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Volume2, Issue3

ISSN: 2249- 9482

Anju Bala*

Every nation has its own independent historical and cultural background. The quality scenario, therefore, differs from some national setting to the other. The nations are orienting their quality management strategies and systems to meet the requirements of the operating environment though the primary focus remains the same, that is, Total Customer Satisfaction. Many of the present techniques of quality management were developed in Japan. However, U.S.A., European nations and developing nations have also contributed significantly to this development. Purpose: The main objective of the present study is to examine and appraise TQM programmers of Reliance and Tata Motors. These enterprises are ideal private sector enterprises. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was developed and distributed to a sample of firms selected from the motor vehicle parts and accessories industry. Keywords: TQM (Total Quality Management), Performance Evaluation. Organizational Characteristics, RIL, Tata Motor.

International Journal of Engineering and Social Science


Customers are becoming increasingly aware of rising standards. A good quality product or service enables an organization to add and retain customers. There is an everincreasing demand for quality product and/or services and this global revolution had forced organizations to invest substantial resources in adopting. Constant pressure is applied on the management to improve competitiveness by lowering operating cost and improving logistic. The concept of total quality management which originated in Japan.” Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) has defined TQM as: “Meeting the requirement of internal and external customers consistently by continuous improvement in the quality of work of all the employees. engineering. quality has become one of the important factors for achieving competitive 93  . Issue3 ISSN: 2249.” Indian Statistical Institute has defined TQM as follow: “TQM is an integrated organizational approach in delighting customer (both internal and external) by meeting their expectations on continuous basis through everyone involved with the organization working on continuous improvement in all products. 1997) defines TQM as …a total organizational approach for meeting customer needs and International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www.IJESS INTRODUCTION Volume2. Poor quality leads to discontented customers. so the costs of poor quality are not just those of immediate waste or rectification but also the loss of future sales. the American Federal Office of Management (cited in Morgan & Migratory. This emphasis has generated a new concept known as TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT. The business environment has become increasingly complex and the marketplace has changed from local to global. services. Technological innovations have diffused geographical boundaries resulting in more informed customers. has spread throughout the world and has attracted the attention of Indian corporate sector only recently because of globalization of economy.” In addition. and processes along with proper problem-solving methodology. manufacturing and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectation of the customer. Fiegenbaum has defined TQM as: “Total composite of product and services characteristics of marketing.gjmr. having access to wide range of products and services to choose from.9482 In today’s global competition and economic liberalization. In the globalised economy there is great emphasis on quality both for product and services. increased competition and greater expectation of discerning customers.

7) According to the latter definition TQM is not merely a technical system.9482 expectations that involves all managers and employees in using quantitative methods to improve continuously the organization’s processes. P.V.” This statement emphasizes the importance of management techniques. but also human systems.IJESS Volume2. we can identify two important aspects that comprise TQM: management tools and techniques as well as management concepts and principles.Sharma. while the principles refer to the “soft” side.S Raghavan. Many TQM Guru’s are Americans and very few of them have their origin in Japan. while others are more complex. Starting just after World War-II a number of philosophers and thinkers have made their contribution to the movement of “Total Quality Management”.K. The Techniques refer to what has been referred to as the “hard” aspects of TQM. From the above definitions.Naidu. when applied to physical processes. products.N. and services.Arumugham. There are some junior TQM gurus of Indian origin who have also done some laudable work on TQM.gjmr.all others must use data. Pike and Barnes (1996) argue that organizations are not only technical systems.D. They are: . Issue3 ISSN: 2249. In fact.S.Ahuja and also D.R. TQM is associated with the organization itself. The “Hard” Side of TQM Deming (1986) has stated that “in God we trust .Kapur. tools. effectiveness. The quality management literature provides a wide range of quality management tools. and systems that compose the “hard” side of TQM. Using the definition given by Goetsch and Davis (1994) management tools are means of “collecting and displaying information in ways to help the human brain grasp thoughts and ideas that. a behavioral Scientist in US Navy according to Marry Walton (1990). In this summer of 1985. which is also a social system.V.D. Some of them are quite simple.Raju. Oakland (1993) states that TQM is an attempt to improve the whole organization’s competitiveness. the name “Total Quality Management was first suggested by Nancy Warren.M.Linganna and S. Table 1 shows the “hard” aspects of TQM most commonly found in Quality Management Literature. Dr. (p. 382). International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www.B. and structure For Dale (1999). and systems. cause the processes to yield better results” (p. M. M. 94  .Sundara Raju. 43 The Qualitative Report March 2007 CONCEPT OF TQM GURU:A TQM Guru is an expert thinker who communicates his thought through verbal and written expression and thus contributes to the field of TQM. H. S. In addition. Therefore after a number of TQM Guru’s have made their significant contributions.

Shewhart –Contributed to understanding of process variab –Developed concept of statistical control charts. Some of the other objectives of the present study are: o To study the organizational. –Developed Taguchi loss function. Armand V. The major thrust area of the study will be the role and work done by world class TQM gurus and TQM and management relationship. JIT. Philip B. Kaoru Ishikawa –Developed cause-and-effect diagrams. Their philosophies and Teachings have contributed to our knowledge and understanding of quality 95  .gjmr. –Developed “14 Points” to guide company’s quality Improvement. Crosby _ Coined phrase “quality is free.9482 To fully understand the TQM movement. Feigenbaum –Introduced concept of total quality control. Methodology: International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. TQM thinkers and thoughts and cost of qualities and Kaizen continuous improvement. Research Objective and Methodology:The main objective of the present study is to examine and appraise TQM programmes of Reliance and Tata Motors.” –Developed concept of cost of quality. Bench-marking. we need to look at the philosophies of notable Individuals who have shaped the evolution of TQM. The organizations selected Reliance and Tata Motors pertain to private sector but they are major business units with myriad activities. TQM.” –Introduced concept of zero defects. o To study basics of total quality. Juran –Defined quality as “fitness for use.IJESS Quality Gurus Volume2. managerial and product profile of Reliance and Tata Motors and also the performance of these organizations in different areas. –Identified concept of “internal customer. Their individual contribution is as:Walter A. Teamwork for quality. Quality system standard. Joseph M. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. QCs. TEI.” Genichi Taguchi –Focused on product design quality. Hence case study of these two Indian Private Sector companies would act like beacon light for other private sector enterprises endeavoring to go global. Edwards Deming –Stressed management’s responsibility for quality. W.

approaches to managing quality in functional areas are becoming difficult. Crosby defines quality as conformance to requirements. His focus has been on zero defects and doing it right the first time. According to Deming. based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction. The primary data would be collected with the help of questionnaires. have customer and quality embedded in their corporate strategy. Gurus of the total quality management discipline like Deming. According to him quality does not only mean the quality of product. Statistical tool would also form part of the testing of the hypotheses. starting with customer requirements and ending with customer’s satisfaction. Crosby.1 UNDERSTANDING TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Total Quality Management has many definitions. websites and newspapers editorial comments. which have successfully use TQM principles. Feigenbaum defined total quality as a continuous work processes. With management functions getting complex. 1. Deming also identified 14 principles of quality management to improve productivity and performance of the organization. Definitions of quality have changed with the passage of time with changing customer’s needs and requirements. The secondary data are collected from company‘s record. The researcher would make intensive and extensive study of standard current literature on TQM for conceptual and philosophical part of the study. 96  .IJESS Volume2. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. Juran defined quality as “fitness for use. and benefits to all members of the organization and to society. Juran.gjmr. ISO defines TQM as: “TQM is a management Approach of an organization. quality of management. news-letters. But the essence has more or less been to develop an approach to problem solving.” According to him. interview and discussion techniques. quality is a continuous quality improvement process towards predictable degree of uniformity and dependability. The hypothesis would be tested with the help of qualitative statement and quantitative techniques. the company itself and the human life. Ishikawa and Feigenbaum defined the concept in different ways but still the essence and spirit remained the same. annual report. but also of after sales service. centered on quality.9482 The study is both descriptive as well as applied.” Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. Ishikawa also emphasized importance of total quality control to improve organizational performance. conformation to standards for customer satisfaction. every person in the organization must be involved in the effort to make products or services that are fit for use.

TQM. as well as NASA space and science programs.IJESS Volume2.gjmr. The TQMEX Model advocates an integrated approach in order to support the transition to systems management which is an ongoing Process of continuous improvement that begins when the company commits itself to managing by quality. should be understood as management of the system through systems thinking.9482 processes. therefore. government. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. TQM has been widely used in manufacturing. The Four Pillars of TQM The role of top management in implementation of total quality is crucial and its input on people far-reaching. The Model illuminates the elements that form a base to the understanding of TQM philosophy and implementation of the process company-wide. which means understanding all the elements in the company and putting them to work together towards the common 97  . The Structure of TQMEX: International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. education. and service industries.

Continuing emphasis on reducing variation in the product process. Management commitment to total quality management. UNIDO Expert and Advisor Quality Technology and Management. collecting data. Crosby (1972) did lot of research work on TQM. W G Ouchi gave “Theory Z” and researched the impact of Japanese management philosophy on American 98  . 6.Juran. Juran Institute is the pioneer quality guru and has contributed a lot to the management of TQM. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. Feigenbaum (1991) contributed much toward total Quality control. Sundara Raju (1995). 3. His Quality Control Handbook (1951) gave 14 points quality mantras. the nature of samples. Organization structure emphasizing work group authority and accountability for results.gjmr.M. Formal performance reports based on output from the SPC system. Shigeo Shingo (1985) pioneered the area of Zero Quality Control.Dr. Statistical process Control (SPC) system to monitor and control process variable variation.9482 ELEMENTS OF A TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM The following elements are essential in any successful quality management program: 1. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Certain Research Studies on TQM in India and abroad have been undertaken by various scholars J. variation and the program to be implemented. Certain Quality gurus like-S.M.IJESS Volume2. contributed toward TQM improvement programmes. Training in simple statistical techniques. 4. Chairman Emeritus. Kaoru Ishikawa of Japan (1975) contributed toward development of QCs. Armand V. Systemized team approach to problem solving. Philip B. Genichi Taquchi worked as Director of Japanese Academy Of Quality between 1978-82. 5. 2. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. 7.

Tata Motors has operations in the UK.IJESS Volume2. Over 5. Tata Motors. while also exporting these products to several international markets. Pune (Maharashtra).000 employees are guided by the vision to be "best in the manner in which we operate. It is the leader in commercial vehicles in each segment. South Korea's second largest truck maker. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. and the world's third largest bus manufacturer.9 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads. In 2005. The Company is the world's fourth largest truck manufacturer. Pantnagar (Uttarakhand). the first Company from India's engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock Exchange (September 2004). and among the top three in passenger vehicles with winning products in the compact. best in the products we 99  .gjmr. BACKDROP OF ORGANISATIONS SELECTED Profile of Tata Motor:Tata Motors Limited is India’s largest automobile company. it has set up an industrial joint venture with Fiat Group Automobiles at Ranjangaon (Maharashtra) to produce both Fiat and Tata cars and Fiat powertrains. The Company's dealership. Tata Motors also distributes and markets Fiat branded cars in India. The Company's manufacturing base in India is spread across Jamshedpur (Jharkhand). Among them is Jaguar Land Rover. a global leader in body-building for buses and coaches to manufacture fully-built buses and coaches for India and select international International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. Thailand and Spain.23. Through subsidiaries and associate companies. South Korea. a reputed Spanish bus and coach manufacturer.9482 D. with consolidated revenues of Rs. and subsequently the remaining stake in 2009. Tata Motors' presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Sanand (Gujarat) and Dharwad (Karnataka). The rechristened Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company has launched several new products in the Korean market. Tata Motors acquired a 21% stake in Hispano Carrocera. Tata Motors formed a joint venture with the Brazil-based Marco polo. In 2004. midsize car and utility vehicle segments. sales. since the first rolled out in 1954. Following a strategic alliance with Fiat in 2005. has also emerged as an international automobile company. Implementation and cases”. Luck now (Uttar Pradesh). Hispano's presence is being expanded in other markets. and best in our value system and ethics. services and spare parts network comprises over 3500 touch points. In 2006. it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company.piece work “TQM-Principles. a business comprising the two iconic British brands that was acquired in 2008.Sharma (2000) wrote a master. The result drawn would be beneficial for adaptation of TQM programmes. Today two-thirds of heavy commercial vehicle exports out of South Korea are from Tata Daewoo.D." Established in 1945. The Company's over 25.133 crores (USD 27 billion) in 2010-11.1.

India's first fully indigenous passenger car. Its safety performance exceeds regulatory requirements in India. The high fuel International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. South East Asia. A development. Dharwad in India. Senegal and South Africa. In terms of overall pollutants. which India and the world have been looking forward to. Spain. Tata Motors created a new segment by launching the Tata Ace. and in South Korea. India's first indigenously developed mini-truck. The Company's commercial and passenger vehicles are already being marketed in several countries in Europe. in India in March 2009. Jamshedpur. it has a lower pollution level than two-wheelers being manufactured in India today.gjmr. India's first Sports Utility Vehicle and. has enabled pioneering technologies and products. With over 4. in 1998.IJESS Volume2. the Company's Engineering Research Centre. It can comfortably seat four persons. Tata Motors is also expanding its international footprint. The foundation of the Company's growth over the last 50 years is a deep understanding of economic stimuli and customer needs. Tata Indica became India's largest selling car in its segment. Within two years of launch. It was Tata Motors. In January 2008. Bangladesh. the Nano brings the comfort and safety of a car within the reach of thousands of 100  . and the ability to translate them into customer-desired offerings through leading edge R&D. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. Designed with a family in mind. Tata Motors entered into joint venture with Thonburi Automotive Assembly Plant Company of Thailand to manufacture and market the Company's pickup vehicles in Thailand. Africa. with the Xenon having been launched in Thailand in 2008. which helps maximize performance per unit of energy consumed and delivers high fuel efficiency. the Tata Indica. the Middle East. The lean design strategy has helped minimize weight. Luck now. It has franchisee/joint venture assembly operations in Kenya. The new plant of Tata Motors (Thailand) has begun production of the Xenon pickup truck.9482 markets. South Asia and South America. and the UK. which developed the first indigenously developed Light Commercial Vehicle. Its tailpipe emission performance too exceeds regulatory requirements. as planned. Ukraine. The Tata Nano has been subsequently launched.500 engineers and scientists. Its mono-volume design will set a new benchmark among small cars. the Tata Nano. The Company today has R&D centers in Pune. established through exports since 1961. Russia.000 (excluding VAT and transportation cost). which signifies a first for the global automobile industry. established in 1966. In 2006. Tata Motors unveiled its People's Car. The standard version has been priced at Rs.100. In 2005. it has a roomy passenger compartment with generous leg space and head room.

Tata Motors is committed to improving the quality of life of communities by working on four thrust areas – employability. In health.9482 efficiency also ensures that the car has low carbon dioxide emissions. the Company is engaged in engineering and automotive solutions. and automotive retailing and service operations.5 billion and market capitalization of US$78. It has also been implementing several environment-friendly technologies in manufacturing processes. In May 2009.gjmr. construction equipment manufacturing. NSE: RELIANCE. health and environment. India. last but not the least. operating economy and trims. In their power. LSE: RIGD) is the largest private sector conglomerate company headquartered at Mumbai. speed. Through its subsidiaries. The company is largest by annual turnover of US$58. It has developed electric and hybrid vehicles both for personal and public transportation. education. being ranked at 264th position in the Fortune Global 500 (2009) and at the 126th position in the Forbes Global 2000 list (2010). The Company's support on education and employability is focused on youth and women. The goal of environment protection is achieved through tree plantation. in keeping with its pioneering tradition. Tata Motors today is etching a refulgent future. machine tools and factory automation solutions. The activities touch the lives of more than a million citizens. They range from schools to technical education institutes to actual facilitation of income generation. they will introduce new benchmarks in India and match the best in the world in performance at a lower life-cycle cost. automotive vehicle components manufacturing and supply chain activities. by introducing appropriate technologies in our vehicles and operations for constantly enhancing environment care. Tata Motors introduced ushered in a new era in the Indian automobile industry. thereby providing the twin benefits of an affordable transportation solution with a low carbon footprint.IJESS Volume2. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. significantly enhancing resource conservation. carrying capacity. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. by unveiling its new range of world standard trucks called Prima.2 billion for the fiscal year ending in March 2011 making it one of the largest India's private sector companies. our intervention is in both preventive and curative healthcare. Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) (BSE: 500325. high-precision tooling and plastic and electronic components for automotive and computer applications. With the foundation of its rich 101  . conserving water and creating new water bodies and. Tata Motors is equally focused on environment-friendly technologies in emissions and alternative fuels.

In September 2008.IJESS Volume2." Although the agency didn't name any private-sector companies. Specifically. subsequent to its split in January 2006 has continued to grow. petrochemicals. a former Director General of Hydrocarbons. Reliance Industries Ltd. Though the company's petrochemicals. Reliance companies have been among the best performing in the Indian stock market. to garments (under the brand name of Vimal). the group was divided between them in 2006. Mukesh Ambani and Anil Ambani.gjmr. refining. life sciences organization that participates in medical. other segment of the company includes textile." Reliance has more than 3 million shareholders. fell 4% after the Press Trust of India reported that a federal probe agency (CBI had registered a case against V. retail business. it stood at 13th position in the Platts Top 250 Global Energy Company Rankings According to the company website "1 out of every 4 investors in India is a Reliance shareholder. plant and industrial biotechnology opportunities. Reliance Industries was the only Indian firm featured in the Forbes's list of "world's 100 most respected companies. Reliance Industries Ltd. however. Clinical Research Services. biotechnology-led. Reliance Retail has entered into the fresh foods market as Reliance Fresh and launched a non-veg chain called Delight Reliance Retail and NOVA Chemicals have signed a letter of intent to make energy-efficient structures. Major subsidiaries and associate Reliance Life Science is a research-driven. In 2010. Ambani was one of the first entrepreneurs to draw retail investors to the stock markets. 2011. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. telecommunications and special economic zone (SEZ) development. Ambani has been a pioneer in introducing financial instruments like fully convertible debentures to the Indian stock markets. Pharmaceuticals. making it one of the world's most widely held stocks. On the 1st of July. for allegedly favoring "leading private players and foreign consultants involved in oil and gas explorations. After severe differences between the founder's two sons. PRODUCT: Reliance Industries Limited has a wide range of products from petroleum products. dealers said that Reliance dropped sharply because of concerns that the company could be one of those allegedly involved. and oil and gas-related operations form the core of its business.9482 Reliance was founded by the Indian industrialist Dhirubhai Ambani in 1966. Critics allege that the rise of Reliance Industries to the top slot in terms of market capitalization is largely due to Dhirubhai's ability to manipulate the levers of a controlled economy to his advantage. Sibal. these relate to 102  .K. Regenerative International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www.

phasis has ge enerated a ne ew concept k known as TQ QM. e Solar. Biofuels. . The e solar energ gy initiative of Reliance e aims to br ring solar en nergy system ms Reliance and solut tions primar rily to remo ote and rura al areas and bring about t a transform mation in th he quality of life. established by Dhirubha ai Ambani Foundation. Plant P Biotec chnology an nd Reliance e Industries Infrastruct ture Limited (RIIL) is engaged in the business s of setting up u / operatin ng Industrial l Infrastructu ure that also involves lea asing and pro oviding serv vices.IJESS Industria al Biotechnol logy. and sup pply chain needs. Here case studies of o these two o Indian sec ctor compan nies would act a like beac con light for r other priva ate enterprise es endeavor ring trio go o global. I Issue3 ISSN: 2249. distributi ion. they y enter in quality q matu urity phase and have accelerated a i improvemen nt. Indian or rganizations must learn from f their Ja apanese. n suppo orted by in house h state of o art telematics and telemetry solut tions. Th he present study s would d be fact fi inding study y. V Volume2. Connect ted with com mputer softw ware and data a processing.07 billio on). Relicord d is the first and a one of th he most dep pendable stem m-cell banki ing services of South Ea ast Asia offe ered byMuke esh Ambani controlled by b Reliance Industries. it is i wholly ow wned by RI IL for crore (US S$1. the US and the European co ounterparts to t acquire th he features of o excellence e and have im mplementing g TQM for becoming b wo orld class.These e enterprises s are ideal private p secto or enterprise es. The TA ATA GROUP P is the 6th largest an nd the bigge est industria al group afte er Reliance Industries in i India its rank r 2nd in th he corporate e sector of In ndia. Reliance e Institute of o Life Scien nce (RILS).9482 Medicine e.TQM is an Umbrell la concept covering c in its i researche In nternational Journal J of Engineering E a Social S and Science 4. a contr ract research h organizatio on (CRO) an nd Reliance wholly owned o subsi idiary of Re eliance Life e Sciences. The orga anizations RE ELIANCE & TATA MO OTOR selec cted pertain to private se ector but the ey are majo or business units u with myriad m activ vities . e Clinical Researches Services S (RC CRS). has been se et up to pro ovide clinical research services to pharmaceutic p cal. F is an institu ution of high her education n in various f fields of life e sciences an nd related tec chnologies. logist tics. Excelle ent organiza ations are tot tal This emp quality management m oriented. On nce the excellent organiz zation attains the world class c standar rd of perfor rmance. Reliance e Logistics (P) Limited d is a single e window solutions s pro ovider for tr ransportation n. Novel Th herapeutics. warehou using. and woul ld motivate further res searches in the gigantic c area beca ause there is s mere scop pe celebrate ed es in TQM and a its vario ous constitut tes . Molecula ar Medicine.80 00 . Discussio on and conc clusion: In the globalised eco onomy there e is great em mphasis on quality q for both product and service es. I Infotel Broadband B is s a broadban nd service p provider. biotechn nology and medical m devi ice companie es.

approaches and techniques for attaining a competitive edge. http://www. Many Indian organizations have started realizing the importance of Total quality management and new quality system improvement standards. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. R.isixsigma. Baldrige National Quality Program – Cambridge Mass. quality circles. New Delhi.D. continuous improvement PDCA cycle 104  . privatization and globalization.yeadoninc. 1998 (4) Evans R. Edwards. they are in the dire need of new ideas. The researcher hopes that Indian companies both in private and public sector would learn lesson from these companies and would make full attempts.. ISBN: 0324012764 (5) Gopalan M.ciionline. "Out of the Crises. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. To realize the benefits of TQM in the changing industrial and economic scenario of images/scatterdiagram. D. Taking into consideration all the above facts. http://www. Sultan Chand and Sons. Dean Jr. Thomas. (13) Sharma..nist. Total Quality: Management. the researcher has selected major private sector companies per excellence in TQM movement. Present & Future).html (2) Criteria for Performance Excellence.9482 review corporate governess benchmarking organizational Re-engineering. In the light of this." third printing . South-Western Educational (8) www. 02139. (3) Davenport H.: Total Quality Management. They have realized that continuous improvement is the key to “Putting the Enterprise into the Enterprise System” Harvard Business Review. More and more organizations in Indian Corporate world are striving to obtain ISO 9000 accreditation and several of them have already got these.quality. James. MIT CAES.wikepedia. July-August. Total Quality Management (Past. W. REFERENCES: (1) II Institute of Quality.gif Deming. National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2008. James.gif (10) (11) (12) 2000 (6) www. 1982. (9) www. Indian organizations facing a challenge from the inflow of MNCs since the Government f India has implemented the polices liberalization.IJESS Volume2.india-today. Organization and Strategy. USA.360-ibm. Business (7) www. W.

Wishwa Prakashan. London. AND John Dearden: Mnagement Control Systems. 105  . International Journal of Engineering and Social Science www. D. 2007. 11. 2001. 11. Annual Report of Reliance Industries-2007-10. S.Irwin. Robert N.: The Concept of Corporate Strategy.: Total Quality Journals    Paradigm-IMT Journal Quarterly Vikalpa-Journal of IIM. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited. New Delhi. Richard D.9482 Raju Sundara. Homewood. (15) Mizuno. Websites: www. Richard D. 2001.hindustaneconomy.R. Productivity Press. (16) (17) New Delhi. 2008.: Research Methodology. Annual Report of Tata Motors-2007-10. S: Management for quality Improvement: The 7 New QC Tools. 2006.IJESS (14) www. Issue3 ISSN: 2249. Ahmadabad Faculty of Management Journals.U. Kenneth R. Anhony. (18)   www.