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Design is the Problem

Nathan Shedroff OCAD November 2009 www.nathan.com/thoughts

Designer vs. Used Car Salesman

Designers create Ugly

Design is the Solution

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY BUSINESS .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY BUSINESS .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY SERVICES SYSTEMS BUSINESS .

What’s a more sustainable world look like? .

” Hunter Lovins. sustainability is the competitive advantage strategy. In a down economy. In a collapse. 2009 .“In a stable economy. sustainability is a survival strategy. sustainability is the turnaround strategy.

What’s a more sustainable world look like? .

What’s a more sustainable world look like? .

What’s a more sustainable world look like? .

What’s a more sustainable world look like? .

What’s a more sustainable world look like? .

What’s a more meaningful world look like? .

What’s a more meaningful world look like? .

What’s a more meaningful world look like? .

What’s a post-consumer world look like? .

What’s a post-consumer world look like? .

What’s a post-consumer world look like? .

What’s a post-consumer world look like? .

We don’t know. .

. We need to.We don’t know.

That’s what design is for. We need to.We don’t know. .

.There’s no such thing as sustainable design.

There’s is such a thing as more sustainable design. .

What is sustainable design? Design and development that meets today’s needs without preventing those needs from being met by future generations. 1987 . modification from the Brundtland Commission.

What is sustainable design?
Don’t design things today that make tomorrow worse.

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What is sustainable design?
Don’t design things today that make tomorrow worse. ...for your kids

What is sustainable design?
Don’t design things today that make tomorrow worse. ...for your grand kids

What is sustainability?

FINANCIAL SOCIAL ECOLOGICAL

What is sustainability? FINANCIAL CAPITAL SOCIAL (OR HUMAN) CAPITAL ECOLOGICAL (OR NATURAL) CAPITAL .

What is sustainability? FINANCIAL CULTURAL SOCIAL ECOLOGICAL .

What is sustainability? FINANCIAL HUMAN INSTITUTIONAL BUILT MANUFACTURED TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE SOCIAL ECOLOGICAL .

Don’t call it “Green” FINANCIAL? SOCIAL? ECOLOGICAL .

DESIGN BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY Principles: Systems Thinking Multidisciplinary Teamwork Service to Users/Customers Multi-stakeholder Engagement .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Principles: Systems Thinking • Diversity = Resiliency BUSINESS .

DESIGN BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY Principles: Systems Thinking • Diversity = Resiliency • Centralization & Decentralization .

DESIGN BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY Principles: Systems Thinking • Diversity = Resiliency • Centralization & Decentralization • Competition & Cooperation .

DESIGN BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY Principles: Systems Thinking • Diversity = Resiliency • Centralization & Decentralization • Competition & Cooperation • Economic. & Financial Vitality • Balance . Social.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Principles Frameworks: Natural Capitalism The Natural Step™ Cradle to Cradle BUSINESS .

DISPOSAL .DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Framework: Natural Capitalism (eco-efficiency) BUSINESS MANUFACTURED CAPITAL FINANCIAL CAPITAL USE HUMAN CAPITAL NATURAL CAPITAL MANUF.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Framework: Natural Capitalism (eco-efficiency) BUSINESS • • • • • Radical Resource Productivity: Buy time using resources radically more productively Ecological Redesign: Make use of Biomimicry Service & Flow Economies: Redesign all products and processes for sustainability Investing in Natural Capital: Restore Ecosystem Services Whole Systems Thinking .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Framework: The Natural Step™ BUSINESS FINANCIAL IMPACTS SOCIAL IMPACTS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS .

.DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Framework: The Natural Step™ BUSINESS • System Condition #1: Substances from the Earth’s crust shouldn’t accumulate in the environment • System Condition #2: Substances produced by society should not increase in the biosphere • System Condition #3: We must preserve the productivity and biodiversity of the ecosystem • System Condition #4: Resources should be used fairly and efficiently to meet human needs.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Framework: Cradle to Cradle (eco-effectiveness) BUSINESS TECHNICAL NUTRIENTS FINANCIAL IMPACTS USE SOCIAL IMPACTS ENVIRONMENTAL NUTRIENTS MANUF. DISPOSAL .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Framework: Cradle to Cradle (eco-effectiveness) BUSINESS Concept & term coined by William Stahel and Popularized by McDonough & Braungart • Eliminate hazardous materials • Consider the entire lifecycle • Materials should be upcyclable • Less Bad does not equal Good! .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Principles Frameworks BUSINESS Tools: LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) Total Beauty™ Biomimicry SROI Sustainability Helix Blended Value Integrated Bottom Line LASER Manual Footprint Calculators (water. GPI. etc. carbon. G GRI. SRI) LEED FASB redefinition of P SCORE Factor 4 and Factor 1 SHINGO .) Stakeholder Analysis ISO 50001 SOS (Blackburn) Wheel of Change City Climate Protectio Manual Metrics (GDP.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Tools: LCA BUSINESS .

ask “What do you want your design to do?” • Keep asking “Why do you want your design to do that?” Emulate Nature’s strategies Translate to biology • Brainstorm multiple solutions • Refer back to the Discover phase and consider chimera designs • Consult with biological experts • Go back to your model and explore more strategies • Identify the functions • Ask “How does Nature do that function?” • Reframe the questions • Define habitat conditions that reflect design parameters • Translate Life’s Principles into design parameters Discover natural models • Go outside • Consider both literal and metaphorical models • Comb the literature • Brainstorm with biologists • Create a taxonomy of Life’s strategies .DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Tools: Biomimicry Evaluate your design against Life’s principles • Can your design adapt and evolve? • Does your design create conditions conducive to Life? • How can you improve your design? BUSINESS Distill the design function • Don’t ask “What do you want to design?” • Instead.

org) BUSINESS Governance and Management Operations and Facilities Design and Process Innovation Stakeholders & Communities Human Resources and Corporate Culture Marketing and Communications Partnerships and Stakeholder Engagement High degree of organizational alignment Stage 0: Unsustainable “Business as Usual” Stage 1: Exploration Stage 2: Experimentation Stage 3: Leadership Stage 4: Restoration .DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Tools: Sustainability Helix (natcapsolutions.

Energy & Transportation) • Substitution (Materials & Energy) • Localization • Transmaterialization • Informationalization REUSE • Design for Durability • Design for Reuse RECYCLE • Design for Disassembly • Close the Loop • Design for Effectiveness RESTORE • Design for Systems .DESIGN BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY Principles Frameworks Tools Design Strategies: REDUCE • Design for Use (Usability & Meaning) • Dematerialization (Materials.

& Meaning) BUSINESS MEANING VALUES EMOTIONS PRICE FEATURES .DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Use (Usability. Accessibility.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Dematerialization (Materials. Energy. & Transportation) BUSINESS .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Dematerialization (Materials. Energy. & Transportation) BUSINESS .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Dematerialization (Materials. & Transportation) BUSINESS Alarm Clock . Energy.

less toxic.DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Substitution (Materials. Herman Miller . Energy. and more sustainable: • Raw materials • Components • Energy sources Mirra chair. & Transportation) BUSINESS Less expensive.

Phosphorus is excavated from open-pit mines in Idaho. Ore takes a month to travel to the refinery. & Transportation) BUSINESS Sealed cans are inserted into cardboard cartons made of forest pulp from British Columbia Each ton of Aluminum Oxide is smelted into 1/4 ton of aluminum in Sweden or Norway. et al. . Aluminum sheets are punched and formed into cans. sprayed with protective coating and inspected. washed. Cartons of cans are shipped to warehouses and supermarkets— 84% of which are discarded after use.DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Localization (Materials. Lovins. Cans are created in roller mills in Sweden or Germany. Energy. lacquered. The Sugar might come from beet fields in France. painted. The Caffeine might come from a chemical manufacturer A ton of mined Bauxite turns into half a ton of aluminum oxide. flanged. dried.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Transmaterialization (Products into Services) BUSINESS Zip Cars .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Transmaterialization (Products into Services) BUSINESS Interface FLOR carpet .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Informationalization (atoms into bits) BUSINESS iTunes Music Store .

Architecture for Humanity .DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Informationalization BUSINESS Open Architecture Network.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Durability BUSINESS Dyson vacuum • Higher quality/longer lasting • Servicable/Repairable • Upgradable • Component service • Rental system (components and/or offering) .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Reuse (unintended) BUSINESS Artecnica tranSglass vases .

Components.DESIGN BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Reuse (intended) (Reuse of Materials. Energy. and Functions) Maille condiment jars .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Disassembly BUSINESS • Product redesign • Labeled components • Easily separated materials and parts • Uni-material components (no separation needed) Rickshaw Zero bag .

UC Berkeley • • • • • • • • • • Use materials identification labels Avoid permanently attached. use compatible combinations of polymers Avoid paints and lacquers Avoid labels or use compatible labels Choose high-value plastics Avoid density overlaps between different polymers . dissimilar materials Design for ease of disassembly (snap fits vs.DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Disassembly BUSINESS From Eric Masanet. screws) Use only one polymer type per product Use only one polymer-color combination per product If necessary.

Waste Liquid Fertilizer Crude Oil Noveren I/S Glass. Denmark Bioteknisk Nordrens Solirem A/S City of Kalundborg Sludge ASNÆS Power Station Condensate BPB GYPROC A/S Gypsum Treated Water Steam Treated Water Treated Water Sea Water Novozymes A/S Novo Nordisk A/S Sludge Fish Farms Fish Waste Fertilizer Coal Yeast Slurry .DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Close the Loop (lifecycle solutions) BUSINESS Combustible Waste Compost Misc. & Paper for Recycling Misc. Metal. Waste Lake Tissø Water Statoil A/S Refinery Sulfur Fuel Gas Kemira Aalborg Portland A/S & Road Paving Steam Fly Ash Kalundborg.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Effectiveness BUSINESS • Process redesign • Take-back programs • Integration into all aspects of business strategy Rickshaw Bags .

Brazil .DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Systems (system solutions) BUSINESS Curitiba.

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Design for Systems (system solutions) BUSINESS .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Design Strategy: Restoration BUSINESS Alpine pennycress (Thalaspi caerulescens) Accumulates cadmium and zinc .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY Summary/Checklist: 1. Provide More (value. and labor 4. resources. Focus on Efficiency and Health 3. performance) for Less (materials and energy) 2. Use & Promote Local energy. Don’t use (American) PVC 5. Don’t spend more declaring your results than the value they provide BUSINESS . Design solutions to be savored 6. meaning.

Next steps: .

SUSTAINABILITY BUSINESS DESIGN Principles: Systems Thinking User-Centered focus User/Design Research Experience Model Meaning Model .

SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN SIGNIFICANCE DURATION BUSINESS TRIGGERS EXPERIENCE BREADTH INTENSITY INTERACTION .

SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN SIGNIFICANCE DURATION BUSINESS MEANING VALUES EMOTIONS PRICE FEATURES INTENSITY INTERACTION .

SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN BUSINESS MEANING VALUES EMOTIONS PRICE FEATURES .

SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN Principles Tools: BUSINESS Deep Dive Prototyping Iteration Need Finding Ethnographic Techniques Critique .

DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY BUSINESS Principles: Systems Thinking Multidisciplinary Teamwork Service to Users/Customers Multi-stakeholder Engagement Service Culture (throughout org) .

etc.DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY BUSINESS Principles Tools: Total Quality Management Six Sigma Stage Gate SWOT Doblin Value Model Metrics: ROI. . NPV. GNP. IRR.

. Design for Disassembly. LCA.TOOLS FRAMEWORKS PRINCIPLES Voting Policy Bills Democracy Regulation Propoganda Socialism Totalitarianism Social Contract Systems Thinking Customer-centered Experience & Meaning Multidisciplinary Teamwork Market Capitalism Service-centered Porter Multi-stakeholder Engagement Value Chain “Free Market” Natural Capitalism ROI. Design for Systems. The Natural Step™ GDP... Dematerialization.. Localization. NPV/IRR. Stage Gate Cradle to Cradle Market Research Holistic Management Doblin Value Model Sustainability Helix Positioning Resource Funnel Segmentation Biomimicry Spiral . etc. SWOT. Substitution. SUSTAINABILITY DE SIG N V GO E NT E M RN STRATEGIES NG Os SIN BU ES S . etc. User/Design Research Experience Model Meaning Model Prototyping Critique Iteration Experience Testing .

com/thoughts .nathan.Thank you www.