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Lecture 5 - 2003

Twist closed sections


As this development would be almost identical to that of the open section, some of the
development is simply repeated (copied) from the open section development.
pure twist around center of rotation D => neither axial () nor bending forces (Mx, My) act on
section
----------------------------- from equilibrium --------------------------------
pure twist

( dA = N
x
(
h
p
dA =
(
q h
p
ds = T
p

( ( ( dA = 0

( y dA = -M.z

( )
dA = ( qcos


( cos
( )
ds = V
y
( y dA = 0




( sin
( )
ds = V
z
( z dA = 0
( z dA = M
y

( )
dA = ( qsin

a) equilibrium of wall element:
pure twist => . = = 0 =>
v
( )
+

sin =
x
cos
x
( )
+ h
p


becomes
v
= h
D


x x x x
b) compatibility (shear strain)
d
u +
d
v =
ds dx
here is first change. we cannot set = 0 as we did in the open problem
=>
d
u =

|d
v
|
=>
d
u =

h
D

s

ds
\
dx
.
ds G x
u =
(
ds
(
h
D
ds + u
0
x
and integration along s =>
(
G x
(
( )

0


x
(
( ) as is small => = 0 for open sections u =

(
h
D
ds + u
0
x

other assumptions: section shape remains etc. same
1 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd
x x
M
x

s
(

ds
See: Torsion of Thin-Walled, Noncircular Closed Shafts; Shames Section
(
G
14.5 particularly; equations 14.17, 14.18 and 14.21 (Bredt's formula)

0
also: Hughes 6.1.19, 6.1.21, 6.1.22 and section 6.1
M
x G J
M
x
= 2 qA q :=
2 A
and ......
M
x
:= G J
=>
q :=
x 2 A x
A in these relationships is the "swept area" i.e. per Shames; "total plane area vector of the area enclosed by the
midline s." near 14.21



s

s G J
x

s

s
4 A
2
integral 0 to b =>
(

ds =
q
(
1
ds =

(
1
ds =

J

(
1
ds
J =

b
1
circular (all way
(
G G ( t 2 AG ( t 2 A ( t x
around) defining J

0
(
t
ds
from 14.21 (Bredt's
(

0
formula)

s

|

s
(
G
x
( ) =

(
( ( ) u =
(
ds

( h
D
ds
|


+ u
o
x
|

s
1
ds

s
h
D
ds
|


+ u
o
x
2 A ( t

0
x

0
\
0
.
\

0
.
as with open sections define "sectorial" coordinate = , by its derivative
wrt arbitrary origin and wrt normalized sectorial coordinate

s
definition:
(
1
ds
( t

s

s

s
J
(
J

1
|
ds = d = ( h
D
ds
2 A

(
1
t
ds = ( h
D
ds 2A

0
d =
|

\
h
D

2 A t
.
0

b
1

(
ds
( t

the warping function then becomes (as previously): u = + u


0
x ' ( ) ( ) = + u
0
x
x

s
(
1
ds

s
( t
the warping function has a "correction" to the
( h
D
ds term of
2A

0

0

b
1
(
ds
( t

0
otherwise everything is identical. hD and hc still have same meaning in and
2 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd
b) warping stresses
as before: axial strain = du/dx => u' = + u'
0
x '' ( ) and
axial stress:
= E u' = '' + E u'
0
x E ( )

( )
(
(
'' + E u'
0
x ( dA = 0
determines u'
0
x
(
E ( ) '
)
dA = 0
=>



( dA ( dA

and stress becomes:

( ) = E'' = '' + E'' = '' E u'
0
x
A
E E
A
|

|


( dA ( dA


|

E E that is: = '' = '' where
=
\
A
. A
shear stress
axial stress: E '' =
shear flow follows from integration of
d
q +
|

d

|
t = 0 along s and leads to :
ds
\
dx
.

d
d
s
q =
\

|
d
d
x

.
|
=>
q s, x) =
(
d
ds + q
1
x (
(
dx
( )

using the expression for axial stress = E u' = '' E

s

s
|

s
|
( ( )
(
|

d
( ) ( '''t ds = q
1
x


t ds q s, x) = q
1
x
(
\
dx

|
.
t ds = q
1
x

0
E ( ) + E''' (

0
\
0
.
where q
1
x ( ) is f(x) unlike open section we cannot set it = 0 ( ) 0 q
1
x
3 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd
we can superpose an open and closed problem setting the "slip" i.e. at an arbitrary cut = 0
this is equivalent to collecting all the s variation into the open solution and the x variation into
the constant
T


s
, q
open
(s x) =
open
t =
I

Q

Q

= ( dA = ( t ds


0
the derived above is the value with the constant of integration set to zero, i.e starting from open end.
T

( ( ) + q
open
(s x) = q
1
x
I

q s, x) = q
1
x , ( ) Q



N.B. these integrals are circular
no slip =>
( ds = 0 =
(

ds =
(
q
ds = 0
i.e. no slip results are for

( G ( t G
complete way around the closed

section

(
T

( ) Q

(
q
1
x
I


1
T


( t
(
( )
(
ds
(
Q

ds
=>
0 =
(
q
ds =
(
t
ds = q
1
x
( t I

(

T

(
Q

ds
(
I

=>
q
1
x ( ) =
so we can say:

(
1
ds
( t


(
Q

ds
(


(
thus a "correction" is applied to Q for
(
Q

ds
(
(

(
1
ds
q s, x) =

T


(
(
( t
(

I
(


(
1
ds (

( t
(
the closed section. the is for the closed section
\


(with it's correction applied)
4 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd
I
z
I
y
c) Center of twist
as for an open section, the second and third equilibrium condition above requires:

( y dA = 0 ( z dA = 0
for pure twist


E using = '' this requires ( y dA = 0 and ( z dA = 0 as E 0 and '' 0

as shown above this relationship is identical with the new "corrrected" so the shear center and
center of twist can be calculated the same way.
(
I
yc
I
z
I
yz
I
zc
)
and ...
z
D
=
(
I
zc
I
y
+ I
yz
I
yc
)
= y
D
|
\
I
y
I
z
I
yz
2
|
.
|
\
I
y
I
z
I
yz
2
.
|
and for principal axes I
yz
= 0
I
yz
:= 0
(
I
yc
I
z
I
yz
I
zc
) (
I
zc
I
y
+ I
yz
I
yc
)
y
D
:= z
D
:=
|
2
| |
2
|
\
I
y
I
z
I
yz
. \
I
y
I
z
I
yz
.
I
yc
I
zc
y
D
I
y
and ...
z
D
I
z
5 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd