( y dA = M.z
( )
dA = ( qcos
( cos
( )
ds = V
y
( y dA = 0
( sin
( )
ds = V
z
( z dA = 0
( z dA = M
y
( )
dA = ( qsin
a) equilibrium of wall element:
pure twist => . = = 0 =>
v
( )
+
sin =
x
cos
x
( )
+ h
p
becomes
v
= h
D
x x x x
b) compatibility (shear strain)
d
u +
d
v =
ds dx
here is first change. we cannot set = 0 as we did in the open problem
=>
d
u =
d
v

=>
d
u =
h
D
s
ds
\
dx
.
ds G x
u =
(
ds
(
h
D
ds + u
0
x
and integration along s =>
(
G x
(
( )
0
x
(
( ) as is small => = 0 for open sections u =
(
h
D
ds + u
0
x
other assumptions: section shape remains etc. same
1 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd
x x
M
x
s
(
ds
See: Torsion of ThinWalled, Noncircular Closed Shafts; Shames Section
(
G
14.5 particularly; equations 14.17, 14.18 and 14.21 (Bredt's formula)
0
also: Hughes 6.1.19, 6.1.21, 6.1.22 and section 6.1
M
x G J
M
x
= 2 qA q :=
2 A
and ......
M
x
:= G J
=>
q :=
x 2 A x
A in these relationships is the "swept area" i.e. per Shames; "total plane area vector of the area enclosed by the
midline s." near 14.21
s
s G J
x
s
s
4 A
2
integral 0 to b =>
(
ds =
q
(
1
ds =
(
1
ds =
J
(
1
ds
J =
b
1
circular (all way
(
G G ( t 2 AG ( t 2 A ( t x
around) defining J
0
(
t
ds
from 14.21 (Bredt's
(
0
formula)
s

s
(
G
x
( ) =
(
( ( ) u =
(
ds
( h
D
ds

+ u
o
x

s
1
ds
s
h
D
ds

+ u
o
x
2 A ( t
0
x
0
\
0
.
\
0
.
as with open sections define "sectorial" coordinate = , by its derivative
wrt arbitrary origin and wrt normalized sectorial coordinate
s
definition:
(
1
ds
( t
s
s
s
J
(
J
1

ds = d = ( h
D
ds
2 A
(
1
t
ds = ( h
D
ds 2A
0
d =

\
h
D
2 A t
.
0
b
1
(
ds
( t
s
( t
the warping function has a "correction" to the
( h
D
ds term of
2A
0
0
b
1
(
ds
( t
0
otherwise everything is identical. hD and hc still have same meaning in and
2 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd
b) warping stresses
as before: axial strain = du/dx => u' = + u'
0
x '' ( ) and
axial stress:
= E u' = '' + E u'
0
x E ( )
( )
(
(
'' + E u'
0
x ( dA = 0
determines u'
0
x
(
E ( ) '
)
dA = 0
=>
( dA ( dA
and stress becomes:
( ) = E'' = '' + E'' = '' E u'
0
x
A
E E
A


( dA ( dA

E E that is: = '' = '' where
=
\
A
. A
shear stress
axial stress: E '' =
shear flow follows from integration of
d
q +

d

t = 0 along s and leads to :
ds
\
dx
.
d
d
s
q =
\

d
d
x
.

=>
q s, x) =
(
d
ds + q
1
x (
(
dx
( )
using the expression for axial stress = E u' = '' E
s
s

s

( ( )
(

d
( ) ( '''t ds = q
1
x
t ds q s, x) = q
1
x
(
\
dx

.
t ds = q
1
x
0
E ( ) + E''' (
0
\
0
.
where q
1
x ( ) is f(x) unlike open section we cannot set it = 0 ( ) 0 q
1
x
3 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd
we can superpose an open and closed problem setting the "slip" i.e. at an arbitrary cut = 0
this is equivalent to collecting all the s variation into the open solution and the x variation into
the constant
T
s
, q
open
(s x) =
open
t =
I
Q
Q
= ( dA = ( t ds
0
the derived above is the value with the constant of integration set to zero, i.e starting from open end.
T
( ( ) + q
open
(s x) = q
1
x
I
q s, x) = q
1
x , ( ) Q
N.B. these integrals are circular
no slip =>
( ds = 0 =
(
ds =
(
q
ds = 0
i.e. no slip results are for
( G ( t G
complete way around the closed
section
(
T
( ) Q
(
q
1
x
I
1
T
( t
(
( )
(
ds
(
Q
ds
=>
0 =
(
q
ds =
(
t
ds = q
1
x
( t I
(
T
(
Q
ds
(
I
=>
q
1
x ( ) =
so we can say:
(
1
ds
( t
(
Q
ds
(
(
thus a "correction" is applied to Q for
(
Q
ds
(
(
(
1
ds
q s, x) =
T
(
(
( t
(
I
(
(
1
ds (
( t
(
the closed section. the is for the closed section
\
(with it's correction applied)
4 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd
I
z
I
y
c) Center of twist
as for an open section, the second and third equilibrium condition above requires:
( y dA = 0 ( z dA = 0
for pure twist
E using = '' this requires ( y dA = 0 and ( z dA = 0 as E 0 and '' 0
as shown above this relationship is identical with the new "corrrected" so the shear center and
center of twist can be calculated the same way.
(
I
yc
I
z
I
yz
I
zc
)
and ...
z
D
=
(
I
zc
I
y
+ I
yz
I
yc
)
= y
D

\
I
y
I
z
I
yz
2

.

\
I
y
I
z
I
yz
2
.

and for principal axes I
yz
= 0
I
yz
:= 0
(
I
yc
I
z
I
yz
I
zc
) (
I
zc
I
y
+ I
yz
I
yc
)
y
D
:= z
D
:=

2
 
2

\
I
y
I
z
I
yz
. \
I
y
I
z
I
yz
.
I
yc
I
zc
y
D
I
y
and ...
z
D
I
z
5 notes_14_twist_closed.mcd