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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY DNM 100 Core, Basic, Compulsory and Must Pass 3 (2 + 1) 28 hours of lecture and 21 hours of tutorial 49 hours

Diploma Semester 1 Year 1 None Lectures Tutorial Group Work Presentations Coursework and or Pop Quiz Formative MCQ Summative MCQ S.S.MOORTHY SEMENCHALAM The aim of the module is to introduce to the students the normal structure and physiology of human beings. The module includes knowledge on the biochemical changes of cells and the production of energy. At the end of the module, students should be able to : 1. Explain the normal structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and systems of the body 2. Describe briefly the major structures and basic functions of various systems in human body 3. Relate the structure and function to explain common diseases




This module introduces the student on structure and normal functions of parts of the healthy human body as a prerequisite before they embark to study pathophysiology. The module also includes introduction on the biochemical changes in cells and the production of energy.


MODULE TITLE INTRODUCTION ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Define the meaning of anatomy and physiology State the different aspects of human body List the levels of organization in the human body State the body as a whole using standard terminology Identify the organ system, location and the functions of each system Appreciate the importance of understanding the anatomical terminology of body directions, surface and body planes CELL Cell and organelle Function of each organelles Generalizes cells Nucleus Mitochondria Golgi apparatus Ribosome Lysosome Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane transportation across cell membrane Cell division mitosis and meiosis TISSUES Four major tissues types and their chief subcategories (epithelium, connective, muscle, nervous) Chief locations of the various tissue types in the body Process of tissue repair (wound healing) LECTURE HOURS 2 TUTORIAL HOURS 1 PRACTICAL HOURS

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Functions of skin Layers of epidermis and cells that compose them Composition of papillary & reticular layers of dermis Structure & functions of skin appendages (hair, glands and nail) SKELETAL MUSCLE 2 classifications of bones Functions of bones Types of bones Composition of bone Types of joints 3 types of muscle tissue Characteristics & structure of muscle tissue Relations of muscle and movement CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Anatomy & Physiology) Structure of the heart 3 layers of heart wall Chambers and valves of the heart Function of the chambers and valves Physiology of the heart Stages in cardiac cycle Understand how the heart sound is produced Cardiac output CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Blood circulation) Differences between artery and venous 2 main circulations of the body Various blood vessels that supply blood to various parts of the body. Normal range of blood pressure Factors of controlling blood pressure Define pulse 7 pairs of sites where pulse is

palpable CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Lymphatic System) Name the structures of lymph system Functions of the lymphatic system Macroscopic and microscopic structures of the components of the lymphatic system 4 main lymphocytes (lymphoid cells) and its main functions Types of lymphoid tissue Microscopic structure of lymph nodes Structure and functions of lymph nodes 4 others lymphoid organs and state its structure and functions RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Functions of respiratory system Respiratory organs Structure and function of - Nose - Pharynx - Larynx - Trachea - Bronchial tree - Lungs - Alveoli Breathing mechanics 2 phases in the mechanics of breathing Process of inspiration and expiration Muscles involved in the mechanics of breathing Pulmonary respiration Tissue respiration Tidal volume DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Components of gastrointestinal system. Functions of the GI tract system. Gross anatomy of the alimentary 2 1

tract Gross & microscopic structures of the accessory organs (pancreas, biliary tract, gall bladder & liver) Functions of the accessory organs (pancreas, biliary tract, gall bladder & liver) Mechanism of digestion 2 1

URINARY SYSTEM Main components of urinary system Functions of kidney Path of blood flow through the kidney Structure of nephrones 3 main processes in urine formation Compositions of urine Structure and specific functions of ureter, urinary bladder and urethra Process of micturition ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Hormones produced by the endocrine glands. State their general functions. How hormone effects the body SPECIAL SENSES Sensation; types of sensation List the general senses List the special senses NERVOUS SYSTEM General functions of the nervous system Function of neurons and neuroglia Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system TOTAL CONTACT HOURS TOTAL CREDIT HOURS TOTAL CREDIT HOURS MAIN REFERENCES 1. 2. 3.

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Marieb, E., Human Anatomy & Physiology, 6th Ed Rizzo, Delmar, Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, ISE Scott/Fong, Body Structure and Functions, 10th Ed, Thomas Delmar Learning Series


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Wilson, K. J. W. 1999, Ross & Wilson, Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, Churchill Livingston Evelyn Pearce, 2000. Anatomi dan Fisiologi untuk Jururawat, Golden Book Center Sdn Bhd. Raman et al, 2002. Fisiologi Manusia, 2nd Ed, Penerbit Fajar Bakti Applegate Edith, 2000. The Anatomy & Physiology in Health and Illness, 2nd Ed, W. B. Saunders Waugh Grant, Riss & Wilson, Anatomy & Physiology, 9th Ed. Ross and Wilson, 1998, Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, 8th Ed, Churchill Livingston


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10. Laboratory Manual, Related Magazines, Related Journals, Internet Sites, Newspapers, Scientific Video / CD ROM