt
o
o e
TIME
For a continuously oscillating loop, IE would equal zero, while IAE will get extremely large
and approach infinity. So, minimizing IAE avoids this possibility.
Integrated Squared Error (ISE) penalizes large errors more than smaller errors.
ISE =
⌡
(
(
⌠°
e
2
dt
o
The result is a more conservative, less damped response.
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Integrated Time Absolute Error (ITAE) errors existing over time are penalized even though they
may be small and give a more heavily damped response.
ITAE =
⌡
(
(
⌠°
  e tdt
o
ITAE can be used for processes where the duration of the error (how long it lasts) is the major
concern. So small, steady state errors are penalized. The result is a highly damped response.
Introduction to Robustness
A loop tuned to particular criteria raises the question of loop stability when process conditions
change. What happens to loop stability if the gain or deadtime of the process changes? How
much change does the loop tolerate before it goes unstable? Recently a new tool, known as
robustness, has been introduced that allows an analysis of loop sensitivity to changes in
process characteristics.
Robustness
"Robust" means strongly formed or constructed. When a loop is tuned using any criterion
how safe is it? A robust control loop, has a safety factor built in to the controller tuning
settings, allowing the loop to maintain stability even if the process undergoes moderate
changes in gain or dead time. The various tuning criteria described, have different amounts of
damping and achieve steady state at different speeds. The concern at this point is whether
these loops are robust or not and how to determine their robustness.
Robustness Plots
A robustness plot allows an analysis of how safely a loop is tuned. The plot was introduced
by Dr. P.D. Hansen. The stability limit for a closed loop is plotted on coordinates of delay
ratio versus gain ratio. The gain ratio, forms the abscissa of the plot. It is the ratio of the
current process gain to the original process steadystate gain (for a non selfregulating process
the ratio of the original time constant to the current time constant.) The delay ratio is the
ordinate of the plot. It is the ratio of the process dead time to the dead time existing when the
process was tuned.
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For a loop tuned for a particular criterion, the loop gain and dead time are known. The plot
shows the factor by which the loop gain or the dead time have to increase to force the loop
into the unstable region. As can be seen from the plots, the amount of change that a loop can
tolerate depends on the criteria used to tune the loop.
Comparing the two robustness plots allows us to see the factor by which dead time or gain has
to change for a loop to become unstable. If we look at the loop tuned to the IAE criteria, we
can observe that if the gain of this loop increases by a factor of approximately 1.5 the loop
will become unstable. Looking at the loop tuned to the QAD criteria the gain has to increase
by a factor of approximately 2.3 for the loop to reach instability. A similar analysis can be
made looking at the delay ratios. If the delay ratio (deadtime) of either the IAE or the QAD
tuned loop increases by a factor of approximately 1.7 the loops will become unstable.
Loop robustness can also be analyzed if the gain and delay ratios increase diagonally.
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RESPONSE TO A LOAD AT THE
CONTROLLER OUTPUT
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
e
d
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
C
Time (minutes)
RESPONSE TO A LOAD AT THE
CONTROLLER OUTPUT
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
e
d
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
C
Time (minutes)
D
e
l
a
y
R
a
t
i
o
ROBUSTNESS PLOT
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4
Gain Ratio
unstable
region
stable
region
+
ROBUSTNESS PLOT
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4
Gain Ratio
unstable
region
stable
region
+
LOOP TUNED TO IAE
LOOP TUNED TO QAD
D
e
l
a
y
R
a
t
i
o
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In conclusion, there is a tradeoff between performance and robustness. The tighter a loop is
tuned the less robust it will be. To determine whether to seek performance or robustness
depends on the process and your knowledge of it.
The performance of a loop, under feedback control depends on the process characteristics,
mainly its dead time. If a loop is relatively linear and will maintain its characteristics,
including a constant gain, it can be tuned tightly for a minimum integrated criterion without
much concern for robustness. If this is not the case, then the choice would be to sacrifice
speed of response for robustness.
If a robust, but sluggishtype of response is not acceptable, then there are two alternatives.
The first would be to use an adaptive controller, that would accommodate process
characteristic changes by varying controller settings. The second would be to use
feedforward control, which is capable of minimizing IAE to near zero value.
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MAKING PID ADJUSTMENTS AND OBSERVING THEIR EFFECT ON
LOOP RESPONSE
Depending on the choice of the controller, single mode, two mode, or three mode, we will
have anywhere from one to three controller tuning adjustments to deal with. Let us investigate
these adjustments and see their effect on loop response.
PROCESS
q
PRODUCT
m
T
c
r
C
The openloop gain for this loop can be written as the product of all the elements' gains:
→
G
Loop
=
→
G
V
.
→
G
P
.
→
G
T
.
→
G
C
As we have seen in the past, the gains consist of steady state and dynamic portions and should
yield a dimensionless number.
To simplify the analysis, consider everything external to the controller as the process (valve,
primary element, transmitter, tubing, wiring etc.) The loop now consists of only two
elements, the process and the controller. This, does not affect the performance of the
controller, since everything external to it was the process.
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PROC.
C
G = G x G
Controller Process Loop
F/A
r
PROCESS
T
If the loop oscillates uniformly G
L
· 1/360¡. The equation above shows a reciprocal
relationship between the controller gain and the process gain.
Proportional Band or Gain Adjustment
Let us investigate the effects of changing the proportional band on loop response by looking
at a proportional only controller.
Recall that the gain of the proportional controller was expressed as
G
c
· K
C
G
C
∠0¡ =
100
PB
∠0¡
The dynamic gain of this controller g is 1 ∠0¡. This means that there is no dynamic
contribution from this controller. Proportional has only a steady state contribution.
Proportional controllers have only one adjustment to be concerned with; depending on the
manufacturer, the adjustment is called either the Proportional Band, gain, or sensitivity.
Changing the gain of this controller, either through the gain or PB adjustment affects only the
damping of the response curve. The proportional controller algorithm has zero phase
contribution and therefore no effect on the period of the loop. Any minor changes of the loop
response period are due to process characteristics. Assume we have the controlled variable of
a particular loop oscillating uniformly under Proportional control. To make sure that the loop
is stable (the gain less than one) the valve must be within its operating range. It can not be
reaching a limit.
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LOAD
UPSET
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
q
c
PB
ULTIMATE
At Uniform Oscillation G
Loop
= 1
n τ
Time
 360°
To change the response of this loop we have one adjustment to deal with: PB or Gain. It is
obvious that we should decrease the loop gain to less than one in order to dampen the
response. To achieve this, we either lower the gain of the controller or increase its
proportional band.
PB ↑ GAIN ↓
Now that we have decided the direction of the adjustment, the next question is how much to
adjust. Could this loop be tuned to one of the minimum integrated criterion?. The answer is
no. There is no mechanism in this controller to bring measurement to set point. A
proportional algorithm (IAE = °), therefore you have to choose some other optimum response.
The obvious choices of response for this controller would range from an overdamped
response to a Quarter Amplitude Decay response. To get a QAD response the Proportional
Band would have to be doubled (2 x PBu) to drive the loop gain to 0.5. QAD is (in most
cases) the preferred response for proportionalonly control.
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n τ
LOAD
UPSET
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
r
A
A/4
q
c
TIME
SS
OFFSET
Proportional Band or Gain Adjustment Summary
The proportional band or gain adjustment can be summarized as follows:
• Changing gain or PB affects only the damping of the response.
• Increasing the PB setting decreases gain while the period stays roughly the same.
Any change of period length over τ
n
is of minor consequence. The amount depending on the
process characteristics. For deadtime only processes there would be no period change at all.
For deadtime plus capacity processes the period might increase by 10  15% over the natural
period τ
n
.
It is best to consider the proportional adjustment as a gain adjustment with no significant
effect on the period of response.
Integral Adjustment
We have seen in PCI 102.04, that the gain of the PI controller can be expressed as:
=
→
G
I P
100
PB
1 +
o
2 I
¸
¸
_
,
2
1
TAN
o
2 I
¸
¸
_
,
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The PI controller has a phase angle that can vary between zero and 90¼. The proportional
band adjustment affects mainly the damping. The integral adjustment in addition to affecting
the gain or damping can have a significant effect on the period of the response. Thus, the PI
controller adjustments can affect the period as well as the gain of a loop.
Looking at the PI controllers gain vector diagram we can make the following observations.
G
P
=
100
PB
0°
G
P
I
=
100
PB
G
I
2πI
τ
0
90°
PI
Φ

→
G
PI
 =
100
PB
1 +
¸
¸
,
_ τ
o
2πI
2
The overall controller gain is the vectorial sum of its integral and proportional components.
The proportional component is at a zero phase angle and the integral component lags at 90¡.
Thus, the phase angle of the resultant vector must be between zero and  90¡.
φ
P+I
is the phase angle of the controller which contributes to the overall loop phase shift and
affects the period of oscillation for the loop.
In adjusting a controller to give us a quarter amplitude decay, dampedloop response, we want
to select a value of PB and I which will give us a suitable G
P+I
for the desired response.
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Looking at the vector diagram we can see that there are infinite values which will give us a
usable magnitude of G
P+I. If we arbitrarily choose a PB, we can then select the I setting
which will make
G
P+I sufficient to give us quarteramplitude damping, but at particular phase
angles,
φ
P+I
and period of oscillation, τo.
The important thing to remember here is that we can vary the phase angle,
φ
P+I
while the
damping remains constant. The consequence of changing
φ
P+I
would be that the period of
response would change; i.e., suppose we set I = °, this would make G
I
= 0, regardless of the
setting of PB, and we would have a proportional controller with φ
P+I
= 0¡. In effect, our
response period would be that of a Ponly controller and equal to τ
n
with a sustained error.
While we can't set I = ° , we can set I to a very large number in min/rep and therefore
minimize (or nearly eliminate) integral action.
On the other hand, suppose we set I very small, then G
P+I
would approach G
I
, since G
I
is
much larger than G
P,
φ
P+I
would approach 90¡. The control action in the loop would now
be that of Integral only control, i.e., a return to set point with a long response period.
These are the two extremes. Somewhere in between 0 < φ
P+I
< 90¡ is a phase angle which
will give us a return to set point with an optimum period of response. The optimum φ
P+I
value will depend on the selected criteria, i.e., φ
P+I
is ≈ 30¡ for IE Criteria and can be
attained with only one combination of PB and I settings.
In general, we start @ φ
P+I
=0¡ or proportional action, as we add more integral action, the
measurement begins returning to the set point. We only want enough integral gain to get us
back to the set point, since a phase angle, φ
P+I
, greater than this will only serve to slow down
our response period. Remember also, as we add more integral gain by reducing I in min/rep,
we need to compensate for this added gain by reducing our proportional gain by widening our
Proportional Band. Actual settings depend on selected criteria.
Remember that the value of φ
P+I
has an effect on our response period while G
P+I
has an
effect on our damping.
Recognize also, that adjusting I will have an effect on G
I
and thus affect both G
P+I
and φ
P+I
and these in turn affect both damping and period of response. Adjusting PB affects both G
I
and G
P
equally, thus PB only has an effect on G
P+I
which affects the damping and not the
period of response.
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The optimum φ
P+I
will depend on the selected criteria. Since the φ
P+I
is a negative value,
the effect of integral would be to slow down the period by making it longer than τn. While
tuning a loop we do not worry about φ
P+I
, instead, we shoot for a loop response time dictated
by the tuning criteria, i.e., under IAE criteria and
τd
τ1
= .5τo ≈ 4.6 τd; if
τd
τ1
= 1 than τo ≈ 4.3
τd. An approximate PI response period used frequently is to have τo ≈ 1.5 τn.
Proportional Plus Integral Adjustment Summary
Changing PB or I affects gain or damping.
Changing I affects φ
P+I
and the period of response,τo.
PB ↑ Gain ↓
I,min/rep ↑ Gain ↓
I,min/rep ↑ φ
PI
→0τo gets shorter (faster).
Derivative Adjustments
Although the Proportional plus Derivative controllers are not common industrially, we will
investigate this controller to get an understanding of what the effects of the derivative
adjustments are. As we have seen in PCI 102.04, the gain of a Proportional plus Derivative
controller can be expressed as:
→
G
P+D
·
100
PB
1 +
2 D
o
¸
¸
_
,
2
TAN
1
2 D
o
¸
¸
_
,
The derivative adjustment in addition to the gain and damping has a significant effect on loop
response. Thus, the PD controller adjustments can affect the period of the loop as well as the
gain or damping.
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Looking at the proportional plus derivative controllers vector diagram we can make the
following observations.
G
P
=
100
PB
0°
G
P
D
GD
=
100
PB
2πD
τ 0
+90°
PD
Φ
The overall controller gain is the vectorial sum of the derivative and proportional components.
The resulting phase angle is positive (lead) in this case and would fall between 0¡ and +90¡.
We can see that the derivative time, D, has an effect on both the damping and response period
since it in turn affects the resultant vector, G
P+D
and the phase angle φ
P+D
, while
proportional band has an effect only on damping since it affects only the length of the
resultant.
As the phase angle, φ
P+D
gets larger, the response periods get shorter; however, as we make
the gain more and more derivative (i.e., larger φ
P+D
) an analog controller becomes
hypersensitive to noise generated in its own circuits resulting in instability. To minimize this
problem manufacturers put gain limits on the derivative mode.
Remember also that derivative action is made up of the derivative time, D, and dc/dt. If the
rate of change of measurement looks high due to noise, even at very low derivative settings,
you get a sizeable derivative contribution.
On electronic controllers we can turn derivative action off and derivative is effectively
eliminated. In pneumatic controllers derivative usually cannot be turned off, so if we
attempted to use this controller on a flow loop we could still get considerable derivative action
due to the noisy flow measurement. It is therefore important, when applying a pneumatic
controller to a noisy loop such as a flow loop, to make certain that the controller contains no
derivative circuitry. Actually, the flow loop's response is fast without derivative action. In
digital controllers, the algorithm is selected and customized to the user's needs.
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The reason we are interested in derivative action is so that we can combine it with
proportional and integral action to get a 3mode, PID controller. The main contribution of the
derivative mode is to speed up the period making it shorter than τn, in effect, eliminating the
slowing effect of the Integral Mode.
Proportional Plus Derivative Adjustment Summary
Changing PB or D affects gain or damping.
Changing D affects φ
P+D
and the period of response τ
o
:
PB ↑ Gain ↓
D, min ↑ φ
PD
↑τo gets shorter (faster).
D, min ↑ Gain ↑
PID Adjustments
The gain of the PID Controllers can be expressed as
→
G
PID
·
100
PB
1 +
2 D
o

o
2 I
¸
¸
_
,
2
TAN
1
2 D
o

o
2 I
¸
¸
_
,
The phase of this controller, theoretically, can be anywhere between 90¡ and +90¡.
Practically, this phase should be at ≈ 0¡ making this controller at least as fast as a proportional
without the offset.
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GP =
100
PB
0°
G
D
=
100
PB
2πD
τ 0
90°
+90°
τ o τ n
=
G
PID
G
P
ID
G
P
I
D
3
2
1
τ
o
τ
n <
τ o τ n
>
100
PB
G =
2πI
τ 0
I
If our gain vector, G
PID
, lies along the positive real axis (case 1), the response period will be
identical to τn. If, however, the G
PID
vector is either in the 4th or 1st quadrant (cases 2 and 3
respectively) our response will be >τn or <τn, respectively.
What is more important, however, is to recognize what settings should be changed, if the
response we have is not what we desire. Recognize that the major effect of changing the
proportional gain or proportional band will be to change the damping of the response.
Changing either D or I settings will change both the damping as well as the period of the
response.
For example, suppose we find our damping to be acceptable, but the period of response, τ
o
is
too long. We need to maintain our loop gain constant, but to either increase derivative action
or decrease integral action; as stated earlier, changing either one alone will not only change
τ
o
, but will also change the gain vector which will in turn affect loop gain. The correct
procedure in this case would be to increase derivative gain G
D
, by increasing derivative time
D, while at the same time to decrease integral gain G
I
by increasing integral time I. This will
tend to increase derivative action while maintaining the length of the PID vector constant. As
a result, damping will remain unchanged while response period τ
o
is decreased. A similar
process can be followed for any other undesired response as long as we realize the effects the
controller tuning settings have on our loop response.
PID Adjustment Summary
Changing PB, I or D settings affects gain or damping.
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Changing I or D settings affects φ
PID
and the period of oscillation τ
o;
ie, controller gain may
be decreased by any one of the following adjustments:
PB ↑ Gain ↓
I,min/rep ↑ Gain ↓
D,min ↓ Gain ↓
i.e., the loop period can be shortened by either of the following adjustments:
I,min/rep ↑
PID
↑τo gets shorter (faster).
D,min ↑
PID
↑τo gets shorter (faster).
Interacting And Noninteracting PID
There are at least two ways in which threemode PID controllers can be built regarding their
integral and derivative modes. These are known as interacting and noninteracting controllers.
The PID algorithm discussed so far in this course is an ideal noninteracting controller
algorithm. The noninteracting controller is designed such that its derivative and integral
modes are in a parallel path and act independently of each other. The interacting PID
controller is designed such that the integral and derivative modes interact. The controlled
variable goes through the derivative circuit, and then the integral circuit, in a series
arrangement.
Pneumatic PID controllers were interactive, since their integral and derivative modes were in
series and interacted. When analog electronics came, it was possible to build PID's to either
version. The minor cost advantage of building the interacting version, due to one less
amplifier, soon disappeared. The cost differential is no longer a factor today, so decisions
can be made on the merits of the particular algorithm. Digital algorithms are available in
either interacting or noninteracting versions, depending on the vendor. The interacting PID
seems to be more popular today because of the following reasons: 1)ÊGenerally more
experience in tuning them, i. e. ZieglerNichols tuning data were developed for interacting
controllers. 2)ÊThey have a safety factor built in the controller adjustments: the effective
derivative time cannot exceed 1/4 of the effective integral time.
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SIMPLIFIED SCHEMATIC OF
A NONINTERACTING PID CONTROLLER
c
c
r
e
–
+
D
d (c)
d t
(e) + •(e) dt
1
Ι
100
PB
m
PΙD
Algorithm
m
PID
=
100
PB
¸
¸
,
_
e +
1
I
⌡
⌠edt  Ddc/dt
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SIMPLIFIED SCHEMATIC OF
AN INTERACTING PID CONTROLLER
c
c
r e
D
d (c)
d t
100
PB
m
PΙD
+
+
–
+
–
+
OUTPUT LIMITS
Algorithm
m
PID
=
100
PB
¸
¸
,
_
1 +
D
I
¸
]
1
1
e +
1
I + D
⌡
⌠edt 
ID
I + D
dc
dt
The PID terms in the equation are the actual dial settings.
In order to relate the PID settings of the interacting controller to those of the noninteracting
controller, the interacting PID may be written in terms of effective PID values
m
PID
=
100
PB
EFF
¸
¸
,
_
e +
1
I
EFF
⌡
⌠edt  D
EFF
dc
dt
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Comparing this equation to the actual interacting equation we get:
100
PB
EFF
=
100
PB
¸
¸
,
_
1 +
D
I
PB
EFF
=
PB(I)
I + D
I
EFF
= I + D
D
EFF
=
(I)(D)
I + D
These equations show you the effective PID values in terms of the actual settings.
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APPLY THE VARIOUS TUNING METHODS USED IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRY
Reasons for Tuning Methods
Over the years many tuning methods or approaches have been developed and used with
varying degrees of success. There is no general agreement as to what method is the best to
use, the preferred choice usually being the one, that the individual has the most experience
with. Some of the methods are trial and error solutions to finding the desired response; others
rely on mathematical relationships. All the methods fall into the general categories of closed
loop or open loop. Whichever the preferred tuning method might be, it is desirable to have
the capability to apply more than one approach. In some cases, process or operational
constraints dictate the method to use. With experience, you develop a feel of what approach
works best for a given application, and tune accordingly. Keep in mind that any tuning
method, will give you only preliminary settings, which require fine tuning later for optimum
response.
The various tuning methods can be grouped into closedloop and openloop categories. The
main distinction between the two is as follows. In the closedloop methods, adjustments are
made and tested with the controller in automatic. In the openloop methods, preliminary
settings are calculated by an open loop test, with the controller in manual. These preliminary
adjustments are introduced in the controller and tuning is continued with the controller in
automatic.
ClosedLoop Methods
In the closedloop methods, the Integral and Derivative modes are deactivated, making the
controller into Proportional only. With the controller in automatic and with very low gain, an
upset is introduced in the loop. The upset could be a small setpoint change 510% around
the operating point, or a small change in the output of the controller (in manual, change the
output and switch to auto.) The response is observed, the gain or Proportional Band is
adjusted until oscillation occurs. The information attained at this point can be applied to tune
the loop according to the following closedloop methods.
ZieglerNichols and CohenCoon Constant Amplitude Cycling Method
This method was introduced by Ziegler and Nichols in 1942. In this closed loop method the
loop is oscillated uniformly at constant amplitude (at the limit of stability) under Proportional
only control. Preliminary P, PI or PID settings can be calculated with relative ease from the
empirical relationships provided by ZieglerNichols or CohenCoon. The loop may be fine
tuned to QAD or any other specific response.
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CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
C
NATURAL
PERIOD
(τ) n
ULTIMATE
PROPORTIONAL
BAND
@PB =
u
UNIFORM OSCILLATION ( G = 1 )
L
The uniformly oscillating response curve provides information regarding the Ultimate
Proportional Band and the Natural Period of the loop. Preliminary Controller settings for P
only, PI, or PID controllers are a function of the natural period and the Ultimate Proportional
Band.
The advantage of this method is that preliminary controller settings can be easily calculated.
The disadvantage is the danger in oscillating a loop at the limit of its stability. If an error is
made at this point its possible for the loop to go unstable with undesirable consequences.
Uniform oscillation means that both the controlled variable and the manipulated variable are
within the operating range without any limit cycling.
Damped Oscillation Method
It is generally not desirable or practical to oscillate a loop at its limit of stability with sustained
oscillations since any miscalculation or change in process characteristics (gain) can result in
instability. Because the settings obtained with the constant amplitude cycling methods are
preliminary, it is much safer and probably just as effective, to get a somewhat overdamped
response (less underdamped) and proceed with the information to get preliminary controller
settings. This is specially true if you are using analog hardware with inaccurate PID dials.
Again using a Proportional only controller, with the Integral and Derivative modes out of
commission, the constant amplitude cycling method is modified slightly to obtain a QAD type
of response. Preliminary Integral and Derivative settings are a function of the period at QAD.
The advantage of this method over the ultimate sensitivity method is that the information is
obtained in a relatively safer approach without uniform oscillation.
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SET POINT
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
TIME
r
c
1
r
2
r
T
If tuning a PI controller, set Integral as follows:
I Å T
When tuning an interacting PID controller, set Integral and Derivative adjustments as follows:
D = T/6, min
I = T/1.5, min/rep
The settings obtained are preliminary and require additional adjustments to get the desired
response.
Trial Error Constant Cycling Method
This closed loop method is probably the most common method used to tune loops and
obviously the most familiar. In this trial and error method the loop is tuned adding one mode
at a time.
Proportional Only  Start with safe, conservative PID adjustments, (wide PB, I min./rep. at
maximum value, D min. at minimum setting or off) the proportional band is adjusted until
uniform oscillation is obtained and then PB% is doubled for QAD.
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PB
U
2 PB
U
G = 1
L
G = 1/2
L
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
L
E
D
V
A
R
I
A
B
L
E
c
Proportional Plus Integral  After obtaining Proportional control at QAD start increasing the
integral action by decreasing the I setting in min./rep (or increasing I setting in rep/min) until
uniform oscillation. Double the I setting min./rep (or half the I setting in rep./min.) for QAD
*
.
Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative Controller  After obtaining QAD with a Proportional
plus Integral controller increase the Derivative setting in min. until uniform oscillation and
then go to 1/2 the Derivative setting for QAD*.
*
An alternate, safer way to tune, is to avoid uniform oscillation which at the limit of stability introduces considerable risk.
Instead, introduce just enough Integral action until QAD is obtained for a PI controller. Similarly Derivative is
introduced, until a QAD response is obtained for a PID controller.
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OpenLoop Methods
In the open loopmethods, the controller is placed in manual and its output is stepped
sufficiently to produce a response curve (process reaction curve.) The resulting response, is a
signature of the process and can be used to determine preliminary controller settings. The
advantage of this method is that with a single upset the preliminary PID settings can be
calculated, making this potentially a fast method. A second advantage is safety, with the
controller in manual, the risk of instability is minimized. The disadvantage of this method is
experienced in the difficulty of analyzing the openloop response.
ZieglerNichols CohenCoon Process Reaction Method
This is one of the oldest and most commonly used open loop methods. With the controller in
manual (open loop) and the loop at its operating point, the output of the controller is stepped
up a small amount. The output of the process is recorded on a fast speed recorder (or, the
trend is recorded on a CRT.) The resulting process reaction curve is a characteristic of the
particular process.
CONT
PROCESS
m
c
P%
CONTROLLER
IN MANUAL
T
∆C
P
%
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PROCESS
REACTION CURVE
TIME
MEASUREMENT
² C
P
L T
Ziegler and Nichols developed equations that allow the analysis of the process reaction curve
and the calculation of preliminary P, PI, or PID settings for QADtype responses. Since the
amount of the initial disturbance, P% and the steady state change, Æc% are known, the only
information data required from the process reaction curve are the process characteristics of L,
lag time in minutes and T, minutes required for the line tangent to the measurement to change
Æc. This information allows the use of the empirical relationships proposed by ZN.
It is difficult to determine the process characteristics of L and T. Significant amounts of
interpretation are involved leading to frequent errors. Fortunately, with practice, the results
generally improve. The main problem is in drawing a straight line tangent to the process
reaction curve at its point of inflection (maximum slope). The values of L and T depend on
how accurately the line is drawn.
General hints for better results from open loop methods:
1. Do not use these methods on very fast loops, loops with natural periods of less than 10
seconds such as flow or liquid pressure. These loops are generally easy to tune and do
not require formal tuning approaches.
2. Consider all changes to be in %, except for the time units
3. If possible repeat the test to confirm the data
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4. Make sure the reaction curve is obtained at the normal operating point.
5. If an analog recorder is used, make sure it has a fast speed option on the order of 1
in/min. Have an accurate time mark on the measurement when upset is introduced
6. Avoid using ZN for deadtime dominant processes. The PB will approach °. Use the
Cohen and Coon equations for deadtime dominant processes. Cohen and Coon
refined (corrected) the ZN equations to accommodate selfregulating capacities as
well as deadtime dominant processes.
Integral CriteriaDriven OpenLoop Methods
There are various approaches to finding controller settings that minimize the error under a
selected integral criterion. These various techniques are based on fitting a single deadtime
plus a single firstorder lag (selfregulating capacity) to the process reaction curve.
From the process reaction curve:
K =
∆C
P
%
∆P%
θ·τ
dt
C = θ + τ
K
C
=
100
PB
C
1
.632
τ
θ
CohenCoon (Quarter Amplitude Damping)
P Only K K
c
=
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
1
+ .333 Where K
c
=
100
PB
P + I K K
c
= .9
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
1
+ .082
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T
I
τ
=
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
3.33
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
+ .3
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
2
¸
¸
,
_
1 + 2.2
θ
τ
T
I
is in Min./Rep.
PID K K
c
= 1.35
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
1
+ .270
T
I
τ
=
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
2.5
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
+ .5
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
2
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
1 + .6
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
T
D
τ
=
.37
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
1 + .2
¸
¸
,
_
θ
τ
T
D
is in Minutes
Other Integral error criteria and tuning constants are summarized in Work Aid #Ê2D Integral
Criteria Summary of Tuning Constants.
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WORK AID 1: SUMMARY OF making PID ADJUSTMENTS and observing their effect
on loop response
Depending on the algorithm of the controller in a particular application, there may be
anywhere from one to three controller adjustments to be concerned with. These adjustments
may affect the damping as well as the period.
The table is designed to assist the user in deciding which direction the adjustments should be
made.
PB%
I*
Min/Rep
D Min Gain
τ
o
P Only
Controller
Widen PB   Decreases Minor effect
Widen PB   Decreases
τ
o  Minor effect
P + I
Controller
 Increase
I setting
 Decreases
τ
o  Gets shorter
(faster)
Widen PB   Decreases
Minor effect
P + I + D
Controller
 Increase
I setting
 Decreases
τ
o  Gets shorter
(faster)
  Increase
D setting
Increases
τ
o  Gets shorter
(faster)
*Opposite effect if I in Rep/Min
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Work Aid 2A: Application of Tuning Methods Commonly Used in the Process Industry,
Procedure for Trial and Error Constant Cycling Method
Make sure you have operator's permission before starting.
POnly Controller
1. Place controller in manual.
2. Increase proportional band to a safe wide value, i.e., Flow 300  500%. Temperature
100%.
3. Place controller in automatic.
Make a 5  10% set point change around the operating point.
4. Reduce PB until constant amplitude cycling occurs.
5. Double PB for QAD. Controller is tuned.
6. Make a small upset and observe the response. Measurement will not be at setpoint at
steady state.
P + I Controller
1. Increase Itime to maximum min/rep or minimum rep/min. (This eliminates the
integral action.)
2. Tune as a POnly Controller.
3. Increase Integral gain until constant amplitude cycling occurs.
4. Double the Itime in min/rep for QAD. (Halve the Itime if in rep/min.)
5. Make upset and observe the response. Measurement should reach setpoint at steady
state.
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PID Controller (Interacting Types)
1. Adjust the integral time min/rep and proportional band to high values.
2. Adjust derivative time to a very low value.
3. Reduce PB until constant amplitude cycling just occurs.
4. Double PB for quarter amplitude cycling.
5. Controller is now tuned as POnly.
6. Increase derivative time until constant amplitude cycling occurs.
7. Cut derivative time by 1/2 for QAD.
8. Set integral time to a value of 2 to 4 times that of the derivative time.
9. Make upset and observe the response. Measurement should be at the setpoint at
steady state.
10. Readjust PB, I, and D small amounts to get desired response.
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Work Aid 2B: Application of Tuning Methods Commonly Used in the Process Industry,
Procedure for ZieglerNichols and CohenCoon Constant Amplitude
Cycling Method
This particular method known as the Ultimate Sensitivity Method was introduced by Ziegler
and Nichols.
The following are the recommended steps for obtaining the ultimate Proportional Band and
the ultimate (natural) period.
1. With the controller in manual, remove the Derivative and Integral modes. (Remove or
turn off Derivative action. Set Integral to its lowest gain value, by setting to maximum
min/rep or minimum rep/min.) Set the Proportional Band or gain to a safe value
depending on the process.
Examples of safe values of PB or Gain:
• Flow PB Å 300500 % or Gain Å0.2 to 0.3
• Temperature PB Å 100 % or Gain Å 1
At this point, you have a lowgain, Proportionalonly controller.
2. Switch the controller to automatic, put a small upset by introducing a 510% setpoint
change around the operating point and observing the response. You should get a safe
sluggish response.
3. Increase the gain or decrease the Proportional Band and repeat step (2) until uniform
or sustained oscillations occur as shown in curve (C). If the gain is too low such as
curve (A) increase the gain or lower the PB. Avoid unstable responses such as curve
(B). Record the following information at uniform oscillation. Make sure the
oscillation is due to the loop gain and not due to a limit cycle. (e. g., Valve hitting the
stops produces what looks like uniform oscillation but the gain > 1).
A
B
C
GAIN TOO LOW  INCREASE THE GAIN
OR LOWER PB
GAIN TOO HIGH  DECREASE THE GAIN
OR WIDEN PB
GAIN  RECORD GAIN OR PB
VALUE AND τ
n
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Record the following:
• PB
u
= Ultimate Proportional Band, %
or
G = Gain at uniform oscillation =
100
PBu
τ
n
= Natural Period, minutes
4. Set preliminary PI or PID settings from the following tables. Adjust PI or PID settings
as required to get optimum or desired response.
Ziegler And Nichols Ultimate Sensitivity Settings
Proportional Band
(%)
Integral Time
(Minutes)
Derivative Time
(Minutes)
Proportional
Controller
2 PBu  
Proportional Plus
Integral Controller
2.2 PBu
τ
n
/1.2

Proportional Plus
Integral Plus Deri
vative Controllers
1.7 PBu
τ
n
/2 τ
n
/8
Cohen & Coon Ultimate Sensitivity Settings
P As Required  
P + I As Required
τ
n

PID As Required
τ
n
/1.5 τ
n
/6
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Work Aid 2C: Application of Tuning Methods Commonly Used in the Process Industry,
Procedure for Obtaining a Process Reaction Curve and Optimum PID
Settings from ZieglerNichols or CohenCoon Process Reaction Method
CONTROLLER IN MANUAL
PROCESS
T
PID
FAST SPEED
RECORDER
P %
e
r
P %
CONTROLLER
OUTPUT %
TIME
•
1. Let the system stabilize at the normal operating point (set point and load at normal.)
2. Open the loop by placing the controller in manual. The output should hold at the same
value as in step (1).
3. Make sure the system is at steady state with the output and the controlled variable
maintaining their values.
4. Introduce a small disturbance by stepping up the output of the controller. The
resulting output change should have enough resolution for analysis.
5. Record the reaction of the controlled variable. This is where a fast speed recorder at
the output of the transmitter (in the order 1 in./min) comes in handy.
6. Bring the output back to the normal operating point and switch controller back to auto.
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After obtaining the Process Reaction Curve, proceed to determine P, PI, or PID settings using
either ZieglerNichols or Cohen and Coon equations as shown.
ZieglerNichols Or CohenCoon Optimum PID Setting From A Process Reaction Curve
Obtain a process reaction curve using Work Aid 2C.
Reaction Curve Data
PROCESS
REACTION CURVE
TIME
MEASUREMENT
² C
P
M
E
A
S
U
R
E
M
E
N
T
L T
L = Lag time in minutes
T = Minutes required for the line tangent to the measurement to change ∆C
P
P = Initial disturbance in %
N =
∆C
P
T
; Reaction Rate (%/min.)
R =
NL
∆C
P
; Lag Ratio
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PROPORTIONAL
BAND (%)
INTEGRAL TIME
(MINUTES)
DERIVATIVE TIME
(MINUTES)
Proportional
Controller
K
P
=
100
PB
=
P
NL
 
Proportional +
Integral Controller
K
p
=
100
PB
=
0.9(P)
(N)(L)
I = 3.33(L) 
Proportional +
Integral +
Derivative
Controller
K
p
=
100
PB
=
1.2(P)
N(L)
I = 2(L) D = 0.5 (L)
OPTIMUM CONTROLLER SETTINGS FOR QAD ZIEGLERNICHOLS
PROPORTIONAL BAND (%)
INTEGRAL
TIME
(MINUTES)
DERIVATIVE
TIME
(MINUTES)
Proportional
Controller
K
P
=
100
PB
=
P
NL
¸
]
1
1
1 +
1
3
NL
∆C
P
 
Proportional +
Integral
Controller
K
p
=
100
PB
=
P
NL
¸
]
1
1
0.9 +
R
12
I =
¸
]
1
1
30+3R
9+20R
L

Proportional +
Integral +
Derivative
Controller
K
p
=
100
PB
=
P
NL
¸
]
1
1
1.33 +
R
4
I =
¸
]
1
1
32+6R
13+8R
L D =
¸
]
1
1
4
11+2R
L
OPTIMUM CONTROLLER SETTINGS FOR QAD COHENCOON
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Work Aid 2D: Application of Tuning Methods Commonly Used in the Process Industry,
Procedure and Sumary of Integral CriteriaDriven OpenLoop Method
1. Obtain a process reaction curve using Work Aid 2C.
C
1
.632
τ θ
K =
∆C
P
%
∆P%
θ = τ
d
C =
θ+τ
Proportional Mode K K
c
= a
¸
¸
,
_ θ
τ
b
where K =
ÆC
P
%
ÆP%
and K
c
=
100
PB
Integral Mode T
I
,τ) = c
¸
¸
,
_ θ
τ
d
where T
i
= I in Minutes
Derivative Mode
T
D
τ
= e
¸
¸
,
_ θ
τ
f
where T
D
= D in Minutes
Where θ is dead time and τ is τ
SR
and a, b, c, d, e, f are constants
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Tuning Feedback Control Loops
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43
Technique Mode a b
1. ZN POnly 1.000 1.000
2. 3C POnly 1.208 .936
3. IAE POnly .902 .985
4. ISE POnly 1.411 .917
5. ITAE POnly .490 1.084
Technique Mode a b c d
1. ZN P + I .900 1.000 3.333 1.000
2. 3C P + I .928 .946 .928 .583
3. IAE P + I .984 .986 1.644 .707
4. ISE P + I 1.305 .959 2.033 .739
5. ITAE P + I .859 .977 1.484 .680
Technique Mode a b c d e f
1. ZN PID 1.2 1.0 2.0 1.0 .5 1.0
2. 3C PID 1.370 .950 .740 .738 .365 .95
3. IAE PID 1.435 .921 1.139 .749 .482 1.137
4. ISE PID 1.495 .945 .917 .771 .560 1.00
5. ITAE PID 1.357 .947 1.176 .738 .381 .995
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Tuning Feedback Control Loops
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44
GLOSSARY
critically damped A system that is damped just enough to prevent overshoot
following an abrupt stimulus.
cycling A periodic change in the variable under control, usually resulting
in equal excursions above and below the control point of
sinusoidal wave shapeoscillation.
damped response A response in which the amplitude diminishes with each
succeeding cycle.
damping The decrease of amplitude of an oscillation due to dissipation of
energy. Progressive reduction in the amplitude of cycling of a
system.
Integral Absolute Error
(IAE)
A measure of controller error defined by the integral of the
absolute value of the time dependent error function; used in
tuning automatic controllers to respond properly to process
transients.
Integral Time Absolute
Error (ITAE)
A measure of controller error defined by the integral of the
product of time and the absolute value of a timedependent error
function. The absolute value prevents opposite excursions in the
process variable from cancelling each other; the multiplication
by time places a more severe penalty on sustained errors.
overdamped Damped so that overshoot cannot occur.
overshoot A transient response to a step change in an input signal which
exceeds the normal or expected steady state response.
quarter amplitude A process control tuning criteria where the amplitude of the
deviation (error) of the controlled variable, following a
disturbance is cyclic so that the amplitude of each peak is one
quarter of the previous peak.
ramp An increase or decrease of the variable at a constant rate of
change.
reaction curve In process control, a reaction curve is obtained by applying a
step change to the controller output and recording the response
of the controlled variable with respect to time. The information
obtained allows the calculation of preliminary controller tuning
settings.
robust Strongly formed or constructed.
stability That desirable condition in which input and output are in balance
and will remain so unless subjected to an external stimulus.
steady state A state in which static conditions prevail and all dynamic
changes may be assumed completed.
step change A change from one level to another in theoretically zero time.
tuning The adjustment of control constants in algorithms or analog
controllers to produce the desired control effect.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Tuning Feedback Control Loops
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45
ultimate period The time period of one cycle at the natural frequency of the
system where it is allowed to oscillate without damping.
vector A quantity having magnitude and direction as contrasted with a
scalar which has magnitude only.
ZieglerNichols closed
loop method
A method of determination of optimum controller settings when
tuning a process control loop. The method is based on the
reaction of a loop to an imposed disturbance.
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