You are on page 1of 20


Marketing concept starts with the consumer needs and ends in consumer behaviour in meeting these needs. Every action of a person is based on needs. The real problem is to learn what a consumer takes into consideration when he chooses a particular brand. Such a study is concerned with consumer behaviour. Consumer/Buyer behaviour is that subset of human behaviour that is concerned with the decision and acts of individuals in purchasing and using products. Consumer behaviour is a sub-set of consumer/buyer behaviour, is concerned with decisions that lead up to the act of purchase. The modern marketing concept makes consumer at the centre-stage of organisation efforts. The focus, within the marketing concept makes to reach the target consumer, sets the ball rolling for analyzing each of the conditions of the target market. The first being to find out interest of such persons as would become prospective consumers. Then comes the willingness of such interested persons to buy the offered product. But since consumer needs come first and then the organisation offers the product, as imperative of the marketing concepts, consumers willingness to buy cannot be studied in isolation of the interest of such prospects to satisfy basic need from different satisfiers. Consumers needs recognition, their involvement level, the available alternatives, the decision to buy and post purchase behavoiur, all are part of the overall consumer behavoiur. Every consumer is unique and this uniqueness is manifest in search, purchasing, reacting, etc.Thus, consumer behavoiur must be properly understood by marketers.

Traditionally, the term consumer was used to define strictly in terms of economic goods and services, based on the view that consumers are Potential purchasers of products and services offered for sale. In course of time, this view has broadened so that atleast some scholors now consider a monetary exchange essential to the definitions of the consumers. It implies that potential adopters of free services or even philosophies or ideas can also be encompassed by the definition. The rationale for this position is that many of the activities that people engage in, regarding tree services, ideas, and philosophies, are quite similar to those they engage in regarding commercial products and services. The term consumer is also used to describe two different kinds of consuming entities. They are, (1) the personal consumers and (2) the organisational consumers. The first category refers to those individuals who purchase for the purpose of individuals who purchase for the purpose of individual or household consumption. They are often referred to as end users or ultimate consumers. The organisational or industrial consumers encompass profit oriented and non profit business, government agencies, and institutions like schools and hospitals, who purchase for running their organization. It is argued by some, like Howard and Sheth that studying ultimate consumers also reveals much about industrial and intermediate buyers and others involved in purchasing for business firms and institutions. However, most industrial purchasing behaviour is unique because it often involves different buying motives and the Influence of a large variety of people. Hence the study of consumers. Buyer/User: The terms buyer refers to one who buys a product. But, buyer might not be the user of product. For example, Punitha buys shawls for her mother. Punitha is the buyer but her mother is the user of shawl.

Seven Os of Consumer Behaviour

Who constitute them market? What does the market buy? Why does the market buy? Who participate in buying? How does the market buy? When does the market buy? Where does the market buy? Occupants Objects Objectives Organization Operations Occasions Outlets

Seven keys to Consumer Behaviour

Consumer Behaviour is motivated Consumer Behaviour includes many types of activities Consumer Behaviour is a process Consumer Behaviour varies in timing and complexity Consumer Behaviour involves different roles Consumer Behaviour is influenced by external factors Consumer Behaviour differs for different people The essence of marketing is an exchange on a transaction, intended to satisfy human needs or wants. That is marketing is a human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process. A demand is want for which the consumer is prepared to pay a price. A want is anything or a service the consumer desires or seeks. Wants become demands when backed by purchasing power. A need is anything the consumer feels to keep himself alive and healthy. A transaction may receive nothing in return. The aim of marketing is to make sales in order to earn reasonable profit for the product.


The mushrooms play a very important dietary role in human nutrition and health world wide when used as a dietary supplement. On a dry weight basis, about protein makes up about 30% of mushrooms and this protein is endowed with all the essential amino acids. According to the Training manual for edible mushroom, the mushrooms are low in calories and are almost cholesterol free and are high in carbohydrates, vitamins and in organic minerals, all which serve as important essential requirement for human health. Their medicinal value such as for healing wounds and their ability to promote body immune enhancing and tumor-retarding effects is another significant benefit. Mushrooms are highly nutritious and contain 20-40% protein (on dry weight bases), which consists of all the essential amino acids required in human diet. Their taste and delightful aroma make them one of the delicious preferred foods in restaurants throughout the world. Not all mushrooms are edible and some may cause you illness. One edible type is the oyster mushroom. The physical characteristics of an oyster mushroom are apparent to the naked eye, despite the several varieties that closely resemble it. Mushrooms grown process takes about 18-24 days. This is less than local crops. Production can continue throughout the year as long as the temperature and humidity is kept close to optimum levels.

Marketing the mushroom products is one of the easier things. But oyster mushroom is newly one. Pleurotus, more commonly known as oyster, abalone or tree mushrooms, are some of the most widely harvested and readily available mushrooms in the world.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study has the potential to show how mushroom consumption can increase physical function and quality of life, reduce oxidative stress and circulating levels of insulin and glucose. The mushroom industry continues to be guided by extensive market and consumer research, including information generated for and within the marketing. The campaign has been well-received by consumers, media and stakeholders. The execution of the program uses major campaign events spread throughout the year that acts as catalysts for specific messaging and target of audience and reach. The industrys marketing efforts were expanded to include other modes of communication with consumers. These include digital and social media, such as Face book, Twitter and blogging. Social media activities were used to selectively support specific campaign activities. As well as the digital and social media activities, over one million recipes were distributed in greengrocer stores and public events. An education program about the health benefits of mushrooms has been developed and presented to influential health professionals around the country.



To strengthen the promotion of mushroom cultivation by establishing a

well-equipped laboratory and offices. ii) To provide the Unit with appropriately trained personnel for the promotion

of mushroom production in the country. iii) iv) To increase the production and consumption of mushrooms. To help create new employment opportunities for rural women and the

youth through mushroom cultivation. 1. Marketing and market development: To ensure demand closely matches estimated production levels by maintaining and developing existing markets and exploiting new market opportunities 2. Industry risk management: To protect the industrys reputation, production and assets through management of risks, production support and promotion of the industrys interests 3. Industry capacity and development: Manage information, resources (financial, physical and human), and alliances and relationships, to develop the industry and build capacity.

INTRODUCTION Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) belonging to Class Basidiomycetes and Family Agaricaceae is popularly known as dhingri in India and grows naturally in the temperate and tropical forests on dead and decaying wooden logs or sometimes on dying trunks of deciduous or coniferous woods. MARKETING: Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers. Marketing might sometimes be interpreted as the art of selling products, but sales is only one part of marketing. As the term "Marketing" may replace "Advertising" it is the overall strategy and function of promoting a product or service to the customer Dr. Philip Kotler defines marketing as the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value to satisfy the needs of a target market at a profit. Marketing identifies unfulfilled needs and desires. It defines,

measures and quantifies the size of the identified market and the profit potential. It pinpoints which segments the company is capable of serving best and it designs and promotes the appropriate products and services.

Marketing Concepts: The management process through which goods and services move from concept to the customer. It includes the coordination of four elements called the 4 P's of marketing: (1) Identification, selection and development of a product, (2) Determination of its price, (3) Selection of a distribution channel to reach the customer's place, and (4) Development and implementation of a promotional strategy. Marketing is based on thinking about the business in terms of customer needs and their satisfaction. Marketing differs from selling because (in the words of Harvard Business School's retired professor of marketing Theodore C. Levitt) "Selling concerns itself with the tricks and techniques of getting people to exchange their cash for your product. It is not concerned with the values that the exchange is all about. And it does not, as marketing invariable does, view the entire business process as consisting of a tightly integrated effort to discover, create, arouse and satisfy customer needs." In other words, marketing has less to do with getting customers to pay for your product as it does developing a demand for that product and fulfilling the customer's needs.

The economic importance of the mushroom lies primarily in its use as food for human consumption. It is rich in Vitamin C and B complex and the protein content varies between 1.6 to 2.5 percent. It has most of the mineral salts required by the human body. The niacin content is about ten times higher than any other vegetables. The folic acid present in oyster mushrooms helps to cure anemia. It is suitable for people with hyper-tension, obesity and diabetes due to its low sodium: potassium ratio, starch, fat and calorific value. Alkaline ash and high fibre content makes them suitable for consumption for those having hyperacidity and constipation. A polycyclic aromatic compound pleurotin has been isolated from P. griseus which possess antibiotic properties. The spent straw can be re-cycled for growing oyster mushroom after supplementing with wheat or rice bran @ 10-15 % and also for preparing compost of white button mushroom after suitable supplementation with nitrogen rich horse or chicken manure (sun-dried before use). The spent straw can be used as cattle feed and also for bio-gas production, the slurry can be used as manure. Once enough mushroom cultivation experience is gained then this modern equipment can be sourced. Mushrooms can be grown for own consumption and for income generating purposes. The whole process takes about 42 days. This is less than local crops. Production can continue throughout the

year as long as the temperature and humidity is kept close to optimum levels. Experience from these experiments suggests that mushroom production does not require a lot of water but does require a humid environment. This means that the house should be kept moist at all times but not damp. This will require less water compared to ordinary field crops and vegetables. Considering the arid nature of Namibia, mushrooms can be considered as a future crop for Namibia in terms of achieving selfreliance for food production and agricultural development, as the crop can be grown with a minimum amount of water. Although Mushroom is well known among Namibian farmers and is widely consumed in the northern regions during the rainy seasons, no formal attempt to cultivate mushrooms has been undertaken in most of rural Namibia. Scientific research has a major role to play in poverty reduction and hunger alleviation through active promotion and encouragement of crop

diversification hence mushrooms can be introduced to Namibian farmers as an alternative source of income and nutrition. We have various products manufactured by using Oysters Mushrooms. The Products like Oysters Mushroom Pickles, Oysters Mushroom Soup, Oysters Mushroom coffee powder, etc..,

A customer is one who actually purchases a product or service form a particular organization or shop. A customer is always defined in terms of a specific product or company. Customer is the life blood of every business. Consumer behaviour refers to all psychological, psychological and sociopsychological reasons of individual consumers respond to marketing appeals.
Who is the customer?

Customer is the most important person in any business. Customer is not dependent on us. We are dependent on them Customer does us a favour when they call. We are not doing them a favour by serving them. Customer is a part of our business, not an outsider. Customer is not someone to argue or match with us. Customer is a person who brings us their wants. It is our job to fulfill those wants. Customer is the life blood of every business.

Seven Keys to Consumer Behaviour

Consumer Behaviour is motivated. Consumer Behaviour includes many types of activities. Consumer Behaviour is a process Consumer Behaviour varies in timing and complexity. Consumer Behaviour involves different roles. Consumer Behaviour is influenced by external factors. Consumer Behaviour differs for different people. The essence of marketing is an exchange on a transaction, intended to satisfy human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through as exchange process. A demand is want for which the consumer is prepared to pay a price. A want is any thing or service the consumer desires or seeks. Wants become demands when backed by purchasing power. A need is any thing the consumer feels to keep himself alive and healthy. A transaction differs for a transfer. A transfer may receive nothing in return. The aim of marketing is to make sales in order to earn reasonable profit for the product. Making concept can express such as FIND WANTS AND FILLS THEM.


According to Pyle, Market includes both place and region in which buyers and sellers are infree competition with one another.

American Marketing Association, Marketing is concerned with the people and activities involved in the flow of goods and services from the producer to consumer.

Todays companies are facing their tougher ever. The companies can out do their completion if they can move form a product and sales philosophy. In this chapter, we deal in detail now companies can go about winning customers and out performing competitors. The answer lies in doing a better job of meeting and satisfying customer needs.

Consumer means any person who buys and goods or avails services for personal use for a consideration.

Customer satisfaction

Satisfaction is a persons feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting form comparing a product perceived performance (or) outcome in relation to his or her expectations. As this definition makes clear, satisfaction is a function of perceived performance and expectations. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied. If the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted. The buyers expectations are influenced by their past buying experience, friends and associates advice and marketers and competitors information and promises. If marketers raise the expectations too high, the buyer is likely to be disappointed. However, if the company set expectations too low, it wont attract enough buyers although it will satisfy those who do buy.