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ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page1of10

DCServomotorModel
Figure1:GeneralmodelofDCMotor
Figure 1 depicts a generic model of a DC motor that includes two windings; a stationary field
winding on the stator and a second winding for the rotating armature. This type of motor can
be controlled by varying either the field current or the armature current. Most modern
servomotorsaresomewhatdifferentinconstruction.Thefieldwindingisreplacedwithtwoor
more powerful rareearth magnets on the stator. Since the field strength of these motors is
constant,theycanonlybecontrolledbyvaryingthearmaturecurrent,I
A
.
In a permanent magnet motor the output torque, I
M
, is directly proportional to the armature
current, I
A
. The constant of proportionality is referred to as the torque constant of the motor
andisrepresentedbyK
1
.Thetransferfunctionrelatingmotortorquetoarmaturecurrentcan
beexpressedasfollows:

K
1
I
M
I
A

ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page2of10

AnalysisofArmatureCircuit
The armature current, I
A
, can be expressed in terms of the applied motor voltage , I
M
, by
applying Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL) to the armature circuit in Figure 1. As with most
windings,theimpedanceofthearmaturecanberepresentedbyaresistivecomponent,R
A
,in
serieswithaninductivecomponent,I
A
.
I

= u = -I
M
+ R
A
I
A
+ I
A
JI
A
Jt
+ I
B
n
=1

Thevoltage,I
B
,representsthebackElectromotiveForce(backEMF).Mostpermanentmagnet
DC motors can also operate generators. In other words, if the motor shaft is rotating, a
voltmeter connected across the motor terminals will indicate a voltage that is proportional to
the angular velocity of the motor shaft,
M
. This generator phenomenon occurs even when
the motor is operating in the normal manner (i.e., as a motor). According to Lenz's law, the
polarityoftheinducedbackEMFvoltage, I
B
,issuchthatitalwaysopposestheappliedvoltage,
I
M
.ThenetresultisthataDCmotorwithnoload(andintheabsenceoffriction)willreacha
maximum steadystate angular velocity corresponding to the operating point where the
inducedvoltage,I
B
,completelyoffsetstheappliedvoltage,I
M
.
ThebackEMFvoltage,I
B
,canbeexpressedasafunctionoftheangularvelocityofthemotor,

M
,asfollows:
I
B
= K
L

ThebackEMFconstant,K
L
,isoftennumericallyidenticaltothetorqueconstantofthemotor,
K
1
(atleastintheSIsystemofunits).Thisisnotsurprisingsincebothtermsarerelatedtothe
geometryofthemotor,thefieldstrength,andthelengthofwiremovingthroughthemagnetic
field.AllthreetermsareconstantinapermanentmagnetDCmotor.Anexpressionrelatingthe
armaturecurrent,I
A
,totheappliedmotorvoltage,I
M
,andtheangularvelocityofthemotor,

M
,canbefoundbysubstitutingK
L

M
forI
B
inthearmaturecircuitequationabove:
u = -I
M
+ R
A
I
A
+ I
A
JI
A
Jt
+ K
L

Ifthearmaturecurrentisinitiallyzero(i.e.,noinitialconditions),thisequationcanbewrittenin
theLaplacedomainasfollows:
u = -I
M
+ R
A
I
A
+ I
A
sI
A
+ K
L

ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page3of10

SolvingforI
A
:
I
M
- K
L

M
= I
A
(R
A
+ I
A
s)
I
A
=
I
M
- K
L

M
(R
A
+ I
A
s)

Thisequationcanbeexpressedasatransferfunctionasfollows:

Byincludingthetorqueconstantofthemotor,K
1
,themotortorque,I
M
,canberelatedtothe
appliedvoltage,I
M
:

MechanicalModelofMotor
Inordertocompletethetransferfunctionofthemotor,ameansofrelatingtorquetoangular
velocitymustbefound.Thiscanbeaccomplishedbyconsideringthemechanicalmodelofthe
motor. The torque generated by the motor accelerates the armature of the motor as well as
any additional load inertia on the motor shaft. Some of the torque also goes towards
overcomingfriction.Inordertomaintainalinearsystemmodel,onlytheviscousmotorfriction
will be considered for the time being. For a mechanical system undergoing pure rotational
motion,Newtonssecondlawstatesthatthesumoftheappliedtorquesisequaltotheproduct
ofthemassmomentofinertia,[
u
,andtheangularaccelerationofthebody,o.
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)

I
A

K
L
I
M

-
+
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)

I
A
K
L
I
M

-
+
K
1

I
M
I
B

I
B

ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page4of10

= [
u
n
=1
o
InthecaseoftheDCservomotor,[
u
isequaltothesumofthemassmomentofinertiaofthe
motor armature, [
M
, and the load, [
L
. The net torque generated by the motor is equal to the
motor torque, I
M
, minus the rotational viscous friction. The rotational viscous friction
associatedwiththemotorisproportionaltothemotorangularvelocity,
M
.
I
M
-
M

M
= ([
M
+ [
L
) o
M

where
M
is the motor viscous damping coefficient. Replacing the angular acceleration of the
motorwiththerateofchangeofangularvelocityyields:
I
M
-
M

M
= ([
M
+ [
L
)
J
M
Jt

Assumingzeroinitialconditions,thisequationcanbewrittenintheLaplacedomainasfollows:
I
M
-
M

M
= ([
M
+ [
L
)s
M

Thetransferfunctionrelatingthemotorangularvelocity,
M
,tothemotortorque,I
M
,canbe
derivedasfollows:
I
M
= ([
M
+ [
L
)s
M
+
M

M
I
M
=
1
([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M


1
([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M

I
M

M

ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page5of10

Themotortransferfunctioncannowbecompletedasfollows:


1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)

K
L
I
M

M
-
+
K
1
1
([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M

I
M
I
A
I
B

ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page6of10

ReductionofBlockDiagramModels
Thegoalofblockdiagramreductionistorepresentcomplexsystemsthatarerepresentedin
theformofblockdiagramsbyasingletransferfunction;i.e.,asingleblock.
ConsiderthefollowingblockdiagramexpressedintheLaplacedomain:

Thisdiagramcanberepresentedbythefollowingequation:
|R(s) - C(s)E(s)]0(s) = C(s)
The goal is to find a single transfer function relating the output, C(s), to the input, R(s).
Expandingthelefthandsideoftheequationandsimplifying:
R(s)0(s) - C(s)E(s)0(s) = C(s)
R(s)0(s) = C(s) + C(s)E(s)0(s)
R(s)0(s) = C(s)|1 + 0(s)E(s)]
C(s)
R(s)
=
0(s)
1 + 0(s)E(s)

Theoriginalblockdiagramcanthereforeberepresentedasfollows:


E(s)
R(s)
C(s)
-
+
0(s)
C(s)E(s)
0(s)
1 + 0(s)E(s)

R(s) C(s)
ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page7of10

TransferFunctionofaDCServomotor
InthecaseoftheDCservomotor,0(s),isgivenby:
0(s) =
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)
K
1

1
([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
=
K
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
]

Thetransferfunctioninthefeedbackloop,E(s),isgivenby:
E(s) = K
L

Thetransferfunctionrelatingtheangularvelocityofthemotor,
M
,totheappliedmotor
voltage,I
M
,isthereforegivenby:

M
(s)
I
M
(s)
=
0(s)
1 + 0(s)E(s)
=
K
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
]
1 +
K
L
K
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
]

Thisexpressioncanbesimplifiedbymultiplyingboththenumeratoranddenominatorby:
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
]
Thisyields:

M
(s)
I
M
(s)
=
K
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
]
1 +
K
L
K
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
]

(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
]
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
]

M
(s)
I
M
(s)
=
K
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
] + K
L
K
1

In other words, a DC servomotor can be modeled by the following secondorder transfer


function:

K
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
] + K
L
K
1
I
M
(s)
M
(s)
ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page8of10

ElectricalTimeConstantofaDCServomotor
TheelectricaltimeconstantofaDCmotor,
L
,isanindicationofhowlongittakesforthe
currenttodevelopinthearmaturewindingforastepchangeintheappliedvoltage.This
constantcanbecomputedbyconsideringtheexpressionforarmaturecurrentderivedabove:
I
A
=
I
M
- K
L

M
(R
A
+ I
A
s)

Rearrangingterms:
I
A
I
M
- K
L

M
=
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)

Afirstordersystemcanbeexpressedinstandardformasfollows:
0(s) =
K
1 + s

where K represents the steadystate gain and the time constant. The transfer function
representingthearmaturecurrentcanbewritteninstandardformasfollows:
I
A
I
M
- K
L

M
=
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)
=
1
R
A
[1 +
I
A
R
A
s

Theelectricaltimeconstantisthereforegivenby:

L
=
I
A
R
A

The steadystate gain is simply the reciprocal of the armature resistance, R


A
. This resistance
determinesthemaximumpossiblecurrentthroughthearmature.
In the case of the motor used in the laboratory (Pittman 9232S003), the armature resistance,
R
A
, is provided by the manufacturer in the datasheet as 7.38 and the armature inductance,
I
A
, as 4.64 mH. This yields an electrical time constant,
L
, of 0.63 ms; a value which is also
confirmed in the datasheet. Since the maximum recommended motor voltage is 24V, the
armaturecurrentislimitedbythearmatureresistancetoamaximumof3.25A. Themaximum
motor power dissipation is therefore 78W although this power level cannot be tolerated
indefinitely.
ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page9of10

MechanicalTimeConstantofaDCServomotor
Asdemonstratedabove,aDCservomotorcanbemodeledasasecondordertransferfunction:

M
(s)
I
M
(s)
=
K
1
(R
A
+ I
A
s)|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
] + K
L
K
1

Iftheelectricaltimeconstantofthemotorisverysmall,itcanbeneglectedandthemotorcan
bemodeledasafirstordertransfer.Neglectingtheelectricaltimeconstantimpliessettingthe
motorinductance,I
A
,tozerowhichyields:

M
(s)
I
M
(s)
=
K
1
R
A
|([
M
+ [
L
)s +
M
] + K
L
K
1

M
(s)
I
M
(s)
=
K
1
R
A
([
M
+ [
L
)s + R
A

M
+ K
L
K
1

Thisfirstordertransferfunctioncanbewritteninstandardformasfollows:

M
(s)
I
M
(s)
=
K
1
R
A

M
+ K
L
K
1
1 + _
R
A
([
M
+ [
L
)
R
A

M
+ K
L
K
1
_ s

Themechanicaltimeconstant,
M
isthereforegivenby:

M
=
R
A
([
M
+ [
L
)
R
A

M
+ K
L
K
1


ENGI5951MechatronicsII:DCServomotorModeling Page10of10

Inthecaseofthemotorusedinthelaboratory(Pittman9232S003)thevariousparametersare
listedinthedatasheet.Theycanbesummarizedasfollows:
thearmatureresistance: R
A
= 7.S8
themassmomentofinertiaofthemotorarmature: [
M
= 1.9 1u
-6
kg m
2

themotorviscousdampingcoefficient:
M
= 1.8 1u
-6
N m s
thebackEMFconstant: K
L
= S.11 1u
-2
viaus
thetorqueconstantofthemotor: K
1
= S.11 1u
-2
N mA
Undernoloadconditions,i.e., [
L
= u,thisyieldsamechanicaltimeconstantof:

M
=
R
A
([
M
+ [
L
)
R
A

M
+K
L
K
1

M
=
(7.S8)(1.9 1u
-6
+u)
(7.S8)(1.8 1u
-6
) +(S.11 1u
-2
)(S.11 1u
-2
)

M
= 14.S ms
The mechanical time constant is listed in the motor datasheet as 14.4 ms. Given that the
electrical time constant is 22.6 times smaller than the mechanical time constant, it can be
neglected in many applications and the motor can be effectively modeled as a firstorder
system.Thenoloadresponsetoa24Vstepinputforboththesecondordermotormodel(top)
andfirstordermotormodel(bottom)areshownbelowforthemotorusedinthelab.