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IGCSE Physics-Revision

Heat
Temperature: measurement of hotness of a body. Measured in Kelvin or Celsius. Thermal capacity (s.h.c): The heat energy needed to raise the body by one degree (Units JC) To find the amount of heat to raise a body:

H=m x c (-)

E.g. How much heat is needed to raise 0.75kg of water from 20C to 100C? H=mc(-) If needed to find the s.h.c: H=0.75x4200x(100-20) H=252000J c=H m x (-) H=252KJ Factors which affect temperature rise: a) The material (whether it is wood or metal etc.) b) The mass of the material being heated c) The heat energy supplied

H = Heat m = Mass c= Specific heat capacity (-) = change in Temp.

Specific latent heat: the amount of heat energy needed to arrange the bond structure

H=m x l (needed for melting substances) Specific latent heat of vaporisation (unit J):H=m x l(needed for boiling substances)
Specific latent heat of fusion (unit JKg):

H = Heat m = Mass l= specific latent heat of fusion or vaporization

Evaporation: the change of state from a liquid to a gas. This process occurs at all temperatures Rate of evaporation can be increased by: a) A large surface area b) A hot or cold air blowing over the liquid c) Higher temperatures The three types of Heat transfer a) Conduction- occurs in liquids solids and gases and travel from high heat to low heat due to the kinetic energy. Solids conduct the best b) Convection- occurs in liquids and gases and travels from high to a low heat. It normally rises up through the fluid due to the expansion of molecules. Moves in a circular motion c) Radiation- the transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves. Best example is the heat radiation from the sun in which heats the earth

Forces and motion


Force is something that tries to change the shape, speed and direction of an object UNITS:

Newtons
5 cm = 5 Newton, right f= Newtons mass= Kg acceleration= m/s (Newtons 2nd law)

Shown as a diagram of a proportional arrow Generally: Force=mass x acceleration So: acceleration= force mass

Work is how much energy was used in the movement of an object from A to B

Work done= force x distance moved

(work is in Joules)

Power is the rate at which work done is carried out

E.g. a force of 200N drags a box 5 m. Find the work done. Work done=force x distance Work= 200 x 5 Work = 1000J or 1Kg

Power= work done time taken

(power is in watts)

Eg. A 50kg boy runs up 5m of stairs in 10 seconds. What is his power? 1st: force =Mass x gravity 2nd: work done= force x distance force= 50 x 10=500N work done=500 x 5= 2500J rd 3 Power= work done time taken = 250010 = 250W

Energy is the ability to do work. The main two types of energy seen with forces are: potential and kinetic energy. All energy is measured in joules

Potential energy=mass x gravity (x height if it is raised through a height)

Kinetic energy= x mass x velocity


M x

Density= massvolume (grams per cm or kg/m)


Eureka can to find the density of an irregular object!

Pressure= forcearea

(pascals-Pa)

f x

Liquid pressure=height x density x gravity

Circuits
A battery is a source of electric current

+ A
Volt metre to measure energy change

Ammeter to measure flow of current

Current is the flow of electrical charge. The charge is measures in coulombs

Q=It (Charge=current x time)


Electromotive force (E.M.F) - This is the amount of energy given to a charge when is passes through an electrical source (such as a battery or power supply)

E.M.F= energy charge

(E.M.F=Volts-V/energy=joules-J /charge=coulombs-C)

Potential difference (P.D.) this is the amount of energy taken from a charge as it passes through a resistor.

P.D. =energy charge (same units as before)


There is also a potential difference in current as well.

V=IR (volts=current x resistance) (Current=amps-A/Resistance=OHMS-)


Finding resistance on a graph
V

On a straight line the resistance is the gradient

I V

On a curved graph to find the resistance, use the equation R=VI


I

Finding the resistance on a circuit with more than one resistor is simple! R=R1+R2+R3
Then use V=IR to find the current

R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 Then use V=IR to find current in b

The potential divider- this is the output voltage in a section of a linear circuit. (Vin=power supply/Vout=potential divider) R1=7 R2=6 Vin=12

With the use of a potential divider, you can then find the amount of POWER which leaves the circuit.

P=VI (Joules per second J/s)


Although V=IR So you could use P=I
2

Wave Motion
A wave is a movement of a DISTURBANCE through a source, such as water... This movement is a transfer of energy from a source to a surrounding area Waves can be split into two groups Mechanical Waves Water Sound Waves on springs Waves on stretched strings Seismic waves Electromagnetic Waves Radio Radar Infra-red Light Ultra-violet x-ray gamma ray Frequency-number of wavelengths per second- Unit: Hertz Wavelength-length of one complete wave (crest to crest) Amplitude-distance from undisturbed to crest of wave Wave velocity-the velocity with which the wave moves away from the source

The wave equation: This is used to find the VELOCITY of the wave.

Velocity=frequency x wavelength or V=f


Actions of a wave:

Units- V=m/s, f=KHz, =m

Wave approaching at an angle and refracting

Huygen believed that waves were like little circles and would create their own sources for a new wave.

Transverse and longitudinal waves Transverse wave all the particles vibrate at a right angle to the direction. Each particle is slightly

out of step with the next. There is no overall movement


Eg, Water waves Longitudinal waves all particles vibrate in the same direction of which the wave is travelling in. Each particle is slightly out of step with the next. There is no other movement in any direction. Eg sound and seismic waves

Sound waves
these are produced by vibrating objects its longitudinal requires a medium which can vibrate to travel through (the bell-jar experiment proves this) sound travels greatest in solids the pitch is how high you can hear the sound-higher the frequency the higher the pitch how loud the sound is depends on the amount of vibration given from the source the quality of the sound depends on the shape of the wave an echo is the sound wave reflecting off a surface (can be used to measure velocity)

Electronics
The diode this is a rectifier which works on half wave rectification.

A full-wave rectifier this converts an AC to a DC

A light dependant resistor (L.D.R) this uses light to determine the amount of resistance
As light intensity increases, the resistance decreases. A transistor LOGIC GATES Also know as inverter as it does the opposite of the input these are used for amplification

Magnetic fields due to electric currents


A single wire with a current will give off a magnetic field

A solenoid is a coil which is wound on a cylinder. It has a magnetic field like a bar magnet but the field flows

inside the solenoid.

Flemings left hand rule will help with predicting the force or motion of the wire. This is applied for the motor affect.

Flemings right hand rule is used to find induction in a straight wire Transformers are used to either step up a current or step down a current. An example of a transformer is to step down the high voltage in the pylons so the electricity carried by these pylons can be used in homes. EQUATIONS FOR RESITORS

1. VsVP=NsNp V=volts carried


N= number of turns

2. VPIP=VsIs
1. Is for finding the number of turns/voltage 2. Is for finding the voltage/current