BPM ASSIGNMENT

Prepared for: Prof. Prashant Kulkarni Prepared by: Raj Shah ( 323 ), MBA(Tech.) – Manufacturing / DIV C Date: 27th March 2013

Q1. (a) What is business process management and how it is related to your area of management? 
 (b) Does business process management always involve information technology?
Business process management (BPM) has been referred to as a "holistic management" approach to aligning an organization's business processes with the wants and needs of clients. It promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology. BPM attempts to improve processes continuously. It can therefore be described as a "process optimization process." It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach. These processes are critical to any organization, as they can generate revenue and often represent a significant proportion of costs. As a managerial approach, BPM sees processes as strategic assets of an organization that must be understood, managed, and improved to deliver value-added products and services to clients. This foundation closely resembles other Total Quality Management or Continuous Improvement Process methodologies or approaches. BPM goes a step further by stating that this approach can be supported, or enabled, through technology to ensure the viability of the managerial approach in times of stress and change. In fact, BPM offers an approach to integrate an organizational "change capability" that is both human and technological. As such, many BPM articles and pundits often discuss BPM from one of two viewpoints: people and/or technology. BPM or Business Process Management is often referred to as 'Management by Business Processes'. The term "business" can be confusing as it is often linked with a hierarchical view (by function) of a company. It is therefore preferable to define BPM as "corporate management through processes". By adding BPM the second meaning of 'Business Performance Management' used by Pr Scheer in his article "Advanced BPM Assessment", BPM can therefore be defined as "company performance management through processes". And it's this resolutely performance-oriented definition which is chosen here. Dominique Thiault, in Managing Performance Through Business Processes defines BPM as a management-through-processes method which helps to improve the company's performance in a more and more complex and ever-changing environment. Management through processes is a management method based on two logical levels: process governance and process management: . Process governance is all of the company's governance activities which, by way of allocating on the processes, work towards reaching its objectives, which are both operational and progress-related. . Process management is all the management activities of a given process which work towards reaching the objectives allocated for this process.

Roughly speaking, the idea of business process is as traditional as concepts of tasks, department, production, and outputs. The management and improvement approach as of 2010, with formal definitions and technical modeling, has been around since the early 1990s. Note that the IT community often uses the term "business process" as synonymous with the management of middleware processes; or as synonymous with integrating application software tasks. This viewpoint may be overly restrictive - a limitation to keep in mind when reading software engineering papers that refer to "business processes" or to "business process modeling". Although BPM initially focused on the automation of business processes with the use of information technology, it has since been extended to integrate human-driven processes in which human interaction takes place in series or parallel with the use of technology. For example (in workflow systems), when individual steps in the business process require deploying human intuition or judgment, these steps are assigned to appropriate members within the organization. More advanced forms such as human interaction management are in the complex interaction between human workers in performing a workgroup task. In this case, many people and systems interact in structured, ad-hoc, and sometimes completely dynamic ways to complete one to many transactions. BPM can be used to understand organizations through expanded views that would not otherwise be available to organize and present, such as relationships between processes. When included in a process model, these relationships provide for advanced reporting and analysis. BPM is regarded by some as the backbone of enterprise content management. Because BPM allows organizations to abstract business process from technology infrastructure, it goes far beyond automating business processes (software) or solving business problems (suite). BPM enables business to respond to changing consumer, market, and regulatory demands faster than competitors - creating competitive advantage. As of 2010 technology has allowed the coupling of BPM to other methodologies, such as Six Sigma. BPM tools allow users to: • • • • • • vision - strategize functions and processes define - baseline the process or the process improvement model - simulate the change to the process analyze - compare the various simulations to determine an optimal improvement improve - select and implement the improvement control - deploy this implementation and by use of user-defined dashboards monitor the improvement in real time and feed the performance information back into the simulation model in preparation for the next improvement iteration • re-engineer - revamp the processes from scratch for better results

This brings with it the benefit of being able to simulate changes to business processes based on real-life data (not just on assumed knowledge). As of 2012 research on BPM has paid increasing attention to the compliance of business processes. as business processes continuously need to adapt to changes in the environment. compliance with business strategy. the coupling of BPM to industry methodologies allows users to continually streamline and optimize the process to ensure that it is tuned to its market need. Also. . Although a key aspect of business processes is flexibility. As of 2010 BPM approaches in a governmental context largely focus on operational processes and knowledge representation. The compliance aspect in BPM is highly important for governmental organizations. policies and government regulations should also be ensured. Although there have been many technical studies on operational business processes both in the public and in the private sector. researchers have rarely taken legal compliance activities into account. for instance the legal implementation processes in public-administration bodies.

(a) List seven generic steps involved in many BPM projects. . 
 (b) List and discuss seven fundamental principles to keep in mind when undertaking a BPM initiative.Q2.

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The individual isn't necessarily in charge of the project. 4. but is the primary beneficiary of the new. and focusing on a few projects that will deliver highly visible results are two of the seven major fundamentals to business process management success. disciplined post-project review and/or audit — and potentially even a longer-term review of results. Gartner advises project managers to get business users on board by making a process view easy to understand and intriguing. Gartner says the requirement of having an enthusiastic business sponsor is vital because he or she. and that are straightforward. particularly if they're influential in the organization. Whether the goals are to raise stock prices or get employees on Twitter. and to spread the word of a high-value payoff. Limited Scope: Instead of diving into a major end-to-end process improvement project. oftentimes no more than 60 to 90 days. Gartner advises enterprises to start small. The researcher says this can be accomplished by deploying good modeling and visualization methods that present meaningful measures of performance. This includes agreeing on a primary. 7. "The time frame should be relatively near-term. Focus on projects for which organizations have the skills. they feel a sense of ownership about what they do and they engage in seeing how things could actually be done better. 3. Gartner warns that this process may take as much effort as that of business process modeling. it is essential that performance-baseline data be available as a basis for comparison of current results versus prior results. 5. .Starting small. "Furthermore. will champion the project's success. drop it. "Success here can mean that users realize that they are the experts. The quantitative degree of improvement is vital to make a strong impression. 6. 2. shared. improved level of performance." says Gartner." Gartner says. Gartner adds. Clear Alignment to Goals: No surprise here as Gartner advises that BPM projects should align with important organizational or business-unit goals and strategies. This clearly requires a sound. Enthusiastic Business Sponsor: If your project doesn't have a sponsor. 1. Goal Agreement: This is easier said than done but it's crucial to get all process stakeholders to agree on what is the desired performance improvement. The Right Metrics: Okay. Business User Engagement: Many people dislike change and that can be a big challenge for BPM projects. says Gartner. the project should directly contribute to the attainment of a targeted goal. Such projects should focus on achieving results. High Value: Gartner believes that only a fraction of all business processes are perceived as having high inherent value in achieving end results. common performance goal that must be agreed upon before the get-go. with the hierarchy being developed and clearly understood. as defined by Gartner.” says Gartner. so how do you know the project is achieving high results? Gartner says enterprises must employ a few measurement metrics that are clearly understood and accepted by the rest of the organization.

and speed. enabling enterprises to have significant breakthroughs in cost. The following compares the difference between BPM and BPR: BPR (Business Process Reengineering) If BPM is a system software. BPR re-evaluates the processes used by the enterprise from the very basics and thoroughly redesigns them. How can it be used as a Business Strategy in a FMCG Company. to investments in various resource integration efforts for Business Process Management (BPM) system are all weapons that enterprises use to survive. service. BPR has a higher degree of risk for enterprises. BPR is for the whole enterprise and may even include basic organization structures in its large modifications. BPR can enable enterprises to reform from deep within. Converting the enterprise processes into electronic form is a required competitive weapon in this competitive global battleground! From Business Process Re-engineering (BRP) efforts by enterprise to covert to electronic processes. Therefore. .Q3. 
 (b) Explain what is JIT. (a) Compare and Contrast between Business Process Management (BPM) and Business Process Re-engineering. Cite examples. Therefore. then BPR is a method. and create a new organization structure.

As well.BPM (Business Processes Management) BPM is a concept built internally in an enterprise that continuous to manage business processes. understands. In an environment that stores internal and external events. BPM starts from a group of dependent processes. and manages the whole process. automatically linking each department. BPM can integrate internal resources in an enterprise. that describes. the system can automatically make decisions based on rules and processes of the enterprise to satisfy the management needs of the enterprise. creating comprehensive core competitive force. enabling the enterprise to become a single united special forces team. establishing standardized business processes through a single portal. indicates. .

Quick notice which requires personnel to order new stock once existing stock is depleting is critical to the inventory reduction at the center of the JIT policy. To meet JIT objectives. such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. its effective application cannot be independent of other key components of a lean manufacturing system or it can "end up with the opposite of the desired result. JIT relies on other elements in the inventory chain as well. some research demonstrates that basing JIT on the presumption of stability is inherently flawed. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow.JUST IN TIME Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. which tell production when to make the next part. However. Implemented correctly. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals. quality. employee involvement and quality. For instance. and efficiency. however. which saves warehouse space and costs. . the process relies on signals or Kanban between different points in the process. JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment." In recent years manufacturers have continued to try to hone forecasting methods such as applying a trailing 13-week average as a better predictor for JIT planning.

and are therefore not a simple solution for a company to adopt. lack of flexibility of employees and equipment. In short. the Just-in-Time inventory system focus is having “the right material. and to constantly improve those processes to require less inventory. at the right place. and in the exact amount” -Ryan Grabosky. or waste. allowing any stock habituates management to stock keeping. This does not mean to say JIT is implemented without an awareness that removing inventory exposes pre-existing manufacturing issues. at the right time. industrial engineering. These problems include backups at work centers. Inventory is seen as incurring costs. The company must follow an array of new methods to manage the consequences of the change. contrary to traditional accounting. Management may be tempted to keep stock to hide production problems. production management. and inadequate capacity. and behavioral science. The ideas in this way of working come from many different disciplines including statistics. The JIT inventory philosophy defines how inventory is viewed and how it relates to management.The philosophy of JIT is simple: the storage of unused inventory is a waste of resources. instead of adding and storing value. without the safety net of inventory. This way of working encourages businesses to eliminate inventory that does not compensate for manufacturing process issues. machine reliability. process variability. Secondly. JIT inventory systems expose hidden cost of keeping inventory. .

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money and . and the current allocation level.g. Gap analysis naturally flows from benchmarking and other assessments. . or foregoes investment in capital or technology. Such analysis can be performed at the strategic or operational level of an organization. It can be conducted. in different perspectives. .. as follows: . and approving the variance between business requirements and current capabilities. At its core are two questions: "Where are we?" and "Where do we want to be?" If a company or organization does not make the best use of current resources. This concept is similar to the base case of being below the production possibilities frontier.Q4. Human Resources) Business direction Business processes Information technology Gap analysis provides a foundation for measuring investment of time. it may produce or perform below its potential. Organization (e. gap analysis is a tool that helps companies compare actual performance with potential performance. Gap analysis identifies gaps between the optimized allocation and integration of the inputs (resources). Gap analysis involves determining. . This reveals areas that can be improved. it is possible to compare that expectation with the company's current level of performance. Once the general expectation of performance in the industry is understood. documenting. Gap analysis is a formal study of what a business is doing currently and where it wants to go in the future. This comparison becomes the gap analysis. Write Short Notes on (a) Gap Analysis 
 In business and economics.

'GAP' can be used as a ranking of 'Good'. to turn the salary payment process from paper-based to paperless with the use of a system). 'Average' or 'Poor'.human resources required to achieve a particular outcome (e. In this case. in particular from the use of the Boston Consulting Group Growth-share matrix—or the need may emerge from the regular process of following trends in the requirements of consumers. (b) DMAIC Approach
 . Note that 'GAP analysis' has also been used as a means of classifying how well a product or solution meets a targeted need or set of requirements. The organization must fill that gap to survive and grow. Steps in Gap Analysis. a gap emerges between what existing products offer and what the consumer demands. The need for new products or additions to existing lines may emerge from portfolio analysis.g. At some point.

Good data is at the heart of the DMAIC process: • Identify the gap between current and required performance. a gauge study) for adequate accuracy and precision. The performance metric baseline(s) from the Measure phase will be compared to the performance metric at the conclusion of the project to determine objectively whether significant improvement has been made. validate and select root cause for elimination. Measure The purpose of this step is to objectively establish current baselines as the basis for improvement. The top 3-4 potential root causes are selected using multi-voting or other consensus tool for further validation. Measure. • Collect data to create a process performance capability baseline for the project metric. Improve and Control. often complex . the purpose of which is to establish process performance baselines. All of the DMAIC process steps are required and always proceed in this order: Define The purpose of this step is to clearly articulate the business problem. Critical to Quality (CTQs) — what are the critical process outputs? . The customer(s) . Project boundaries or scope . that is. Within Six Sigma. The DMAIC improvement cycle is the core tool used to drive Six Sigma projects. goal. Project targets or goal . DMAIC is not exclusive to Six Sigma and can be used as the framework for other improvement applications. • Establish a high level process flow baseline. Write down what you currently know. Seek to clarify facts. A project charter is often created and agreed upon during the Define step. A problem statement . The target process subject to DMAIC and other related business processes . Additional detail can be filled in later. A data collection plan is created and data are collected to establish the relative contribution of each root causes to the project metric. X) of the project problem are identified via root cause analysis (for example a fishbone diagram). A large number of potential root causes (process inputs. The team decides on what should be measured and how to measure it. project scope and high-level project timeline. This process is repeated until "valid" root causes can be identified. Define the following: . • Assess the measurement system (for example. This information is typically captured within project charter document. potential resources. Analyze The purpose of this step is to identify. This is a data collection step. set objectives and form the project team.DMAIC refers to a data-driven improvement cycle used for improving. optimizing and stabilizing business processes and designs. Y. Analyze. the process Y(s) (there may be more than one output). DMAIC is an abbreviation of the five improvement steps: Define. It is usual for teams to invest a lot of effort into assessing the suitability of the proposed measurement systems.

Identify creative solutions to eliminate the key root causes in order to fix and prevent process problems. and what might be contributing to the occurrence. test and implement a solution to the problem. Of the "validated" root causes. . Y. in part or in whole. it is acceptable to use basic tools if these are appropriate. Think about replicating the changes in other processes. and line plots are often used to do this. Share your new knowledge within and outside of your organization. • Detailed process maps can be created to help pin-point where in the process the root causes reside. X. to the project metric. Data is analyzed to understand the magnitude of contribution of each root cause. Statistical tests using p-values accompanied by Histograms. A Control chart can be useful during the control stage to assess the stability of the improvements over time Replicate or Thank the Team This is additional to the standard DMAIC steps but it should be considered. • • • • Create innovative solutions Focus on the simplest and easiest solutions Test solutions using Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle Based on PDSA results. Use brainstorming or techniques like Six Thinking Hats and Random Word. but try to focus on obvious solutions if these are apparent. all or some can be • List and prioritize potential causes of the problem • Prioritize the root causes (key process inputs) to pursue in the Improve step • Identify how the process inputs (Xs) affect the process outputs (Ys). Improve The purpose of this step is to identify. Monitor the improvements to ensure continued and sustainable success. Some projects can utilize complex analysis tools like DOE (Design of Experiments). attempt to anticipate any avoidable risks associated with the "improvement" using FMEA • Create a detailed implementation plan • Deploy improvements Control The purpose of this step is to sustain the gains. However. It is very important to always provide positive moral support to team members.analysis tools are used. Pareto charts. business process and training records as required. Create a control plan. Update documents.

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processes. initial designs were encouraged to measure three categories of non-financial measure in addition to financial outputs .a semistandard structured report.being more flexible (to suit a wider range of organisational types) and more effective (as design methods have evolved to make them easier to design. the balanced scorecard is effective in that "it articulates the links between leading inputs (human and physical). and use). The balanced scorecard also gives light to the company's vision and mission. and the modern performance management tools including Balanced Scorecard are significantly improved . Accordingly. Modern balanced scorecard thinking has evolved considerably since the initial ideas proposed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It is the method by which this 'most relevant' information is determined (i. the design processes used to select the content) that most differentiates the various versions of the tool in circulation. and proposed design methods that focused on choosing measures and targets associated with the main activities required to implement the strategy.e." The first versions of balanced scorecard asserted that relevance should derive from the corporate strategy. the proposal was translated into a form that made sense to a typical reader of that journal . supported by design methods and automation tools.(c) Balanced Scorecard The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a strategy performance management tool . . The report is not meant to be a replacement for traditional financial or operational reports but a succinct summary that captures the information most relevant to those reading it. The characteristic of the balanced scorecard and its derivatives is the presentation of a mixture of financial and non-financial measures each compared to a 'target' value within a single concise report. and has been widely adopted in English-speaking western countries and Scandinavia in the early 1990s)." "internal business processes" and "learning and growth..one relevant to a mid-sized US business.those of "customer. It is perhaps the best known of several such frameworks (it is the most widely adopted performance management framework reported in the annual survey of management tools undertaken by Bain & Company. and lagging outcomes and focuses on the importance of managing these components to achieve the organization's strategic priorities. that can be used by managers to keep track of the execution of activities by the staff within their control and to monitor the consequences arising from these actions. As a model of performance. and much of the early literature on balanced scorecard focused on suggestions of alternative 'perspectives' that might have more relevance to these groups. These two elements must always be referred to when preparing a balance scorecard." Clearly these categories were not so relevant to non-profits or units within complex organizations (which might have high degrees of internal specialization). As the initial audience for this were the readers of the Harvard Business Review.

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The format for kaizen can be individual. the culture of continual aligned small improvements and standardization yields large results in the form of compound productivity improvement. The word refers to any improvement. it is usually a local improvement within a workstation or local area and involves a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. humanizes the workplace. especially in the case of oft-emulated practices spearheaded by Toyota. given the common practice in Japan of labeling industrial or business improvement techniques with the word "kaizen" (for lack of a specific Japanese word meaning "continuous improvement" or "philosophy of improvement")." Successful implementation requires "the participation of workers in the improvement. the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. as well as external stakeholders when applicable. In all. or even taken to mean a "Japanese philosophy" thereof. which can be rapidly adapted as new improvements are suggested. and frees human efforts through improving productivity using machines and computing power. the word Kaizen in English is typically applied to measures for implementing continuous improvement. from the CEO down to janitorial staff. Large-scale preplanning and extensive project scheduling are replaced by smaller experiments. sometimes this is the line supervisor's key role. It is also a process that. Kaizen on a broad. and issues that arise from them are typically used in later blitzes. it is designed to address a particular issue over the course of a week and is referred to as a "kaizen blitz" or "kaizen event"." People at all levels of an organization participate in kaizen. While kaizen (at Toyota) usually delivers small improvements. These are limited in scope. or large group. as frequently used in the context of modern management discussions. The discussion below focuses on such interpretations of the word. In modern usage. then adjusting. Kaizen methodology includes making changes and monitoring results. in the same sense as the English word "improvement". generates total quality management. cross-departmental scale in companies. This philosophy differs from the "command and control" improvement programs of the mid-twentieth century. suggestion system. However.(d) Kaizen
 The Japanese word "kaizen" simply means "good change". eliminates overly hard work ("muri"). when done correctly. . This group is often guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor. the process suggests a humanized approach to workers and to increasing productivity: "The idea is to nurture the company's human resources as much as it is to praise and encourage participation in kaizen activities. Kaizen is a daily process. small group. with no inherent meaning of either "continuous" or "philosophy" in Japanese dictionaries or in everyday use. one-time or continuous. large or small. At Toyota. and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes.

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(e) Six Sigma .

Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets (cost reduction and/or profit increase). including statistical methods. this defect level corresponds to only a 4. A six sigma process is one in which 99. . and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Champions". and today it is used in different sectors of industry. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. "Green Belts". etc. The term Six Sigma originated from terminology associated with manufacturing. although. It uses a set of quality management methods.99966% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects (3. Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.4 defects per million). "Black Belts".5 sigma level. "Orange Belts".Six Sigma is a set of tools and strategies for process improvement originally developed by Motorola in 1985. Six Sigma became well known after Jack Welch made it a central focus of his business strategy at General Electric in 1995. Motorola set a goal of "six sigma" for all of its manufacturing operations.) who are experts in these very complex methods. specifically terms associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes. and this goal became a byword for the management and engineering practices used to achieve it.


 (f) Fishbone Diagram .

Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. Were guidelines for judgment available? . paper. Is he experienced? . and culture in which the process operates Questions to be asked while building a Fishbone Diagram Man/Operator . computers. How much experience does the individual have in performing this task? . herringbone diagrams. Was the information properly circulated to all the functions? . Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Is he medically fit and healthy? . Is fatigue a contributing factor? . People: Anyone involved with the process . Is he qualified? . Did the recipient understand the information? . such as location. Materials: Raw materials. etc. Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality . used to produce the final product . Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it. Was the proper training to perform the task administered to the person? .Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams. can he carry out the operation without error? Machines • • • • Was the correct tool/tooling used? Does it meet production requirements? Does it meet process capabilities? Are files saved with the correct extension to the correct location? . Is his work efficiency acceptable? . Is he responsible/accountable? . Environment: The conditions. such as policies. causeand-effect diagrams. procedures. Did the environment influence the actions of the individual? . Machines: Any equipment. to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention. etc. Was the document properly interpreted? . Was too much judgment required to perform the task? . temperature. pens. or Fishikawa) are causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific event. rules. tools. The categories typically include: . Are there distractions in the workplace? . regulations and laws . required to accomplish the job . parts. time.

? • Was a gauge capability study ever performed? • Do measurements vary significantly from operator to operator? • Do operators have a tough time using the prescribed gauge? • Is the gauge fixturing adequate? • Does the gauge have proper measurement resolution? • Did the environment influence the measurements taken? Material (Includes Raw Material. dispensed.. labeled properly? • Were the workers trained properly in the procedure? • Was the testing performed statistically significant? . process. used & disposed)? Method • Was the canister. Consumables and Information ) • Is all needed information available and accurate? • Can information be verified or cross-checked? • Has any information changed recently / do we have a way of keeping the information up to date? • What happens if we don't have all of the information we need? • Is a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) readily available? • Was the material properly tested? • Was the material substituted? • Is the supplier’s process defined and controlled? • Was the raw material defective? • was the raw material the wrong type for the job? • Were quality requirements adequate for the part's function? • Was the material contaminated? • Was the material handled properly (stored. chemical. barrel.e.• Is the equipment affected by the environment? • Is the equipment being properly maintained (i. compound. etc. daily/weekly/monthly preventative maintenance schedule) • Does the software or hardware need to be updated? • Does the equipment or software have the features to support our needs/usage? • Was the machine properly maintained? • Was the machine properly programmed? • Is the tooling/fixturing adequate for the job? • Does the machine have an adequate guard? • Was the equipment used within its capabilities and limitations? • Are all controls including emergency stop button clearly labeled and/or color-coded or size differentiated? • Is the equipment the right application for the given job? Measurement • Does the gauge have a valid calibration date? • Was the proper gauge used to measure the part. etc.

lighting.. vibration.? Management • Is management involvement seen? • Inattention to task • Task hazards not guarded properly • Other (horseplay.. fluorescent lighting. etc. uncomfortable temperatures. noise.• Was data tested for true root cause? • How many “if necessary” and “approximately” phrases are found in this process? • Was this a process generated by an Integrated Product Development (IPD) Team? • Did the IPD Team employ Design for Environmental (DFE) principles? • Has a capability study ever been performed for this process? • Is the process under Statistical Process Control (SPC)? • Are the work instructions clearly written? • Are mistake-proofing devices/techniques employed? • Are the work instructions complete? • Is the work standard upgraded and to current revision? • Is the tooling adequately designed and controlled? • Is handling/packaging adequately specified? • Was the process changed? • Was the design changed? • Are the lighting and ventilation adequate? • Was a process Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA) ever performed? • Was adequate sampling done? • Are features of the process critical to safety clearly spelled out to the Operator? Environment • • • • Is the process affected by temperature changes over the course of a day? Is the process affected by humidity..) • Stress demands • Lack of Process • Training or education lacking • Poor employee involvement • Poor recognition of hazard Previously identified hazards were not eliminated . inattention. etc.? Does the process run in a controlled environment? Are associates distracted by noise.

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