This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s
employees. Any material contained in this document which is not
already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given,
or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part,
without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering
Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : Instrumentation For additional information on this subject, contact
File Reference: PCI10205 E.W. Reah on 8750426
Engineering Encyclopedia
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Steady State Gains
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
CONTENTS PAGE
DETERMINING THE STEADY STATE GAIN VERSUS OPERATING
POINT RELATIONSHIP FOR A LOOP .............................................................................. 1
Steady State Gains of Elements ................................................................................. 1
Slope Method ................................................................................................. 1
Mathematical Method..................................................................................... 2
Test Method.................................................................................................... 2
Steady State Gain Of Loops....................................................................................... 3
Linear Loops................................................................................................... 3
NonLinear Loops .......................................................................................... 5
Linearization For Constant Loop Gain....................................................................... 6
EVALUATING THE STEADY STATE GAIN OF MEASURING
ELEMENTS/ TRANSMITTERS .......................................................................................... 8
Primary Elements/Transmitters.................................................................................. 8
Temperature Transmitters............................................................................... 8
Flow Transmitters........................................................................................... 10
Linearizing Differential Producers ................................................................. 12
Linearizing With A Compensating Response................................................. 16
EVALUATING THE STEADY STATE GAIN OF FINAL CONTROL
ELEMENTS .......................................................................................................................... 17
Steady State Gain of Final Control Elements............................................................. 17
Linear Valves ............................................................................................................. 18
Equal Percentage Valves............................................................................................ 20
Actual Valve Characteristics...................................................................................... 23
Linearizing the Valve Characteristic .............................................................. 29
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
EVALUATING THE STEADY STATE GAIN OF CONTROLLERS................................. 32
Linear Controllers ...................................................................................................... 32
NonLinear Controllers .............................................................................................. 33
Linearizing Process Characteristic with a NonLinear Controller .................. 35
EVALUATING THE STEADY STATE GAIN OF PROCESSES ....................................... 36
Level Process ............................................................................................................. 36
Linearizing a NonLinear Process  NonUniform Tank................................ 39
Heat Exchanger Process............................................................................................. 40
Linearizing Processes Whose Gain Varies Inversely With Load ................... 42
Example Of Finding The Steady State Gain Of A Process........................................ 43
Process............................................................................................................ 44
Transmitter ..................................................................................................... 46
Valve .............................................................................................................. 47
Steady State Open Loop Gain ........................................................................ 48
GLOSSARY.......................................................................................................................... 49
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 1
DETERMINING THE STEADY STATE GAIN VERSUS OPERATING POINT
RELATIONSHIP FOR A LOOP
Steady State Gains of Elements
Slope Method
Steady state gain is simply the slope of the inputoutput relationship of the element's response
curve when both the input and output are time invariant (do not vary with time).
SLOPE = K =
= CONSTANT
LINEAR ELEMENT
NONLINEAR ELEMENT
SLOPE = K
SLOPE ° CONSTANT
INPUT
O
U
T
P
U
T
INPUT
INPUT
A
B
O
U
T
P
U
T
INPUT
K
K
A
B
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 2
Mathematical Method
Steady state gain can be determined by differentiating the equation that represents the
particular input/output relationship.
K = d(out)/d(input) @ S.S.
Test Method
To determine the steady state gain of an element, or a series of elements, introduce a time
invariant input (a step) to the element and observe the output. If the output becomes time
invariant ( a step), the steady state gain can be calculated as the ratio of the output step to the
input step.
ELEMENT A
INPUT OUTPUT
K = B/A
B
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3
Steady State Gain Of Loops
Linear Loops
A particular loop is made up of a series of linear elements. The open loop steady state gain is
the product of all of the element's individual steady state gains. Look at the linear loop below.
Notice that each element has a linear input/output relationship. The controller's response
curve is drawn with a negative slope to assure overall increasedecrease and negative
feedback.
INPUT INPUT INPUT INPUT INPUT
PROCESS TRANSMITTER VALVE CONTROLLER LOOP
O
U
T
P
U
T
O
U
T
P
U
T
O
U
T
P
U
T
O
U
T
P
U
T
O
U
T
P
U
T
LINEAR ELEMENTSLINEAR LOOP
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4
Since the steady state gain of each element is the slope of the curve, we can represent the
input versus gain relationship for these elements (as well as for the loop) in the form of
horizontal lines.
PROCESS TRANSMITTER VALVE CONTROLLER
(ADJUSTABLE)
LOOP
LINEAR ELEMENTSCONSTANT LOOP GAIN
INPUT INPUT INPUT INPUT INPUT
K
P
K
T
K
V
K
C
K
L
O
O
P
A B C
As seen above the steady state gain for this loop is constant and does not vary with the input.
Constant gain at all operating points is a luxury. This loop can be tuned at any input, A, B, or
C, for a particular response (i.e. QAD). The only adjustment required is the controller gain
adjustment, which affects the loop gain and the damping. If the operating point changed,
tuning should hold; that is, we should get the same response at any other point. This loop
should be stable at all operating points.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5
NonLinear Loops
If one of the elements in the loop exhibits a nonlinear input/output relationship as shown
below, the entire loop becomes nonlinear, compromising the capability to have a stable loop
at all operating points.
NONLINEAR ELEMENTVARYING LOOP GAIN
PROCESS
INPUT
O
U
T
P
U
T
TRANSMITTER
INPUT
O
U
T
P
U
T
CONTROLLER
INPUT
O
U
T
P
U
T
VALVE
INPUT
O
U
T
P
U
T
LOOP
INPUT
O
U
T
P
U
T
A
B
C
TRANSMITTER
INPUT
K
T
PROCESS
INPUT
K
P
CONTROLLER
INPUT
K
C
INPUT
K
L
O
O
P
A
B
C
VALVE
K
V
INPUT
ADJUST
The steady state gain for this loop varies with the operating point. Where should this loop be
tuned? If the loop is tuned at point A for a particular response (QAD), the loop could become
unstable if the operating point were changed to points B or C where the gains are higher. On
the other hand, if the loop is tuned at point C for QAD, the response becomes sluggish at
points B or A. The usual choice is to tune the loop for the highest gain condition, point C,
and experience sluggish responses when the operating point changes.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6
Linearization For Constant Loop Gain
Instead of tuning at the highest gain condition to be on the safe side, a better solution to the
nonlinearity problem is to use a complementary linearizing element in the loop through
either the valve or other element. The objective of good control is to make the loop gain
independent of the operating point as much as possible. One way to achieve this is to
linearize the loop as shown in the following example. This effort is worthwhile even if the
result is not a perfect linear loop.
Linearization involves the following procedure.
Since the loop response overall had the following nonlinear characteristic:
O
U
T
P
U
T
INPUT
A
B
C
We must add a complementary function with an opposite characteristic as shown.
O
U
T
P
U
T
INPUT
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7
The two curves complement each other resulting in an overall linear characteristic.
INPUT INPUT
O
U
T
P
U
T
K
LINEARIZING
FUNCTION (B)
RESPONSE
CURVE (A)
RESULTING LINEAR
CHARACTERISTIC (C) A
B
C
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8
EVALUATING THE STEADY STATE GAIN OF MEASURING ELEMENTS/
TRANSMITTERS
Primary Elements/Transmitters
Depending on the application the selection of the measuring system could involve choosing a
primary element and a transmitter or a transmitter system with an integral primary element.
The steady state analysis would require looking at the combined effect.
Temperature Transmitters
The most common industrial temperature applications involve one of the following
transmitter types.
The response curves of these transmitters (including elements) are shown below:
100 %
O
U
T
P
U
T
%
0
INPUT
TEMP SPAN
LINEAR DEVICES
T/C, RTD,
CLASS I AND III FTS
NON LINEAR
CLASS II FTS
THERMISTOR
K
TT
= d %/ dT = 100% / Temp Span
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9
LINEAR TRANSMITTERS NONLINEAR TRANSMITTERS
T/C
RTD
CLASS I FTS
CLASS III FTS
CLASS II FTS
THERMISTORS
K
T
T
,
T
/
C
,
R
T
D
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
T
S
,
C
L
A
S
S
I
I
I
F
T
S
TEMP SPAN
LINEAR
K
T
T
C
L
A
S
S
I
I
F
T
S
TEMP SPAN
NONLINEAR
CLASS II
THERMISTOR
Our main interest in this analysis is to determine whether a primary element transmitter
combination input/output relationship is close enough to linearity, that we can ignore its gain
versus operating point variations. We are not looking for perfect linearity, which is a
measurement issue and part of the accuracy statement for the device. In conclusion, we can
state the input/output relationship of an element/transmitter combination of RTD's, T/C's and
Class I and III FTS's are essentially linear in their normal operating ranges. Any small non
linearity, would only affect the measurement accuracy and would have minor consequences
on the transmitter gain and the control of the loop.
What about other temperature measuring devices such as pyrometers and thermistors whose
input/output relationships are inherently nonlinear? When using such devices in a loop, it is
up to the user to determine if a device is linear or not. The trend today is for manufacturers to
linearize these devices by drawing compensating curves with the aid of microprocessors.
Frequently, these devices may be linear in a specific operating range.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10
Flow Transmitters
The most common industrial flow applications involve one of the following measuring
devices.
LINEAR DEVICES NON LINEAR DEVICES
Magnetic Flow Meters Orifice
Positive Displacement Meters Venturi
Vortex Meters Flow Nozzle
Turbine Meters Elbow Meters
Ultrasonic Target Meters
Rotameter Weirs
Coriolis Flumes
The linear devices provide an output which is linearly related to the flow rate. Depending on
the particular device the output could be mv., Volts, pulse frequency, or 420 ma dc. The
steady state gain of the linear devices is constant with flow.
FLOW
mv, freq,
ma dc
0 TO 100%
LINEAR DEVICES
K
FT
FLOW
OUT
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11
Industrially the most common approach for flow measurement involves differential producers,
of which the orifice plate is by far the most common device. Differential producers have
transmitter outputs that have a nonlinear relationship to the flow rate.
H L
FLOW (F)
0 TO 100%
h
F = K h
INPUT – FLOW
OUTPUT – h or ∆P
The output of the flow transmitter is linearly related to the differential produced. The
differential produced however is not linear to the flow rate and has the following relationship.
DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE
∆P or h
FLOW, F
The gain of the flow transmitter can be evaluated from the orifice plate flow equations.
F = ÆP
Using nondimensional fractional variables f = F/F
max
, h = ∆P
min
/ ∆P
max
. The equation can
be written:
f = h
f
2
= h
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12
We can find the dimensionless (normalized) steady state gain of this transmitter by taking the
derivative dh/df.
K = dh/df = 2f
To convert this to a dimensional gain we multiply the expression by the input/output
relationship of the transmitter as shown.
K = 2f(100%/flow span)
As can be seen from the above expressions the gain of this transmitter is not constant and it
increases with the flow rate as shown.
f
K
FT
The consequence of the gain variation of the orifice plate transmitter measuring system is that
this loop may not be stable at all operating points or flows.
If we have tuned the loop for a QAD response at 50% flow and the flow rate increases to
90%, the loop gain will increase, potentially resulting in an unstable response. If the flow rate
decreases the penalty would be a slower sluggish response. Neither condition is desirable.
Most applications involving differential producers use a compensating function to linearize
the flow transmitter and produce a constant loop gain at all flows.
Linearizing Differential Producers
There are two ways that can be used to linearize differential producers.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13
The following arrangements investigate the use of a square rooter to achieve linearization.
WITHOUT A SQUARE ROOT EXTRACTOR
K
ORIFICE
K K
O T
K
T
f h f
h
f h f
OUT OUT
0
100
ORIFICE
PLATE
TRANSMITTER
h
OUTPUT INPUT
f
FLOW
OVERALL
GAIN
OVERALL
RESPONSE
In this arrangement without a square root extractor, the steady state gain is not constant but
varies with flow.
K = 2f
¸
¸
,
_
100%
Flow Span
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14
Although the transmitter itself may be linear, the primary sensor in this case is not and the
combination of the two therefore results in a gain that is dependent on the input: in this case,
on flow. Obviously, the above will not be a consideration, if the primary sensor has a
constant gain.
Linearizing With A Square Root Extractor
Let us consider now, what we might be able to do to improve the nonlinear response.
Investigating the addition of a square root extractor:
OUTPUT INPUT
The square root extractor has a nonlinear inputoutput relationship resulting in a steady state
gain which varies with the input (h).
h h
f = h K
Output α Input
f = C h
where C = is a constant
K = df / dh =
C
2 h
=
C
1
h
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15
The addition of a square root extractor to the orifice plate transmitter will effectively linearize
the measurement.
K
ORIFICE,
TRANS
K
f h f
h
f h
f f =
ORIFICE PLATE
AND TRANSMITTER
h
OUTPUT INPUT
FLOW, f
OVERALL
RESPONSE
FLOW
h
h
h
WITH A SQUARE ROOT EXTRACTOR
OVERALL
GAIN
K
O,T,
( ) K ( )
We can see that the resultant steady state gain for this loop is constant and independent of the
operating point. The function of a square root extractor is to linearize head flow devices. The
effect of linearization can also be seen from the response curves analysis.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16
Linearizing With A Compensating Response
It is possible to linearize the differential producer (orifice plate) with a complementary
response curve.
In this approach, we try to find a curve (b) type function from one of the other elements in the
loop, i.e. the valve. We can see that a valve with an installed quick opening characteristic has
a curve (b) type function and can effectively linearize the orifice plate application.
The advantage of this approach is the elimination of the need for a square root extractor; the
disadvantage is that the loop will be operating with (Flow)
2
information.
h
f
a
b
c
Where: Curve (a) represents the flow versus head relationship for the orifice plate; curve
(b) is the quick opening valve characteristic; and, curve (c) is the resulting linear
characteristic with a constant slope.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17
EVALUATING THE STEADY STATE GAIN OF FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS
Steady State Gain of Final Control Elements
The valve is the most common final control element used in process control applications.
There are various types of valves with different characteristics. The most common
characteristics in use are the linear and equal percentage characteristics. Before looking at the
input/output relationship of the valve let us review some valve terminology.
TO PROCESS
OUTPUT  FLOW
INPUT  STEM POSITION
( MANIPULATED VARIABLE )
m
FLOW FLOW
Valve manufacturers conduct the following test in order to provide common baseline
information about their valves.
Cv max = USGPM
²P = 1 PSI = CONSTANT
WATER
AT 60°F
VALVE FULLY STROKED
²P
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18
Cv is a capacity coefficient defined as: "The number of U. S. gpm of 60ºF water which will
flow through a wideopen valve with a pressure drop of 1 psi across the valve.
The actual valve characteristic will be the same as the manufacturer's characteristic only if the
pressure drop across the valve is constant. Valves are sized for varying flow rates, which
result in varying pressure drops across the valve. Thus, in most cases, the actual valve
characteristic is not the manufactured characteristic but is a function of the manufactured
characteristic and the pressure drop ratio ∆Pmin/∆Pmax across the valve. The two most
common inherent valve characteristics that manufacturers sell are linear and equal percentage.
Linear Valves
Valves with a linear inherent characteristic produce a flow rate directly proportional to the
amount of valve plug travel throughout the travel range. For example, at 30% rated travel the
flow rate would be 30% of maximum flow; at 60% rated travel it would be 60% of maximum
flow.
THE LINEAR VALVE UNDER CONSTANT PRESSURE DROP ( P)
m
STEM POSITION
f
f = FRACTIONAL FLOW
m = FRACTIONAL OPENING
f = K, m
CONSTANT SLOPE
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19
For the linear valve, the steady state gain, Kv is constant.
K
V
=
df
dm
=
% Dimensionless
%
=
Flow Span with Units
100%
i.e.
Thus, if a valve truly exhibits a linear characteristic, its steady state is constant.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20
Equal Percentage Valves
A valve with an equal percentage characteristic will (for a given increment in stem travel)
produce a change in flow rate which may be expressed as a constant percent of the flow rate
at the time of the change. For example, if at 20% rated stem travel the flow rate was 5% and
at 30% rated stem travel the flow rate was 7.5%, then at 40% rated stem travel the flow rate
would increase to 11.3%. This represents a constant 50% flow increase at the time of the
change.
The equal percentage valve as described above has an exponential characteristic.
STEM POSITION EQUAL PERCENTAGE RESPONSE CURVE
m
²P = CONSTANT
f = R
m1
ƒ
FRACTIONAL
FLOW
F / F MAX
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21
The characteristic can be described by the following equation.
f = R
m1
Where R is the rangeability or turndown of the valve published by the manufacturer and
defined as
R =
Maximum Controllable Flow
Minimum Controllable Flow
The equal percentage valve was designed to change the flow exponentially. Small change in
flow initially and large change of actual flow at the upper end of the stem travel.
The slope of the curve is the steady state gain and can be evaluated by differentiating the
equation
df
dm
= f
lnR
Where lnR is a constant which depends on the valve rangeability. Typical globe valve
rangeability is 50 and for this valve lnR = ln50 ≈ 4
K =
df
dm
≈ 4f Dimensionless Number
K
f
SLOPE OF LINE  4 WHEN R = 50
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22
The dimensional form of the equal percentage valve can be evaluated by multiplying the
equation with the dimensional component
K = (lnR) f
¸
]
1
1
F
max
100
Looking at the steady state gain of this valve, it is obvious that there would be serious
instability problems if the gain variation was not compensated for.
One way that compensation can be achieved is to apply this valve to a process whose gain
varies in the opposite direction and, in effect, linearize the valve, i.e.
K
L
O
O
P
K
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
K
V
A
L
V
E
=
%
VALVE PROCESS COMBINED
EFFECT
ƒ ƒ ƒ
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23
Actual Valve Characteristics
The valve characteristic describes the flow versus the stem position as a valve travels through
its stroke. The curve on which the valve actually operates depends on various factors and it is
not necessarily the manufactured characteristic. There are two characteristics to be concerned
with when analyzing valve curves. These are known as (1) Inherent or shelf characteristic,
and (2) Installed characteristic.
The characteristics described so far are the manufactured characteristics. These inherent or
shelf characteristics apply only to applications where the pressure drop across the valve stays
constant, in which case the installed characteristic of the valve will be the same as the inherent
characteristic.
In most applications the ∆Pv across the valve is not constant but varies with the flow rates. As
the flow rates within the process vary, they produce different pressure drops through the
process piping and tubing. The consequence of this is that the ∆P across the valve will have
to vary with process flows. The valve can be considered a variable pressure absorber that
takes up whatever pressure drop is not used up by the process.
The pressure variation across the valve will distort the valve curve. The amount of distortion
depends on the valve type and the pressure drop ratio across the valve. The installed valve
characteristic is the actual stem position versus flow that the valve operates on.
The choice of valve for constant gain, depends not only on the inherent valve characteristic
but also the ∆Pmin/∆Pmax pressure ratio across the valve.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24
Let us investigate the cause of pressure variation across the valve in more detail. Consider the
following process:
²P
V
²P
P
²P
P
P
1 2
P
²P
V
²P
P
P
IN
Q
MIN
Q
MAX
Q
MIN
Q
MAX
Q Q Q
Q
P
O
²P
MAX
²P
MIN
Q = FLOW THROUGH THE PROCESS
SINK
PUMP
P
O
P
IN
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25
The process is made up of piping and tubing through which fluids flow. A flow rate increase
through this process will cause an increase in the pressure drop across the process, ∆Pp. The
pump characteristic curve shows a decrease in outlet pressure Po, as the flow rate
increases(assuming a constant speed pump). If the sink pressure is constant, than the pressure
drop across the valve must vary with the flow rates. This flow rate variation in the process
causes the pressure drop across the valve to vary, altering the valve characteristic.
(∆Pv)max occurs at minimum flow
(∆Pv)min occurs at maximum flow
For a given valve, the ratio of the maximum to minimum pressure drop across the valve
dictates the actual installed valve characteristic.
P P
Q
MIN
Q
MAX
IN O
²P
P
²P
V
²P
P
²P
MIN V
²P
MAX
V
Note that as the flow changes from Q
max
to Q
min
the ∆Pv changes from ∆Pv
min
to ∆Pv
max
.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26
Remember: ∆Pv
min
→ Q
max
∆Pv
max
→ Q
min
An investigation of the effect of the pressure variation on the actual valve characteristic is
shown below:
FOR AN EQUAL PERCENTAGE VALVE WITH VARYING ²P
V
ƒ
m
²P
MIN
²P
MAX
( ²P = C )
= 1
²P
MIN
²P
MAX
<< 1
AS
0
0
At a
ÆP
v min
ÆP
v max
ratio of 1 the installed and inherent valve characteristics are the same.
As the pressure ratio across the valve decreases, the installed characteristic of the valve shifts
towards the upper left becoming almost linear. In most processes the ∆Pv is not constant, but
varies with flow, shifting the equal percentage characteristic towards linear.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27
FOR A LINEAR VALVE WITH VARYING Pv
ƒ
m
²P
MIN
²P
MAX
( ²P = C )
= 1
²P
MIN
²P
MAX
<< 1 AS
0
0
1
1
The installed and inherent characteristics for the linear valve would be the same if the
pressure ratio were constant across the valve.
As the
ÆP
v min
ÆP
v max
decreases, becoming less than 1, the valve characteristic shifts,
approaching a quickopening characteristic.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28
The actual valve characteristic can be plotted from the following equation.
f =
F
F
max
=
1
1 +
ÆP
min
ÆP
max
¸
]
1
1
1
a
2
 1
where f = Fractional flow through valve when installed
a = Fractional valve opening
m = Valve stem position
and a = m For a linear valve
a = R
m1
For an equal percentage valve
We notice from the above equation that the flow through the valve, "f" will be different for a
particular opening, "a" depending on the ratio of
ÆP
v min
ÆP
v max
and the inherent valve
characteristic.
In summation, if we know the maximum and minimum pressures that the valve will be
subjected to, we can select the inherent valve characteristics so that we will get the desired
installed valve characteristic.
For example if we need a linear valve we choose a linear inherent characteristic if ∆P
v
=
Constant or an equal percentage inherent characteristic if ∆P
v
≠ Constant. The choice
frequently is an inherent equal percentage valve shifted towards a linear characteristic.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 29
Linearizing the Valve Characteristic
If ∆P
v
is constant and an equal percentage valve were installed we would end up with a non
linear response. We might be able to compensate for this by introducing a complementing,
nonlinearity into the loop, rather than buying a new valve. This nonlinearity might be in the
form of a square root extractor in series with the controller output.
OUTPUT OF
CONTROLLER
m
In this application K
x K
Valve
≈ Constant Gain
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30
Linearization can also be accomplished in various other related approaches using what are
known as function generators, f(x)
Function generators are curve drawers and have been available as analog products with
limited capabilities. Today, digital function generators can draw curves of any shape with
relative ease.
The general objective of the curve drawn is to linearize the function and make the steady state
gain constant. As shown below, a divider is used to characterize an equal percentage valve.
LINEARIZATION OF AN EQUAL PERCENTAGE VALVE USING A DIVIDER
OUTPUT
INPUT
DIVIDER
CHARACTERISTIC
OVERALL
CHARACTERISTIC
VALVE
CHARACTERISTIC
FROM
CONTROLLER
INPUT
÷
TO VALVE
OUTPUT DIVIDER
VALVE OR
POSITIONER
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31
Instead of a divider a function generator, f(x), may be used to draw any curve necessary to
linearize a valve and achieve a linear input/output relationship and constant gain.
FROM
CONTROLLER
OUTPUT
TO VALVE
VALVE OR
POSITIONER
ƒ ( x )
In some applications the valve positioner may have a cam which can be characterized to any
function required for linearization.
In digital applications the output can be characterized directly on the output side of the
controller algorithm, allowing the user to draw any curve necessary to linearize the valve.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32
EVALUATING THE STEADY STATE GAIN OF CONTROLLERS
Linear Controllers
The magnitude of the gain of a threemode linear PID controller is:
G
=
100
PB
¸
]
1
1
1
1 +
¸
¸
,
_ 2πD
τ
ο

τ
ο
2πI
2
1
2
The gain of this controller depends on the PID values set in the controller.
The integral and derivative settings affect mainly the dynamic gain, while the PB adjustment
affects the steady state gain.
The input/output relationship of this controller is as shown below:
e ( INPUT )
m (OUTPUT )
The steady state gain of this controller is as shown below: (assuming the proportional is the
steady state contribution)
K =
Æm
Æe
=
100
PB
= Constant
PB
K =
100
INPUT
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33
NonLinear Controllers
As electronic controllers were introduced, it was possible to build nonlinear PID controllers.
Today this function is available in various electronic and digital products. In some
applications it is not desirable to have a constant gain controller. This is specially so for
processes whose gain varies substantially with the operating point such as pH.
Nonlinear controllers were designed to handle these kind of processes. They were set up to
have low gain in the highgain region of the process and high gain in the lowgain region of
the process. An example of this is the threepiece, nonlinear controller shown below:
NONLINEAR CONTROLLER CHARACTERISTICS
DEAD BAND
( ADJUSTABLE )
40
20
0
20
40
+
_
0 40 20 20 40
DEVIATION FROM SETPOINT, PERCENT
C
H
A
N
G
E
I
N
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
L
E
R
O
U
T
P
U
T
,
P
E
R
C
E
N
T
DEAD BAND 0%
MINIMUM
GAIN 0.02
MAXIMUM
GAIN 0.2
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34
The adjustable dead band allowed customization of this controller to the process
requirements. Varying the dead band was a form of rudimentary adaptation.
The steady state of this controller varies with the operating point as follows:
ADJUSTABLE DEAD BAND
LOW GAIN
K
Cont
=
100
PB
SETPOINT
+ ERROR  ERROR
NORMAL GAIN
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35
Linearizing Process Characteristic with a NonLinear Controller
The most common application of the nonlinear controller is in analytical pH loops. In the
application shown, the low gain portion of the controller is adjusted through the dead band to
correspond to the high gain portion of the pH process, effectively linearizing the loop.
H PROCESS
P
NON LINEAR
CONTROLLER
DEAD
BAND
P
H
REAGENT
INPUT
K
Cont
X
K
Proc
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36
EVALUATING THE STEADY STATE GAIN OF PROCESSES
Most processes in the various Saudi Aramco applications are nonlinear to some degree. The
nonlinearity could be due to the process capacity, which makes the loop gain a function of
load, or operating point.
Common examples of capacity dominant processes characterized by a single dominant
capacity could be a level tank or a heat exchanger.
Level Process
LT
F OUT = LOAD
H
FIN
H
The input to the tank is F
in
and the output is level H.
FIN
H = LEVEL
TANK
K
Tank =
²H
²F
IN
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37
If the input (F
in
) is increased the level (H) also increases.
The amount of increase of level will depend on the Fout or load.
FIN
LEVEL TANK
IN OUT
H
F
OUT
= 0
F
OUT
= 50%
F
OUT
= 75%
The different outputs depend on the particular load; thus, the steady state gain of this process
depends on the load.
K
Tank
=
∆H
∆F
in
Fout = Constant
For this process the gain is inversely related to load.
K
Tank
∝
1
Fout
From this relationship, we can conclude that the gain of this process is high at low loads and
goes to a minimum value at high loads.
F
OUT
( LOAD )
K
TANK
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38
The steady state gain versus load relationship gets further distorted for a nonuniform tank,
i.e., a boiler drum interface application or any cylindrical shaped tank as shown below.
K
Tank
=
∆H
∆F
i
F
IN
H
LT
r
3
r
2
r
1
H
F
i
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39
Linearizing a NonLinear Process  NonUniform Tank
We should recognize, that due to the shape of the tank the change in level, H, for a given
change in inflow, Fi, varies with the level (set point) of the tank. In this case we might be able
to introduce a complementary nonlinearity to the output of the level transmitter in an attempt
to linearize the overall response of the process.
LT
ƒ ( x )
SIGNAL
CHARACTERIZER
H
OVERALL
LINEAR
PROCESS
CHARACTERIZER
H
The addition of the signal characterizer f(x) linearizes the tank response and makes the tank
equivalent to a uniform tank. We still have a steady state gain for the tank inversely related to
the load that we still need to address to.
K
Tank
∝
1
Load
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40
Heat Exchanger Process
F STEAM
FW, T
2
FW, T
1
In this process the input is F
Steam
and the output is T
2
. The major loads on this process are
F
w
and T
1
.
HEAT
EXCHANGER
IN
F
STEAM
OUT, T
2
LOAD = 25%
LOAD = 50%
LOAD = 75%
If we increase the input to the heat exchanger F
S
, we see an increase in the output T
2
. The
amount of increase in T
2
will inversely depend on the load.
K
Heat Exchanger
=
∆T
2
∆F
S F
w,
T
1
are constant
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41
The steady state gain of this process is also load dependent.
K
Heat Exchanger
∝
1
Load
LOAD, Fw or T1
A
B
C
K HEAT
EXCH
This oncethrough type capacity process also exhibits a steady state gain that is high at low
load and decreases at high load.
Assuming that all the other elements in this loop have constant loop gain, to what load
condition should we tune this loop?
If we are conservative, and tune at point A, the highest gain area, we will have optimum
response only at low loads or low production rates. At points B or C, the response would be a
safe, overdamped response but not very efficient as it will take a long time to reach steady
state after an upset.
If, on the other hand we decide to tune at point B or C at the low gain area, the danger would
be that the loop will go unstable at low loads. This is not an acceptable outcome. Remember
the purpose of control is to maintain stability at all times. If no other alternative is available,
loop response will have to be sacrificed by tuning the loop at the highest gain.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42
Linearizing Processes Whose Gain Varies Inversely With Load
We have already seen the solution to this problem during the discussion of the equal
percentage valve. The solution was an inherent equal percentage valve characteristic.
K
PROCESS
K=% K
LOOP
PROCESS VALVE LOOP
f (LOAD) f (LOAD) f (LOAD)
+
Other solutions:
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43
Example Of Finding The Steady State Gain Of A Process
Look at the following example to further analyze steady state gain of a process. Everything
external to the controller including the transmitter and final actuator will be considered as part
of the process.
F
S ( INPUT )
TT
TC
TEMPERATURE
( OUTPUT )
PRODUCT
HOT WATER
r
CONDENSATE
STEAM
HEADER
COLD WATER
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44
In this example, we will investigate the steady state gain of each element in order to determine
the steady state gain of the loop.
Process
PROCESS
INPUT TO PROCESS
OUTPUT OF PROCESS
HEAT EXCHANGER
STEAM FLOW
HOT WATER TEMPERATURE
To determine the steady state gain of this process we decide to perform a test. At the
operating point we step up the input to the process by changing the steam flow a small
amount i. e. by 1,000 LB/HR and record the resulting output change in temperature.
PROCESS
INPUT OUTPUT
190°F
193°F
38,000 LB/HR
STEAM
FLOW
37,000 LB/HR
Kprocess = ∆ (out)/∆ (in) = B/A = =
Temp Span
Steam Flow Span
3°F
1000 LB/HR
= 3x10
3
°F
LB/HR
A B
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45
To simplify the example, let us assume this process is linear within the following operating
range.
205
OUTLET
TEMP (°F)
160
30,000
STEAM
(LB/HR)
45,000
F
K
Proc
=
Temp Span
Steam Flow Span
=
45°F
15000 LB/HR
= 3 x 10
3
°F
LB/HR
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46
Transmitter
The temperature transmitter for this application has a linear input/output relationship and is
calibrated for the following operating range:
INPUT TO TRANSMITTER TEMPERATURE SPAN
OUTPUT OF TRANSMITTER 0 TO 100%
K
T
=
Output Span
Input Span
=
100%
45°F
= 2.222 %/°F
100%
OUTPUT
0
INPUT
SPAN
160°F 205°F
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47
Valve
The valve for this application operates linearly in the selected range.
INPUT TO VALVE
OUTPUT OF VALVE
STEM POSITION
STEAM FLOW
K
V
=
Steam Flow Span
Input Span
=
15000 LB/HR
100%
=
150 LB/HR
%
STEAM
FLOW
45,000
30,000
INPUT
SPAN
0 100%
LB/HR
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48
Steady State Open Loop Gain
K
Loop
= K
P
⋅K
T
⋅K
V
K
Cont
K
Loop
K
Cont
= K
P
⋅K
T
⋅K
V
= 3 x 10
3
°F
LB/HR¸
¸
,
_
2.222%
°F ¸
¸
,
_
150 LB/HR
%
K
Loop
K
Cont
= 1.0 Dimensionless
The steady state open loop gain must be a dimensionless number. This is because of the fact
that the units of one element complement the units of another element around the loop. In the
heat exchanger example, the product of the steady state gains of the elements external to the
controller, (besides being dimensionless) was equal to 1.0. In actual process applications, it
would be extremely unlikely that the gain of the elements external to the controller would be
equal 1.0. If this was the case, (neglecting dynamic considerations) all loops would oscillate
uniformly with a PB of 100% and will achieve QAD at a PB of 200%. We know from
experience that this is seldom the case for the following reason.
A gain of one has the following implications: (A) The input and output spans of all the
elements in the loop must complement each other perfectly. That is, the output span of one
element is exactly the input span of another element throughout the entire loop. (B) The gain
of all the elements is constant throughout their operating range or we have perfectly linearized
the loop.
It is extremely unlikely that these two conditions will coexist in an actual application. In a
real life application, the heat exchanger process, is not linear: its gain varies with load; the
spans may not perfectly complement each other, and there are dynamic concerns that affect
the gain. All these will have to be accounted for and addressed in the remaining modules in
this course.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49
GLOSSARY
adaptive control A control system whose parameters are automatically adjusted to
compensate for the corresponding variations in the properties of
the process.
control valve A final controlling element, through which a fluid passes, which
adjusts the size of flow passage as directed by a signal from a
controller to modify the rate of flow of the fluid.
equal percentage
flow characteristic
An inherent flow characteristic which for equal increments of
rated travel, ideally will give equal percentage changes of the
existing flow.
feedforward control Control in which information concerning one or more conditions
that can disturb the controlled variable is converted, outside of
any feedback loop, into corrective action to minimize deviations
of the controlled variable.
final control element Component of a control system (such as a valve) which directly
regulates the flow of energy or material to the process.
flow characteristic Relationship between flow through the valve and percent rated
travel as the latter is varied from 0 to 100 percent. This is a
special term. It should always be designated as either inherent
flow characteristic or installed flow characteristic.
inherent flow
characteristic
Flow characteristic when constant pressure drop is maintained
across the valve.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 50
inherent
rangeability
Ratio of maximum to minimum flow within which the deviation
from the specified inherent flow characteristic does not exceed
some stated limit. (A control valve that adequately controls even
when flow increases to 100 times the minimum controllable flow
has a rangeability of 100 to 1. Rangeability might also be
expressed as the ratio of the maximum to minimum controllable
flow coefficients.)
installed flow
characteristic
Flow characteristic when pressure drop across the valve varies as
dictated by flow and related conditions in the system in which
the valve is installed.
linear flow
characteristic
An inherent flow characteristic which can be represented ideally
by a straight line on a rectangular plot of flow versus percent
rated travel. (Equal increments of travel yield equal increments
of flow at a constant pressure drop.)
linearity The nearness with which the plot of a signal or other variable
plotted against a prescribed linear scale approximates a straight
line.
quick opening flow
characteristic
An inherent flow characteristic in which there is maximum flow
with minimum travel.
stability That desirable condition in which input and output are in balance
and will remain so unless subjected to external disturbances.
steady state A characteristic of a condition, such as value, rate, periodicity, or
amplitude, exhibiting only negligible change over an arbitrary,
long period of time.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Steady State Gains
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 51
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.