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Bronze sword of the Arco type from the Sava River near Gornje Pijavško (Posavje, Slovenia

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Andrej Gaspari 1. Discovery
in a secondary position in the top part of the The survey of the gravel alluvial deposits of mound of material that had previously been dug the Sava near Gornje Pijavško, municipality of from the right bank of the Sava. Considering the Krško, revealed a prehistoric bronze sword in time of the find, it is more than probable that the March 2007. The well-preserved weapon from sword originated from the western part of a 400 the beginning of the Late Bronze Age was uncov- m long and 50 m wide dune deposited along the ered by Marija Boltin, an amateur fossil seeker, sedimentational area of the riverbed at the end of

Fig. 1. 1. Approximate location of the sword prior to discovery; 2. Višnjevec Cave; 3. traces of an island in the river; 4. traces of the chronologically undefined course of the riverbed (graphic by the Author).

while it narrows at the beginning of the second third and becomes rectangular in cross-section. which was checked already in 2005/2006.268 Andrej Gaspari Fig. The latter is here oval to rhomboid in section with bevelled sides. The termination of the tang is shaped into an oblong club- . 3) has a relatively short and massive blade with parallel edges. The record of the find is kept in the Posavje Museum in Brežice. which obliquely passes into the bell-shaped shoulders of the tang. whereupon it was returned to be kept by the family of the finder1. 2). 2. Other archaeological finds from the mound. which had previously been mechanically excavated from the parallel-lying section of the riverbed (photo by the Author). The blade edges are sharp up to the beginning of the blade. the beginning of the last fifth. while the cross-section towards the hilt is almost rhomboid. whereby the width increases proportionately with the decreasing thickness. are not known. just before the transition into a sharp tip. The sword was found in the top part of the mound of the alluvial material. the large bend the Sava makes between Blanca and Gornje Pijavško (Figs 1. The sword was drawn. The blade is widest at shaped pommel of an almost round cross-section. photographed and sampled for metallographic analyses.2 Sword Description: the almost completely preserved sword (Fig. The blade’s lower part has a flat lenticular crosssection with thinned edges. 1.

Bronze. The blade and part of the pommel have a green patina and are partially covered with a light grey carbonate concretion.3 cm.11%). 2. 37. 1. 0.4 cm. Slovenia) 269 The transition from the blade to the shoulders has two round rivet holes.9 cm. Future research will show what can be deduced of the provenance of the copper ore on the basis of the established composition scheme of trace element contents of nickel (Ni: 0.6 g. Preservation: blade and pommel of the hilt are slightly bent along the vertical and horizontal axes. Such contents apparently represented the most suitable relationship between flexibility and hardness for this weapon-intended alloy. The contents of both metals do not deviate from the average values for contemporary swords from the south-eastern Alpine area (Trampuž Orel 1996: 182-188. 2). Scale = 1:3 (photo by the Autor. Knific Lunder). blade th. 3. pommel w.Bronze sword of the Arco type from the Sava River near Gornje Pijavško (Posavje. blade l. Size: entire l. which is most probably the consequence of stress either in river or during digging. which are represented in a relatively small total share (Trampuž Orel 1996: 202-209).4 cm. pommel l. 49.17%).7-0. Fig. which is rather unstable on one side.14%) and arsenic (As: 0. The blade edges do not show apparent signs of use and are generally little damaged. 0.8 cm. 2. 12. where bronze makes up 90. tang l.7-3. Only small indentations on blade edges are visible and parts of the rivet holes’ outer rim are missing. Sword from the Sava near Gornje Pijavško. Fig. .46% of the material2. The shiny dark river patina is only to be found on a part of the hilt. Alloy: the sword is made of a bronze alloy.2 cm. tang th.8% and tin 8. blade w. 0.5 cm. tang w. Weight before conservation: 424. drawing by D.3 cm.6 cm. antimony (Sb: 0.

3 . 3 Schauer 1971. 4 Bianco Peroni 1970.Le Coudray-Montceaux. 5 . . = 1:4 (2. 2 .270 Andrej Gaspari Fig. 1. 4. 1 .S.Corbeil.Arco. Antonino. 5 after Mohen 1977). 4 . M.Genf.

6 Le Coudray-Montceaux (F) 11. eastern France and Italy. 5.4 Este (I) 11.7 Arco (I) 11.1 39.7 58. 10: 68-72.5 Belleville (F) 11. while in the west they reach to the Channel.4 35 46. Determination The sword from the Sava belongs to the group of tanged swords from the early part of the Late Bronze Age. respectively. The Arco swords form a typologically very uniform group.8 32.4 cm.4 54.9 43.5 S. Pl.Bronze sword of the Arco type from the Sava River near Gornje Pijavško (Posavje.2 36.8 49. Pl.8 32. the weapon from the Sava may be classified into the group of swords with a club-shaped pommel (à masette in French) and more precisely ascribed to the Arco type as defined by V. The prevailing blade cross-section is rhombic shaft blade TOTAL Malcantone (I) Nogara (I) 10. whereby the hilt is usually around 12 cm long when measured from the rivet holes upwards (Figs 4.4 12.1 47.5 shaft blade TOTAL Genf (CH) Essonne (F) G.7 42.3 45.2 45 Port Guillot (F) 11.4 35. Their distribution covers primarily the Alpine countries.8 54. 48). Bianco Peroni (1970: 32-35.7 44. Based on the described formal characteristics.6 S.7 34. it is undoubtedly a close-combat weapon designed for chopping as well as stabbing.1 12.6 37.8 41. . 5). 69). Antonino (I) 11.3 46 Corbeil (F) 12.8 46.7 30. Antonino (I) 13.4 Verona (I) 12.5 Fig. Pijavško (SLO) 12.5 11.1 59 49.8 37.4 52.2 47. Slovenia) 271 2.2 34.5 Langres ? (F) 12. Lengths of hilts and blades from complete swords of Arco type (graphic by the Author).5 47. Considering the strong short blade with a pronounced centre of gravity in the lower third. The shortest and longest among the nine completely preserved examples of these swords measure 42 cm and 59. In the south-eastern Alpine area they have been recorded only sporadically and should most probably be interpreted as import (Harding 1995: 18.

The tang of most swords terminates in a pommel with octagonal. Numbers of sites correspond to List 1 (graphic by the Author). which is kept at the museum at Langres. 6. which was most likely made of wood. five are of unknown or unclear circumstances of discovery. while single swords are known from Carinthia in Austria. Distribution of Arco type swords. The great- est concentration of the finds is between the area north-west of the Alps. The club-shaped pommel supposedly protruded from the grip. 109. while a lenticular cross-section is only known in five examples. . The distribution area of the nineteen positively determined swords of the Arco type spans from the Paris Basin to Srem (Fig. respectively. which could indicate an alternative manner of attaching the two-piece grip with a clamp. Twelve examples are well-preserved individual finds from rivers. List 1). Emilia-Romagna and Veneto region. 4).272 Andrej Gaspari with thinned edges. Based on the similarities with types Pépinville Fig. 6. Fig. The preserved holes show that the hollow grip of the hilt was attached in most swords by means of two rivets. A further seven swords of this type have been found in northern Italy between the Tridentine Alps. there is yet another example of unknown provenance. two from the Rhône near Genf and two from the Saône downstream from Chalon. which appears in more or less flattened versions. Posavje in Slovenia and Srem in Serbia. and even rarer round cross-section. bone or antler (cf Cupitò 2000. where three swords are known from the Seine in the surroundings of Paris. while two examples formed part of a hoard. rarely hexagonal. The rivet holes on some swords reveal circular indentations.

found in a Late Bronze Age layer (LH IIIB) of the palace in Ugarit (Ra’s Shamra in Syria. Harding 1995: 18. which mark most examples of both types. and a 56. 12th ct. and the spot where it was dug out. Commentary The absence of a precise find spot makes it difficult to infer as to the distance between the spot. 94) and Noćaj-Salaš in Vojvodina (Popović 1964. their occurrence in both hoards which include older material could also speak in favour of 13th century as probable period of the use of Arco type. BC) according to K. perhaps in relation to the confrontations with “Sea Peoples” (cf Cupitò 2000. were characteristic of the transition between Bd D and Ha A1. The two cited analogies for swords with club-shaped pommels from the Near East and Egypt are a Terontola type sword with a cartouche of pharaoh Merenptah (his ten years long reign can be placed with certainty between 1238 and 1204 BC). A relevant fact in this discussion is the absence of direct typological correspondence between the examples with short and wide tangs. but was ascribed as ‘Egyptian’ in origin by an antique dealer at the end of the 19th century (O’Connor 1978). as was first believed. 112). which probably does not originate from El Kantara at the Suez Canal.Bronze sword of the Arco type from the Sava River near Gornje Pijavško (Posavje. BC) (Salzani 1994. this distance could not have been substantial. Pl. Foltiny and H. 3: 16). i. which ranks among the typical representatives of Horizon II (Ha A1. whereby she allowed for the possibility that the eponymous grave find from northern Lotharingia belonged to the developed phase of Bd D in terms of Central European chronology (Bianco Peroni 1970: 33. 35)3. 3. in some publications. eastern Mediterranean coast and Nile-Delta are interpreted by some scholars as evidence of “western” mercenaries in the service of Egyptian pharaohs. as one of the possible proofs for trading and craft contacts of European prehistoric communities with the civilisations of the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East (Schauer 1971: 13). dated to the beginning of Bronzo Finale (12th ct. However. S. Still. which appear in Cyprus towards the end of LH I (1675/1650-1600/1550 BC) at the latest (Sandars 1961.4 cm long example of the Pépinville type from the John Evans Collection. to the Late Bronze Age (Bronzo Recente). Schaefer 1955). Slovenia) 273 and Terontola. 15. Reim 1974: 22) (note 4). Swords with tang hilts were identified. in the first volume of the fourth series of Prähistorische Bronzefunde from 1970. successor of Ramses II and the sovereign of the 19th Dynasty. The correctness of these inferences for the Arco-type swords was confirmed by two examples from the hoard contexts: Nogara-Pila del Brancón in northern Italy. where the sword entered the Sava. of the Ha A1 phase (Foltiny 1964: 44. The swords with club-shaped thickenings and different types of flange-hilted swords (in particular Reutlingen-Cetona and Stätzling-Allerona) from the sites in Aegean. It is even possible to suppose that the sword lay in an unaltered position for . Pl. Bianco Peroni dated the Arco type swords. while they considered those swords with a pronounced point of gravity in the lower part of the blade as typologically more developed form.e. Vinski Gasparini. Reim were of the opinion that the blades in the form of willow leaves. 17). and the forms from the area of central Europe and northern Italy that date from the beginning of the Late Bronze Age (MüllerKarpe 1962: 262). considering the state of preservation.

hoards and grave units of the above the road from Sevnica to Krško. It opens in a steep rock slope just in settlements. Pl. The first argument is the supposed absence of sword in the riverbed. hollowed south-eastern Alpine area only exceptionally out in layered limestones about 15 m in length. In spite of the above-mentioned migrations. Blanca and Gornje Pijavško (Fig. L. two stone axes. flakes. The there are no real arguments for claiming that the possibility of this sword actually being found sword was washed off a land context. of course. Following a visit to the excavations in August 1940. covered stuck with its bent upper half in gravel.274 Andrej Gaspari most of the time. (Korošec & Uršič 1965: 55. 22: 185). while the upper part projected into water.plate. a newspaper article was published. rock fall and burnt remains were documented in different parts of the cave. probably came from this cave (Č. It (Čerče. journal of Glasnik Muzejskega društva za the apex of the bend ran nearer to the modern vil. though this near Pijavško is. I should reveal an interest. 1. possibility cannot be excluded. but it later moved towards the steep 1995: 109. an antiquarian from Krško cannot a priori be refuted. The supposition that the sword was not deposited at a more distant place upstream is partially made relative by the changes of the Sava’s course in the area of the bend between the villages of Arto. the existence of a larger river island with a secondary channel in the area of the present-day plain along the left bank. Before proceed. 4). the plot borders and configuration of the terrain along Gradišče and Loka near Arto. ANSI: 261). this caused also the end of the bend to phases (Harding 1995: 53. In the which figured in Ložar’s report in 1930 in the past. 1: 3.though the arguments against the two swords being with a brief consideration of the remaining ing originally deposited on land are much soundpossible reasons behind the appearance of the er. Due to the shoulders and a widening in the centre of the hiltdynamic balance between erosion and sedimen. determined as type Krško of Bd D/Ha A1 tation.Slovenijo (Ložar 1930: 15-17. which was acquired by the Provincial Museum in Ljubljana in 1904 and reveal an old migration of the main course. Turk 1996: 22. for later periods. They revealed numerous human and animal bones. Alternating layers of gravel. in his opinion.: 1940). which cannot be more precisely determined. It is not excluded that the author had in mind the bronze sword from the riverbed of »the Sava near Krško«. only hypothetical. and the second their reling note connected to the archaeological site in atively good state of preservation. in which the author mentioned an »old sword«. The was the site of excavation in 1938-1940 by Rajko possibility that the swords were lost during the Ložar from the National Museum in Ljubljana crossing of the river or in an accident on the river and Otto Auman. though it does seem . which was »once found in the Sava« and. 1: 2). bone tools and an ornamented bronze pin with a preserved head5. Fig. 31: 215). deep in the gravel alluvium and was thereby less exposed to abrasion or damage through the transport of gravel. Pl.any contemporary finds6. Eneolithic pottery. since coman occasionally water active cave of Višnjevec pletely preserved Bronze Age weapons are found (Fig. as well as on the plain of the Pijavško polje. Šinkovec 1996). clay. 24. This sword has rounded slope of the Graščinsko hill (335 m). Furthermore. Šinkovec lage of Arto. The old names of Otok (Island) and Struga (Riverbed) prove. It was unmove northwards.

which reflects a wider phenomenon of weapons in rivers. Individual finds of swords from water cults as well as divinities of springs. Harding 1995: 27. since deposition into a river (or other being a reflection of a complex value system and inaccessible environment) meant that the prestige religious concepts of the prehistoric communi. Pl. The fact that the Sava find is. and these offerings have en. to which the high-ranking bearers belonged.tionships between the spiritual expectations of er topographically significant places in the alpine the person making the offering and the quality of areas. Zápotocký 1969: 361-364). Šinkovec 1995: 104.made especially for this purpose (and useless in ness and uninhabited character. One of the crucial 438. The highly differentiated relaaxes and spear heads on mountain passes and oth. in regional terms.weapon was irreversibly alienated from this world ties. This is indirectly attested to also by an almost completely preserved bronze rapier (Bd C) from the old riverbed at Drnovo. a rare sword type. or special decoration) was matched Ritual offerings of metal weapons are treated by their symbolic and status significance. by demographic analysis of which were brought about by the systematized the cemetery of the Urnfield Culture at Volders exploitation of economic sources. whereby the choice of location for votive the object offered. Gleirscher 1996: near Innsbruck. which showed that placing swords within graves was limited to one person per generation (Gleirscher 1992: 13). Gaspari 2004). rivers water sites and marshes are usually presumed to and special places.by some researchers in the context of demographlarly in the case of swords. tion difficulty. Offerings to . Slovenia) 275 that the appearance of this prestige part of armament in the river is more the consequence of intent than coincidence (Torbrügge 1970-1971: 6669). found in the riverbed of the Elbe/Laba in the rocky straits near Velké Žernoseky (so-called Porta bohemica. This confirms the predominant appearance of swords in the water contexts of the south-eastern Alpine area. Zápotocký for the assemblage of weapons of predominantly Danubian origin. Each new water find of considerations of votive offerings is the act of rea sword steadily increases the probability of this nunciation. lakes and marshes across Europe (Šinkovec 1996.alloy (Schauer 1996: 389). – analogous to its destruction by fire (Lavrsen Offering objects is most probably connected to 1982: 17. 18). 29: 209. Bronze Age/beginning of the Late Bronze Age.Bronze sword of the Arco type from the Sava River near Gornje Pijavško (Posavje. while larger astered ancient epigraphic and literary sources and semblages of more or less contemporaneous depictions. Pl. particu. This raises the possibility of votive offerings of spoils from military campaigns in distant areas. found in the 1880s (Deschmann 1888: 22. group offerings. the Sava in the wider area of Krško has yielded three finds of swords from the Bronze Age. The exclusiveness of ic increase and social change during the Middle the latter piece of weaponry is demonstrated. Related manifestations of cult beliefs weapons are supposed to indicate ceremonial also include individual finds of swords.represent individual offerings. also corresponds well with the observations that Bronze Age weapons from European rivers often include objects of foreign origin (Hansen 1997: 30). 6: 34). 439. daggers. as supposed by M. To date. among other things. produc. is attested to by finds of swords offerings was crucially influenced by its remote. The high material battle because of the unsuitable composition of value of the offerings (based on import.

The presence of the sword from the vicinity of Gornje Pijavško in the shallow water area at the end of the bend could also indicate a ritual act advantageous for river crossings. is represented by a group find of two spearheads and a sword from the Late Atlantic Bronze Age in the riverbed of the Sil near San Esteban in Galicia.276 Andrej Gaspari ‘divinities’ or to the sacred were supposed to enable elites to control internal frictions stemming from the accumulation of goods and power in the hands of a minority. which does not correspond with either an offensive or defensive stance (Dumont 2002: 161. as it seems likely for an important part of individual finds7 and larger complexes of Bronze Age weapons from fords or other characteristic water-crossing spots8. such encounters usually took place at full moon. which may at least in part be connected to the concept of transition in burial rituals. as one of such examples. in two such duels. where the arms were either hung or set apart from other grave goods. 162). received by the hero from the hands of the water spirit. The Ulster Cycle. Fig. The spear. since it was consecrated to the spirit who offered him the weapon in the first place (Wehrberger & Wieland 1999: 241). Torbrügge states. a collection of Old and Middle Irish tales. This phenomenon was connected by some researchers with ritual duels known from the legends of the Celts from the modern British Isles (Louis 1954). the grave from the later period of the Urnfield Culture in the cemetery at Singen am Hohentwiel in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Having said that. power and prestige with acts performed seemingly to the benefit of the entire community (Dal Ri & Tecchiati 2002: 478-480). the expression refers to a duel on an island or a reef. since they are negated by the scarcity of documented traces of blows on the blades. 2). a spear-like weapon. who used a gaé bolg. from where only one of the participants. W. had magical powers only while in water. The possibility of the swords having being deposited into the riverbed within a burial ritual is indicated also by their special treatment in certain burials on land. The weapon once lost in battle was not permitted to be retrieved. interpretations of this sort concerning water finds of swords from the Bronze and Late Iron Ages remain without firm archaeological proof. often on a river island (Holm). a Viking skald from the 10th century. we should not neglect the powerful symbolic meaning of water. Possible exceptions are the (Late?) La . With the Germanic peoples. 579). The above-mentioned mutual exclusion of grave and water finds of weapons could signify that the sword was cast into water as a provision for the netherworld. either on the part of the owner himself or posthumously (Torbrügge 19701971: 121. mentions a hero by the name of Cú Chulainn. could return alive (Torbrügge 1996: 578. Parallels to the Celtic duels in fords can be found in the custom of seeking justice (Holmgang) in the Nordic sagas and legal codices. In its original sense. according to the saga of Egill Skallagrimsson. Although attractive. as well as a high percentage of swords in their scabbards. the composition of which corresponds to the full set of arms of Late Celto-Iberian warriors (Almagro-Gorbea 1996: 45. Bradley 1990: 99-107). where the sword was put on the wooden lid of a grave pit containing an urn and numerous ceramic vessels (Torbrügge 1996: 575). while at the same time they were used to consolidate their authority. which usually leave no incontestable traces in the archaeological record. One of the probable burials into running water.

as yet. One of the rare individually found bronze swords from the southeastern Alpine area with documented intentional damage is a solid-hilted sword of the Schwaig type from Tultschnig (Čanjče) near Klagenfurt (Celovec) in Carinthia. Trento. Essone. Pl.1 cm (Schauer 1970: 87. 4: 1. unlocalized settlement.1 cm (Schauer 1970: 87. L. L. S. Veneto. Genf. The relatively fragmentary state of knowledge on the spatial and chronological structure of the settlement in the wider surroundings of Krško prevents us from forming better founded inferences in connection with the possible reasons behind the deposition of swords as mentioned above. 45. 4. Ricchetti sandpit. 12. Pres. dép. Corbeil. L. some of which show damage that was doubtlessly inflicted in battle (Wehrberger & Wieland 1999: 237-241. Based on numerous spearheads and other weapons from the area of the paved passage across the Marne at Brasles (dép. 10: 69). Verona. Lebel in the 1950s. hilt l.6 cm. l. l. Lavrsen also tied her study on water finds of prehistoric metal weapons from the rivers of northern Italy in 1982 to the concept of a border river. 11. From the riverbed of the Seine. Pl.0 cm. Pl. 233). Treviso. Circumstance of discovery unknown. Veneto. Verona. From the riverbed of the Sile. 42.6 cm. 54. She proposed that Bronze Age swords usually appear on the edges of main settlement areas. An interesting thesis on weapons from riverbeds was proposed by P.7 cm (Bianco Peroni 1970: 34. Treviso. hilt l. L. L. L.5 cm (Marini Calvani 1997: 726. hilt l.4 cm. Nogara. Aisne). and Stari grad near Krško. 47. 1: 3). 47.2 cm (Salzani 1994: 83.5 cm.0 cm. Pl.7 cm (Bianco Peroni 1970: 34. from where the most direct control over the entry into the Sava gorge was possible.Bronze sword of the Arco type from the Sava River near Gornje Pijavško (Posavje. although their concentration in a topographically prominent passage from the narrow valley of the Sava into the open flat area of the Krško polje is not surprising. 46. Antonino. Prov. 5. 13. 47. 10. 45: c). L. From the riverbed of the Seine.4 cm (Marinis 1984: 46. which was accompanied by the Bronze Age cemetery at Žadovinek (Lazar 1992). Fig. Fig. while concentrations of swords in the River Sile led her to ask herself whether it perhaps represented a border river (Lavrsen 1982: 20). hilt l. 6. 11. 10: 71). L. opposite of the hill topped by Castle Brestanica. Prov. Fig. Pl. Veneto. 11. The importance of this passage for communication is further underlined by an. 11. Fig. 54. 52. Arco. Piacenza. From the riverbed of the Sile. Prov. Figs 1. as well as by the remains of an early settlement at Dunaj near Mladevine (ANSl: 260). Prov. probably caused by pressure against stone (Gleirscher 1992: 9.7 cm. 43: 293).8 cm (Mohen 1977: 93. 3.2 cm (Bianco Peroni 1970: 34. 4: 3. Prov. hilt l. 10: 70). Pl. 43: 292). . 4: 4.47. Verona. known almost exclusively from riverbeds in eastern France and southern Germany. Antonino. No. 2). 234). Veneto. Veneto. S. Le Coudray-Montceaux. Nardellotto sandpit. Pancrazio. Genf. hilt l. 8. From the riverbed of the Adige. Malcantone. hilt l. Alto Adige. Borgo S. 9. 2. From the bed of the left branch of the Rhône. From the riverbed of the Sarca. 12. Emilia-Romagna.5 cm. Prov. Padova. Este. Fig. hilt l. 7.5 cm. 10. Fig. From the riverbed of the Rhône. The tip of this sword bent and broke off due to high stress.05 cm (Bianco Peroni 1970: 34. List 1 1.1 cm. 44. Prov. Fig. Fig. L. 4: 2. Hoard. hilt l. dép. J. Fig. From the riverbed of the Po. Canevedo. 11. 10: 68).2). 12. he inferred duels on rivers that formed natural barriers between the areas of different communities (Lebel 1953). hilt l. No. 4: 5. 429: 1). Slovenia) 277 Tène rapiers with bulbous pommels (Knollenknaufschwert). Pres. 35. 11. Essone.8 cm (Mohen 1977: 93. Pila del Brancón.

ANSl: Arheološka najdišča Slovenije. 11.5 cm. in the area of the Mali Drinić ford near Trilj (Milošević 1999: Fig. Bonnamour. hilt l. For this information I would kindly like to thank Mag. Pl. Bianco Peroni. The date of the Terontola type is provided by swords from a Bd D grave unit from Baierdorf in Lower Austria (Schauer 1971: Pl. Pl. Pres. 12: 83-86. hilt l. hilt l. L. cf Cupitò 2000: 112. 13. Fig. 22 cm. Neva Trampuž Orel. Ljubljana. Trampuž Orel. From the riverbed of the Sava. (ed.6 cm. dép. Essone.7 cm.).6 cm. 1990: Du silex à la poudre. 4000 ans . Gde.. 59. L. 5 Today the cave appears completely uninhabitable. 235). Fig. Mâcon. 5). Three fragments of a sword. Sremska Mitrovica. water gushed into the cave some time after the excavation. obč. According to the explanation by Dr.3 + 18. 17. 44: 299). led by Dr. 124 cm (Mohen 1977: 93. Unknown site. 49. ca. Blackmore Collection in Salisbury. Bonnamour. No. dép. 7 One of the clearest examples from the surrounding area is a sword with a hilt plate uncovered still in its scabbard in the riverbed of the Dalmatian Cetina. 14.17. St. 43: 291).7 cm (Foltiny 1964: 42. from the bell-shaped widening of the hilt. 1996.5 cm (Harding 1995: 18. 43-79. 16. Gornje Pijavško. 3: 16).).8 cm (Bonnamour 1990: 33. hilt l. 12. L. which almost completely washed away the layers with archaeological content. but are adjacent (Bianco Peroni 1970: 36-39.0 cm. Sacred Places and Cults of Late Bronze Age Tradition in Celtic Hispania. 13. L. In P. 2 Rafko Urankar took two samples. 25: 38). 35.278 Andrej Gaspari sively in the bronzo recente phase (Bianco Peroni 1970: 35. exclu- Bibliography: Almagro-Gorbea. 22.. I would like to thank all. entitled Movable Archaeological Heritage: Archaeological and Archaeometric Research. 6 The fact that practically no non-metal finds are known from the Sava from the archaeological periods probably does not signify their absence. Oktober 1993. 19: 23). L. Pl. Harding 1995: 58. from the Canegrate cemetery in Lombardy. I also thank Matic Brenk for providing information on the find. ca 49. hilt l. Ardetschitza-graben bei Rosenbach. Haute-Marne. where burial took place. 12. L’Âge du bronze au Musée de Chalon sur Saône. 1: 3. Regensburger Beiträge zur prähistorischen Archäologie 2. 1mm in diameter. Pres. L. 5: 30). From the riverbed of the Saône. M. 19.-7. hilt l. Alenka Kocijan from the Institute of Metals and Technology (IMT) within the research programme P60283 of the National Museum of Slovenia. 11. 1969. RegensburgBonn. 18. 58. L. 11: 79). l. Unknown site in France.5 cm (Oakeshott 1960: 27. Belleville. dép. for allowing me to publish the results of the analysis. Schauer 1970: 87. Notes: 1 I would sincerely like to thank Marija and Tomaž Boltin for allowing me to publish the sword. Rhône. according to Bianco Peroni. L. Rhône. Die Schwerter in Italien. hilt l. This approximate determination is supported by a less well preserved example conditionally ascribed to the type. 3 Bianco Peroni 1970: 33.8 cm (Bonnamour 1969: 21. The metallographic analysis in the ICP-AES technique was conducted by Dr. Schauer (ed. Pl.0 cm. 4 This characteristic is visible also with some swords of the Biandronno type. Fig. Leben. Prähistorische Bronzefunde IV/1. Krško. 19. 15. Salaš Noćajski. F. Circumstances of discovery unknown (ravine of the stream Weißenbach/Bela or unknown hoard from Carinthia). Kept at the Museé de Langres. which are distinguished from the examples treated here only by a thickening on the hilt tang and the absence of rivet holes. Pl. 45. Port Gulliot. Unknown site. Pl. Archäologische Forschungen zum Kultgeschehen in der jüngeren Bronzezeit und frühen Eisenzeit Alteuropas. 24: 195). especiallly Dr. Figs 16. München..4 cm. 1975. 8 Such a background for the present-day territory of Slovenia is particularly likely for the site in the riverbed of the Sava near Medvode (cf Šinkovec 1996: 156-162. It is also revealing that the areas of distribution of the Arco and Biandronno sword types do not overlap. 12. From the riverbed of the Saône. V. Fig. l. obč. Pl. Hoard. Gaspari 2007: 241). 4). ca 42. 1970. 2. dép.8 cm (Mouton 1954: 48. but rather attests to the poorer conditions for their preservation. Jakob im Rosenthal. Draško Josipovič. Ergebnise eines Kolloquiums in Regensburg 4. 11.

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