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2009

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR MINIMIZING DIFFERENTIAL DEFLECTION AND HEAVING MOTION IN VERY LARGE FLOATING STRUCTURES

A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

2009

Acknowledgements

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First of all, my greatest thanks go to my supervisor Professor Wang Chien Ming, for his education, ideas, inspiration, advises, prompt and clear comments about our work, answers on many questions, and constant enthusiasm and interest. I consider myself as a very happy person to work with such an outstanding researcher as a supervisor. And I learned a lot about research, scientific philosophy and other things, for instance, how to get joy from the equations and problems.

Next, I am grateful to my co-supervisor Professor Ang Kok Keng for his valuable and useful discussions, information and comments through out the research. I am also indeed grateful to Professor Tomoaki Utsunomiya from Kyoto University for his advice and useful discussions on this research study.

I would also like to thank the chairman of my thesis advisory committee, Professor Koh Chan Ghee for his valuable advice and suggestions on my research and thesis. I am also thankful for the professors who examined my thesis. Their supportive comments and suggestions were very much useful for the future improvement of the thesis.

Im grateful to the National University of Singapore for providing financial support in the form of the NUS scholarship and facilities to carry out the research. The

Acknowledgements support provided by Mr. Krishna Sanmugam and technicians at Hydraulic Laboratory in the use of equipments and computer facilities to carry out the experiment is also appreciated.

In addition, I would like to extend my gratefulness to my colleagues in Civil Engineering Department, especially Mr Tay Zhi Yung, Mr Muhammad Riyansyah, Ms Bangun Emma Patricia, for their friendship, encouragement and valuable discussion during the study.

Last but not least, I would like to express the deepest gratitude to my beloved parents, wife and sisters for their eternal support, encouragement and love. I could not finish the whole study without the great love and care from you.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements Table of Contents Summary List of Tables List of Figures Notations i iii viii xi xii xix

Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background information on VLFS 1.1.1 Types of VLFS 1.1.2 Advantages of VLFS 1.1.3 Applications of VLFS 1.1.4 VLFS components 1.2 Literature Survey 1.2.1 VLFS assumptions, shapes and models 1.2.2 VLFS and water interaction modeling 1.2.3 Minimizing differential deflection in VLFS 1.2.4 Minimizing motion in VLFS 1.3 Objectives and scope of study 1.4 Layout of thesis

1 3 3 4 5 12 12 13 15 17 18 21 22 iii

2.1 Introduction 2.2 Problem definition 2.3 Basic assumptions and governing equations 2.4 Exact bending solutions and boundary conditions 2.4.1 VLFS regions without buoyancy force 2.4.2 VLFS regions with buoyancy force 2.4.3 Boundary and continuity conditions 2.5 Results and discussions on effectiveness of gill cells 2.5.1 Basic dimensions and properties of VLFS example, loading and freeboard conditions 2.5.2 Verification of results of VLFS with gill cells 2.5.3 Effectiveness of gill cells in reducing the differential deflection and stress-resultants 2.6 Optimal design/location of gill cells in circular VLFS 2.6.1 Case 1 Varying loading magnitudes ql 2.6.2 Case 2 Varying loading radius r0 2.6.3 Case 3 Varying top and bottom plate thicknesses t 2.6.4 Case 1 Varying freeboard hf 2.7 Comparing the effectiveness of gill cells with stepped VLFS 2.7.1 Case 1 Varying loading magnitudes ql 2.7.2 Case 2 Varying loading radius r0 2.7.3 Case 3 Varying top and bottom plate thicknesses t 2.8 Optimal design/location of gill cells in annular VLFS

34 34

36 40 41 43 45 47 48 49 50 51 52

iv

Table of Contents 2.8.1 Dimensions, properties of annual VLFS and proposed gill cells location 2.8.2 Optimization formulation 2.8.3 Optimization results 2.9 Concluding remarks 52 53 54 56

Chapter 3

3.1 Introduction 3.2 Problem definition 3.3 Basic assumptions and FEM model for VLFS bending analysis 3.4 Results and discussions on effectiveness of gill cells

3.4.1 Dimensions and properties of VLFS examples, loading and freeboard conditions 3.4.2 Verification of results 64 64

3.4.3 Effect of gill cells in reducing the differential deflection and von Mises stress 3.5 Optimization problem 3.6 Optimization results 3.6.1 Optimization results for square VLFS 3.6.2 Optimization results for rectangular VLFS 3.6.3 Optimization results for I-shaped VLFS 3.7 Concluding remarks 65 67 72 72 78 84 90

Table of Contents Chapter 4 Minimizing Heaving Motion of Circular VLFS using Submerged Plate 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Problem definition 4.3 Basic assumptions, equations and boundary conditions for circular VLFS 4.4 Model expansion of motion 4.5 Solution for radiation potentials 4.6 Solution for diffraction potentials 4.7 Equation of motion in modal coordinate 4.8 Results and discussions 4.9 Concluding remarks 91 91 92 93 96 99 113 114 117 128

Chapter 5

Minimizing Heaving Motion of Longish VLFS Using Anti-Heaving Devices 130 130 133 133 135 135 138 138 140 142 143 143 147 vi

5.1 Introduction 5.2 Experimental facility and instrumentation 5.2.1 Wave tank 5.2.2 Wave generating system 5.2.3 Data acquisition system 5.2.4 Testing condition 5.2.5 VLFS model 5.2.6 Types of anti-heaving devices 5.3 Experimental procedure 5.4 Experimental results 5.4.1 VLFS with submerged horizontal plate 5.4.2 VLFS with vertical plate

Table of Contents 5.4.3 VLFS with L-shaped plate 5.4.4 VLFS with inclined plate 5.5 Most effective anti-heaving device 5.6 Concluding remarks 151 155 158 165

Chapter 6

174 186

vii

SUMMARY

In the new millennium, the world is facing new problems such as the lack of land, due to the growing population and fast urban developments. Many island countries and countries with long coastline have applied the traditional land reclamation method to create land from the sea in order to decrease the pressure on the heavily used land space. In recent years, an attractive alternative to land reclamation has emerged the very large floating structures technology. Very large floating structures (VLFS) can and are already being used for storage facilities, industrial space, bridges, ferry piers, docks, rescue bases, airports, entertainment facilities, military purpose, and even habitation. VLFSs can be speedily constructed, exploited, and easily relocated, expanded, or removed. These structures are reliable, cost effective, and environmentally friendly. VLFS may undergo large differential deflection under heavy nonuniformly distributed loads and large motion under strong wave action. These conditions may affect the smooth operation of equipments, the structural integrity and even the safety of people on VLFS. The main objectives of this study are to develop (1) innovative solutions to minimize the differential deflection of VLFS and (2) innovative solutions to minimize the heaving motion of VLFSs for various shapes and dimensions. Various alternative solutions are treated. For minimizing the differential deflection in unevenly loaded circular VLFS, two solutions were proposed. One solution makes use of the so-called gill cells and viii

Summary the other solution involves stepped VLFS (i.e. VLFS with varying height). Gill cells are compartments in VLFS with holes or slits at their bottom floor that allow water to flow in and out freely. As a result, the buoyancy forces are eliminated at the VLFS region with gill cells. By suitable positioning the gill cells, one can reduce the differential deflection of VLFS significantly. Although the stepped VLFS solution reduces the differential deflection, it is not as effective as using the gill cells. Furthermore, by reducing the differential deflection, the stress-resultants and bending stresses in the VLFS are correspondingly reduced. In this study, the gill cells have been used to minimize the slope in an annular shaped VLFS. In the circular and annular shaped VLFS, the analytical bending solutions based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis for plate bending analysis and the classical Newton optimization method were used to seek the optimal design of gill cells. Further investigation on the use of gill cells for minimizing the differential deflection of arbitrary non-circular VLFS were made. As analytical solutions for bending analysis of arbitrarily shaped VLFS are not available, finite plate element analysis based on the Mindlin plate theory was employed. The Mindlin plate theory was adopted in order to provide better accuracy of the computed stress resultants as well as to include the effect of transverse shear deformation. For the optimization of the position of gill cells in an arbitrarily shaped VLFS under an arbitrary loading condition, Genetic Algorithms were employed because of its robustness in getting the global optimum solution and the method allows the natural switching on and off the gill cells in the optimization search. The effective of gill cells in reducing differential deflection and stress-resultants in VLFS was confirmed from the extensive numerical computations and examples considered.

ix

Summary In the investigation of the second topic of this study, i.e. the development of anti-motion devices for VLFS under wave action, the author first considers circular VLFS attached with a submerged horizontal annular plate strip that goes around the edge of VLFS. Exact analytical solutions of hydroelastic were derived by making use of the exact circular and annular plate solutions and exact velocity potential solutions for circular domains. The effectiveness of this anti-motion device is demonstrated by performing the analysis and comparing the results with and without the submerged annular plate strip. Further studies were investigated on minimizing the heaving motion of rectangular VLFS under the action of waves by using various anti-motion devices attached to its fore-end. These anti-motion devices include submerged horizontal plate, vertical plate, L-shaped plate, and inclined plate. The effectiveness of these antimotion devices is confirmed by experimental results. Among these devices, inclined plate seems to be the most effective device and it is recommended to be used in appropriate VLFS applications.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Effect of gill cells in reducing maximum differential deflection and maximum stress-resultants Table 2.2 Effectiveness of optimal gill cells in reducing the maximum slope and maximum stresses-resultants Table 5.1 Pertinent information of model Table 5.2 Anti-heaving devices considered in the experiment 40

55 140 141

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1.1 Types of VLFS Fig. 1.2 Mega-float in Tokyo Bay, Japan Fig. 1.3 Floating Oil Storage Base at Kamigoto, Japan Fig. 1.4 Yumeshima-Maishima Floating Bridge in Osaka, Japan Fig. 1.5 Floating Rescue Emergency Base at Osaka Bay, Japan Fig. 1.6 Floating island at Onomichi Hiroshima, Japan Fig. 1.7 Floating pier at Ujina Port Hiroshima, Japan Fig. 1.8 Floating Restaurant in Yokohoma, Japan Fig. 1.9 Floating Performance Stage, Singapore Fig. 1.10 Floating helicopter pad in Vancouver, Canada Fig. 1.11 Kelowna floating bridge in British Columbia, Canada Fig. 1.12 Bergsysund floating bridge, Norway Fig. 1.13 Nordhordland Bridge Floating Bridge, Norway Fig. 1.14 Hood Canal Floating Bridge in Washington States, USA Fig. 1.15 Dubai Floating Bridge in Dubai, United Arab Emirates Fig. 1.16 Marine Uranus by Nishimatsu Corporation Fig. 1.17 Pearl Shell by Shimizu Corporation Fig. 1.18 Osaka Focus A by Japanese Society of Steel Construction Fig. 1.19 Osaka Focus B by Japanese Society of Steel Construction 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 11 11 11 11

xii

Fig. 2.1 Pontoon-type circular VLFS with gill cells and varying heights Fig. 2.2 Pontoon-type ring-shaped VLFS Fig. 2.3 Design mesh of circular VLFS with gill cells used in SAP2000 analysis

28 29 35

Fig. 2.4 Comparison deflections w between analytical solutions and SAP2000 result of circular VLFS with gill cells 36 Fig. 2.5 Effect of gill cells on deflections w Fig. 2.6 Effect of gill cells on shear force Qr Fig. 2.7 Effect of gill cells on radial moment M r Fig. 2.8 Effect of gill cells on circumferential moment M Fig. 2.9 Optimal design of gill cells when varying ql Fig. 2.10 Effect of optimal gill cells when varying ql Fig. 2.11 Optimal design of gill cells when varying r0 Fig. 2.12 Effect of optimal gill cells when varying r0 Fig. 2.13 Optimal design of gill cells when varying t Fig. 2.14 Effect of optimal gill cells when varying t Fig. 2.15 Optimal design of gill cells when varying freeboard hf Fig. 2.16 Effect of optimal gill cells when varying freeboard hf Fig. 2.17 Effect of optimal gill cells and optimal stepped VLFS when varying ql Fig. 2.18 Effect of optimal gill cells and optimal stepped VLFS when varying r0 Fig. 2.19 Effect of optimal gill cells and optimal stepped VLFS when varying t Fig. 2.20 Annular VLFS with gill cells Fig. 2.21 Effect of optimal gill cells on slope dw 38 38 39 39 42 42 44 45 46 46 47 48 50 51 52 53 55

60 xiii

List of Figures

Fig. 3.2 Definitions of deflection and rotations 62

Fig. 3.3 Nondimensionalized deflection contour w in a quarter of the square VLFS without gill cells 66 Fig. 3.4 Nondimensionalized deflection contour w in a quarter of the square VLFS with gill cells 67 Fig. 3.5 Transformation of binary string to a quarter of the square VLFS with gill cells (shaded cells) in genetic algorithms rubric 70 Fig. 3.6 Optimization program flow-chart integrating GA and developed FEM model Fig. 3.7 Stage 1 for a quarter of square VLFS

72 73

Fig. 3.8 Layouts of gill cells in quadrant of square VLFS for various generations in Stage 2 74 Fig. 3.9 Square VLFS with some possible optimal designs of gill cells Fig. 3.10 Nondimensionalized deflection contour w of square VLFS Fig. 3.11 Von Mises stress of a quarter of square VLFS Fig. 3.12 Stage 1 for rectangular VLFS Fig. 3.13 Layouts of gill cells in a quadrant of rectangular VLFS for various generations in Stage 2 Fig. 3.14 Rectangular VLFS with some possible optimal designs of gill cells Fig. 3.15 Nondimensionalized deflection contour w in the rectangular VLFS Fig. 3.16 Von Mises stress of a quarter of rectangular VLFS Fig. 3.17 Stage 1 for I-shaped VLFS 75 76 77 79

79 81 82 83 84

Fig. 3.18 Layouts of gill cells in quadrant of I-shaped VLFS for various generations in Stage 2 85 Fig. 3.19 I-shaped VLFS with some possible optimal designs of gill cells Fig. 3.20 Nondimesionalized deflection contour w in I-shaped VLFS Fig. 3.21 Von Mises stress of a quarter of the I-shaped VLFS 87 88 89

93 xiv

List of Figures

Fig. 4.2 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for circular VLFS with 2m width submerged plate 119 Fig. 4.3 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for circular VLFS with 10m width submerged plate 119 Fig. 4.4 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with submerged plate of various widths

120

Fig. 4.5 Nondimensionalized bending moment amplitude of VLFS without and with submerged plate of various widths 120 Fig. 4.6 Nondimensionalized twisting moment amplitude of VLFS without and with submerged plate of various widths 121 Fig. 4.7 Nondimensionalized transverse shear force amplitude of VLFS without and with submerged plate of various widths 121 Fig. 4.8 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for circular VLFS with 8m width submerged plate at level d = 2m 123 Fig. 4.9 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for circular VLFS with 8m width submerged plate at level d = 19.5m 123 Fig. 4.10 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with submerged plate at various depths

124

Fig. 4.11 Nondimensionalized bending moment amplitude of VLFS without and with submerged plate at various depths 124 Fig. 4.12 Nondimensionalized twisting moment amplitude of VLFS without and with submerged plate at various depths 125 Fig. 4.13 Nondimensionalized shear force amplitude of VLFS without and with submerged plate at various depths

125

Fig. 4.14 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for basic circular VLFS at foreend 126 Fig. 4.15 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for circular VLFS with submerged plate at fore-end 127 Fig. 4.16 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS at fore-end Fig. 4.17 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS at mid-position Fig. 4.18 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS at back-end 127 128 128

130 xv

List of Figures

Fig. 5.2 VLFS with submerged vertical plate anti-motion device Fig. 5.3 VLFS with anti-motion devices treated by Ohta et al. (2002) Fig. 5.4 Wave tank in Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, NUS Fig. 5.5 Experimental setup Fig. 5.6 Wave generating system controller Fig. 5.7 Wave data acquisition system Fig. 5.8 Deflection data acquisition system Fig. 5.9 Experimental model placed in wave tank Fig. 5.10 Simple bending test to determine flexural rigidity EI of VLFS model Fig. 5.11 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 0.8s Fig. 5.12 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 0.9s Fig. 5.13 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 1s Fig. 5.14 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 1.1s Fig. 5.15 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 1.2s Fig. 5.16 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 1.3s 131 132 133 134 136 137 137 139 140

144

145

145

146

146

147

Fig. 5.17 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 0.8s 148 Fig. 5.18 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 0.9s 148 Fig. 5.19 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 1s 149 Fig. 5.20 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 1.1s 149 Fig. 5.21 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 1.2s 150 xvi

List of Figures

Fig. 5.22 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 1.3s 150 Fig. 5.23 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with Lshaped plate at wave period 0.8s 152 Fig. 5.24 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with Lshaped plate at wave period 0.9s 152 Fig. 5.25 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with Lshaped plate at wave period 1s 153 Fig. 5.26 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with Lshaped plate at wave period 1.1s 153 Fig. 5.27 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with Lshaped plate at wave period 1.2s 154 Fig. 5.28 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with Lshaped plate at wave period 1.3s 154 Fig. 5.29 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 0.8s 155 Fig. 5.30 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 0.9s 156 Fig. 5.31 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 1s 156 Fig. 5.32 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 1.1s 157 Fig. 5.33 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 1.2s 157 Fig. 5.34 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 1.3s 158 Fig. 5.35 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 20cm length at wave period 0.8s 159 Fig. 5.36 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 20cm length at wave period 0.9s 159 Fig. 5.37 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 20cm length at wave period 1s 160

xvii

List of Figures

Fig. 5.38 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 20cm length at wave period 1.1s 160 Fig. 5.39 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 20cm length at wave period 1.2s 161 Fig. 5.40 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 20cm length at wave period 1.3s 161 Fig. 5.41 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 10cm length at wave period 0.8s 162 Fig. 5.42 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 10cm length at wave period 0.9s 163 Fig. 5.43 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 10cm length at wave period 1s 163 Fig. 5.44 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 10cm length at wave period 1.1s 164 Fig. 5.45 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 10cm length at wave period 1.2s 164 Fig. 5.46 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with antiheaving device of 10cm length at wave period 1.3s 165

xviii

Notations

NOTATIONS

A a B b B B D d Db DS

amplitude of incident wave (m) half width of annual submerged horizontal plate, length of cantilever test (m) horizontal dimension of anti-heaving device half length of VLFS testing model curvature-displacement matrix shear strain displacement matrix

flexural rigidity of VLFS (kNm) distance from sea-bed to submerged horizontal plate (m) bending stiffness matrix shear stiffness matrix slope in annular VLFS

dw dx

Fi

maximum slope in annular VLFS without gill cells Young modulus of material (kN/m2) equivalent Young modulus of VLFS (kN/m2) force matrix shear modulus (kN/m2)

xix

Notations g H h hf h1 h2

2

gravitational acceleration (m/s2) water depth (m) overall depth of VLFS (m) freeboard at the edge of VLFS (m) larger depth of stepped VLFS (m) smaller depth of stepped VLFS (m)

i I n () J n ()

K

imaginary unit i2 = -1 modified first kind Bessel function first kind Bessel function stiffness matrix wave number shear correction factor for the Mindlin plate

Ks = 5/ 6 K n () kw Mr M

modified second-kind Bessel function Winkler spring constant (kN/m3) radial bending moment (kNm) twisting moment (kNm) non-dimensional bending moment non-dimensional twisting moment

M r = M r ( R D) M = M ( R D )

Mrmax maximum radial bending moment in VLFS with gill cells (kNm) Mmax maximum twisting moment in VLFS with gill cells (kNm) Mr0 M0

Nw

maximum radial bending moment in VLFS (kNm) maximum twisting moment in VLFS (kNm) shape functions matrix xx

Notations p qs ql q0 Qr

total load acting on VLFS (kN/m2) self weight of VLFS (kN/m2) uniformly distributed loading magnitude acting on VLFS (kN/m2) basic loading magnitudes acting on VLFS (kN/m2) shear force (kN) non-dimensional shear force

Qr = Qr ( R 2 D )

Qrmax maximum shear force in VLFS with gill cells (kN) Qr0 R r r0

maximum shear force in VLFS (kN) radius of circular VLFS, outer radius of annular VLFS (m) radial coordinate (m) loading radius of circular VLFS, inner radius of annular VLFS (m)

r1 inner radius of gill cells region in circular VLFS, inner radius of stepped region in circular VLFS, inner radius of the first gill cells region in annular VLFS (m) r2 outer radius of gill cells region in circular VLFS, outer radius of stepped region in circular VLFS, outer radius of the first gill cells region in annular VLFS (m) r3 r4 r5 r6 S s t t0 w

w

inner radius of loading region in annular VLFS (m) outer radius of loading region in annular VLFS (m) inner radius of the second gill cells region in annular VLFS (m) outer radius of the second gill cells region in annular VLFS (m) non-dimensional plate rigidity number of sequence for each mode top and bottom plate thickness of VLFS (m) basic top and bottom plate thickness of VLFS (m) deflection of VLFS (m) displacement vector deflection at the edge of VLFS (m) xxi

we

deflection at the center of VLFS (m) maximum deflection in gill cells region (m) maximum deflection of VLFS (m) minimum deflection of VLFS (m) non-dimensional deflection

w = w/h

x Yn () z

horizontal coordinate (m) second kind Bessel function vertical coordinate (m) step ratio

= h2 h1

truncation number shear strain vector weight density of VLFS (kg/m3) weight density of water (kg/m3) maximum differential deflection in VLFS with gill cells or stepped VLFS (m) maximum differential deflection in VLFS (m) Laplacian operator curvature strain vector circumferential coordinate (radian) wave length (m)

j -th positive root of the equation J n ( nj ) = 0 Poisson ratio non-dimensional radial coordinate = r/R velocity potential radiation potential

m w

w

w0

()

nj

ns

xxii

Notations

Dn I x

diffraction potential velocity potential of the undisturbed incident wave rotation about the y axe rotation about the x axe wave frequency

xxiii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The total land area of the Earths surface is about 148,300,000 square kilometers, while the Earths surface area is 510,083,000 square kilometers. Thus, the main part of the Earths surface is covered by sea, lakes, rivers, etc, which takes up 70 percent of the Earths total surface area. Therefore, the land that we lived on forms only 30% of the Earths surface. A large part of the Earth, which is the ocean, remains unexploited. By the World Banks projection for global population, there will be 8.13 billion people by 2030 and about 60% of this population will be living in urban areas. The additional 2 billion people in a span of about 26 years will add tremendous pressure on the land scarce cities. Thus in many island countries and countries with long coast lines, the governments of these countries have resorted to land reclamation from the sea in order to ease the expected pressure on the land space. There are, however, constraints on land reclamation works such as the negative environmental impact on the coastlines of the country and neighboring countries and marine ecological system, as well as huge economic costs in reclaiming land from deep coastal water, especially when the sand for reclamation has to be bought from other countries (Watanabe et al. 2004a). In response to the aforementioned needs and problems, researchers and engineers have proposed an interesting and attractive solution the construction of very large floating structures (VLFSs). In order to qualify for the VLFS status, Suzuki and Yoshida (1996) proposed that the floating structure length to characteristic length 1

Introduction (which is a function of the flexural rigidity to the buoyancy force) ratio and structural length to wavelength ratio must be greater than unity. These two ratios imply a flexible structure where the hydroelastic response dominates the rigid body responses under the action of waves. VLFS can be constructed to create floating airports, bridges, breakwaters, piers and docks, storage facilities, wind and solar power plants, industrial space, emergency bases, entertainment facilities, recreation parks, mobile offshore structures and even for habitation. In certain applications of VLFS such as floating airports, floating container terminals and floating dormitories where high loads are placed in certain parts of the floating structure, the resulting differential deflections can be somewhat large and may render certain equipment non operational. Therefore, it is important to reduce the differential deflection in VLFS. Generally, VLFS undergoes heaving, pitching and sway motion in the high seas. Ohkusu and Nanba (1996) proposed an approach that treats the motion of VLFS as a propagation of waves beneath a thin elastic-platform. Therefore, in order to reduce the motion of VLFS, floating breakwaters as well as anti-motion devices on VLFS have been proposed to reduce the wave transmitted under the VLFS. So far, there are many research studies done on floating breakwaters. Recently, anti-motion devices have been developed as alternatives for reducing the effect of waves on VLFS. An antimotion device is a body attached to an edge of VLFS so it does not need mooring system like floating breakwaters and the time needed for construction is also shorter. The rest of this chapter is organized as follows. Firstly, the background information on VLFS is presented. A literature review then gives the information on problems studied by researches and engineers, methods developed, and results derived

Introduction about minimizing differential deflection and motion in VLFS. Finally, the objectives and scope of study are given.

1.1

VLFS may be classified under two broad categories (Watanabe et al. 2004a), namely the pontoon-type and the semi-submersible type (Fig. 1.1). The latter type has a ballast column tubes to raise the platform above the water level and suitable for use in open seas where the wave heights are relatively large. VLFS of the semi-submersible type is used for oil or gas exploration in sea and other purposes. It is kept in its location by either tethers or thrusters. In contrast, the pontoon-type VLFS is a simple flat box structure and features high stability, low manufacturing cost and easy maintenance and repair. However, it is only suitable in calm sea waters, often near the shoreline. Pontoon-type VLFS is also known in the literature as mat-like VLFS because of its small draft in relation to the length dimensions. The Japanese refers to them as MegaFloats.

Semi-submersible-type Pontoon-type

Introduction

Very large floating structures have the following advantages over traditional land reclamation in creating land from the sea: They are easy and fast to construct (components may be made at shipyards and then be transported to and assembled at the site), thus, the sea space can be quickly exploited. They are cost effective when the water depth is large or sea bed is soft. They are environmentally friendly as they do not damage the marine ecosystem or silt-up deep harbors or disrupt the ocean currents. They can easily be relocated (transported), removed, or expanded. The structures and people on VLFSs are protected from seismic shocks since VLFSs are inherently base isolated. They do not suffer from differential settlement as in reclaimed soil consolidation. Their positions with respect to the water surface are constant and thus facilitate small boats and ship to come alongside when used as piers and berths. Their location in coastal waters provide scenic body of water all around, making them suitable for developments associated with leisure and water sport activities. Their interior spaces may be used for car parks, offices, etc. There is no problem with rising sea level due to global warming.

Introduction

Very large floating structures have already been used for different purposes in Japan, Canada, Norway, USA, UK, Singapore, Brazil, and Saudi Arabia. China, Israel, the Netherlands, Germany, and New Zealand are going to employ VLFSs in the near future. As the worlds leader in VLFSs, Japan constructed the Mega-Float in the Tokyo Bay (Fig. 1.2), the floating oil storage base Shirashima and Kamigoto (Fig. 1.3), the Yumeshima-Maishima Floating Bridge in Osaka (Fig. 1.4), the floating emergency rescue bases in Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay and Yokohama Bay (Fig. 1.5), the floating island at Onomichi Hiroshima (Fig. 1.6), the floating ferry piers at Ujina Port Hiroshima (Fig. 1.7) and the floating restaurant in Yokohoma (Fig. 1.8). The world largest floating performance platform (Fig. 1.9) was built in Singapore. Canada has a floating heliport pad in Vancouver (Fig. 1.10) and the Kelowna floating bridge on Lake On in British Columbia (Fig. 1.11). Norway has the Bergsysund floating bridge (Fig. 1.12) and the Nordhordland bridge (Fig. 1.13). The United States has the Hood Canal floating bridge in Washington State (Fig. 1.14). Recently, in 2007, Dubai opened a 300m long floating concrete bridge over the Dubai Creek (Fig. 1.15). The United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Brazil and other countries also use floating structures for bridges, oil storage and other purposes.

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Source: Fig. 1.2 ~ 1.8 and 1.10 ~ 1.14 from Watanabe et al. (2004b), Fig. 1.15 from website: www.dubaiiformer.com Pontoon floating bridge is the earliest application of the pontoon-type VLFS. The first floating bridge is King Xerxes floating boat bridge across the Hellespont (about 480 BC). Watanabe et al. (2004b) and Watanabe (2003) described the history and worldwide development of floating bridges. The most famous floating bridges constructed in the world are: the Galata Floating Bridge (1912) in Istanbul, the First (1940), the Second (1963), and the Third Bridge (1989, Lacey Murrow), on Lake Washington, and Hood Canal Bridge (1961) near Seattle in Washington state, the Kelowna Floating Bridge (1958) in British Colombia, Canada, the Bergsysund Bridge (1992) and the Nordhordland Bridge (1994) over the deep fjords in Norway, a West India Quay Footbridge in the Docklands, London (1996), the Admiral Clarey Bridge in Hawaii (1998), Seebrcke (2000) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, a new swing floating arch bridge Yumemai Bridge, in Osaka (2000), an pontoon bridges on the rivers Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan (1989-2005). A complete list of the pontoon bridges still in use and demolished can be found on the website (http://en.structurae.de/structures/stype/index.cfm?ID=1051). Large floating offshore structures can also be used for floating docks, piers and container terminals. Many floating docks, piers, and berths are already in use all over

Introduction the world. Floating piers have been constructed in Hiroshima, Japan, and Vancouver, Canada. In Valdez, Alaska, a floating pier was designed for berthing the 50000-ton container ships. The main advantage of a floating pier is its constant position with respect to the waterline. Therefore, loading and unloading of cargo between the pier and ship/ferry can operate smoothly. Floating docks have been constructed in the USA and other countries. In case of rather deep water, VLFS are a good alternative to traditional harbor facilities. Research on floating harbor facilities, their design and analysis is going on in many countries (Watanabe et al. 2004a). One more application of very large floating structures is the floating storage facility. VLFSs have already been used for storing fuel. An offshore oil storage facility is constructed like flat box-shaped tankers connected to each other and to other components of the VLFS system. Japan has two major floating oil storage systems (the only two in the world so far) namely Kamigoto (1990, near Nagasaki) and Shirashima (1996, near Kitakyusyu) with capacity of 4.4 and 5.6 million kiloliters, respectively. Complete information on the design, experiments and mooring of the oil storage bases are given by Yoneyama et al. (2004). VLFSs are ideal for applications as floating emergency rescue bases in seismic prone areas owing to the fact that their bases are inherently isolated from seismic motion. Japan has a number of such floating rescue bases parked in the Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay and Osaka Bay. Specifications of the floating rescue bases can be found in Yoneyama et al. (2004) and Watanabe et al. (2004b). Another advantage of VLFS is its attractive panoramic view of the water body. Waterfront properties and the sea appeal to the general public. Thus, VLFSs are attractive for used as floating entertainment facilities such as hotels, restaurants, shopping centers, amusement and recreation parks, exhibition centers, and theaters.

Introduction Some floating entertainment facilities have been constructed. For example, the world largest floating performer platform was built on the Marina Bay in Singapore in 2007 (Fig. 1.9), Aquapolis exhibition center in Okinawa (1975, already removed), the Floating Island near Onomichi which resembles the Parthenon, and floating hotels in British Columbia, Canada, and floating restaurants in Japan and Hong Kong. In addition, VLFS can also be used as floating power plants. Floating power plants for various types of energy are already being used in Brazil, Japan, Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, and Jamaica. There are proposals to use VLFS for wind and solar power plants (Takagi 2003 and Takagi and Noguchi 2005) and studies on this are already underway. The Floating Structure Association of Japan has presented concept designs of a clean power plant. One of the most exciting applications of VLFS is the floating airport. The first contemporary floating airport is constructed in 1943 by US Navy Civil Engineers Corps by connecting pontoons. Recently, with the growth of cities and increase in air traffic as well as the rise in land costs in major cities, city planners are considering the possibility of using the coastal waters for urban developments including having floating airports. Japan has made great progress by constructing a large airport in the sea. Kansai International Airport (1994), Osaka, Japan, is the first airport in the world completely constructed in the sea, although on an artificial reclaimed island. Airport with runways on reclaimed islands in the sea are Chek Lap Kok International Airport (1998), Hong Kong, China; Incheon International Airport (2001), Seoul, Korea; Changi airport, Singapore; Central Japan International Airport, Nagoya; Kobe airport, Japan. However, the extensive research on floating airports is continually pursued in Japan (Tokyo, Osaka), USA (San Diego) and many other countries. The first largest floating runway is the one-km long Mega-Float rest model built in 1998 in the Tokyo

10

Introduction bay (Fig. 1.2). This is award of the Guinness book of records in 1999 for the worlds largest man-made floating island. For small size, floating helicopter ports have already been constructed in Vancouver, Canada (Fig. 1.9) and other places. The final and the most advanced application of VLFS is the floating city. It could become reality soon as various concepts have been proposed for building floating cities or huge living complex. Figs. 1.16-1.19 show artist impressions of some floating cities that have been proposed by various Japanese corporations.

11

Introduction

The components of a VLFS system (general concept) are shown in Fig. 1.20. The system comprises (1) a very large pontoon floating structure, (2) an access bridge or a floating road to get to the floating structure from shore, (3) a mooring facility or station keeping system to keep the floating structure in the specified place, and (4) a breakwater, (usually needed if the significant wave height is greater than 4 m) which can be floating as well, or anti-heaving device for reducing wave forces impacting the floating structure, (5) structures, facilities and communications located on a VLFS.

1.2

Literature survey

This survey covers books, papers, reports and abstracts that give the basic theory for reducing the differential deflection of VLFS under heavy load and reducing the motion of VLFS under the action of wave. Different methods used for the problem are described such as VLFS models and shapes, wave and other forces, anti-motion devices. Also the author reviews what has been done already, what is currently being

12

Introduction investigated and the future directions to study for the problem of reducing the differential deflection and motion of VLFS. Watanabe et al. (2004a and 2004b) presented very detailed surveys on the research work on pontoon-type VLFSs. The numerous publications reported in offshore structures/VLFS conference proceedings, journals, books and websites confirm the interest in and importance of these structures to engineers and scientists. Many papers on the analysis of VLFS were published in the following international journals: Applied Ocean Research, Engineering Structures, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, Journal of Engineering Mathematics, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Journal of Fluids and Structures, Marine Structures, Ocean Engineering, Wave Motion; in the Proceedings of the International Workshops on Water Waves and Floating Bodies (IWWWFB), International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE) and other conferences, workshops and seminars. Many publications about VLFS have been published in non-scientific or scientific-popular journals and newspapers and on the internet. Thus, the attention to and interest in the problems of the behavior of floating plates in waves have recently increased.

In this subsection, the author discusses the basic assumptions, the different shapes of very large floating structures and their models proposed and analyzed by researchers and engineers worldwide. In the hydroelastic analysis of VLFS, the basic assumptions are usually made (Newman 1997, Stoker 1957, Watanabe et al. 2004a & 2004b, Wehausen and Laitone 1960): the VLFS is modeled as an isotropic/orthotropic plate with free edges;

13

Introduction the fluid is ideal, incompressible, inviscid, the fluid motion is irrotational, so that the velocity potential exists; the amplitude of the incident wave and the motions of the VLFS are both small, and only the vertical motion of the structure is considered; there are no gaps between the VLFS and the water surface; the sea bottom is assumed to be flat.

In practice, VLFS can take on any shape (Yoneyama et al. 2004 and Watanabe et al. 2004a). The choice of VLFS shape depends on many considerations such as its purpose, the ocean/sea currents, the wave behavior on site, etc. Mainly, the VLFS having a rectangular planform has been studied because of practical reasons for this shape and also it lends itself for the construction of semi-analytical methods for solutions. Some of these are Andrianov and Hermas (2003), Endo (2000), Hermans (2003), Korobkin (2000), Mamidipudi and Webster (1994), Ohkusu and Namba (1996), Ohkusu (1999), Takagi et al. (2000), Takagi and Nagayasu (2007) and Utsunomiya et al. (1998). There are very few studies on non-rectangular shape VLFS. Hamamota and Fujita (2002) treated L-shaped, T-shaped, C-shaped and X-shaped VLFSs. The Japanese Society of Steel Construction (JSSC 1996) suggested that hexagonal shaped VLFSs be constructed for floating cities in the Osaka Bay for better revolving resistance under the action of waves as well as for easy expansion of floating structure. Circular pontoon-type VLFS is considered by Hamamoto (1994), Meylan and Squire (1996), Zilman and Miloh (2000), Tsubogo (2000), Peter et al. (2004), Sturova (2003), Watanabe et al. (2003b), Andrianov and Hermans (2004, 2005), Wang et al. (2004), Le Thi Thu Hang et al. (2005) and Watanabe et al. (2006). A ring-shaped floating plate has been considered by Adrianov and Hermans (2006). Hermans (2001), Meylan (2001, 2002) and Takagi and Nagayasu (2001) considered the general

14

Introduction geometry of a VLFS; several interesting shapes of the structures are discussed in these papers. These non-rectangular VLFS can be used for floating airports, cities, storage facilities, power plant, etc. (Watanabe et al. 2004a and 2004b), and the behavior of such VLFS could be analyzed by the methods developed. Researchers commonly model these pontoon-type VLFSs as isotropic thin plates and applied the classical thin plate theory (Kirchhoff 1850; Reddy 1999) for determining the structural response. In order to obtain more accurate stress resultants, some researchers such as (Watanabe et al. 2003b, Wang et al. 2004, Le Thi Thu Hang et al. 2005, Watanabe et al. 2006, and Zhao et al. 2007) have used the first-order shear deformation plate theory (Mindlin 1951) to model VLFS so that computation of stress resultants requires only at most the evaluation of the first derivatives of the displacement functions.

The analysis may be carried out in frequency domain or in time domain. For normal interaction of VLFS and water, the frequency domain is employed due to its simplicity and numerical efficiency. However, for transient responses and for nonlinear equations of motion due to the effects of mooring system or nonlinear wave (in severe wave condition), the time domain has to be used. In the frequency domain, two commonly-used approaches are modal expansion method and direct method. The modal expansion method consists of separating the hydrodynamic analysis and dynamic response and the dynamic response analysis of the plate. The deflection of the plate with free edges is first decomposed into vibration modes that can be arbitrarily chosen. Next, the hydrodynamic radiation forces are evaluated for unit amplitude motions of each mode. The Galerkins method, by which

15

Introduction the governing equation of the plate is approximately satisfied, is then used to calculate the modal amplitudes, and the modal responses are summed up to obtain the total response. Some of the researches using modal expansion method are Wang et al. (2001), Takaki and Gu (1996a, 1996b), Hamamoto and Fujita (1995, 2002) and Hamamoto et al. (1996, 1997). For the direct method, the deflection of the VLFS is determined by solving the equations directly without expanding the plate motion into eigenmodes. The solution can be derived for both a two-dimensional geometry and a three-dimensional geometry. Mamidipudi and Webster (1994) pioneered this direct method for VLFS. In their solution procedure, the potentials of the diffraction and radiation are established first, and the deflection of VLFS is determined by solving the combined hydroelastic equation using the finite difference scheme. Their model was applied by Yago and Endo (1996) who applied the pressure distribution method and the equation of motion was solved using the finite element method. In the direct method of Kashiwagi (1998), the pressure distribution method is applied and the deflection is derived from the vibration equation of the structure. Ohkusu and Namba (1996, 1998) proposed a different type of direct method. Their approach is based on the idea that the thin plate is part of the free water surface but with different physical characteristics than those of the free surface. This approach was used to analyze similar problems of twodimensional ice floe dynamics by Meylan and Squire (1994), and a circular floating plate by Zilman and Miloh (2000). In the time-domain analysis, the commonly-used approaches are the direct time integration method (Watanabe and Utsunomiya 1996, Watanabe et al. 1998) and Fourier transform method (Miao et al. 1996, Endo et al. 1998, Ohmatsu 1998, Endo 2000, Kashiwagi 2000). In the direct time integration method, the equations of motion

16

Introduction are discretized for both the structure and the fluid domain. In the Fourier transform method, the frequency domain solutions are first obtained for the fluid domain and then the results are inserted into the differential equations for elastic motion.

Although a lot of studies have contributed much to the theory and analysis of VLFS, there is relatively little work carried out in studying the problem of reducing the differential deflection and stress-resultants in VLFS when subjected to a heavy central load. There are some ways to decrease the differential deflection (Wang et al. 2006). One solution is to increase the flexural stiffness of the structure by increasing the overall depth of the floating structures or the thickness of the top and bottom slabs. This solution will lead to an increase in costs. Another solution is to use stepped VLFS by increasing the depth of VLFS at the loaded regions and reducing it at the unloaded regions. Stepped circular plates have been treated by some researchers such as Wang (1992), Avalos et al. (1995), Xiang and Zhang (2004) and Le Thi Thu Hang et al. (2005) to investigate the free vibration However, no studies have applied these two methods to analyze the differential deflection of VLFS. Recently, Wang et al. (2006) proposed an innovative solution to reduce the differential deflection by having compartments in the floating structure with holes or slits at their bottom floors that allow water to flow in and out freely. The free flowing of water through these holes and slits resembles the gills of fish and thus these compartments have been referred to as gill cells. At the gill cells, the buoyancy forces are eliminated. By appropriate positioning of these gill cells, it is possible to reduce the differential deflection significantly as well as the stress-resultants. It is worth noting that the holes in the gill cells have negligible effect on the flexural rigidity of the 17

Introduction floating structure. Of course, the presence of gill cells leads to a slight loss in buoyancy for the floating structure, which is a small price to pay for the advantage gained in minimizing the differential deflection and stress-resultants. Wang et al. (2006) analyzed a rectangular super-large floating container terminal by using the gill cells. The VLFS is analyzed with the sea state of Singapore. In the studies of Wang and Wang (2005), the hydroelastic of a super-large floating container terminal under sea state of Singapore was analyzed and they found that the deflections due to the wave loads are very small when compared to the static deflections due to the large live loads from the containers resting on the floating structure. Therefore, Wang et al. (2006) neglected the action of wave and they found that when gill cells are appropriately designed and located, the differential deflection and stress-resultants in VLFS are reduced significantly.

There are some ways to reduce the effect of wave on the VLFS. The traditional way is using breakwaters which reduce the height of incident water waves on the leeward side to acceptable level. However, in many cases such as for consideration of environmental protection and economics in open sea, breakwaters with high wave transmission are adopted and the response at the ends of VLFS may become an obstacle to the facilities mounted on the floating structures. Recently, anti-motion devices have been proposed as alternatives for reducing the effect of waves on VLFS where the wave dissipation effect of breakwaters is small or there are no breakwaters. An anti-motion device is a body attached to an edge of VLFS so it does not need mooring system like floating breakwaters and the time needed for construction is also shorter.

18

Introduction Ohkusu and Nanba (1996) proposed an approach that treats the motion of VLFS as a propagation of waves beneath a thin elastic-platform. According to this approach, the motion of VLFS is presented as waves. That means the anti-motion coincides with a reduction of wave-transmission from the outside to the inside of VLFS. Following this idea, some simple anti-motion devices have been proposed and investigated. Takagi et al. (2000) proposed a box-shaped anti-motion device and investigated its performance both theoretically and experimentally. They found that this device reduces not only the deformation but also the shearing force and moment of the platform. The motion of VLFS with this device is reduced in both beam-sea and oblique sea. A horizontal single plate attached to the fore-end of VLFS was proposed and investigated experimentally by Ohta et al. (1999). The experimental results showed that the displacement of VLFS with this anti-motion device is reduced significantly not only at the edges but also the inner parts. They suggested that it would be possible to eliminate the construction of breakwaters in a bay where waves are comparatively small. Utsunomiya et al. (2000) made an attempt to reproduce these experimental results by analysis. The comparison of the analytical results with the experimental results has shown that their simple model can reproduce the reduction effect only qualitatively. A more precise model considering rigorously the configuration of the submerged horizontal plate within the framework of linear potential theory is constructed in the study of Watanabe et al. (2003a) and has successfully reproduced the experimental results. Takagi et al. (2000) and Watanabe et al. (2003a) formulated the diffraction and radiation potentials using the eigen-function expansion method which was originally proposed by Stoker (1957) for the estimation of the elastic floating break-water. This

19

Introduction method has been widely applied in many studies such as the study of elastic deformation of ice floes (e.g., Evans and Davies 1968, Fox and Squire 1990, Melan and Squire 1993) and study of the oblique incidence of surface waves onto an infinitely long platform (e.g., Sturova 1998, Kim and Ertekin 1998). More experimental work was investigated by Ohta et al. (2002). Typical features of anti-motion devices treated in their study are L-shaped, reverse-L-shaped and beach-type plate. They concluded that L-shaped plate is more effective against long waves whereas beach-type and reverse-L-shaped plates are more effective against short waves. There are some other ideas in reducing the motion of VLFS under wave action. Maeda et al. (2000) proposed a hydro-elastic response reduction system of a very large floating structure by using wave energy absorption devices with oscillating water column (OWC) attached to its fore and aft ends. Their results show the effectiveness of this system in reducing the hydroelastic response of VLFS. Ikoma et al. (2005) investigated the effects of a submerged vertical plate and an OWC to a hydroelastic response reduction of VLFS. They found that this system is effective especially at the wave period of 14s, it is possible to reduce the hydroelastic response up to 45%. Hong and Hong (2007) proposed a method using pin connection from fore-end of VLFS to OWC breakwater. They derived analytical solutions and obtained results showed that this anti-motion device is effective in reducing the deflections, bending moments and shear force of VLFS. With the idea to reduce vibration of VLFS under action of wave, Zhao et al. (2007) analyzed theoretically a VLFS with springs attached from fore-end of VLFS to sea bed. They found the motion of VLFS is reduced by adding this kind of anti-motion

20

Introduction device. However this idea maybe difficult in applying to real VLFS placed at deep sea condition.

1.3

The main aim of the present study is to minimize the differential deflection and motion of VLFS. More specifically, the objectives of this thesis are to: 1) investigate and compare the effectiveness of some solutions such as gill cells and stepped VLFS in reducing the differential deflection of VLFS under heavy loads to find the most effective solution. This would be valuable in providing a better understanding about reducing differential deflection in VLFS. The best solution would be applied to real VLFS. 2) to develop an analytical model using the best solution found above to minimize the differential deflection in circular and annular VLFS under heavy loads. The obtained analytical results could serve as benchmark solutions in designing circular and annular VLFS. 3) to develop a finite element model using the best solution found above to minimize the differential deflection in non-circular VLFS under heavy loads. This FEM model could be applied to any shapes of VLFS. This model is simple and it should facilitate in the preliminary design stage of arbitrarily shaped VLFS. 4) to develop an analytical model to investigate the submerged horizontal plate anti-motion device for minimizing the motion of circular VLFS under wave action. The obtained analytical results could serve as benchmark solution in designing submerged horizontal plate anti-motion device for VLFS.

21

Introduction 5) to investigate other types of anti-motion devices applying to non-circular VLFS. This gives a better understanding of anti-motion devices. The best anti-motion device will be judged based on comparison of the obtained results. This will serve as guideline in applying anti-motion devices in actual VLFS. As it is very difficult in minimizing the differential deflection of VLFS if the heavy loads were acting on arbitrary places, the present study would only consider the heavy loads acting on the central portion of VLFS. There would be many kinds of antimotion devices for VLFS. However, it may not be possible to obtain analytical solutions for complex anti-motion devices. Therefore, the present study would only derive the analytical solution of a simple anti-motion device which was a submerged plate attached to the edge of circular VLFS. For other types of anti-motion devices applying to non-circular VLFS, the present study would investigate experimentally to find the best device in reducing the motion of VLFS.

1.4

Layout of thesis

In this chapter, an introduction of VLFS including its system, advantages and applications have been given. A complete overview of the literature for minimizing differential deflection and motion in VLFS is presented pertaining to both experimental investigations and theoretical modeling. The scope and objectives of the present study are presented. In Chapter 2, the author studies the use of two methods, i.e. gill cells and stepped VLFS, for minimizing the differential deflection in circular VLFS. A comparison between two proposed methods is presented to show that gill cells method is more effective than stepped VLFS. The use of gill cells to minimize the slope in an

22

Introduction annular VLFS is also treated. In this chapter exact solutions of bending analysis based on Kirchhoff plate theory for circular and annular VLFS and traditional optimization based on Newton method are presented to seek the optimal design of gill cells and stepped VLFS. In Chapter 3, an extensive analysis of using gill cells in minimizing differential deflection in arbitrarily shaped VLFS is presented and discussed. Finite element method based on the Mindlin plate theory for bending analysis of arbitrarily shaped VLFS and Genetic Algorithms are presented to seek the optimal design of gill cells. This chapter also shows the reduction Von Mises stress of VLFS by using optimal design of gill cells. In Chapter 4, the author proposed an innovative anti-motion device, i.e. submerged horizontal annular plate attached to the edge of a circular VLFS to minimize the motion of VLFS. Exact analytical solutions of hydroelastic response are derived by making use of the exact circular and annular plate solutions and exact velocity potential solutions for circular domains. The effectiveness of this anti-motion device is demonstrated by performing the analysis and comparing the results of circular VLFS with and without the submerged annular plate strip. In Chapter 5, a simple anti-heaving device, which is a submerged inclined plate, is proposed. The performances of this device as well as three devices proposed in other previous studies, namely a horizontal plate, a vertical plate and an L-shaped plate, are investigated experimentally in the present work. A small scale model of VLFS with the plate attachments is tested in a wave-tank to assess their effectiveness in reducing the heaving motion. The obtained results are compared and discussed to find the most effective device in minimizing motion of VLFS.

23

Introduction In Chapter 6, the conclusions drawn from the studies of the aforementioned innovative solutions in reducing differential deflection and motion of VLFS are presented. Moreover, some recommendations for future studies based on this research work are presented

24

CHAPTER 2

CIRCULAR VLFS

2.1 Introduction

In certain applications of VLFS, the resulting differential deflections must be kept within a stringent limit so as not to render certain equipment non-operational. For example, if the VLFS is used for a floating container terminal, the heavy container loads placed in the stacking yard (central portion) of the floating structure can cause a large difference in the deflection value at the mid centre and the deflections at the edges of the floating structure. This differential deflection can cause the quay cranes located at the edge of the floating container terminal to cease operation due to the stringent gradient tolerances of the rails which must be satisfied. Therefore, it is important to reduce the differential deflection in certain applications of VLFS. There are some ways to decrease the differential deflection. One solution is to increase the flexural stiffness of the structure by increasing the overall depth of the floating structures or the thickness of the top and bottom slabs. Another solution is to use varying depths of VLFS or stepped VLFS by increasing the depth of VLFS at the loaded regions and reducing it at the unloaded regions. Recently, Wang et al. (2006) proposed an innovative solution to reduce the differential deflection by using gill cells which are compartments in the floating structure with holes or slits at their bottom floors that allow water to flow in and out freely. At the gill cells, the buoyancy forces 25

Minimizing Differential Deflection in Circular VLFS are eliminated. The holes in the gill cells have negligible effect on the flexural rigidity of the floating structure. Wang et al. (2006) analyzed a rectangular super-large floating container terminal by using the gill cells. They found that when gill cells are appropriately designed and located, the differential deflection and stress-resultants are reduced. The question is where the prescribed number of gill cells should be placed in the floating structure for minimum differential deflection. In this chapter, the author performs a thorough study on the effectiveness of the gill cells in reducing the differential deflection and stress-resultants for a pontoon-type circular VLFS with gill cells with respect to their sizes and locations. The optimal design of gill cells that minimizes the differential deflection between deflection at the center and deflection at the edge of the circular VLFS is investigated. For a specific circular VLFS with prescribed dimensions, material properties and other conditions, there is an optimal design of gill cells. The overall optimal designs of gill cells are analyzed according to varying some parameters in VLFS and conditions on VLFS. The author also analyzes the effectiveness of using stepped VLFS in reducing the differential deflection for a pontoon-type circular VLFS by varying the size and locations of stepped plate. Comparisons between using stepped plate and gill cells in reducing the differential deflection in VLFS are carried out to find the best solution. The same volume of VLFS in both methods is used for a fair comparison. Finally, the author uses the best solution to analyze its effectiveness in minimizing the slope in a pontoon-type annular VLFS. In this chapter, the exact bending solutions of circular and annular VLFS based on Kirchhoff plate theory (Kirchhoff 1850) are used. The classical optimization based on Newtons method is employed as an optimization tool to investigate the optimal differential deflection in

26

Minimizing Differential Deflection in Circular VLFS circular VLFS. For optimizing the slope in annular VLFS, a hybrid method combining classical optimization and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed.

2.2

Problem definition

The author first considers the problem involving a flat box-shaped circular VLFS with radius R, overall depth h and top and bottom thicknesses t as shown in Fig. 2.1a. The considered VLFS is to carry a uniformly distributed load ql over its central portion area bounded by the radius r0 . As the load is not uniformly distributed over the entire floating structure, the induced deflection is not uniform. In fact, the structure will deform into a bowl shape, with a maximum differential deflection occurring between the centre of the structure and its outer free edge. The problem at hand is to minimize the maximum differential deflection as well as to reduce the stress-resultants. The author uses two methods, namely the gill cells solution and the varying depth solution, to reduce the differential deflection problem. Owing to the axisymmetric nature of the considered VLFS and the loading condition, it is proposed that the gill cells be located as shown in Fig. 2.1b. The gill cells compartments are bounded by the radii r1 and r2 such that r0 r1 r2 R . These radii are to be determined such that the maximum deferential deflection is minimized and the stressresultants are reduced. In the second method, the author uses varying depths with smaller depth region (stepped region) located as shown in Fig. 2.1c with h2 < h1 . The stepped region is bounded by the radii r1 and r2 . These radii are to be determined such that the maximum deferential deflection is minimized. Then the author compares these two solutions to find which of them is the best solution for reducing the differential deflection and stress-resultants in VLFS.

27

r 0

R

r

r 0

r1

r2

ql

Gill Cells h

r

ql

R z

r0 R

r0

r1 r2

(a)

(b)

R

r 0

r1

r2

Step region

r0 R

r1 r2

(c) Fig. 2.1 Pontoon-type circular VLFS with gill cells and varying heights

In addition to the circular VLFS problem, the author also considers an annular VLFS with inner radius r0, outer radius R, overall depth h and top and bottom thicknesses t as shown in Fig. 2.2. The annular VLFS is subjected to a uniformly distributed load ql over an annular area bounded by the radii r3 and r4. As the load is not uniformly distributed over the entire floating structure, it causes a deformed shape with a large slope in the structure. The problem at hand is to minimize the maximum 28

h2

h1

ql

Minimizing Differential Deflection in Circular VLFS slope as well as to reduce the stress-resultants by using the best solution found in the first problem.

r0

r4

r3

Loading region

ql 0 R r0

r4

z

r3

2.3

In the present axisymmetric bending analysis of the pontoon-type circular/annular VLFS, the following assumptions have been made: The VLFS is modeled as an elastic classical thin circular/annular plate with free edges. The buoyancy force is modeled by the Winkler-type spring system. There are no gaps between the VLFS and the water surface. The VLFS is considered to be placed in a benign sea environment. Therefore, the influence of wave force on the vertical deflection of structure is assumed to be negligible when compared to the deflection due to the heavy static load on

29

Minimizing Differential Deflection in Circular VLFS the floating structure. This assumption has been verified in the analysis by Wang et al. (2006) for sea state in Singapore. The formulation of the circular VLFS problem is best cast in the cylindrical coordinate system (r, , z) with the origin at the center and mid-plane of the plate as shown in Fig. 1a. Note that the r coordinate is taken radially outward from the center of the plate, the z coordinate along the height of the plate and the coordinate is taken along a circumference of the plate. Based on the classical thin plate theory (Kirchhoff 1850, and Reddy 1999), Hookes law and statical consideration, the axisymmetric bending of a thin circular plate floating on water is governed by the fourth order ordinary differential equation

1 d d 1 d dw r r + kw w = p r dr dr r dr dr

(2.1)

where w is the transverse displacement of a point on the mid-plane (i.e., z = 0) of the plate, D = Et 3 Eh 2t + the flexural rigidity of the VLFS, t the thickness of 6 (1 2 ) 2 (1 2 )

the top and bottom plates, E the Youngs modulus, and the Poisson ratio. The Winkler spring constant that models the buoyancy force is given by

k w = 9.81 kN / m3 in the region with buoyancy force kw = 0 in the region without buoyancy force

(2.2a) (2.2b)

while the load p is given by p = ql + qs in the loaded region p = qs in the unloaded region. (2.3a) (2.3b)

where qs is the self weight of the VLFS per square meter plan.

30

2. 4

For plate regions with gill cells or stepped plate with smaller depth above water level, there is no buoyancy force acting on the floating plate. In view of Eq. (2.1), the exact bending solutions for these regions are given by (Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger 1959)

Qr = pr 4C1 D 2 r

(2.4)

(2.5)

(2.6)

(2.7)

in which C1 , C2 , C3 , and C4 are unknown constants, M r the radial bending moment, M the circumferential bending moment and Qr the shear force.

31

In the view of Eq. (2.1), the exact solutions for the VLFS regions with buoyancy are given by (Selvadurai 1979)

w=

p + B1Z1 ( r l ) + B2 Z 2 ( r l ) + B3 Z 3 ( r l ) + B4 Z 4 ( r l ) kw

(2.8)

Qr =

(2.9)

( B1Z 2 ( r l ) B2 Z1 ( r l ) + B3 Z 4 ( r l ) B4 Z 3 ( r l ) ) D ' ' M = 2 l + B Z r l B Z r l ( ) ( ) 1 1 2 2 l + (1 ) ' ' r + + B Z r l B Z r l ( ) ( ) 3 3 4 4

(2.10)

(2.11)

14

( x 2) Z1 ( x ) = 1 2 ( 2!) ( x 2) Z2 ( x ) = 2 (1!)

Z3 ( x ) = Z4 ( x ) =

2

( x 2) + 2 ( 4!)

6

( x 2) 2 ( 6!)

12

+ ...

(2.12)

( x 2) + 2 ( 3!)

( x 2) 2 ( 5!)

10

+ ...

(2.13)

1 2 x Z1 ( x ) R1 ( x ) + Z 2 ( x ) log * 2 2 1 2 Z 2 ( x ) + R2 ( x ) + Z1 ( x ) log * 2

(2.14)

x 2

(2.15)

2 6 10

(2.16)

R2 ( x ) =

( 2 ) x 4 ( 4 ) x 8 ( 6 ) x 12

( 2!)

(2.17)

( n) =

1 m =1 m

(2.18)

At each boundary between region of normal VLFS and region with gill cells or stepped plate, between two parts of the smaller depth region of the stepped VLFS (submerged part and the part above water level), or between loaded region and unloaded region, there are four continuity conditions involving deflection w, slope dw dr , radial bending moment M r and shear force Qr . At the free edge of the plate, the two edge conditions are the radial bending moment M r = 0 and the shear force Qr = 0 . At the center of the circular plate, the slope dw dr = 0 and the shear force Qr = 0 because of axisymmetric bending. Using these boundary and continuity conditions, all the unknown constants Ci and Bi (i = 1,2,3,4) in the exact solutions of each region can be determined.

33

2.5

2.5.1 Basic dimensions and properties of VLFS example, loading and freeboard conditions

For the example considered, the author will use the dimensions and properties of the circular VLFS considered by Watanabe et al. (2006). The circular VLFS has R = 200m, h = 2m, t = 0.015m, v = 0.3, E = 2.06x1011N/m2 and m = 0.25w where m is the density of VLFS and w the density of water. For the basic loading condition, the VLFS is considered to carry a uniform load of ql = 30 kN/m2 on the central portion area bounded by radius r0/R = 0.7. A freeboard that is equal or greater than 0.5h is specified in order to prevent sea water on the top surface of the floating structure.

As no analytical results are available, the verification of the analytical model and equations is established by comparing the analytical solutions written in MATLAB (2007) against the finite element results obtained from SAP2000 (CSI 2006). For this purpose, the author considers the gill cells spanning between r1/R = 0.8 and r2/R = 0.9. A very fine mesh design as shown in Fig. 2.3 is used in SAP2000 in order to get accurate results. In this mesh, the VLFS is divided into 12000 shell elements connected by 12001 nodes. The elements connected by the node in the center of VLFS are three-node triangular shell elements. The other elements are four-node quadrilateral shell elements. All shell elements are plate type with thickness of 2m. This element type combines plane stress and plate bending stress. The weight density of the element is m = 0.25w. The rigidity of the element is equal to the rigidity of VLFS in the

34

Minimizing Differential Deflection in Circular VLFS analytical model. The buoyancy forces in the regions without gill cells are modeled in SAP2000 by adding springs in vertical direction to the nodes in these regions. The spring stiffness at each node is calculated by multiplying the Winkler spring constant kw = 9.81kN/m3 with the associated plan area portions of the plate elements contributing to that node.

Fig. 2.3 Design mesh of circular VLFS with gill cells used in SAP2000 analysis

It can be seen from Fig. 2.4 that the nondimensional deflections w = w / h obtained from the two methods agree very well with each other. Therefore the analytical modeling and equations are correctly set up.

35

r/ R 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Fig. 2.4 Comparison deflections w between analytical solutions and SAP2000 result of circular VLFS with gill cells

Analytical solution

In order to study the effectiveness of gill cells quantitatively, the author analyzes the VLFS without and with gill cells. The gill cells are placed in unloaded region with r1/R = 0.8 and r2/R varying from 0.85 to 0.95. The nondimensional deflection w = w / h curves in Fig. 2.5 show that VLFS with gill cells has smaller deflection at its center and larger deflections at the free edge when compared to its counterpart without gill cells. Therefore, with the introduction of gill cells in this manner, the maximum differential deflection occurring between the center and the edge of VLFS is reduced. As r2 increases, this reduction is even more distinct. Figure 2.6 shows that VLFS with gill cells has smaller nondimensional shear force Qr = Qr ( R 2 D ) when compared to its counterpart without gill cells. As r2

36

increases, the reduction in loaded region is more distinct. The shear forces at the boundaries of the gill cells region are however noted to increase slightly. Figures 2.7 and 2.8 show that nondimensional bending moments

designed in this manner. As r2 increases, it is found that there are greater reductions in the bending moments in the loaded region. However, near the edges of the gill cells regions, the bending moments are observed to increase slightly. Table 2.1 shows that VLFS with gill cells has smaller maximum differential deflection ( w ) as well as maximum stress resultants ( Qmax , M r max , M max ) when compared to VLFS without gill cells. As r2 increases, these reductions are more distinct. Note that, w0 , Q0 , M r 0 and M 0 in Table 2.1 refer to the maximum differential deflection, maximum shearing force and maximum bending moments of VLFS without gill cells, respectively. It is to be noted that r2 can only increase up to a certain value, otherwise the deflections at the edge of the VLFS will exceed the basic freeboard. When gill cells span between r1/R = 0.8 and r2/R = 0.95, the percentage reductions in maximum differential deflection, maximum shear force and maximum moment are 25%, 18% and 28%, respectively. These reductions are significant and they clearly show the effectiveness of gill cells in reducing the differential deflection and stress-resultants in VLFS. Note that as these locations and sizes of gill cells are still not optimal, the reductions are likely to be more when the gill cells are optimally designed as will be demonstrated in the next section.

37

r/R

0 0

Gill cells ql r0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.5

r2 r1 R h

Fig. 2.5 Effect of gill cells on deflections w

1 0.5

Qr

Fig. 2.6 Effect of gill cells on shear force Qr

No gill cells r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.85 r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.90 r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.95

0.6

0.8

38

Mr

0

No gill cells r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.85 r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.90 r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.95

0.4

r/R

0.6

0.8

0

No gill cells r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.85 r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.90 r1/R = 0.8, r2/R = 0.95

0.4 r/R

0.6

0.8

39

Table 2.1 Effect of gill cells in reducing maximum differential deflection and maximum stress-resultants

Qmax Q0 M r max M r 0 M max M 0

r2 / R

2.6

For a circular VLFS with prescribed dimensions, material properties, loading and freeboard conditions, the optimization problem at hand is to optimally design the gill cells, that is, to determine the optimal values of r1 and r2 (Fig. 2.1) that minimize the differential deflection which is assumed to be the difference between the deflections at the center wc and at the edge we of the VLFS. The constrained optimization problem may be mathematically stated as

( r1 , r2 )

Min

( wc we )

subject to

we h h f wgm h r0 r1 r2 R

(2.19)

where hf is the height of the freeboard at the edge of the VLFS, and wgm the maximum deflection in the gill cell region.

40

The constrained optimization problem is solved using the MATLAB Optimization Toolbox. The toolbox uses sequential quadratic programming (SQP) implementation which is a generalization of Newtons method. The SQP implementation consists of three main stages including updating of the Hessian matrix of the Lagrangian function (Powell 1978), quadratic programming problem solution (Gill et al. 1984 and 1991), and line search and merit function calculation (Han 1997). The optimal design of gill cells is defined by r1 and r2 and these radii depend on various parameters including loading magnitude, radius of loading area, thickness of top and bottom plates and the freeboard condition at the edge of VLFS. The optimal design of gill cells for minimum differential deflection and reducing stress-resultants will be investigated for four different cases, each case to assess the sensitivity of the aforementioned parameters.

The author adopts the dimensions and properties of VLFS and the freeboard condition as in the part 2.5.1. In this case, the VLFS is considered to carry a uniform load ql with magnitudes ranging from 0.6q0 to 1.6q0 (where q0 = 30 kN/m2) on the central portion confined by the radius r0 = 0.7 R . Figure 2.9 shows that as ql increases, both r1 and r2 increase but r1 seems to increase slightly faster than r2. This means that the optimal design of gill cells is slightly smaller and the cells are located closer to the edge of the VLFS.

41

0.9

r2/R r1/R

0.8

Fig. 2.9 Optimal design of gill cells when varying ql

1.2

1.4

1.6

0.8

0.6

The sensitivity of the optimal design of gill cells in reducing the maximum differential deflection and stress-resultants is shown in Fig. 2.10. The 40% reduction achieved for the maximum differential deflection is significant. As ql increases, this percentage reduction decreases. For 0.6q0 ql 0.7q0 , the optimal design of gill cells 42

led to a further reduction in the maximum bending moments as ql increases from 0.6q 0 to 0.7 q0 . However, for 0.7q0 ql 1.6q0 , the reduction in the maximum bending moment becomes smaller as ql increases from 0.7 q0 to 1.6q 0 . Similarly, for 0.6q0 ql 0.75q0 , the presence of the optimal gill cells led to a further reduction in the maximum shear force as ql increases from 0.6q 0 to 0.75q0 and when 0.75q0 ql 1.6q0 , the reduction in the maximum shear force becomes smaller as ql increases from 0.75q0 to 1.6q 0 . In sum, the maximum percentage reduction in the maximum shear force is approximately 55% when ql/q0 is 0.75 while the maximum percentage reduction in the maximum bending moments is approximately 45% when

ql/q0 is 0.70.

The same dimensions and properties of VLFS and the freeboard condition are adopted. In this case, the considered VLFS is to carry a uniform load of 30 kN/m2 over its central area bounded by the radius r0 which the author shall vary from 0.4R to 0.85R. Figure 2.11 shows that as the loading area radius r0 increases but is within 0.78R, both radii r1 and r2 increase with r1 increasing faster than r2. This means that the optimal design of gill cells is smaller and located closer to the edge of the VLFS for the loading configuration. When the loading radius becomes large, i.e r0 > 0.78R, the optimal design of gill cells utilizes a relatively small area so as to ensure the condition of freeboard at the edge of VLFS is satisfied. As shown in Fig. 2.12, when the loading radius r0 increases, the reduction in maximum shear force increases except for r0 > 0.82R. After r0 passes 0.82R, the 43

reduction in the maximum shear force decrease gradually. Figure 2.12 also shows that, when the loading radius r0 < 0.78R, the reductions in the maximum differential deflection and bending moments are significant and their maximum percentage reductions are 28% and 37%, respectively. Considering loading radius r0 > 0.78R, any increase in the loading radius leads to smaller percentage reductions in the maximum differential deflection and bending moments. In summary, the optimal design of gill cells seems to be most effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection and the maximum stress-resultants when 0.5R < r0 < 0.75R.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 r 0 /R 0.7 0.8 0.9

r2/R r1/R

44

0.8

0.7

In this case study, the same loading and freeboard conditions in the first example are adopted. The same dimensions and properties of VLFS are also assumed except for the top and bottom plate thickness t which now varies from 0.5t0 to 2.5t0 (in which t0 = 0.015 m). The optimal design of gill cells is shown in Fig. 2.13. It may be observed that the optimal design of gill cells does not change much with varying top and bottom plate thicknesses t. As the plate thickness t increases, r1 is observed to remain approximately constant while r2 decreases gradually. As shown in Fig. 2.14, when the plate thickness t increases, the reduction in maximum shear force increases but the reductions in maximum differential deflection and bending moments seem to decrease gradually. The maximum percentage

45

reductions in maximum differential deflection, bending moment and shear force are 28%, 35% and 26%, respectively.

1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.5 1 1.5 t /t 0 2 2.5

Optimal r 1 /R , r 2 /R

r2/R r1/R

0.8

0.7

46

In this case study, the same dimensions and properties of VLFS and the loading conditions are adopted. The freeboard height hf at the edge of VLFS is now varied from 0.2h to 0.8h to study its effect on the optimal design of gill cells. The optimal design of gill cells is shown in Fig. 2.15. As the freeboard height increases, both gill cells radii r1 and r2 decrease with r2 decreasing faster than r1. This means that the optimal size of gill cells is smaller and the cells are located closer to the center of the VLFS. Figure 2.16 shows the effectiveness of optimal design of gill cells on reducing the maximum differential deflection and stress-resultants. As the freeboard height hf increases, the reduction in maximum shear force increases but the reductions in maximum differential deflection and bending moments decrease significantly. The maximum percentage reductions in the maximum differential deflection, bending moment and shear are 45%, 40% and 35%, respectively.

r2/R r1/R

47

1 Maximum differential deflection df and stress-resultants ratios df 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.4

0.6 h f /h

0.8

2.7

The author will compare the effectiveness in reducing the differential deflection of optimal design of gill cells in VLFS with that of optimal stepped VLFS (optimal values of the radii r1 and r2 in Fig 2.1c). The volume of the stepped plate is kept the same as the volume of the reference constant thickness plate. As shown in Fig. 2.1, the constant thickness of the reference plate as h, the thickness of the stepped plate are related to h, via the constant volume constraint, in the following manner

48

h1 = h r1 2 r2 2 1 + (1 ) R R

(2.20)

h2 = h1

(2.21)

where = h2 h1 < 1 controls the change in the thickness of the stepped plate.

The author adopts the basic dimensions and properties of VLFS and the freeboard condition as in section 2.5.1. For stepped VLFS, the author adopts basic ratio = h2 h1 = 0.5 . In this case, the VLFS is considered to carry a uniform load ql with magnitudes ranging from 0.5q0 to 1.5q0 (where q0 = 30 kN/m2) on the central portion confined by the radius r0 = 0.7 R . Figure 2.17 shows the effect of optimal design of gill cells in VLFS and optimal stepped. Both methods are effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection of VLFS. We see clearly that using gill cells gives more reduction in maximum differential deflection in VLFS than using stepped VLFS about 18% in every loading conditions.

49

Maximum differential deflection ratio w/w0

0.8

0.6

Fig. 2.17 Effect of optimal gill cells and optimal stepped VLFS when varying ql

1.1

1.3

1.5

The same basic dimensions and properties of VLFS and the freeboard condition with case 1 are adopted. In this case, the considered VLFS is to carry a uniform load of 30 kN/m2 over its central area bounded by the radius r0 which the author shall vary from 0.5R to 0.9R. Figure 2.18 shows the effect of optimal design of gill cells in VLFS and optimal stepped. Both methods are effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection of VLFS. We see clearly that using gill cells gives more reduction in maximum differential deflection in VLFS than using stepped VLFS. Only when the loading radius r0 > 0.88R, stepped VLFS is more effective than gill cells. However, this loading radius condition is not common in VLFS as the edge area of VLFS is used for quay crane.

50

1

0.6

0.7 r 0/ R

0.8

0.9

Fig. 2.18 Effect of optimal gill cells and optimal stepped VLFS when varying r0

In this case study, the same basic loading and freeboard conditions are adopted. The same dimensions and properties of VLFS are also assumed except for the top and bottom plate thickness t which now varies from 0.5t0 to 2.5t0 (in which t0 = 0.015 m). Figure 2.19 shows the effect of optimal design of gill cells in VLFS and optimal stepped. Both methods are effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection of VLFS. We see clearly that using gill cells gives more reduction in maximum differential deflection in VLFS than using stepped VLFS about 20%.

51

0.9

Fig. 2.19 Effect of optimal gill cells and optimal stepped VLFS when varying t

2.8

2.8.1 Dimensions, properties of annular VLFS and proposed gill cells location

As the load is not uniformly distributed over the entire floating structure as shown in Fig. 2.2, it causes a deformed shape with a large slope in the structure. Owing to the axisymmetric nature of the considered VLFS and the loading condition, it is proposed that the gill cells be located as shown in Fig. 2.20. The gill cells compartments are bounded in two regions by the radii r1, r2, r5, and r6 such that r0 r1 r2 r3 and

reduce the stress-resultants by finding the optimal values of these radii.

52

r6

R

ql

r4 r 5 r 6 R

r 0

r0

For the example considered, the author shall use the dimensions and properties of the thin circular VLFS considered by Watanabe, et al. (2006) and cut out a central circular portion of r0 = 0.2 R . The ring-shape VLFS has R = 200m, r0 = 40m, h = 2m, t = 0.015m, v = 0.3, E = 2.06x1011 N/m2 and m = 0.25w where m is the weight density of VLFS and w the weight density of water. The VLFS is considered to carry a uniform load of ql = 25 kN/m2 on a portion area bounded by radii r3/R = 0.5 and r4/R = 0.7. An allowable draft at free edges that is equal or less than 0.7h is specified.

For an annular VLFS with prescribed dimensions, material properties, loading and freeboard conditions, the optimization at hand is to optimally design the gill cells, that is, to determine the optimal values of r1, r2, r5, and r6 that minimize the slope of the VLFS. The constrained optimization problem may be mathematically stated as

r 1

r3 r2

r 5

r4

r1 r2 r3

53

Min Max dw ( r =r R ) ( ) 0

( r1 , r2 , r5 , r6 )

subject to

we h h f , wgm h , r0 r1 r2 r3 and r4 r5 r6 R

(2.22)

where hf = 0.3h is the allowable freeboard at the free edges of the VLFS, we the maximum deflection at the free edges of VLFS, and wgm the maximum deflection in the gill cell regions. The slope function in VLFS is continuous and differentiable. So at each design (location and size) of gill cells, the maximum slope is found by using MATLAB Optimization Toolbox in which classical optimization algorithms is fully updated. Obviously, the problem of determining the maximum slopes at different designs of gill cells is stochastic in nature and does not follow a continuous and differentiable function. Therefore, the minimization of the maximum slope problem cannot be solved by any classical optimization algorithm. So MATLAB Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search Toolbox is used to seek the optimal number and locations of gill cells that minimize the maximum slope.

By carrying out the optimization exercise, the author found the optimal design of gill cells to be bounded by radii r1 = 40.9177m, r2 = 65.2682m, r5 = 171.6198m, and r6 = 196.9966m. The slope curves in Fig. 2.21 show that VLFS with optimal gill cells has a significantly smaller slope when compared to its counterpart without gill cells. Table 2.2 shows that VLFS with optimal gill cells has significantly smaller maximum slope

54

(dwmax ) as well as maximum stress resultants (Qrmax, Mrmax, Mmax) when compared to VLFS without gill cells. Note that dw0 is the maximum slope in annular VLFS without gill cells. The percentage reductions in maximum slope, maximum shear force and maximum moment are 59%, 12% and 65%, respectively. These reductions clearly show the effectiveness of optimal gill cells in reducing the slope and stress-resultants in VLFS

-0.01

Table 2.2 Effectiveness of optimal gill cells in reducing the maximum slope and maximum stresses-resultants

2.9

Concluding remarks

55

The effect of gill cells in reducing differential deflection and stress-resultants in pontoon-type, circular VLFS under a confined central uniform load has been investigated. The optimal design of gill cells with the view to minimizing the differential deflection and stress-resultants has been carried out. The study conducted considered a number of design parameters such as the loading magnitude, the radius of the loading area, the thicknesses of the top and bottom plates and the freeboard height at the edge of VLFS. The results show that 1) Gill cells, when designed appropriately, are effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection and stress-resultants. The percentage reductions in the maximum differential deflection, bending moments and shear force can be up to 45%, 45% and 55%, respectively, for the example considered. 2) When the thicknesses of the top and bottom plates and the freeboard height of the circular VLFS are increased, the optimal design of gill cells is more effective in reducing the maximum shear force but is comparatively less effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection and bending moments. 3) The optimal design of gill cells is most effective when the radius of the loading area is bounded by the radius that varies from 0.5R to 0.75R and when the loading magnitude is not too large. This chapter also compared the effectiveness in reducing the differential deflection in circular VLFS by using gill cells and varying heights of VLFS. In both cases, the same volume was used. The obtained results show that both methods are effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection in VLFS. However, using gill cells in VLFS is found more effective than using varying heights of VLFS.

56

By using gill cells in an annular VLFS, the optimal design of gill cells with the view to minimizing the slope and reducing the stress-resultants has been investigated. The obtained results show that optimal design of gill cells in annular VLFS can reduce the maximum slope, shear force and bending moment up to 59%, 12% and 65%, respectively for the example considered. These reductions are significant and clearly show the effectiveness of gill cells in reducing the slope and stress-resultants.

57

CHAPTER 3

NON-CIRCULAR SHAPED VLFS USING GILL CELLS

3.1 Introduction

In the previous chapter, we have minimized the differential deflection in a circular VLFS and bending slope in an annular VLFS by using gill cells by analytical method. In practice, VLFS can take on any shape (Watanabe 2004a) and an analytical method for seeking the optimal design of gill cells is not possible. So in this chapter, we seek the optimal layout (number and locations) of gill cells in an arbitrarily shaped VLFS with the view to minimizing the differential deflection using a numerical technique. In this technique, we developed finite plate elements based on the Mindlin plate theory (Mindlin 1951) to model the VLFS so that more accurate bending results, especially the stress resultants, may be obtained. The buoyancy forces are modeled as Winkler springs. At the gill cell locations, the Winkler springs are removed since there are no buoyancy forces. Unlike the circular VLFS treated in Chapter 2, the objective function (which is the differential deflection) of the optimization problem for an arbitrarily shaped VLFS does not have an explicit analytical form because it has to be determined numerically. Hence it lacks the continuous and differentiable function form. Therefore, the

58

optimization problem cannot be solved by any classical optimization algorithms that require a continuous and differential objective function. Since the gill cell number and locations are the variables in the optimization problem, we believe that genetic algorithms (GA) are ideal for seeking these optimal variables that minimize the maximum differential deflection.

3.2

Problem definition

Although the algorithm developed here could be used to handle any VLFS shape and loading pattern, we shall consider some common shapes such as square, rectangular and I-shape under symmetrical loading pattern for analysis and discussion. The I-shape is considered as it provides more edge length for ship to berth. The flat box-like VLFSs have an overall depth h, top and bottom plate thickness t and carrying a uniform load ql on a central portion as shown in Fig. 3.1. Owing to the symmetry in shape and loading conditions considered for these VLFS problems, we will analyze only a quarter of the structure. As the load is not uniformly distributed over the entire floating structures, the deflection surface is not uniform. VLFS comprises many watertight compartments to provide the necessary buoyancy. Gill cells are compartments without buoyancy because they have holes or slits at their bottom floors that allow water to flow in and out freely. At the gill cells locations, the buoyancy force is eliminated. The problem at hand is to seek the optimal layout (number and positions) of gill cells that will minimize the maximum differential deflection of VLFS under the non-uniform load.

59

240 120 30 30

c L

30

c L

c L

30

240

180

120

c L

240

180

c L

180

c L

Loading Aea q l

30

30

Loading Aea q l

Loading Aea q l

30

t=0.03

h=3

ql

VLFS

30

180 240

30

Section A-A

60

3.3

In the bending analysis of the pontoon-type VLFS in this chapter, the following assumptions have been made: The pontoon-type VLFS is modeled as an elastic solid Mindlin plate with free edges. The buoyancy forces are modeled by Winkler-type springs. There are no gaps between the VLFS and the water surface. The VLFS is considered to be placed in a benign sea environment. Therefore, the influence of wave force on the vertical deflection of structure is assumed to be negligible when compared to the deflection due to the heavy static load on the floating structure. This assumption has been verified in the analysis by Wang et al. (2006). The box-like VLFS is modeled as an equivalent solid Mindlin plate having the thickness h taken to be equal to the height of the box-like structure. However, the Youngs modulus of the solid plate has to be tweaked in order to get the same equivalent stiffness as the real box-like structure. By equating the flexural rigidity of the solid plate model to that of the box-like structure, the equivalent elastic modulus Em is given by

2 3 t3 ht h Em = E 2 + t 12 2 12

(3.1)

where E is the Young modulus of the material used in VLFS. As all the cells in the VLFS are rectangular, it is expedient to use rectangular finite elements for the analysis. At each node, there are three degrees of freedom

61

w, x , y in which w is the vertical displacement, x and y denote rotations about the y and x axes, respectively. The definitions of vertical displacement and rotations are shown in Fig. 3.2.

w, z y x

The vector sum of displacement and rotation angles includes twelve degrees of freedom in an element, i.e.

wi = w1 x1 y1

w2 x 2 y 2 " w4 x 4 y 4

(3.2)

From this vector, the displacement and strain vectors are expressed as: w = Nwwi (3.3)

= x = xz

y xy = zB w i yz = B w i

(3.4) (3.5)

where Nw is the shape functions, B the curvature-displacement matrix, and B the shear strain displacement matrix According to the principle of virtual work, we can write

dv + K

T S V

dv = w T ( p kw w ) dA

A

(3.6)

62

T T T w T B Db B dA + B D S B dA + k N w N dA {wi } = N w pdA A A A A

(3.7) (3.8)

[ K ]{w i } = {Fi }

where K s = 5 / 6 is the shear correction factor for the Mindlin plate, Db the bending stiffness matrix, DS the shear stiffness matrix, [K] stiffness matrix and {Fi} the force matrix.

1 v 0 Et 3 Db = v 1 0 2 12 (1 v ) 1 v 0 0 2

(3.9)

DS =

K S Et 1 0 2 (1 + v ) 0 1

(3.10)

The Winkler spring constant kw in Eqs. (3.6) and (3.7) that models the buoyancy force is given by

k w = 9.81 kN / m3 in the region without gill cells kw = 0

(3.11a) (3.11b)

p = ql + qs p = qs

(3.12a) (3.12b)

in which qs is the self weight of the VLFS per square meter. Based on the foregoing equations, a finite element method (FEM) program is developed in MATLAB (2007) for the bending analysis.

63

3.4

3.4.1 Dimensions and properties of VLFS examples, loading and freeboard conditions

The dimensions of the considered VLFSs are shown in Fig. 3.1. The material properties, adopted from Chen et al. (2003), are: Poissons ratio v = 0.13 , Youngs modulus Em = 1.19 1010 N m 2 and weight density m = 256.25 kg m3 . We assumed that top and bottom plates of VLFSs are made of steel with thickness t = 0.03m and Youngs modulus E = 2.0 1011 N m 2 . From Eq. (3.1), we can get the equivalent Youngs modulus Em. The VLFSs are assumed to be subjected to a uniform distributed load of ql = 30 kN m 2 over the central portion as shown in Fig. 3.1. A freeboard that is equal or greater than 0.25h is specified in order to prevent green water on the top surface of the floating structures.

The verification of the developed FEM model is established by comparing the FEM results with the results obtained from the commercial software SAP2000 (CSI 2006). For this purpose, we consider a quarter of the square VLFS without gill cells and with gill cells as shown in Fig. 3.5b with the unshaded compartments denoting normal VLFS and shaded compartments denoting the gill cells. A mesh design, as shown in Fig. 3.5b, is used for both the present FEM model and the SAP2000 model. In this mesh, a quarter of the VLFS is divided into 576 equal four-node quadrilateral plate elements connected by 625 nodes. The buoyancy forces in the regions without gill 64

cells are modeled in SAP2000 by adding springs in the vertical direction to the nodes in these regions. The spring stiffness at each node is calculated by multiplying the Winkler spring constant kw with the associated plan area portions of the plate elements that contribute to that node. It can be seen from Figs. 3.3 and 3.4 that the nondimensionalized deflection contours w = w h obtained from the two computer codes agree very well for both the VLFS with and without gill cells cases. Therefore, the present FEM model is correctly set up and will be used to analyze the bending of VLFSs.

3.4.3 Effect of gill cells in reducing differential deflection and von Mises stress

In order to study the effectiveness of gill cells quantitatively, we analyze the square VLFS with and without gill cells. The gill cells are placed in the unloaded region as shown in Fig. 3.5b. Figures 3.3 and 3.4 show the deflection contours of the VLFS with and without gill cells, respectively. It can be seen that the deflection contour of VLFS with gill cells is significantly flatter. Furthermore, the percentage reductions in the maximum differential deflection and the maximum von Mises stress are about 21% and 10%, respectively. These reductions are significant and clearly show the effectiveness of gill cells. Note that as these gill cells are still not optimal, the reductions are likely to be greater when the gill cells are optimally placed as will be demonstrated in the optimization exercise later.

65

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

(b) Using SAP2000 Fig. 3.3 Nondimensionalized deflection contour w in a quarter of the square VLFS without gill cells

66

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

(b) Using SAP2000 Fig. 3.4 Nondimensionalized deflection contour w in a quarter of the square VLFS with gill cells

3.5

Optimization problems

For a VLFS with prescribed dimensions, material properties, loading and freeboard conditions, we seek the optimal layout (number and locations) of gill cells that

67

minimizes the maximum differential deflection. The constrained optimization problem may be mathematically stated as:

x

subject to

wgm h we h h f

where x is the vector containing the information on the number and locations of gill cells, wma the maximum deflection of VLFS, wmi the minimum deflection of VLFS,

wgm the maximum deflection of VLFS in gill cell regions, we the maximum deflection

at the free edges of VLFS, and h f is the allowable freeboard at the free edges of VLFS. Note that h f < h . The objective function given in Eq. (3.13) is discontinuous and nondifferentiable. Therefore, this optimization exercise cannot be solved by any classical optimization algorithm. We shall adopt genetic algorithm (GA) which can be applied to solve a variety of optimization problems that are not well suited for standard optimization algorithms, including problems in which the objective function is discontinuous, non-differentiable, stochastic, or highly nonlinear. The constrained optimization problem is solved by using the MATLAB Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search Toolbox in which GA is fully coded. This toolbox uses the basic GA (Goldberg 1989) and a subproblem formulated in GA by combining the objective functions and nonlinear constraint function using the Lagrangian and the penalty parameters (Conn et al. 1991) to solve a nonlinear optimization problem with nonlinear constraints, linear constraints, and bounds. The

68

GA repeatedly modifies a population of individual solutions. At each step, some members of the current population are chosen as parents. From these parents, children are produced by making random changes to a single parent (called mutation), by combining the vector entries of a pair of parents (called crossover), or by keeping some parents (called elite). The current population is replaced with the children to form the next generation. Over successive generations, the population will evolve towards an optimal solution. The basic idea in implementing GA for the optimization exercise is to represent the compartments in VLFS as a binary string. In this binary string, 0 represents the gill cell, which means that there is no buoyancy force under the compartment and 1 represents the normal cell, which means that there is a buoyancy force under the compartment. The advantage of doing so is that, in GA, the binary string is the simplest form for reproduction (crossover and mutation). For the square VLFS considered, a quarter of VLFS is analyzed due to geometry and loading symmetry. In this quadrant there are 576 compartments. So we produce 1152 binary strings where one binary string contains 576 arrangements of gill cells and normal cells. One example of this binary string is shown in Fig. 3.5a. When this binary string is set in the VLFS shape with compartments as shown in Fig. 3.5b, we have a VLFS with gill cells denoted by 0 and normal cells (or compartments) denoted by 1. In subsequent figures, the shaded compartments shall denote gill cells whereas the unshaded compartments shall denote normal cells.

69

(a) an example 00000000000011111111111100000000000011111111111100111 1111111111111111111001111111111111111111111001111111111 of binary 1111111111110011111111111111111111110011111111111111111 1111100111111111111111111111100111111111111111111111100 1111111111111111111111001111111111111111111111001111111 string for 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 analysis 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111

(b) binary

Fig. 3.5 Transformation of binary string to a quarter of the square VLFS with gill cells (shaded cells) in genetic algorithms rubric

The flow-chart for the algorithm in defining the optimal layout of gill cells is shown in Fig. 3.6. It involves GA and the developed FEM model. To speed up the optimization process, it is proposed that large cells (each large cell consists of four cells) be used in the first stage of analysis. In the second stage, all the large cells are replaced by four cells for refinement of optimal layout of gill cells. In summary, the two-stage method for solution is:

Stage 1: Combine four cells into one large cell and run optimization program

70

(Fig. 3.6) to identify the approximate position of the large gill cells. In this stage, it is to be noted that:

o The initial population of large gill cells is randomly placed on the VLFS

domain.

o The total members of population are equal to ten times the total number

of large cells.

o Program is set to terminate if no improvement in objective function is

obtained after an additional run of 20 generations. In each pattern of large gill cells, the number of variable reduces by four times and the time needed to run FEM program is very short as compared to the case when the normal cells are used. Therefore, it takes a short time for computer program to execute entire Stage 1.

Stage 2: Refine the layout of VLFS by splitting each large cell into four equal cells. Run the program to find the optimal layout of gill cells. In this second stage, note that:

o The initial population of gill cells is randomly placed on the region

o The total members of population are now made equal to two times the

total cells.

o Program is set to terminate if no improvement in objective function is

71

Initial population Calculate fitness and constraints using current FEM model

Population

No

Fig. 3.6 Optimization program flow-chart integrating GA and developed FEM model

3.6

Optimization results

Figure 3.7 shows the mesh of a quarter of VLFS with a loaded area for Stage 1 and the results for the 1st generation and 32nd (or final) generation. Note that, w and w0 are maximum differential deflection in VLFS with and without gill cells, respectively. At this stage a quarter of VLFS consists of 144 cells, each cell measuring 10mx10m. The initial population is randomly placed in the VLFS domain and result shows a reduction in the maximum differential deflection by 22% when compared to VLFS design without gill cells. In the 32nd generation, it reduces the maximum differential deflection by 53% and the gill cells evolve towards the corner of VLFS.

72

30m 30m

120m 90m

120m

Loaded area q l

90m

For Stage 2, a quarter of VLFS now consists of 576 cells, each measuring 5mx5m. The decrease in the maximum differential deflection and patterns of gill cells at various generations for the first 80 generations of Stage 2 are shown in Fig. 3.8. The initial population of gill cells is randomly placed in the region that covers the pattern established from Stage 1. We can see from the results that after the 50th generation, the maximum differential deflection hardly decreases. The gill cells seem to coalesce at the corner of VLFS in a right-angled isosceles triangular shape. In practical considerations, the gill cells layout should be a simple pattern in order to be fabricated easily. We consider three design options (locations and number) of gill cells as shown in Fig. 3.9 to study the sensitivity of the gill cell patterns in reducing the differential deflection. Options 2 and 3 are very simple while Option 1 is a little more complicated and arises from the optimization exercise. These three options satisfy the constraints and hence are feasible solutions. The ratios of the maximum differential deflections of VLFS with gill cells and without gill cells are 0.4663, 0.4945 and 0.5381 for Option 1, Option 2, and Option 3, respectively. These numbers clearly show the effectiveness of gill cells in reducing the maximum differential deflection, even when gill cell layout is very simple, the reduction in the maximum differential deflection is still more than 73

46%. Option 1 has the minimum differential deflections among the three options and this differential deflection is also very close to the value obtained in the 80th generation of the optimization program. Therefore, we choose Option 1 as the optimal design of gill cells for the square VLFS.

Fig. 3.8 Layouts of gill cells in quadrant of square VLFS for various generations in Stage 2

74

30m

c L

30m

c L

30m

30m

c L

240m

240m

180m

180m

180m

240m

c L

c L

c L

30m

Option 1 w w0 = 0.4663

30m

30m

Option 2 w w0 = 0.4945

Fig. 3.9 Square VLFS with some possible optimal designs of gill cells

Option 3 w w0 = 0.5381

75

0.14

0.14

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8

0.696

0.696

1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00

1.29

1.23

0.14

0.696

76

0.5

6.5

6.0

5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

6.5

77

Figure 3.10 shows the non-dimensionalized deflection contours for this VLFS without gill cells and with the optimal gill cells. It is clear that the deflection surface of the VLFS with gill cells (Fig. 3.10b) is significantly flatter over the entire structural domain as compared to the deflection surface of the VLFS without gill cells (Fig. 3.10a). Figure 3.11 shows the von Mises stresses in a quadrant of this VLFS without gill cells and with optimal design of gill cells, respectively. The maximum von Mises stress moves from the region near the center of VLFS without gill cells (Fig. 3.11a) to the region near the boundary between gill cell region and normal VLFS (Fig. 3.11b) and its value decreases. Therefore, the optimal design of gill cells reduces the maximum differential deflection by as much as 54% and it also reduces the maximum von Mises stress by about 3%.

Figure 3.12 shows the mesh of a quarter of VLFS with the loaded area for Stage 1 and results for the 1st generation and the final generation (31st generation). At this stage a quarter of VLFS consists of 108 cells, each cell measuring 10mx10m. The initial population is randomly placed in the VLFS domain and the result reduces the differential deflection by 21% when compared to VLFS without gill cells. By the 31st generation, the differential deflection reduces by as much as 54% and the gill cells move towards the corner of VLFS.

78

30m 30m

120m 90m

90m

Loaded area q l

60m

For Stage 2, we have a quarter of VLFS comprising 432 cells, each cell measuring 5mx5m. Figure 3.13 shows the decrease in the maximum differential deflection and patterns of gill cells at various generations for the first 60 generations. The initial population of gill cells is randomly placed in the bounded corner region as shown in Fig. 3.13 just like in the case of the square VLFS, but with the bounded longer side on the longer edge of the VLFS. After the optimization process, the gill cells coalesce around the corner of VLFS in a right-angled triangular shape. After examining the gill cells locations and based on practical considerations, we consider three design options (locations and number) of gill cells as shown in Fig. 3.14. The ratios of the maximum differential deflection of VLFS with gill cells and without gill cells are 0.4468, 0.4767, and 0.4839 for Option 1, Option 2, and Option 3, respectively. These ratios clearly show the effectiveness of gill cells in reducing the maximum differential deflection. Even when the gill cell layout is very simple, the reduction in the maximum differential deflection can be more than 51%. Option 1 has the minimum differential deflections among the three options and this differential deflection is also very close to the value obtained in the 60th generation. Therefore, we choose Option 1 79

as the optimal design of gill cells for the rectangular VLFS. Figure 3.15 shows the non-dimensionalized deflection contour in this VLFS with the optimal gill cells and without gill cells. VLFS with the optimal design of gill cells (Fig. 3.15b) is significantly flatter over the entire structural domain as compared to the VLFS without gill cells (Fig. 3.15a). Figure 3.16 shows the von Mises stresses in a quadrant of this VLFS with optimal design of gill cells and without gill cells, respectively. VLFS with optimal design of gill cells (Fig. 3.16b) has smaller maximum von Mises stress than that of the VLFS without gill cells (Fig. 3.16a). Therefore, in this example, the optimal design of gill cells reduces the maximum differential deflection by about 55% as well as the maximum von Mises stress by 24%.

Fig. 3.13 Layouts of gill cells in a quadrant of rectangular VLFS for various generations in Stage 2

80

30m

c L

30m

c L

30m

30m

c L

180m

180m

120m

180m

120m

120m

c L

c L

c L

30m

30m

30m

Option 1 w w0 = 0.4468

Option 2 w w0 = 0.4767

Fig. 3.14 Rectangular VLFS with some possible optimal designs of gill cells

Option 3 w w0 = 0.4839

81

0.222

0.222

1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20

0.694

0.694

1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95

1.101

0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65

1.133

0.222

0.222

0.694

0.694

82

0.47

7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

0.26

6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

7.94

6.02

83

Figure 3.17 shows the mesh of a quarter of VLFS with the loaded area for Stage 1 and the results for the 1st generation and 33rd generation (final generation). At this stage, a quarter of VLFS consists of 117 cells, each cell measuring 10mx10m. The initial population is randomly placed in the VLFS domain and the result reduces the differential deflection by 16%. By the 33rd generation, the differential deflection has been reduced by 66% and the gill cells move towards the corner of VLFS.

30m 30m 120m 30m 60m

120m

Loading area q l

90m

For Stage 2, we have 468 cells in the quarter of VLFS. The decrease in the maximum differential deflection and patterns of gill cells at various generations for the first 100 generations are shown in Fig. 3.18. The initial population is randomly placed in the bold bound region which covers the gill cell locations found in the 33rd generation of Stage 1.

84

Fig. 3.18 Layouts of gill cells in quadrant of I-shaped VLFS for various generations in Stage 2

After examining the trend of movement of gill cells in the optimization exercise (Fig. 3.18), we consider three practical design options for the locations and number of gill cells as shown in Fig. 3.19. The ratios of the maximum differential deflection for VLFS with and without gill cells are 0.3440, 0.3658, and 0.3909 for Option 1, Option 2, and Option 3, respectively. These ratios clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of gill cells in reducing the differential deflection. Even with a simple gill cell layout, the reduction can be more than 60%. We choose Option 1 as the optimal design of gill cells because it has the minimum differential deflection among the three options and this differential deflection is also very close to the value obtained in the 100th generation of the optimization program. Figure 3.20 shows the non85

dimesionalized deflection contour in this VLFS with the optimal gill cells and without gill cells. VLFS with the optimal design of gill cells is significantly flatter as compared to the VLFS without gill cells. Figure 3.21 shows the von Mises stresses in a quadrant of this VLFS with optimal design of gill cells and without gill cells, respectively. The maximum von Mises stress moves from the center of VLFS without gill cells (Fig. 3.21a) to the reentrance corner of VLFS (Fig. 3.21b) and its values increases. In this example, the optimal design of gill cells reduces the maximum differential deflection by about 66%. However, it increases the maximum von Mises stress by 26% near the re-entrant corner. This is caused by the sudden change in the bending curvature at the re-entrant corner. By placing suitable steel reinforcements in the re-entrant, one can accommodate for these von Mises stresses. From this result, in order to avoid increasing the von Mises stresses in VLFS with gill cells, one can provide smooth transition at these re-entrant corners.

86

30m 30m

c L

30m

30m

c L

30m

c L

240m

180m

240m

180m

240m

c L

c L

180m

c L

30m

30m

Option 1 w w0 = 0.3440

Option 2 w w0 = 0.3658

Fig. 3.19 I-shaped VLFS with some possible optimal designs of gill cells

30m

Option 3 w w0 = 0.3909

87

0.08

0.08

1.10 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70

0.72

1.13

1.08

0.85 0.80 0.75

0.73 0.70

0.08

0.08

0.72

88

0.02

7 6

0.11

9 8

9.95

5 4 3 2

7 6 5 4 3 2

1 0

1 0

7.89

89

3.7

Concluding remarks

In this chapter, a FE computer code employing Mindlin plate element is developed for the bending analysis of VLFS. Genetic algorithms, fully coded in MATLAB, are employed to seek the optimal layout (number and locations) of gill cells in VLFS. The modeling and optimization technique are illustrated with examples of various shapes of VLFSs such as square, rectangular and I-shape. The results of these example VLFSs show that, with the optimal design of gill cells, the differential deflections in square, rectangular and I-shaped VLFSs can be significantly reduced by about 55%, 54%, and 66%, respectively. The VLFSs deflection shapes become significantly flatter over the entire of VLFS domains. Furthermore, with optimal gill cells, the von Mises stresses are also reduced in the square and rectangular VLFS. However for I-shaped VLFS, the maximum von Mises stress increases at the re-entrant corners. Therefore, we can conclude that gill cells may be applied to VLFS to minimize the differential deflection. But for the VLFS with re-entrant corners, reinforcement must be introduced since the von Mises stress may increase in these regions. Other way to avoid increasing the von Mises stresses in VLFS with gill cells, one can provide smooth transition at these reentrant corners. The FEM model and optimization technique can be applied to any shape of floating structure under any loading configuration so as to minimize the differential deflection.

90

CHAPTER 4

CIRCULAR VLFS USING SUBMERGED PLATE

4.1 Introduction

A submerged horizontal single plate attached to the fore-end of a rectangular VLFS was proposed and investigated experimentally by Ohta et al. (1999). The experimental results showed that the displacement of a VLFS model with this anti-motion device is reduced significantly not only at the edges but also in the inner domain of the floating structure. They suggested that by using this anti-motion device, it would be possible to eliminate the construction of breakwaters in a bay where waves are comparatively small. Utsunomiya et al. (2000) made an attempt to reproduce these experimental results by analysis. The comparison of the analytical results with the experimental results has shown that their simple model can reproduce the reduction effect only qualitatively. A more precise model considering rigorously the configuration of the submerged horizontal plate within the framework of linear potential theory is constructed in a study by Watanabe et al. (2003a) and they validated their model with experimental results. In this chapter, we investigate the effectiveness of a submerged horizontal annular plate strip as an anti-heaving device in reducing vertical deflections and stressresultants of a circular VLFS. In earlier studies of such an anti-motion device attached to the fore-end of a rectangular VLFS, the vertical displacement at the aft-end is noted 91

Minimizing Heaving Motion of Circular VLFS using Submerged Plate to be still relatively large. Therefore, we will analyze a circular VLFS with this device attached around its edge. We formulate the diffraction and radiation potentials using the eigen-function expansion method which was originally proposed by Stoker (1957) for the estimation of the elastic floating breakwater. This method has been widely applied in many studies such as the study of elastic deformation of ice floes (e.g., Evans and Davies 1968, Fox and Squire 1990, Meylan and Squire 1993) and the study of the oblique incidence of surface waves onto an infinitely long platform (e.g., Sturova 1998, Kim and Ertekin 1998). Takagi et al. (2000) and Watanabe et al. (2003) also applied this method to analyze the box-shaped and single plate anti-motion device to a rectangular VLFS. We will compare obtained results of a VLFS with submerged horizontal plate anti-motion device with the results of the VLFS alone to show the efficiency of this device in a circular VLFS in reducing vertical deflection and stressresultants.

4.2

Problem definition

The fluid-structure system and the cylindrical coordinates system are shown in Fig. 4.1. In this figure, region 1 is within VLFS and the submerged plate. Region 2 is beneath the submerged plate. Region 3 is outside VLFS and the submerged plate. Region 4 is outside VLFS and on top of the submerged plate. Region 5 is confined from the top of the submerged plate to the bottom of VLFS. The origin of the coordinates system is on the flat sea-bed and the z- axis is pointing upwards. The undisturbed free surface is on the plane z = H , and the sea-bed is assumed to be flat at z = 0 . The floating, flat, circular plate has a radius of R and a uniform thickness h . The zero draft is assumed for simplifying the fluid-domain analysis. The horizontal annular plate strip of width

2a is attached around the edge of the VLFS at a submerged level z = d. The sinusoidal

92

plane wave is assumed to be incident to VLFS at = 0 . The problem at hand is to determine the effectiveness of the horizontal annular plate strip in reducing the deflections and stress-resultants of the uniform circular plate under the wave action.

r,

Incident Wave x

z=H z=d

5 4 1

2a

2

Sea bed

z=0

4.3

circular VLFS

The hydroelastic analysis is performed in the frequency domain. Considering timeharmonic motions with the complex time dependence e it being applied to all firstorder oscillatory quantities, where i represents the imaginary unit, the angular frequency of the wave and t the time, the complex velocity potential (r , , z ) is

93

2 ( r , , z ) = 0

(4.1)

in the fluid domain. The potential must satisfy the following boundary conditions on the free surface, on the sea-bed, on the wetted bottom surface of the floating circular body and on the submerged annular plate:

(r , , z ) 2 = (r , , z ) z g

on z = H , r > R

(4.2)

(r , , z ) =0 z (r , , z ) = iw(r , ) z

on z = 0 on z = H , rR

(4.3)

(4.4)

(r , , z ) = i w( R, ) z

on z = d ,

Ra r R+a

(4.5)

where w(r , ) is the vertical complex displacement of the VLFS, and g the gravitational acceleration. The radiation condition for the scattering and radiation potential is also applied at infinity.

( I ) lim r + ik ( I ) = 0 as r r r

(4.6)

where r is the radial coordinate measured from the center of the circular VLFS, k the wave number, and I the potential representing the undisturbed incident wave:

I =

(4.7)

94

Minimizing Heaving Motion of Circular VLFS using Submerged Plate where 0 = 1, n = 2 (n 1) ; A the amplitude of the incident wave; J n the Bessel function of the first kind of order n ; and

k tanh kH =

2

g

(4.8)

Z 0 ( z ) = M 01/ 2 cosh kz

1 sinh 2kH M 0 = 1 + 2 2kH

(4.9)

(4.10)

By assuming the circular VLFS to be an elastic, isotropic, shear deformable plate, the motion of the floating circular body is governed by the following Mindlin plate equations (Mindlin 1951):

M r 1 M r M r M h 3 + + Qr + 2 r = 0 r r r 12 M r 1 M r 2M r h 3 + + Q + 2 = 0 r r r 12

Qr 1 Q Qr + + + 2 hw = p (r , ) r r r

(4.11)

(4.12)

(4.13)

where w is the modal displacement, r , are the modal rotations. The bending moments M r , M , twisting moment M r , and the shear forces Qr , Q can be calculated from the following relations:

M r = D r + r + r r

r 1 M = D + r + r r

(4.14)

(4.15)

95

M r = r D (1 ) + 1 2 r r

(4.16)

w Qr = K S Gh r + r

(4.17)

1 w Q = K S Gh + r

(4.18)

in which D is the plate rigidity, the mass per unit area of the plate, the Poisson ratio, K S the Mindlin shear correction factor, and p(r , ) the fluid pressure on the bottom surface of the plate. The pressure p(r , ) is related to the velocity potential Utsunomiya et al. (1998):

(r , , z ) by

p(r , ) = i (r , , H ) w gw(r , )

(4.19)

where w g is the hydrostatic restoring force factor and w the density of the water. The floating body is free to move in the vertical direction along its edges and at its free edges, the bending moment, twisting moment and shear force must vanish, i.e.

M r = 0, M r = 0, Qr = 0

(4.20)

4.4

The fluid-structure interaction is decomposed into the hydrodynamic problem in terms of the velocity potential and the mechanical problem for the vibration of the circular plate, the motion of the plate is expanded by the modal functions which consist of the product of the natural dry modes of circular Mindlin plates with free edges.

96

Irie et al. (1980) derived the exact vibration solutions for circular Mindlin plates with free edges. The natural frequency parameters = R 2

h

D

may be calculated

from setting the determinant of the matrix for the following homogeneous system of equations to zero, i.e.

k11 k 21 k31

(4.21)

'' ' k11 = ( 1 1)[ J n ( 1 ) + J n ( 1 ) n 2 J n ( 1 )]

' k 22 = 2n( 2 1)[ J n ( 2 ) J n ( 2 )] ' k13 = n(1 )[ J n ( 3 ) J n ( 3 )]

(4.22)

(4.23) (4.24) (4.25) (4.26) (4.27) (4.28) (4.29) (4.30)

' k 22 = 2n( 2 1)[ J n ( 2 ) J n ( 2 )]

'' ' k23 = J n (3 ) + J n (3 ) n 2 J n (3 )

' k 31 = 1 J n ( 1 )

' k 32 = 2 J n ( 2 )

k 33 = nJ n ( 3 ) and

1, 2 =

( 22 , 12 ) 2( 22 , 12 ) = 2 2 6(1 ) 2 32 (1 ) 12 2

(4.31)

97

2 2 2 4 + + 2 , = 2 2 2 12 6(1 ) 12 6(1 )

2 1 2 2

2 2

(4.32)

2 2 2 6(1 ) 2 = 2 (1 ) 12

2 3

(4.33)

h R The modal displacement w and the modal rotations r , are given by:

(4.34)

w = 1 + 2

(4.35)

r = ( 1 1) = ( 1 1)

where

1 1 3 + ( 2 1) 2 + r r r

1 1 1 2 3 + ( 2 1) r r r

(4.36)

(4.37)

in which = r / R ; n ( = 0,1,..., N ) is the number of nodal diameters in the vibration mode; and

j j = Im j

( )

n n

if j2 0 if j2 < 0

j

, j = 1, 2, 3

if j2 0 , j = 1, 2, 3 if j2 < 0

(4.41a)

J ( ) R ( ) = I ( )

n j j

(4.41b)

98

Minimizing Heaving Motion of Circular VLFS using Submerged Plate and J n () and I n () are the first kind and the modified first kind Bessel functions of order n. By using the superposition of the natural dry modes and the two rigid-body motions (heave and pitch), the final solution of the plate deflection is given by:

n = 0 s =1

(4.42)

r (r , ) = ns r ,ns (r ) cos n

n = 0 s =1 N M

(4.43)

(r , ) = ns ,ns (r ) sin n

n = 0 s =1

(4.44)

where wns , r ,ns , ,ns describe the natural dry modes (mode shape of free vibration);

s the sequence number for a given n value (i.e. s = 1,2,..., M ); and

w00 = 2 , w10 = 2r / R

(4.45)

Note that w00 represents the heaving motion while w10 the pitching motion. The complex modal amplitudes ns are the unknowns which are to be determined. When

N and M equal to infinity, Eqs. (4.42) to (4.44) provide the exact solution of a circular

Mindlin plate.

4.5

The velocity potential is then decomposed into diffraction and radiation potentials by using the same modal amplitudes as in Newman (1994)

99

( r , , z ) = Dn ( r , z ) cos n + i

n=0

n = 0 s = 0( n = 0,1) s =1( n 2 )

nsns ( r , z ) cos n

(4.46)

The boundary conditions on the free surface and wetted bottom surface of the floating body, i.e. Eqs. (4.4-4.5), are modified to

Dn ( r , z ) =0 z

ns

on z = d , R a r R + a and z = H , r R

(4.47)

( r, z ) ( r, z )

z

ns

= wns ( R ) on z = d , R a r R + a = wns ( r ) on z = H , r R

(4.48)

(4.49)

Referring to Hamamoto and Tanaka (1992), in which the general solution for circular VLFS is shown, the general solution for the boundary value problems can be derived for each region from 1 to 5 defined in Fig. 4.1 as follows:

(1)

R

j =1

R

(4.50)

ns

( 2)

( 2)

+ Dns , j

( 2)

j =1

K n (j2) ( R a )

cosh ( nj z / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj d / ( R + a ) )

K n (j2) r

Z (j 2) +

R+a

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) 2 2 Jn j =1 ( R + a ) nj +1 ( nj )

(4.51)

wns ( R )

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

100

ns ( r , z ) = Cns ,0

( 3)

( 3)

( 2) ( 3) Hn k0 r

Hn

( 2)

(k

( 3)

0

( R + a ))

Z 0 + Cns , j

( 3) ( 3)

j =1

Kn k j

K n k (j3) r

( 3)

( R + a ))

Z (j3)

(4.52)

If 2 ( R + a ) ( nj g ) < 1 , b = atanh 2 ( R + a ) ( nj g )

ns ( r , z ) = Cns ,0

( 4)

( 4)

C

j =1 j =1

ns , j

( 4)

In k j 2

In

( 4)

( ( k ( )r )

4 j

( 4) J n k0 r ( 4)

J n k0

( R + a ))

( 4)

j =1

Z 0 + Dns ,0

( 4)

n

( 4)

( R + a)

wns ( R )

R+a

nj

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) 2 sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) Jn +1 ( nj )

( R + a ))

Z j + Dns , j

( 4) ( 4) Yn k0 r

4 n 0 4 0 4 j 4 4 j n j

(4.53a)

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

If 2 ( R + a ) ( nj g ) 1 , b = atanh ( nj g ) ( 2 ( R + a ) )

ns ( r , z ) = Cns ,0

( 4)

( 4)

C

j =1 j =1

ns , j

( 4)

In k j 2

In

( 4)

( ( k ( )r )

4

j

( 4) J n k0 r ( 4)

J n k0

( R + a ))

( 4)

j =1

Z 0 + Dns ,0

( 4)

n

( 4)

( R + a)

wns ( R )

R+a

nj

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) 2 Jn cosh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) +1 ( nj )

( R + a ))

Z j + Dns , j

( 4) ( 4) Yn k0 r

4

n

(4.53b)

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

101

ns

(5)

( 5)

+ Dns , j

( 5)

j =1

K n (j5) ( R a )

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) )

K n (j5) r

( (

) )

Z (j5) +

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) 2 2 Jn j =1 ( R + a ) nj +1 ( nj )

R+a

(4.54)

wns ( R )

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr +

2

function of the first and second-kind of order n , respectively; nj is the j -th positive

(i ) (i ) root of the equation J n ( nj ) = 0 ; Cns , j and Dns , j are the unknown coefficients to be

determined; and

Zj =

(1)

cos (j

(4.55)

Zj =

( 2)

(4.56)

Z (j3) =

(4.57)

Zj =

( 4)

(4.58)

Zj =

(5)

5)

( z d ))

N5 j

(4.59)

(j1) =

j H

(4.60)

102

(j2) = (j5) =

3

j d j H d

(4.61)

(4.62)

k (j ) tan k (j ) H =

3

2

g

( k ( ) > 0;

3 j

j 1

)

j 1

(4.63)

k (j ) tan k (j

4

4)

( H d )) =

2

g

( k ( ) > 0;

4

j

(4.64)

k ( ) tanh k (

4

4)

(H d ) =

2

g

(4.65)

N1 j = H j N2 j = d j

N5 j =

3

(H d ) j

( ) H sin 2k j H + 3 2 4k (j )

N3 j =

)

4

( j 1)

(4.69)

N4 j =

( ) H d sin 2k j ( H d ) + 4 2 4k (j )

( j 1)

(4.70)

( 3) Note that when j = 0, we have k0 = ik and Eq. (4.63) reduces to the dispersion

4 ( 4) = ik ( ) and Eq. (4.64) reduces to the dispersion relation given in Eq. (4.8), k0

relation given in Eq. (4.65). The situation where j 1 implies that we are referring to evanescent wave. In order to ensure the formulation of independent equations, the following orthogonal relationships are satisfied:

103

0 H

0 0

Z i Z j dz = Z i Z j dz = ij

d

( 4) ( 4)

( 5 ) ( 5)

(4.71)

1 (i = j ) where ij = 0 (i j )

(4.72)

C

j =0 j =1

ns , j

( 3)

Z j = Cns ,0 Z 0 K n (j Kn

2

( 3)

( 2)

( 2)

+ Dns , j

( 2)

( ) ( R + a )) Z ( ) ( ( ) ( R a ) )

2 2 j j

( 2)

(4.73)

By applying

( 2) j =0 ( 2) ( 23) C + Dns ,l ( for l > 0 ) Z lj ( 2) ns ,l K R a ( ) n l

( (

) )

(4.74)

Similarly, by considering the continuity of the potential ns on the boundary between regions 4 and 3 ( r = R + a ) and applying continuity equation, we obtain:

104

( 4) Yn k0 ( R + a) 4 4 ( ) ( ) Cns ,0 + Dns ,0 ( for l = 0 ) ( 4) Y k R 0 n ( 3) H ( 4 ) ( 3 ) Cns , j d Z l Z j dz =

j =0 K n kl( 4) ( R + a ) 4 4 ( 43) ( ) ( ) Zlj Cns ,l + Dns ,l ( for l > 0 ) K n kl( 4) R

(4.75)

The continuity of the horizontal velocity ns r on the boundary of the regions 2, 4 and 3 ( r = R + a ) with 2 ( R + a ) ( nj g ) < 1 gives

Cns ,0

( 3)

( 3) ( 2 ) ' ( 3) k0 H n k0 ( R + a)

Hn

( 2)

(k

( 3)

( R + a ))

) Z( ) +

3 0

C

j =1

ns , j

( 3)

Kn k j

( 3)

( R + a ))

) Z( ) =

3 j

n (j2) I n' (j2) ( R + a ) ( 2) n R a ( ) n 2 2 2 2 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Cns ,0 Z Dns ,0 Z 0 + Cns , j Zj n +1 ( R + a) 0 j =1 I n (j2) ( R + a ) ( R + a) ' Jn ( nj ) cosh ( nj z / ( R + a ) ) w R R+a J r / R + a rdr 2 + ( ) n ( nj ( )) j =1 ( R + a )2 J n2+1 ( nj ) sinh ( nj d / ( R + a ) ) ns 0 (j2) K n' (j2) ( R + a ) ( 2) 2) ( + Dns , j Z j ( for 0 z < d ) j =1 K n (j2) ( R a ) ( 4) ' ( 4) ( 4) ' ( 4) ( 4 ) k0 J n k 0 ( R + a ) ( 4 ) ( 4 ) k j I n k j ( R + a ) ( 4 ) Z 0 + Cns , j Zj + Cns ,0 ( 4) J n k0 I n k (j 4) ( R + a ) j =1 ( R + a) ' Jn ( nj ) cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) 2 2 2 j =1 ( R + a ) J n +1 ( nj ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) R+a k ( 4)Y ' k ( 4) ( R + a ) ( 4) ( 4) 0 n 0 Z0 + wns ( R ) J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr + Dns ,0 ( 4) Yn k0 R 0 ' 4 k (j 4) K n k (j 4) ( R + a ) ( 4) ( ) Dns , j Z j ( for d z H ) j =1 K n k (j 4) R

(

0

(4.76)

Applying

3

105

( 3) ( 3) ( 2 ) ' ( 3) k0 H n k0 ( R + a) ( 2) ( 3) Hn k0 ( R + a)

' n 3 l

( ) n( R a) n Z ( ) D( ) = C( ) ( R + a) ( R + a) k ( ) K ( k ( ) ( R + a )) ( ) C l > for 0 ( ) K ( k ( ) ( R + a )) ( ) ( ) I ( ( R + a ) ) ( ) ( ) K ( ( ) ( R + a ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + C +D + Z Z I ( ( ) ( R + a ) ) K ( ( ) ( R a ) )

3 2 ns ,0 2 3 0l 2 ns ,0 3 ns ,l l 3 n l

Cns ,0

) ( for l = 0)

n +1

( 2 3) Z0 l

2 ns , j

' n

j =1

2 3 jl

2 ns , j

' n

j =1

2 3 jl

j =1

( R + a)

R+a

' Jn ( nj ) 2 n +1 nj

( )

cosh ( nj z / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj d / ( R + a ) )

( 4)

Z l(3) dz

wns ( R )

( 4)

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr + Cns ,0

( 4) ' ( 4) k0 J n k0 ( R + a)

J n k0

( 4)

+ Dns ,0

( 4) ' ( 4) k0 Yn k0 ( R + a)

Yn k0 R

( 4)

( 4)

+ Dns , j

j =1

' k (j 4) K n k (j 4) ( R + a )

K n k (j 4) R

) Z(

( 4)

4 3) 0l

+ Cns , j

j =1 4 3) jl

' k (j 4) I n k (j 4) ( R + a )

In k j 2

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b )

) Z(

( R + a ))

( 4)

) Z(

4 3) 0l

( R + a ))

' Jn ( nj )

) Z(

4 3) jl

+

j =1

( R + a)

J n2+1 ( nj )

(4.77a)

Z l dz wns ( R )

( 3)

R+a

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

Similarly, considering the continuity of the horizontal velocity ns r on the boundary of the regions 2, 4 and 3 ( r = R + a ) with 2 ( R + a ) ( nj g ) 1 , and applying

106

( 3) ( 3) ( 2 ) ' ( 3) k0 H n k0 ( R + a) ( 2) ( 3) Hn k0 ( R + a)

' n 3 l

( ) n( R a) n Z ( ) D( ) = C( ) ( R + a) ( R + a) k ( ) K ( k ( ) ( R + a )) ( ) C l > for 0 ( ) K ( k ( ) ( R + a )) ( ) ( ) I ( ( R + a ) ) ( ) ( ) K ( ( ) ( R + a ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + C +D + Z Z I ( ( ) ( R + a ) ) K ( ( ) ( R a ) )

3 2 ns ,0 2 3 0l 2 ns ,0 3 ns ,l l 3 n l

Cns ,0

) ( for l = 0)

n +1

( 2 3) Z0 l

2 ns , j

' n

j =1

2 3 jl

2 ns , j

' n

j =1

2 3 jl

j =1

( R + a)

R+a

' Jn ( nj ) 2 n +1 nj

( )

cosh ( nj z / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj d / ( R + a ) )

( 4)

Z l(3) dz

wns ( R )

( 4)

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr + Cns ,0

( 4) ' ( 4) k0 J n k0 ( R + a)

J n k0

( 4)

+ Dns ,0

( 4) ' ( 4) k0 Yn k0 ( R + a)

Yn k0 R

( 4)

( 4)

+ Dns , j

j =1

' k (j 4) K n k (j 4) ( R + a )

K n k (j 4) R

) Z(

( 4)

4 3) 0l

+ Cns , j

j =1 4 3) jl

' k (j 4) I n k (j 4) ( R + a )

In k j 2

cosh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b )

sinh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b )

) Z(

( R + a ))

( 4)

) Z(

4 3) 0l

( R + a ))

' Jn ( nj )

) Z(

4 3) jl

+

j =1

( R + a)

J n2+1 ( nj )

(4.77b)

Z l dz wns ( R )

( 3)

R+a

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

Similarly, considering the continuity of the potential ns on the boundary between regions 2 and 1 (r = R-a), and applying continuity equation, we obtain:

2

107

R 2 J n ( nj ( R a ) / R ) d cosh ( nj z / R ) ( 2) Z dz wns ( r ) J n ( nj r / R ) rdr l 2 0 Jn H R sinh / j =1 Rnj ( ) ( ) 0 nj nj +1

j =0 ( 2) n l ( 2) ( 21) + Dns C Zlj ,l ( for l > 0 ) ns ,l I ( 2) R + a ( ) n l

J n ( nj ( R a ) / ( R + a ) ) d cosh ( nj z / ( R + a ) ) ( 2) 2 Z l dz 2 0 Jn sinh ( nj d / ( R + a ) ) j =1 ( R + a ) nj +1 ( nj )

R+a

( (

) )

(4.78)

wns ( R )

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

Similarly, considering the continuity of the potential ns on the boundary between regions 5 and 1 (r = R-a), and applying continuity equation, we obtain:

( 5) I n l ( R a ) j =0 ( 5) ( 51) + Dns C Zlj ,l ( for l > 0 ) ( 5) ns ,l I R n l

R

j =1 R 0

2 J n ( nj ( R a ) / R ) H cosh ( nj ( z d ) / R ) ( 5) Z l dz 2 d Jn sinh ( nj ( H d ) / R ) nj +1 ( nj )

(4.79)

wns ( r ) J n ( nj r / R ) rdr +

H d

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) )

J n ( nj ( R a ) / ( R + a ) ) 2 2 Jn j =1 ( R + a ) nj +1 ( nj ) Z l( 5) dz wns ( R )

R+a

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

108

Minimizing Heaving Motion of Circular VLFS using Submerged Plate The continuity of the horizontal velocity ns r on the boundary of the regions 1, 2 and 5 ( r = R a ) , and the application of

" Z l( ) dz yield:

1

) ( for l > 0) +

Cns ,0

( 2)

n ( R a)

n 1

( R + a)

Z 0l

( 2 1)

( 2) nDns ,0

Ra

Z 0l

2 1) jl

( 2 1)

+ Cns , j

( 2)

j =1

In j

D

j =1

ns , j

( 2)

K n (j2) ( R a )

cosh ( nj z / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj d / ( R + a ) ) n ( R a)

n 1

) Z(

( 2)

( R + a)

) Z(

2 1) jl

+

j =1

( R + a)

' Jn ( nj ( R a ) / ( R + a ) ) 2 2 Jn +1 ( nj )

Z l( ) dz wns ( R )

1

R+a

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr +

( 5)

Cns ,0

( 5)

( R)

Z 0l

( 51)

(5) nDns ,0

Ra

Z 0l

51) jl

( 51)

+ Cns , j

j =1

In j R

D

j =1 H

ns , j

(5)

K n (j

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) )

5)

( R a ))

) Z(

( 5)

) Z(

51) jl

+

j =1

( R + a)

R+a

' Jn ( nj ( R a ) / ( R + a ) ) 2 2 Jn +1 ( nj )

Z l( ) dzwns ( R )

1

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr +

(4.80)

" Z l( 4) dz yield:

109

( 4) J n k0 R 4 ( ) ( 4) Cns ,0 + Dns ,0 ( for l = 0 ) ( 4) + J k R a ( ) 0 n + ( 4) I k R ( 4) n l ( 4) + Dns Cns ,l ,l ( for l > 0 ) ( 4) I n kl ( R + a )

J n ( nj R / ( R + a ) ) H cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) ( 4) 2 Z l dz 2 Jn j =1 ( R + a ) nj d sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) +1 ( nj )

wns ( R )

( 5)

R+a

H

45 Zl(0 )

R a H ( 4) (5) ( 5) H ( 4 ) ( 5 ) Dns ,0 Z Z dz C + 0 , j d Z l Z j dz + l ns d

j =1

R

45 Z l(0 )

( Z lj

45 )

D

j =1

ns , j

( 5)

K n (j5) R

K n (j5) ( R a )

J n ( nj R / ( R + a ) ) 2 Z Z dz + l j d 2 Jn

j =1 ( R + a ) nj +1 ( nj )

H

( 4) ( 5)

45)

( Zlj

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) )

Z l( 4) dz wns ( R )

R+a

(4.81a) J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

In case 2 ( R + a ) ( nj g ) 1 , we have

110

( 4) J n k0 R 4 ( ) ( 4) Cns ,0 + Dns ,0 ( for l = 0 ) ( 4) + J k R a ( ) 0 n + ( 4) I k R ( 4) n l ( 4) + Dns Cns ,l ,l ( for l > 0 ) ( 4) I n kl ( R + a )

J n ( nj R / ( R + a ) ) H sinh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) ( 4) 2 Z l dz 2 Jn j =1 ( R + a ) nj d cosh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) +1 ( nj )

wns ( R )

(5)

R+a

( 5) ( 4 ) ( 5) J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr = Cns ,0 Z l Z 0 dz + d

H

45 Zl(0 )

j =1

R

45 Zl(0 )

( Zlj

45)

D

j =1

ns , j

(5)

K n (j5) R

K n (j5) ( R a )

J n ( nj R / ( R + a ) ) 2 Z Z dz + l j d J n2+1 ( nj )

j =1 ( R + a ) nj

H

( 4 ) ( 5)

45)

( Zlj

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) )

Z l( 4) dz wns ( R )

R+a

(4.81b) J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

The continuity of the horizontal velocity ns r on the boundary between regions 4 and 5

(r = R)

" Z l( ) dz yield:

4

111

( 4) ' ( 4) k0 J n k0 R k ( 4 )Y ' k ( 4) R ( 4) ( 4) 0 n 0 Cns + Dns ,0 ( 4) ( 4) ,0 J n k0 + R a Yn k0 R ( ) ( 4) ' ( 4) ' k ( 4) K n kl( 4) R ( 4 ) kl I n kl R ( 4) l + Dns ,l Cns ,l I n kl( 4) ( R + a ) K n kl( 4) R

j =1

( R + a)

R+a

' Jn ( nj R / ( R + a ) )

+

2 n +1

( )

nj

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b )

n

Z l( 4) dz

wns ( R )

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr = Cns ,0

( 5)

n ( 4 5) ( 5) n ( R a ) Z l 0 Dns Z l(045) ,0 n +1 R R

+ Cns , j

(5)

j =1

In j R

( 5)

) Z(

4 5) lj

+ Dns , j

( 5)

j =1

Kn j

( 5)

( R a)

( Z lj

4 5)

+

j =1

( R + a)

R+a

' Jn ( nj R / ( R + a ) )

2 n +1

( )

nj

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) )

Z l( 4) dz (4.82a)

wns ( R )

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

112

( 4) ' ( 4) k0 J n k0 R k ( 4 )Y ' k ( 4) R ( 4) ( 4) 0 n 0 Cns + Dns ,0 ( 4) ( 4) ,0 J n k0 + R a Yn k0 R ( ) ( 4) ' ( 4) ' k ( 4) K n kl( 4) R ( 4 ) kl I n kl R ( 4) l + Dns ,l Cns ,l I n kl( 4) ( R + a ) K n kl( 4) R

j =1

( R + a)

R+a

' Jn ( nj R / ( R + a ) )

+

2 n +1

( )

nj

cosh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) + b )

n

sinh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) + b )

Z l( 4) dz

wns ( R )

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr = Cns ,0

( 5)

n ( 4 5) ( 5) n ( R a ) Z l 0 Dns Z l(045) ,0 n +1 R R

+ Cns , j

(5)

j =1

In j R

( 5)

) Z(

4 5) lj

+ Dns , j

( 5)

j =1

Kn j

( 5)

( R a)

( Z lj

4 5)

+

j =1

( R + a)

R+a

' Jn ( nj R / ( R + a ) )

2 n +1

( )

nj

cosh ( nj ( z H ) / ( R + a ) ) sinh ( nj ( d H ) / ( R + a ) )

Z l( 4) dz (4.82b)

wns ( R )

J n ( nj r / ( R + a ) ) rdr

With the above procedures, the continuity equations for both potential and velocities have been satisfied. By solving the system of 8 sets of linear equations, we can

1 ns , j

determine

2 ns , j 2 ns , j 3 ns , j

the

sets

of

unknown

coefficients

( C ( ) , C ( ) , D( ) , C

4.6

The general solution for diffraction potential can be obtained by the following equations:

(1)

(4.83)

113

Dn

( 2)

r ( 2) ( 2) R a ( 2) ( r , z ) = Cn,0 Z 0 + Dn ,0 Z0 + R+a r

( 2)

n, j

C

j =1

( 2)

I n (j

I n (j2) r

2)

( R + a ))

( 2)

Z j + Dn , j

( 2)

j =1

( 2)

K n (j

K n (j2) r

2)

( R a ))

( 3)

(4.84)

Zj

( 2)

Dn ( r , z ) = Cn ,0

( 3)

( 3)

( 2) ( 3) Hn k0 r

Hn

(k

( 3)

0

( R + a ))

Z0

( 3)

( z ) + Cn , j

j =1

Kn k j

K n k (j3) r

( 3)

( R + a ))

Z (j3) ( z )

(4.85)

( 3) +In ( r ) Z 0 ( z) H

Dn ( r , z ) = Cn ,0

( 4)

C( ) I

4 n, j j =1

( 4) ( 4) J n k0 r

4 0

Z 0 + Dn ,0

n

( 4)

( 4)

( 4) Yn k0 r

4 n 0

(4.86)

4 n, j

j =1

(5) Dn ( r , z ) = Cn(5,0)

C

j =1

n, j

( 5)

I n (j5) r In

5 j

( ) Z ( ) + D( ) K ( ( ) r ) Z ( ) K ( ) Ra ( ( ) R ) ( ( ))

5 5 j 5 n, j n j 5 j =1 5 j n j

r ( 5) ( 5) R a ( 5) Z 0 + Dn ,0 Z0 + R r

(4.87)

where

1/ 2 igAM 0 In = ni n J n (kr ) cosh kH

(4.88)

( C ( ) , C ( ) , D( ) , C

1 n, j 2 n, j 2 n, j

3 n, j

( 4) ( 4) (5) ( 5) , Cn , j , Dn , j , Cn , j , Dn , j

) can

be

determined by applying the continuity equations for the potential and velocities on the boundaries of each region with the same procedure as shown in part 4.5.

4.7

In order to derive the equations of motion in modal coordinates, we consider the kinetic energy T , the strain energy U and the energy associated with the pressure V

114

T=

1 2 R h2 2 2 2 + h w r + 2 ) rdrd ( m 2 0 0 12

2

(4.89)

1 U= 2 1 2r 2

0 0

r 1 r {D[ + r + 2 + r + +2 r r r r

2 2 2 2 2

r 1 w w r + r + 2 + r ]}rdrd ] + K S Gh[ r r r

2

(4.90)

V =

Ra

p ( ) (r , ) wrdrd

1 2

Ra

p ( ) (r , ) wrdrd

5 2 0

R+a

Ra

p ( 2) (r , )drd 0

Ra

p ( 5) (r , )drd +

R+a

p ( 4) (r , )drd wR

(4.91)

T + U + V = 0

(4.92)

applying the Rayleigh-Ritz method (i.e. integration can be approximated by a linear combination of elements), we obtain:

115

R R h2 2 ns m h {wns wnp + ( r ,ns r ,np + ,ns ,np )}rdr + {D[ r ,ns r ,np 12 r r s = 0( n = 0,1) 0 0 s =1( n 2 M

r ,np (n ,ns + r ,ns ) + r ,ns (n , np + r ,np ) + r r r r , ns 1 1 + n r ,ns ) + 2 (n ,ns + r ,ns ) (n ,np + r ,np ) + 2 ( ,ns r 2r r r ,np wnp w ( ,np r + n r ,np )] + K S Gh[( ns + r , ns ) ( + r ,np ) r r r Ra 1 (1) (r , H ) wnp rdr + 2 ( nwns + r ,ns )( nwnp + r ,np )]}rdr ] w 2 ns r 0

w 2

2 Ra

0

R+a

Ra

( 2) ns

(r , d )rdr +

w wnp , R

= wi

Ra Ra

ns (r , d )rdr + w wnp , R

2

( 5)

R+a

( 4) ns (r , d )rdr

R+a Ra

R a

R+a

( 2) Dn

(r , d )rdr

(4.93)

+ wi wnp , R

Ra

( 5) Dn (r , d )rdr + wi wnp , R

( 4) Dn

(r , d )rdr

In view of the fact that normal modes satisfy Eqs. (4.11)-(4.18) and Eq. (4.20) , Eq. (4.93) can be simplified to:

s = 0( n = 0,1) s =1( n 2)

2 ns { 2 m hR 2 ps + ns m hR 2 ps 2 w [

Ra

(1) ns

(r , H ) wnp rdr +

R+a

Ra R

R+a

R a

( 2) ns (r , d )rdr

Ra

( 5) ns (r , d )rdr

( 4) ns

(r , d )rdr )]

R R a (1) ( 5) + w g wns wnp rdr} = wi Dn (r , H ) wnp rdr + Dn (r , H ) wnp rdr Ra 0 0 R R+a R + a ( 2) (5) ( 4) + wnp , R Dn (r , d )rdr Dn (r , d )rdr Dn (r , d )rdr Ra R Ra

(4.94)

116

2 r ,ns r ,np + ,ns ,np )rdr = R 2 wns wnp + ( 12 0

R

ps

(4.95)

and ns represents the natural frequency. Equation (4.94) may be represented in a nondimensional form by:

M s =1( n 2)

Ra R

ns

(5)

Ra

R+a

Ra

ns

( 2)

(r , d )rdr

R

Ra

(5) Dn

ns

( 5)

(r , d )rdr

R+a

( 4) ns

(r , d )rdr )]

(4.96)

R+a Ra

0 R

(1) Dn

(r , H ) wnp rdr +

( 5) Dn

Ra

(r , H ) wnp rdr

( 2) Dn

(r , d )rdr

Ra

(r , d )rdr

R+a

( 4) Dn

(r , d )rdr )]

where S = D /( w gR 4 ), = h R, = r R . Note that Eq. (4.96) can be solved separately for each n (number of nodal diameters or Fourier modes). Also, the frequency parameters ns and the corresponding mode shapes wns are available in the literature (e.g. Wang et al. 2004).

4.8

Consider the circular VLFS and sea state condition treated by Watanabe et al. (2006). The circular VLFS has a radius R = 200m, thickness h = 2m, density ratio

shear correction factor K S = 5/6. It is assumed that the water depth H = 20m and the incident wave length = 50m. For numerical calculation, we also consider the number of nodal diameters N = 14, the number of sequence M = 5 for given N as recommended by Watanabe et al. (2006). In their study, they used the truncation number for infinite 117

sums =20. However, for the circular VLFS with an attached submerged annular plate considered herein, the truncation number may not be the same and it needs to be established from a convergence study on the results. In order to study the sensitivity of the width of the submerged horizontal plate on the hydroelastic response of the VLFS, we analyze the circular VLFS without and with a submerged horizontal annular plate having various widths ranging from 2m to 10m (a = 1~5m) and positioned at a depth d = 15m. The convergence check for the truncation number is done for two cases such as a VLFS with the smallest and largest widths of the submerged annular plate. The convergence studies in terms of the truncation of infinite sums for these two cases are shown in Figs. 4.2 and 4.3, respectively, for = 20, 40 and 60. It can be seen clearly that = 40 will suffice for converged results. So we have chosen the truncation number = 40 for the subsequent calculations. Figures 4.4 to 4.7 show the deflections and stress-resultants of a VLFS without and with the submerged annular plate having various widths ranging from 2m to 10m (a = 1~5m) and positioned at a depth d = 15m. We can see that as the width of the submerged plate increases from 2m to 8m, the deflection and stress-resultants in the VLFS decrease as compared with its counterpart without an attached submerged plate. However when the width of the plate increases to 10m, the deflection and the twisting moment near the fore end of the VLFS increase. From these results, the effectiveness of the submerged horizontal plate in reducing the deflection and stressresultants is shown to be significant when the plate is not too wide. The submerged annular plate with 8m width gives the best reduction.

118

Incoming wave

Fig. 4.2 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for a circular VLFS with 2m width submerged plate

Incoming wave

Fig. 4.3 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for a circular VLFS with 10m width submerged plate

119

Incoming wave

Fig. 4.4 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of a circular VLFS without and with submerged plate of various widths

Incoming wave

Fig. 4.5 Nondimensionalized bending moment amplitude of a circular VLFS without and with submerged plate of various widths

120

Incoming wave

Fig. 4.6 Nondimensionalized twisting moment amplitude of a circular VLFS without and with submerged plate of various widths

Incoming wave

Fig. 4.7 Nondimensionalized transverse shear force amplitude of a circular VLFS without and with submerged plate of various widths

In order to study the sensitivity of the level of the submerged plate, we analyze the circular VLFS without and with submerged horizontal plate having a width of 8m. The submerged plate is placed at various depths d = 2m to 19.5m. The convergence

121

studies for the required truncation number are done for two cases, i.e. VLFS with the submerged plate placed at the highest and lowest levels. The convergence characteristics in terms of the truncation of infinite sums for these two cases are shown in Fig. 4.8 and 4.9, respectively. It can be seen that = 40 will suffice for converged results for the case d = 19.5m whereas = 60 is necessary for the case d = 2m. So we have chosen the truncation number = 60 for all calculations in this section. Figures 4.10 to 4.13 show the deflections and stress-resultants. Note that the free-edge boundary conditions for the stress-resultants (Figs. 4.5 to 4.7 and 4.11 to 4.13) are exactly satisfied because of the employment of the analytical Mindlin plate solutions. It is generally difficult to observe the satisfaction of the natural boundary conditions when using numerical methods based on the work-energy approach (see Wang et al. 2004 for a discussion on this matter). As the submerged plate moves nearer to the bottom surface of the VLFS, its effectiveness becomes more apparent. However when it moves too close to the VLFS (as the case for d = 19.5m), the motion of VLFS is magnified near the fore-end. It may be due to the fact that the incoming wave makes the submerged plate vibrate more and this motion gets transferred to the fore-end of VLFS. We can see that the submerged annular plate with an 8m width and placed at d = 18m seems to give the best reduction.

122

Incoming wave

0.4 Non-dimensionalized deflection |w(x)/A| 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 x/R 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

= = = =

20 40 60 80

Fig. 4.8 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for a circular VLFS with 8m width submerged plate at level d = 2m

Incoming wave

Fig. 4.9 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for a circular VLFS with 8m width submerged plate at level d = 19.5m

123

Incoming wave

0.4 Non-dimensionalized deflection |w(x)/A| 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 x/R 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Without attached plate 2a=8m, d=2m 2a=8m, d=4m 2a=8m, d=8m 2a=8m, d=12m 2a=8m, d=16m 2a=8m, d=18m 2a=8m, d=19.5m

Fig. 4.10 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of a circular VLFS without and with submerged plate at various depths

Incoming wave

20 Non-dimensionalized radial bending moment |MrR/(DA)| Without attached plate 2a=8m, d=2m 2a=8m, d=4m 2a=8m, d=8m 2a=8m, d=12m 2a=8m, d=16m 2a=8m, d=18m 2a=8m, d=19.5m

15

10

0 -1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0 x/R

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Fig. 4.11 Nondimensionalized bending moment amplitude of a circular VLFS without and with submerged plate at various depths

124

Incoming wave

10 Without attached plate 2a=8m, d=2m 2a=8m, d=4m 2a=8m, d=8m 2a=8m, d=12m 2a=8m, d=16m 2a=8m, d=18m 2a=8m, d=19.5m

0 -1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0 x/R

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Fig. 4.12 Nondimensionalized twisting moment amplitude of a circular VLFS without and with submerged plate at various depths

Incoming wave

Non-dimensionalized shear force |QrR2/(DA)| 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 r/R 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Without attached plate 2a=8m, d=2m 2a=8m, d=4m 2a=8m, d=8m 2a=8m, d=12m 2a=8m, d=16m 2a=8m, d=18m 2a=8m, d=19.5m

Fig. 4.13 Nondimensionalized shear force amplitude of a circular VLFS without and with submerged plate at various depths

In order to study the effectiveness of the submerged plate on the hydroelastic response of a VLFS under other wave conditions, we analyze the VLFS without and with a submerged plate of 8m width and placed at d = 18m and consider the variation

125

of wavelengths from R/25 to infinity (R/ -> 0). The convergence behaviors of the results in terms of the truncation of infinite sums for VLFS without and with submerged plate are shown in Fig. 4.14 and 4.15, respectively. In both cases, shorter waves require larger truncation numbers for convergence. It can be seen that = 40 is adequate for converged results of the basic VLFS while = 60 is necessary for converged results of VLFS with a submerged plate. Figures 4.16 to 4.18 show the vertical deflections at the fore-end, mid-position and back-end of the VLFS without and with horizontal submerged annular plate of 8m width and placed at d = 18m as a function of R/. As it can be seen from these figures, the effect of the submerged annular plate in reducing the hydroelastic response is clearly observed.

Incoming wave

Fig. 4.14 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for a basic circular VLFS at fore-end

126

Incoming wave

1.4 Non-dimensionalized deflection |w(x)/A| 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

= 40 = 60 = 80

10 R/

15

20

25

Fig. 4.15 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude for a circular VLFS with submerged plate at fore-end

Incoming wave

127

Incoming wave

Incoming wave

4.9

Concluding remarks

In this chapter, the hydroelastic problem of a circular VLFS with a submerged horizontal annular plate strip attached to its perimeter is analyzed in an exact manner

128

for both the structure part and the fluid part. Although the formulations are given in explicit formula, we have truncated the infinite sums. However, by using a suitable truncation number , one may still obtain very accurate converged results. The significant reduction effect of the response with the attachment of the horizontal submerged annular plate has been confirmed by the analysis. It is important to note that the Mindlin plate theory has been adopted instead of the commonly used classical thin plate theory in order to obtain more accurate stressresultants. Therefore the presented accurate hydroelastic responses should be useful to VLFS engineers as benchmark solutions for verification of the numerical programs based on the boundary element method and the finite element method.

129

CHAPTER 5

VLFS USING ANTI-HEAVING DEVICES

5.1 Introduction

In the previous chapter, we have investigated the effectiveness of a simple anti-heaving device which is a submerged horizontal plate in reducing the heaving motion of VLFS by applying it to a circular VLFS. However, there are many other proposed antiheaving devices for VLFS. For example, Takagi et al. (2000) proposed a box-shaped anti-motion device (see Fig. 5.1) and investigated its performance both theoretically and experimentally. They found that this device reduces not only the deformation but also the moment and shearing force of the platform. The motion of VLFS with this device is reduced in both beam-sea and oblique sea conditions. However, under action of strong wave, this device needs to be relatively large and hence would be costly.

VLFS Box-shaped anti-motion device Wave

130

Wave

Ohta et al. (1999), on the other hand, proposed a submerged vertical single plate attached to the fore-end of VLFS as shown in Fig. 5.2. They investigated the performance of such anti-motion device by conducting some experiments in a water basin. The experimental results showed that the displacement of VLFS with this submerged vertical plate is reduced significantly at the edges and in the inner parts as well. Continuing in this line of investigation, Ohta et al. (2002) considered other anti-motion body forms such as an L-shaped plate, a reverse-L-shaped plate and a beach-type plate (see Fig 5.3). They concluded that L-shaped plate is more effective against long waves whereas beach-type plates and reverse-L-shaped plates are more effective against short waves.

Wave

131

Wave

VLFS Beach type anti-motion device Wave

(c) VLFS with beach type anti-heaving device Fig. 5.3 VLFS with anti-motion devices treated by Ohta et al. (2002)

In this chapter, we wish to investigate a new plate attachment configuration in the form of a submerged inclined plate for mitigating heaving motion and to assess its performance with respect to the other types of proposed anti-heaving devices such as a horizontal plate, a vertical plate and an L-shaped plate. Different dimensions and submerged depths of these plated attachments were considered to better understand their behavior. The investigation is carried out by performing experiments on a longish VLFS model attached with the aforementioned motion devices. Under different wave periods, the heaving displacements were measured for the VLFS model with various plate attachments and compared in order to establish the best among the considered four anti-heaving devices.

132

5.2

5.2.1

Wave tank

The experimental study was carried out in the two dimensional wave tank as shown in Fig. 5.4 in the Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory of the National University of Singapore. The experimental setup for the present study is depicted in Fig 5.5. The wave tank measures 36m in length, 2m width and 1.3m depth. To meet the size of the testing model, the tank was partitioned to 0.8m width. The tank has a smooth rigid horizontal concrete base and side walls. Glass panels of about 20mm thickness are provided on both sides of the tank for about one eighth length of the tank and placed in the middle of the tank to facilitate photographic and video recordings and observation during the test. A spending beach provided at the other end with an average slop of 1:6 made of gravel absorbs the wave energy.

133

Wave maker

Wave probe

Potentiometers

Wave probe

0.95 m

Beach

16.38m

Wave direction

0.8m

2m

134

5.2.2

The wave generating system consists of a servo controlled piston type wave maker fixed at one end of the wave tank. This provides a facility to generate both monochromatic and random waves according to the input signal. The wave maker paddle motion was controlled by the input signal received through the servo controller. The motion of the paddle generates a wave of certain amplitude and frequency corresponding to the input signal. The frequencies of input signal are the frequencies of the generated waves. However, the amplitudes of the input signal are not the amplitudes of the generated waves. So the relationship between the input signal and the actual values of amplitudes of the generated wave has to be determined a priori. This relationship was carried out without the model in the channel. At each frequency, different values of input signal amplitude ranging from 50 500 ml/PP were sent to the wave maker and the amplitudes of generated waves at the test section in the wave tank were measured by wave probes to generate the desired wave heights.

5.2.3

The instrumentations for wave generating system are shown in Fig. 5.6. Frequency and amplitude signals are set in the HP 33120A function generator as shown in Fig. 5.6a and are then transferred through the servo controller as shown in Fig. 5.6b, to the wave paddle to generate the waves.

135

The time histories of water surface elevation were measured using three wave probes as shown in Fig. 5.5. The wave probes Kenek CH-4, which includes insulated coating wire as a conductor along its length, were used. By putting the wave probe into water and running electric current, a kind of condenser between water and conductor is formed. Its static electrical capacity is proportional to the water depth. Figure 5.7 shows the instrumentations for wave data acquisition. Each Kenek wave probe was connected to a Kenek controller (on the right hand side of Fig. 5.7) to set the range of measurement. Then, all the data is transferred to a personal computer through an amplifier (on the right hand side of Fig. 5.7). 136

In order to measure the vertical displacements of the VLFS model, 13 linear motion potentiometers were installed along the center line of the model at a spacing of 0.2m. The deflection of VLFS is collected using deflection data acquisition system as shown in Fig. 5.8. On the right hand side is the power supply and the other is the oscilloscope. Each potentiometer was connected to both the power supply and oscilloscope. We used potentiometer type with measure range of 10cm and set the power supply at 10V so that the collected data was in cm unit.

For regular waves, the wave period is varied from 5s to 10s and the wave height from 0.5m to 1.5m, thereby simulating varying sea conditions. By using a scale of 1:50, the testing values of wave height range from 1cm to 3cm. The testing values of the wave period range from 0.8s to 1.3s. The values of wave period were obtained by using the same Froude number of the testing VLFS model and the real VLFS.

Consider a longish VLFS of length 122m, width 25m and height 3m. By using a scale of 1:50, we fabricated a model for the VLFS of length 2.44m, width 0.5m, and height 0.06m by pasting a 57mm thick polyethylene foam (specific gravity = 0.019) to the bottom of a 3mm thick aluminum plate (Youngs modulus = 70GPa, specific gravity = 2.3). Figure 5.9 shows the experimental model. At the fore-end of the model, there are 8 ready bolts installed to attach the anti-heaving device. The floating model was allowed to move freely in the vertical direction but was restrained from moving in the horizontal plane by a mooring system consisting of 4 angle plates placed at the 4 corners of the plate model. Oil was put on surface of angle plates so that the friction between the corner of VLFS and angle plate is negligible.

138

Holding system

Ready bolts

Angle plate

Table 5.1 gives the pertinent information of the model. The draft of the model was calculated from the specific gravities of the materials used and validated with the actual draft value measured from the experiment. The flexural rigidity EI was calculated from a simple test as shown in Fig. 5.10 which simulates a cantilever beam under its own weight. This simple test was repeated three times with different cantilever lengths to check the repeatability of the calculated EI. We measured the deflection at the free end of the cantilever then used this value to calculate the flexural rigidity EI of the model by using the deflection relation given by Ye (2008)

qs a 4 w= 8 EI

(5.1)

where w is the measured deflection at the free end of the cantilever, qs the self weight of the model, and a is the cantilever length.

139

Table 5.1 Pertinent information of model Full scale 1:50 Model Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Draft (m) EI per unit width (Nm) 122 25 3 0.8 1.17x109 2.44 0.5 0.06 0.016 185

VLFS model

Fig. 5.10 Simple bending test to determine flexural rigidity EI of VLFS model

5.2.6

Table 5.2 shows the four types of anti-heaving devices tested, namely a submerged horizontal plate, a vertical plate, an L-shaped plate and an inclined plate, respectively. For each type of anti-heaving device, we considered four cases as shown in Table 5.2. All devices were fabricated from polypropylene plate of 5mm thick and possessing a specific gravity = 0.9. Note that, the submerged inclined plated proposed herein differs from the beach type anti-motion device proposed by Ohta et al. (2002) (Fig. 5.3). In that the latter device uses more materials and is tapered as can be seen in Fig. 5.3.

140

The connection of the anti-heaving device to the fore-end of the model was made possible by using two jigs made of aluminum (2.5cm width and 3mm thickness) and 8 bolts on top surface of the fore-end (see Fig. 5.9). The anti-heaving device was bolted to the jigs.

Table 5.2 Anti-heaving devices considered in the experiment Type of anti-heaving device (A) Submerged horizontal plate

dd (10, 20cm) Model Attaching jigs Wave

Dimensions and submerged level B = 10cm and dd = 10cm B = 20cm and dd = 10cm B = 10cm and dd = 20cm B = 20cm and dd = 20cm dd = 10cm without slits dd = 10cm with slits of diameter 1cm and spacing 5cm dd = 20cm without slits dd = 20cm with slits of diameter 1cm and spacing 5cm B = 5cm and dd = 10cm B = 10cm and dd = 10cm B = 5cm and dd = 20cm B = 10cm and dd = 20cm

B (10, 20cm)

dd (10, 20cm) Wave

H=95cm

dd (10, 20cm) Wave

H=95cm

H=95cm

141

Model H=95cm Attached inclined plate B = 10, 20cm (with and without slits) Wave

B = 10cm without slits B = 10cm with slits of diameter 1cm and spacing 5cm B = 20cm without slits B = 20cm with slits of diameter 1cm and spacing 5cm

5.3

Experimental procedure

The VLFS model and the various anti-motion devices were fabricated in the Hydraulic Laboratory. On the top surface of the model, 13 nuts were fixed at an equal spacing of 0.2m. A holding system was prepared near the middle and on top of the wave tank in order to fix the model and potentiometers. 3 wave probes were positioned in the wave tank to measure the wave surface elevation. The model was placed in the wave tank and restrained from horizontal movement by 4 angle plates each at a corner of VLFS from the holding system. Finally all 13 potentiometers were connected on top of the model by fixing each tip of the potentiometer to 1 nut on top of the model and the other end of the potentiometer to the holding system. The VLFS model without anti-heaving device was tested first. Then one by one anti-heaving device was connected to the for-end of the VLFS model and tested. Each test was repeated three times to check the repeatability of the collected data and to compute the statistical characteristics of the data. Each model was tested with various wave period conditions ranging from 0.8s to 1.3s.

142

The time history of water surface elevation was sampled at a rate 100 data pts/s. The time history of deflection of VLFS at each collected point was sampled at a rate 1600 data pts/s. To measure the time history of the deflection of VLFS under action of incoming waves without the effect of the reflected waves from the end of the wave tank, data were collected from the time the waves arrived at the fore-end of the model up to the time when the reflected waves returned to the aft-end of the model. This time period includes the steady-state response. The data collected were analyzed and only the data in the steady-state response were used to study the effectiveness of antiheaving devices.

5.4

Experimental results

5.4.1

Figures 5.11 to 5.16 show the vertical response distribution of VLFS without and with the four cases (A1, A2, A3 and A4) of submerged horizontal plate anti-heaving device mentioned in Section 5.2.6 for various wave periods ranging from 0.8s to 1.3s, respectively. The ordinate represents the dimensionless values obtained by dividing the amplitude w of vertical displacement on the center line of the model by the amplitude A of the incident wave, while the abscissa represents the position of measuring points in the longitudinal direction of the model. The wave propagates from right to left. We can see that all these four anti-heaving devices are effective in reducing the deflection near the aft-end of the model with more significant for longer anti-heaving devices A2 and A4 (B = 20cm). According to Ohkusu and Nanba (1996), the motion of VLFS is proportional to the propagation of waves beneath it. That means all these four devices are effective in reducing the wave so that the obtained deflection is smaller 143

when compared to that of the basic VLFS. The longer plates have been observed to provide better reduction effect near the aft-end and this tendency was also presented in the experimental results by Ohta et al. (1999). However, near the fore-end of the model, only anti-heaving devices placed at level dd = 10cm (i.e. Cases A1 and A2) are effective in reducing the deflection while anti-heaving devices placed at level dd = 20cm (i.e. Cases A3 and A4) magnify the deflection instead since these devices placed at a deeper level have a negative damping effect on the fore-end of the model. Among these heaving devices, Case A2 seems to be the best device in reducing the deflection of VLFS. Incoming wave

Fig. 5.11 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 0.8s

144

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.12 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 0.9s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.13 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 1s

145

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.14 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 1.1s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.15 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 1.2s

146

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.16 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with horizontal plate at wave period 1.3s

5.4.2

Figures 5.17 to 5.22 show the vertical response distribution of VLFS without and with four cases (B1, B2, B3 and B4) of vertical plate mentioned in Section 5.2.6 for various wave periods ranging from 0.8s to 1.3s, respectively. We can see clearly that all these four devices are effective in reducing the displacement along the model. Apparently, plates installed at a greater depth dd = 20cm (i.e. Cases B3 and B4) are more effective. When the wave period is longer, the reductions become less significant since the wave energy passes through the model under the bottom of the vertical plate. The tendency of increasing heaving reduction along the model as the installation depth of vertical plate increases and the waves become shorter was also observed by Ohta et al. (1999). For a shorter plate dd = 10cm, plate with slits (i.e. Case B2) performs slightly better as compared to the plate without slits (i.e. Case B1) whereas for the longer plate dd =

147

20cm, the plate without slits (i.e. Case B3) is better than that with slits (i.e. Case B4). Among these 4 devices, Case B3 provides the largest reduction in heaving motion.

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.17 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 0.8s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.18 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 0.9s

148

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.19 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 1s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.20 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 1.1s

149

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.21 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 1.2s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.22 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with vertical plate at wave period 1.3s

150

5.4.3

Figures 5.23 to 5.28 show the vertical response distribution of VLFS without and with four cases (C1, C2, C3 and C4) of L-shaped plate for various wave periods from 0.8s to 1.3s, respectively. The maximum deflection of VLFS always occurs near the ends of VLFS. We can see that all these four devices are effective in reducing the displacement along the model. Apparently, the smallest L-shaped plate (i.e. Case C1) is the least effective. For a shorter wave (i.e. wave period < 1.1s), Case C2 is the most effective in reducing the deflection near the fore-end whereas Case C3 is the most effective in reducing the deflection near the aft-end. As the wave period becomes longer (i.e. wave period 1.1s), the effectiveness of the largest L-shaped device (i.e Case C4) becomes dominant along the model. Ohta et al. (2002) pointed out that L-shape device is effective in reducing the heaving motion of VLFS especially under action of long waves. We can see that our results also follow this tendency especially for Case C4 (with the largest L-shaped plate).

151

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.23 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with L-shaped plate at wave period 0.8s Incoming wave

Fig. 5.24 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with L-shaped plate at wave period 0.9s

152

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.25 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with L-shaped plate at wave period 1s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.26 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with L-shaped plate at wave period 1.1s

153

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.27 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with L-shaped plate at wave period 1.2s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.28 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with L-shaped plate at wave period 1.3s

154

5.4.4

Figures 5.29 to 5.34 show the vertical response distribution of VLFS without and with four cases (D1, D2, D3 and D4) of inclined plate mentioned in Section 5.2.6 for various wave periods from 0.8s to 1.3s, respectively. We can see that all these 4 devices are effective in reducing the displacement along the model. The maximum deflection of VLFS with shorter inclined plates (i.e. Cases D1 and D2) occurs at foreend or aft-end of the model while that of VLFS with longer inclined plates (i.e. Cases D3 and D4) occurs only at the aft-end of the model since the longer inclined plates provide more damping effect on the fore-end of the model. The damping effect of the slits can be seen clearly in the longer plate at the fore-end. As the wave period becomes longer (i.e. wave period 1.1s), the effectiveness of the longer plates becomes dominant along the model. For shorter wave (i.e. wave period <1.1s), the effectiveness of shorter plates becomes dominant especially at the aft-end of the model.

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.29 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 0.8s

155

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.30 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 0.9s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.31 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 1s

156

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.32 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 1.1s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.33 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 1.2s

157

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.34 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with inclined plate at wave period 1.3s

5.5

In order to find the most effective anti-heaving device, we will compare the performances of the 4 types of aforementioned anti-heaving device using the same amount of materials. For the same length of 20cm, we consider the submerged horizontal plate (Case A2), submerged vertical plate (Case B3), submerged L-shaped plate (Case C2), and submerged inclined plate (Case D4). Figures 5.35 to 5.40 show the vertical response distribution of VLFS without and with an anti-heaving device for various wave periods from 0.8s to 1.3s, respectively. As the wave period becomes longer (i.e. wave period 1.2s), the effectiveness of the inclined plate become dominant along the model. For a shorter wave, the inclined plate is the most effective device in reducing the deflection near the fore-end while the vertical plate is the most effective device in reducing the deflection near the aft-end. Therefore, in general, the

158

inclined plate may be regarded as the most effective device among the four considered designs for this VLFS model. Incoming wave

Fig. 5.35 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 20cm length at wave period 0.8s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.36 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 20cm length at wave period 0.9s

159

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.37 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 20cm length at wave period 1s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.38 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 20cm length at wave period 1.1s

160

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.39 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 20cm length at wave period 1.2s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.40 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 20cm length at wave period 1.3s

For the same length of 10cm, we consider submerged horizontal plate (Case A1), submerged vertical plate (Case B2) and submerged inclined plate (Case D1). We also

161

make comparison with a submerged L-shaped plate (Case C1). Figures 5.41 to 5.46 show the vertical response distribution of VLFS without and with an anti-heaving device for various wave periods from 0.8s to 1.3s, respectively. We can see clearly that inclined plate is the most effective device in reducing the deflection along the VLFS. Even when compared with an attached L-shaped device that uses more materials, the inclined plate is still more effective. Therefore, we may deduce that the inclined plate is the most effective anti-heaving device for such a longish floating structure.

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.41 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 10cm length at wave period 0.8s

162

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.42 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 10cm length at wave period 0.9s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.43 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 10cm length at wave period 1s

163

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.44 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 10cm length at wave period 1.1s

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.45 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 10cm length at wave period 1.2s

164

Incoming wave

Fig. 5.46 Nondimensionalized deflection amplitude of VLFS without and with anti-heaving device of 10cm length at wave period 1.3s

5.7

Concluding remarks

In this chapter, we have proposed a submerged inclined plate attached to the fore-end of VLFS to mitigate the heaving motion. The performance of this anti-heaving device was tested by attaching it to the fore-end of a longish flexible floating structure. In order to ascertain the effectiveness of the submerged inclined plate, we compare its performance against three other types of anti-heaving devices (that previous researchers have considered), namely the submerged horizontal plate, the vertical plate and the L-shaped plate. The effectiveness of all these devices in reducing the heaving motion has been confirmed by the test results. Among these devices, the newly proposed submerged inclined plate attachment is the most effective. The reductions of the deflection of the longish floating structure at the fore-end and aft-end when using this device are noted to be very significant. Therefore, by using this device, it would be possible to eliminate 165

the need for an expensive breakwater. In this study, we have only used an inclined plate of 45o. There should exist an optimal angle of inclination that maximizes the reduction of the heaving motion of the longish floating structure and future studies should consider developing a simulation model to seek such an optimal design of submerged inclined plate attachment.

166

CHAPTER 6

FUTURE WORK

The main objective of this thesis is to minimize the differential deflection and heaving motion of Very Large Floating Structure (VLFS). This study was prompted by the fact that for certain applications of VLFS, there is a need to keep the floating platform calm and flat so that the uneven heavy loads and wave forces do not affect the smooth operation of certain equipment on VLFS as well as the structural integrity of VLFS. For example, in the application of VLFS as a floating container terminal, the larger loading at the stacking yard in the middle portion of the VLFS causes severe differential deflection that violates the tight tolerances of the quay crane rails gradient and prevents the smooth operation of the quay cranes. Other applications of VLFS, such as floating dormitories or hotels, require minimum heaving, sway and pitching motions. The innovative solution of using gill cells for minimizing the differential deflection of VLFS under unevenly heavy load was studied in the first part of the thesis (see Chapters 2 and 3). The second part investigates the innovative solutions of submerged plates for minimizing the heaving motion of VLFS under wave action (see Chapters 4 and 5). This chapter summarizes the work and pertinent findings and discusses several directions for future work in these aforementioned areas.

167

6.1

Conclusions

1.

The optimal designs of gill cells with the view to reduce the differential deflection and bending stresses in circular VLFSs were analyzed analytically. The VLFS was modeled as a classical thin (Kirchhoff) plate for the bending analysis and the optimization exercise was performed using classical optimization algorithms based on Newtons method. The study considered a number of design parameters such as loading magnitudes, loading radius, thickness of top and bottom plates and free board at the edge of VLFS. The results show that optimal gill cells are very effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection, bending moments and shear forces. The percentage reductions in the maximum differential deflection, bending moments and shear force can be up to 45%, 45% and 55%, respectively, for the example considered. The optimal design of gill cells is most effective when the loading radius is bound by 0.5R to 0.75R and the loading magnitude is not too large. When the thicknesses of the top and bottom plates and the freeboard height of the circular VLFS are increased, the optimal design of gill cells is more effective in reducing the maximum shear force but is comparatively less effective in reducing the maximum differential deflection and bending moments.

2.

Also investigated herein is the effect of using stepped plate VLFS in reducing the differential deflection of VLFS under heavy loads in pontoon-type, circular VLFS under a central uniform partial load. The results show that this solution is also effective in reducing the differential deflection in VLFS. By comparing with the

168

Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work solution of using gill cells, the results indicate that the solution of using gill cells is more effective than using stepped plate. This may be attributed to the fact that by using gill cells, the buoyancy forces are eliminated and this allows uneven buoyancy forces acting at the bottom hull of the VLFS to somewhat counterbalance the applied uneven loading. These findings are of crucial importance in enhancing our understanding on the effectiveness of some possible solutions in reducing the differential deflection in VLFS and suggesting the best solution to use in the offshore industry. 3. In addition to circular VLFS, the optimal designs of gill cells with the view to reducing the slope and bending stresses in the annular VLFS were analyzed by using a hybrid method of classical optimization algorithms based on Newtons method and genetic algorithm. The obtained results show that optimal design of gill cells in annular VLFS can reduce the maximum slope, shear force and bending moment up to 59%, 12% and 65%, respectively for the example considered. These reductions are significant and clearly show the effectiveness of gill cells in reducing the slope and stress-resultants. Together with the analysis of gill cells in circular VLFS mentioned above, the findings provide useful benchmark solutions for designing circular and annular VLFS with gill cells. 4. The optimal design of gill cells and its effectiveness in non-circular VLFS were also studied by developing an appropriate FEM model for VLFS bending analysis and using genetic algorithms as an optimization tool. The modeling and optimization technique were illustrated with examples considering square, rectangular and I-shape VLFSs. The results show that, with optimal gill cells, the differential deflection is significantly reduced and the VLFS deflection shape is 169

Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work significantly flatter over the entire of VLFS domain. However, for VLFSs with reentrant corners, reinforcement may be necessary at these corners because of increase in the maximum von Mises stress in these regions. This is due to the fact that by using gill cells, the curvature of VLFS is changed. With optimal gill cells, the curvature of VLFS is much flatter that makes the differential deflection reduce and deflection shape flatter. At the reentrant corners, the curvature changes abruptly and makes the bending stresses increase. The FEM model and optimization technique developed herein can be applied to any shape of floating structure under any loading configuration to minimize the differential deflection. In the offshore industry, this model can be employed for the preliminary design stage of arbitrarily shaped VLFS. 5. Also developed herein is an analytical model to investigate the submerged plate anti-heaving device for minimizing the motion of circular VLFS under wave action. This is a precise model considering rigorously the configuration of the submerged horizontal plate within the framework of linear potential theory. The obtained results show the effectiveness of this anti-heaving device in reducing not only the heaving motion but also the stress-resultants of circular VLFS. This may be due to the fact that the submerged plate reduces the wave height so that the wave under the VLFS has lower amplitude when compared with the VLFS without the attached plate. 6. To investigate anti-heaving device for longish VLFS (which are used as floating runways or piers), it is proposed that a submerged inclined plate be attached to the fore-end of VLFS. We have tested this device as well as three other types of antiheaving devices proposed in previous studies by other authors, namely submerged 170

Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work horizontal plate, vertical plate and L-shaped plate. The experiments were carried out with anti-heaving device attached to the fore-end of a longish flexible floating structure. The effectiveness of these devices in reducing the heaving motion has been confirmed by the test results. Among these devices, the newly proposed inclined plate attachment seems to be the most effective one. The reductions of the deflection of the longish floating structure at the fore-end and aft-end when using this device are noted to be very significant. Therefore, by using this device, it would be possible to eliminate the need for an expensive breakwater

6.2

Based on the findings presented above, the study of innovative solutions for minimizing differential deflection and heaving motion of VLFS can be extended to widen their applicability. Some recommendations for future work are listed below:

1.

In this study, the investigation of the best innovative solutions for minimizing differential deflection in VLFS was carried on circular VLFS. Future investigations should consider other shapes of VLFS.

2.

With regard to gill cells for minimizing differential deflection in circular and annular VLFS, analytical bending solutions used were based on the classical thin plate theory. In future study, analytical solutions for bending analysis for circular and annular VLFS can be developed based on Mindlin plate theory for better prediction response of VLFS especially the stress-resultants.

171

Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work 3. Some interesting shapes of VLFSs were studied using gill cells to minimize the differential deflection. The current research only considered the loading area to be confined in the central portion of the VLFSs. Since the present numerical model is capable of dealing with arbitrarily shaped VLFS and locations of loaded area, this study can be extended to investigate other shapes and locations of loaded area. 4. Investigation on minimizing differential deflection in VLFS in this study considered VLFS in a benign sea state condition where the influence of wave is neglected. If the VLFS is located in a more severe sea state environment, it is necessary to perform hydroelastic analysis of the VLFS under wave action as well and determine the optimal design of gill cells allowing for this hydroelastic component. Future studies are recommended to investigate the dynamic hydroelastic problem of VLFS with gill cells. 5. In this study, an analytical model was developed to investigate the submerged plate anti-heaving device for minimizing the motion of circular VLFS under wave action was developed for the first time. However, this model is based on 2-D configuration of VLFS and is restricted to only circular VLFS. Future works are needed to investigate the effectiveness of submerged plate used in other shapes of VLFSs. For arbitrarily shaped VLFSs, a 3-D configuration model is required. Therefore, it is necessary to extend the 2-D model to 3-D model to analyze more accurately the behavior and response of the real structure. 6. By performing experimental tests on 4 types of anti-heaving devices including a submerged horizontal plate, a submerged vertical plate, a submerged L-shape plate and a submerged inclined plate attached to the fore-end of a longish flexible floating structure, it has been found that the inclined plate is the best anti-heaving 172

Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work device. We have only considered the case of an inclined plate of 450. Future studies should investigate the effect of the angle of inclination on the capability of the anti-heaving device. In particular, it would be useful to carry out an optimization study to determine whether there exists an optimal angle of inclination of the inclined plate as an anti-heaving device. It is also proposed that future studies focus on developing a numerical technique and computer code for predicting the heaving motion of arbitrary shaped anti-heaving device and experimental studies carried out to validate the numerical solutions.

173

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References Watanabe E., Utsunomiya T. and Tanigaki S. (1998). A Transient Response Analysis of a Very Large Floating Structure by Finite Element Method. Structural Engineering/Earthquake Engineering, JSCE 15(2), 155s-63s. Watanabe E., Utsunomiya T. and Kuramoto M. (2003a). Wave Response Analysis of VLFS with an Attached Submerged Plate. International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering 13, 190-7. Watanabe E., Utsunomiya T., Wang C.M. and Xiang Y. (2003b). Hydroelastic Analysis of Pontoon-type circular VLFS. Proceedings of the 13th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Honolulu, USA 1, 93-9. Watanabe E., Utsunomiya T. and Wang C.M. (2004a). Hydroelastic Analysis of Pontoon-Type VLFS: a Literature Survey. Engineering Structures 26(2), 245-56. Watanabe E., Wang C.M., Utsumomiya T. and Moan T. (2004b). Very Large Floating Structures: Applications, Analysis and Design. CORE Report 2004-02, Singapore, 30p. Watanabe E., Utsunomiya T., Wang C.M. and Le Thi Thu Hang (2006). Benchmark Hydroelastic Responses of Circular VLFS under Wave Action. Engineering Structures 28, 423-30. Wehausen J.V. and Laitone E.V. (1960). Surface Waves. Encyclopedia of Physics, Springer-Verlage, Berlin 9, 446-814. Wu C., Watanabe E. and Utsunomiya T. (1995). An eigenfunction expansion-matching method for analyzing the wave induced responses of an elastic floating plate. Applied Ocean Research 17, 301-10. Xiang Y. and Zhang L. (2004). Free Vibration Analysis of Stepped Circular Mindlin Plates. Journal of Sound and Vibration 280, 633-55. 184

References Yako K. and Endo H. (1996). On the Hydroelastic Response of Box-shaped Floating Structures with Shallow Draft. Journal of the Kansai Society of Naval Architects 180, 341-52. Ye J.Q. (2008). Structural Analysis and Stress Analysis: Theories, Tutorials and Examples. London: Taylor & Francis. Yoneyama H., Hiraishi T. and Ueda S. (2004). Recent Technological Advances of Ship Mooring Analysis and Construction of Floating Structures in Japan. PIANC Bulletin 116, 79-89. Zhao C., Zhang J. and Huang W. (2007). Vibration Reduction of Floating Elastic Plates in Wave Waters. Marine Structures 20, 71-99. Zilman G. and Miloh T. (2000). Hydroelastic Buoyant Circular Plate in Shallow Water: a Closed Form Solution. Applied Ocean Research 22, 191-8.

185

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Wang C.M., Pham D.C. and Ang K.K. (2006). Effectiveness and Optimal Design of Gill Cells in Minimizing Differential Deflection in Circular VLFS. Engineering Structures 29(8), 1845-53. D.C. Pham, C.M. Wang and T. Utsunomiya (2008). Hydroelastic Analysis of a Pontoon-Type Circular VLFS with an Attached Submerged Plate. Applied Ocean

Research 30(4), 287-96.

Pham D.C. and Wang C.M. (2009). Optimal Layout of Gill Cells for Very Large Floating Structures. Journal of Structural Engineering. (In Press) Pham D.C., Wang C.M. and Emma P.B. (2009). Experimental Study on Anti-Heaving Devices for a Longish VLFS. The Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Singapore, 02(4).

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE Pham D.C., Wang C.M. and Ang K.K. (2005). Minimizing Differential Deflection and Stresses in VLFS Using Gill Cells. Proceedings of the Eighteenth KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 829-34.

186

List of Publications Pham D.C., Wang C.M. and Ang K.K. (2007). Optimal Design of Gill Cells for Very Large Floating Structures. The 7th International Conference on Optimization: Technique and Application (ICOTA7), Kobe, Japan, 255-36. Pham D.C. and Wang C.M. (2007). Effectiveness and Optimal Design of Gill Cells in Minimizing Slope in annular VLFS. Proceedings of the Twentieth KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, Jeju, Korea, 255-8. Pham D.C., Wang C.M. and Emma P.B. (2008). Anti-Heaving Devices for VLFS. Proceedings of the Twenty First KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, Singapore, 286-89.

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