What do you mean by ecosystem services?

Ecosystem services are the benefits human receive, directly or indirectly, from ecosystems. Such examples are storm protection that wetlands provide, recreation from nature and the likes. Wherever we find ourselves in, the ecosystem in which humans live provide goods and services. Sometimes we often take for granted such as clean water, timber, habitat, etc. In the processes involving the ecosystem, we tend to benefit from the nature’s every action and of our action to nature.

When do you use valuation methods?

Economic valuation tools provide monetary measures of service values, reflecting the value of services relative to other things that people spend money on. Non monetizing methods do not require a connection between values and money, but still provide information about relative values, equivalencies or rankings. The equivalencies and relative rankings can be used to weight the changes in ecological services resulting from management decisions. We can also notice that some valuation methods are more appropriate for ecosystem service than for others. We use valuation methods upon the decision process that involves changes in ecological services. That to note that every action given to the environment would cost or would take a value upon. Every damage or alteration may charge a toll for the changes in ecological services.

Give three lessons you have learned from the coastal and urban case studies on ecosystem services and valuation techniques?

We must do a thorough research before settling for a conclusion. We must take note that there is an interconnectivity existing in the environment. but management may be based on a precautionary principle. In cases that there would be an aspect not included or mistakenly ignored. We must be aware of the facts that there are things to be considered. Maintain the current rate of increase. we must assume that there would always be another option that could either be beneficial or better than the first. Thus. there should also be options present. and one decision or one mistake can make an impact. Global warming is heavily caused by the increasing carbon emissions that settle the greenhouse effect. by which we tolerate the on-going carbon . The valuation of the ecosystem services are relative to the state change conditions. avoiding the range where the state changes are likely unless the costs of doing such are unacceptably high. A careful study is needed upon presenting cases and options. we assume that there would be several ecosystem services that will be taken into consideration. We are given various choices and decisions to act upon the case. things could get worse or even it could lead to a devastating decision. Hold and Reduce. and nothing should be taken granted. going to the conclusion with the least effect and cost to the environment. not all conclusions may also be beneficial. and may even cause further destruction and offset effects in the ecosystem services. There are three possible paths for future carbon emissions: to Maintain. We must take note that each decision will have substantial impacts. The valuation is not just the case. Then we are given the responsibility to decide the future. Furthermore. to carefully study and take action as the rapid effects and repercussions take a heavy toll on us. What are the implications of carbon's new math? Give three implications We are given the current situations in the environment caused by carbon emissions. but the management as well in the decision should be made accordingly.Upon the use of the valuation techniques.

although there are constraints in attaining reduction in carbon emissions. then reduce further the damages and hold on to its current carbon emissions. . such as new technologies and discoveries. We are given the choice to settle at this rate and continue the current level of emissions and hold on to the further damage and bigger numbers of emissions. Hold emissions at today’s rate. Then to reduce the emissions by half over the next 50 years. Continue the extent of damage that we are doing due to these emissions. then reduce further.emissions and cause further damages to the environment. Then. By which it is a question of our own integrity. that we should be ready to embrace a new ways and approach with technology and usage of carbon.

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