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Mathematical Model

The goal in the development oI the mathematical model is to relate the voltage applied

to the armature to the velocity oI the motor. Two balance equations can be developed by

considering the electrical and mechanical characteristics oI the system.

Electrical Characteristics

The equivalent electrical circuit oI a dc motor is illustrated in Fig. 6F.2. It can be

represented by a voltage source (V

a

) across the coil oI the armature. The electrical

equivalent oI the armature coil can be described by an inductance (L

a

) in series with a

resistance (R

a

) in series with an induced voltage (V

c

) which opposes the voltage source.

The induced voltage is generated by the rotation oI the electrical coil through the Iixed

Ilux lines oI the permanent magnets. This voltage is oIten reIerred to as the back emI

(electromotive Iorce).

Fig. 6F.2 Electrical representation oI a dc motor.

A diIIerential equation Ior the equivalent circuit can be derived by using KirchoII's

voltage law around the electrical loop. KirchoII's voltage law states that the sum oI all

voltages around a loop must equal zero, or

According to Ohm's law, the voltage across the resistor can be represented as

where i

a

is the armature current. The voltage across the inductor is proportional to the

change oI current through the coil with respect to time and can be written as

where L

a

is the inductance oI the armature coil. Finally, the back emI can be written as

where k

v

is the velocity constant determined by the Ilux density oI the permanent

magnets, the reluctance oI the iron core oI the armature, and the number oI turns oI the

armature winding. w

a

is the rotational velocity oI the armature.

Substituting eqns. (6F.2), (6F.3), and (6F.4) into eqn. (6F.1) gives the Iollowing

diIIerential equation:

Mechanical Characteristics

PerIorming an energy balance on the system, the sum oI the torques oI the motor must

equal zero. ThereIore,

where T

e

is the electromagnetic torque, Tw

'

is the torque due to rotational acceleration

oI the rotor, Tw is the torque produced Irom the velocity oI the rotor, and T

L

is the

torque oI the mechanical load. The electromagnetic torque is proportional to the current

through the armature winding and can be written as

where k

t

is the torque constant and like the velocity constant is dependent on the Ilux

density oI the Iixed magnets, the reluctance oI the iron core, and the number oI turns in

the armature winding. Tw

'

can be written as

where J is the inertia oI the rotor and the equivalent mechanical load. The torque

associated with the velocity is written as

where B is the damping coeIIicient associated with the mechanical rotational system oI

the machine.

Substituting eqns. (6F.7), (6F.8), and (6F.9) into eqn. (6F.6) gives the Iollowing

diIIerential equation:

TransIer Function Block Diagram

A block diagram Ior the system can be developed Irom the diIIerential equations given

in eqns. (6F.11) and (6F.12). Taking the Laplace transIorm oI each equation gives

II perturbations around some steady state value are considered, the initial conditions go

to zero and all the variables become some change around a reIerence state, and the

equations can be expressed as Iollows:

The above equations can then easily be put into block diagram Iorm. The block diagram

obtained Irom these equations Ior a permanent magnet dc motor is shown in Fig. 6F.3.

Fig. 6F.3 Block diagram representation oI eqns. (6F.19) and (6F.20).

The block diagram in Fig. 6F.3 can be simpliIied by making the assumption that the

load torque is constant. In the case oI a sun tracking servo system, the only load torque

to be concerned with is the Iriction in the system, which is relatively constant while the

motor is moving. Since the change in T

L

is zero, it does not need to appear in the block

diagram. Also, iI one only Iocuses on the angular velocity as the response oI interest,

the block diagram becomes as shown in Fig. 6F.4.

This block diagram is then easily reduced by block diagram algebra to an overall

transIer Iunction. Several steps in this process are shown in Fig. 6F.5, with the overall

transIer Iunction between the output angular velocity and input applied voltage given

within the last block in Fig. 6F.5.

Fig. 6F.4 Block diagram oI the dc motor as modeled in this study.

Fig. 6F.5 Overall transIer Iunction Ior the dc motor.

Exercise:

Write the overall transIer Iunction Ior the DC motor when the output variable is

the angular positions and the inductance oI the armature coil is negligible.

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