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About the BallParam_Open Spreadsheet ...

Scope : The BallParam_Open spreadsheet was designed to be used - in conjunction with the Ball Mill Grinding Simulators BallSim_Direct and BallSim_Reverse - in the "tuning" of such simulators to any specific actual grinding system, via the estimation of the various Model Parameters that characterize the grindability of any given ore. In other words, the attached spreadsheets provide an effective algorithm to search for the set of parameter values that best approximate the model response to the actual experimental measurements available ( obtained from Continuous, Pilot or Full Plant Scale Mills), based on a typical non-linear, least-squares criterion.

Theoretical Framework : The reference ball mill model is described with further details in the About ... worksheets of the BallSim_Direct or BallSim_Reverse files. Such model is based on the so called Modern Theory of Comminution. This theory introduced two new sets of parameters : the Selection Function S and the Breakage Function B. The first set – also referred to as Grindability – relates to the grinding kinetics of each independent particle and the second set – also referred to as Distribution of Primary Fragments – characterizes the size distribution of the fragments produced as a result of breakage events. The size-dependence of the Selection and Breakage Parameters is represented by the following relationships : - For the Selection Function : SiE = a0 (di*)a1 / [ 1 + (di* / dcrit)a2 ] with : di* = (di · di+1)0.5 = average particle size of the ‘i-th’ fraction. An expanded form of this expression - also available in this simulation routine - is given by : SiE = [1/(1+a02/a01)] { a01 (di*)a11 / [ 1 + (di* / dcrit)a2 ] + a02 (di*)a12 } - For the Breakage Function : Bij = b0 (di/dj+1)b1 + (1- b0) (di/dj+1)b2 (2) (1e) (1)

An expanded form of this expression - also available in this estimation routine - is obtained by replacing b0 in Equation 2 by : b0j = b00(dj+1/1000) -b01 , never > 1 (2e)

These expanded forms for Si and Bij are intended to provide the model greater descriptive flexibility when tuning the model to actual specific grinding systems but, since they increment the total number of ore characteristic parameters to be estimated, its use should be avoided whenever possible . In any case, the proposed expanded forms reduce to the normal forms if a02 and b01 are set equal to zero.

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Also in Equation 3. The remaining information required to run the program is entered in the Control_Panel worksheet.of the here attached Data_File worksheet..fi)/fi]2 i=1 n (3) where the fi's represent the experimental size distribution of the mill product (as % retained on screen 'i' ) and the fi's represent the model response for each corresponding fi. the current outputs are not valid. Test 2.On the basis of Pilot or Industrial Scale Data. For reprocessing these data. the wi's represent user defined Weighting Factors that quantify the relative quality and reliability of each particular mesh value with respect to the other screens data. etc. The minimization problem stated above may be readily solved with the aid of the Excel Subroutine Solver.ms_office Page 2 4/6/2013 / 2:24 PM . the user may wish to remove the view of the comments by selecting Tools / Options / View / Comments / None. must be run every time any element of input data gets to be modified . Relatively high values of such weighting factors indicate more reliable measurements. rendering the whole utilization of the worksheets self-explanatory. At the extreme. New Moly-Cop Tools users are invited to explore the brief comments inserted in each relevant cell. where the user is requested to provide initial guesses of the grinding parameters listed above. Moly-Cop Tools / 138336330. blue background cells contain the results of the corresponding formulas there defined and are protected to avoid any accidental editing. simply copy the information back to the Data_File and re-run the Solver routine.. select Solver .inside the red double-lined border . An interesting feature of this routine is that the user has the option to save for later reference every analyzed data set by copying the Data_File worksheet into as many as required Test 1..xls. Eventually. Otherwise. To run the program. Calculation results are summarized in the Reports worksheet. the BallParam_Open routine allows for the calculation of all a's and b's (including dcrit) that minimize the least-squares Objective Function : f = S wi [(fi . worksheets. from the Tools Menu. a wi factor equal to zero means that this particular measurement is not being included in the Objective Function. then Min and then By Changing any combination of Cells E10:E24 (see Useful Hints below). Important Notice : Solver . The a's and b's (including dcrit) that yield the minimum possible value of f are so considered to be representative of the particular ore under analysis.. Data Input and Program Execution : Most of the data required by the algorithm must be defined in each corresponding unprotected Turquesa background cell .. for a given set of model parameters. Clicking on the Solve button will execute the desired calculations. like those typically obtained from plant sampling or audit campaigns. select the objective function Cell E27 in Control_Panel and then.

whenever the estimated value of this parameter tends to be greater than the top mesh opening. set it fix at 100. hardness variations of the same ore source may be well described by changes in the a0 parameter only. In fact. Not all grinding systems require a finite value of dcrit.000 and remove it from the By Changing list. To exclude any given parameter off the search. Keep in mind that a larger number of adjustable parameters in the search (that is. as the search algorithm will most likely fail to find the minimizing optimum when dealing with too many parameters at once. If the model fits are still not satisfactory. etc.ms_office Page 3 4/6/2013 / 2:24 PM . for all data sets) and set it fix at its average value and equal for all data sets. a02 and a12 (one at a time. a1and b1. these two parameters are better optimized by a very basic trial-and-error procedure. dcrit.). from one data set to another. in that order). included in the By Changing list) will necessarily yield lower Objective Function (Cell E27) values. there is a good chance the data contains significant experimental errors and should be discarded. 4. Be careful to follow the instructions provided at the bottom of such table. When in doubt.like BallParam_Open . Moly-Cop Tools / 138336330. If the step above does not provide satisfactory model fits. always attempt to obtain a reasonable model fit of these data with the same average parameter values for all sets. b1 = 0. for the next runs of the search. % solids. 2. include b01.0. these parameters will exhibit significant variability and covariance amongst them. until the model fit is no longer judged acceptable. rendering them meaningless. leaving the others fix at nominal values : a2 = 3. proceed to allow differences in the most critical parameters in the following sequence : a0. then you should attempt to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. Similarly.is by far the most complex task to be undertaken with Moly-Cop Tools. then you should add b1 to the list of adjustable parameters and eventually. this is strongly not recommended. It is not required to run the Solver search for all parameters at the same time. When multiple experimental data sets are available (the most desirable condition) for various ore types (hard. but the following hints may help guiding the user in the search of the most representative set of grinding parameters : 1. dcrit and b0. An advisable starting run of the algorithm for each independent available data set should considered a search for parameters a0. one at a time. as these parameters have little effect on the objective function and may just confuse the search algorithm. 5. b0. simply try assigning them values between 2 and 4 and observe the response of the Objective Function (Cell E27). not via the Solver routine.xls. Use the green background table below the Control_Panel area to summarize the results of your search with the various available data sets. For instance.Useful Hints : The proper utilization of the parameter estimation spreadsheets . There is no set of firm recommendations to obey. it is believed that the distribution of ball sizes in the mill only affects the parameters a0 and dcrit. soft. 3. If that is not acceptable. Never run a search for a2 or b2.0. Continue removing the remaining adjustable parameters off the By Changing list. The concept behind this parameter screening process is to lump the impact of whatever ore properties or process variable are being investigated into the least possible number of parameters in order to improve the statistical significance of the estimations and facilitate the derivation of valid conclusions regarding such effects. Look for the one parameter that exhibit the least Coefficient of Variation (the ratio of its standard deviation to its average value. etc. but the values of the parameters that achieve such minimum will be less reliable in statistical terms and therefore.5 and b2 = 4. If the model fits appear to be reasonable. In other words.) or grinding conditions (mill filling. a1. remove the corresponding cell reference (in the E10:E24 range in Control_Panel) off the By Changing list of cells in Solver and that parameter value will then remain constant and equal to its original guess during the whole search. ball size.

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etc. (hard.xls.ms_office Page 6 4/6/2013 / 2:24 PM . soft.inimizing optimum when dealing with too many parameters at once.) If the model fits appear have little effect on the objective function and may just confuse the Moly-Cop Tools / 138336330.

009180 0.) Discharge (Adjusted) SiE * 10 1 0.ms_office 4/6/2013 / 2:24 PM . microns 10000 100000 Objective Function 0.Moly-Cop Tools TM BALLPARAM_OPEN : Estimation of Grinding Parameters from Plant Scale Data Test N° 1 100 SELECTION FUNCTION : alpha0 alpha1 alpha2 Dcrit Expanded Form alpha02 alpha12 0.xls. if SOLVER has not been run after the last data modification.20000 0. Moly-Cop Tools / 138336330.00 Note : Current calculations are not valid.0000000 1.000 % Passing 10 BREAKAGE FUNCTION : beta0 beta1 beta2 Expanded Form beta01 0.5 6532 0.0 Feed Discharge (Exp.250 4.650 2. (*) Suggested Default Values : alpha02 = 0 and beta01 = 0.000 10 100 1000 Particle Size.

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00) (0.ms_office 4/6/2013 / 2:24 PM .75 3.371 3 4 6 8 10 14 20 28 35 48 65 100 150 200 270 400 -400 Opening 25400 19050 12700 9500 6700 4750 3350 2360 1700 1180 850 600 425 300 212 150 106 75 53 38 0 Mid-Size % Ret % Pass 100. tph (dry) Total Energy.00 0.40 18.00 0.00 0.53 89.86 7.84 12.16 4.00 0.00 0.30 68.28 2.08 35.32 93.33 2.00 Lift Angle.23 39.% Filling.23 21. kWh/ton Objective Function 1622.72 3.00) 0.20 7. (adj) % Ret % Pass 100.73 9.742 0.49 55.76 Mill Charge Weight.91 31.18 29.00) (0.10 60.00 85.00 1.00 1.68 6.48 47.33 2.51 2.02 35.16 86.28 2.39 2.08 24.85 7.38 5.Moly-Cop Tools TM BALLPARAM_OPEN : Estimation of Grinding Parameters from Plant Scale Data Remarks Base Case Example Test N° 1 Mill Dimensions and Operating Conditions Diameter Length Speed Charge Balls ft ft % Critical Filling.00 0.22 14.06 25.47 10.44 13. ton/m3 72.00) (0.68 6.00 (0.48 0.16 4.05 0.00 0.72 3.00) 0.00 Moly-Cop Tools / 138336330.92 35.525 0.00 72.00 0.51 3.84 3.28 79.00 5.97 18.84 0.21 8.02 80.00 0.% 100.00 97.76 8.18 29.24 18.66 17.86 6.08 24.19 8.60 40.53 24.00 0.00 Mill Disch.35 6.49 5.00 38.47 10. tons Apparent Ball Slurry Density Charge Interstitial Excess ton/m3 296.8 2.00 100.00 rpm 12. kWh/ton Balls Energy.12 2.0 2.31 11.19 8.44 83.53 51.00 (0.10 4.87 61.00 0.98 4.10 4.13 4.00) (0.72 5.00 0.57 8.51 2.53 51.50 22.41 4.76 71.16 74.76 8.51 36.00 0.00) sum 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 94.20 7.19 8.00) (0.77 42.0 38.% 18.44 83.00) (0.88 96.53 89.00 100.00 0.32 93.06 25.23 39.30 68.04 14.23 21.08 24.92 35.19 75.00 0.08 35.00) (0.08 24.57 8.96 30.13 4.82 7.37 2. (exp) % Ret % Pass 100.51 3.72 7.84 0. % Error wi wi ABS(error) 21997 15554 10984 7978 5641 3989 2812 2003 1416 1001 714 505 357 252 178 126 89 63 45 19 0.00 Mill Disch.84 12.51 36. ton/m3 Slurry Density.57 21.78 1.00 100.68 23. (°) 35.00 0.00 98.75 Charge Volume.24 18.67 48.00 0.77 42.00) (0.00 2.91 2.65 5.57 21.86 6.36 66.07 8.395 Feed Size Distributions Mill Feed i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Mesh 1.56 2.74 0.00) (0.00) (0.12 2.37 2.02 35. m3 63.95 8.57 (0.00) (0.40 18.59 1.43 4.82 Interstitial Slurry Filling.74 6.10 60.00 0. ton/m3 Balls Density.0 4316 Balls Overfilling Slurry Net Power % Losses Gross kW Mill Flowrate. (smoothed) Exp Adj.00 0.00 0.74 6.41 31.74 0.53 24.xls.00 %Ret.83 4.66 17.57 3.06 % Solids (by weight) Ore Density.84 0.81 91.80 1.16 74.16 86.56 2.91 31.00 98.00) (0.00) (0.00 3348 0 536 3885 10.44 13.00 0.12 39.81 91.88 96.18 29.85 7.00) (0.18 29.28 79.04 14.96 30.00) (0.65 91.12 39.

Dens.00 38. ft Balls Filling. m3/hr Slurry Dens.742 0.53 89.49 55.76 71. ft Length.0 72.92 35.24 18.00 97.53 89.87 61.81 91.xls.371 3 4 6 8 10 14 20 28 35 48 65 100 150 200 270 400 D80.525 0. microns 25400 19050 12700 9500 6700 4750 3350 2360 1700 1180 850 600 425 300 212 150 106 75 53 38 100.8 631. % Critical App.1 2254. % Passing) i Mesh Opening Feed Exp.00 100.30 68.88 96.28 79.32 93.08 24. % Speed.60 40.16 74.53 2.10 60.95 8.88 96.00 100. ton/hr Water.44 83.57 21.67 48.32 93. ton/m3 Net Power.862 72.000 0.77 42.00 98.84 1273 1.74 4680 100.57 21.24 18. kWh/ton 18. kW Energy.500 6532 beta00 beta01 beta1 beta2 Obj.00 85.7 1.18 29.00 98..Moly-Cop Tools TM Test N° 1 BALL_PARAM Conventional Grinding Model Parameter Estimator Remarks : Base Case Example DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS Configuration : OPEN Throughput.18 29.009180 0.50 22.08 24.39 Particle Size Distributions (Cumm.00 4/6/2013 / 2:24 PM Moly-Cop Tools / 138336330.395 3884. ton/hr Slurry.77 42.20000 0.000 2.97 18.16 86.41 31.30 68. Function Breakage 0. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 100.000 0.84 1273 MODEL PARAMETERS Selection alpha01 alpha02 alpha11 alpha12 alpha2 Dcrit 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Discharge Adj.28 79.0 1210.00 100.ms_office .02 80.05 0..0 Diameter.92 35.31 11.0 5.650 1.53 51.73 9.36 66.250 4.65 91.22 14.16 74. m3/hr Slurry.10 60.53 51.44 83.19 75.68 23.0000000 0.81 91.16 86. ton/m3 % Solids (by weight) 1622.

12 2.51 2.00 100.00 0.43 4.00 38.67 48.95 8.16 74.87 61.53 24.00 0.30 68.00) (0.00) (0.0 2.08 35.23 39.08 3.18 29.Moly-Cop Tools TM BALLPARAM_OPEN : Estimation of Grinding Parameters from Plant Scale Data Remarks Base Case Example Test N° 1 Mill Dimensions and Operating Conditions Diameter Length Speed Charge Balls ft ft % Critical Filling.16 4.74 6.0 4316 Balls Overfilling Slurry Net Power % Losses Gross kW Mill Flowrate.30 68.68 23.16 86.77 42.66 17. kWh/ton Balls Energy.51 3.00 0.65 91.395 Feed Size Distributions Mill Feed i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Mesh 1.49 5.08 35.00) 0.00 rpm 12.91 31.86 6.28 79.00) (0.39 2.84 %Ret.53 89.00) 0. kWh/ton Objective Function 1622.00 0.00) (0.59 1.371 3 4 6 8 10 14 20 28 35 48 65 100 150 200 270 400 Opening 25400 19050 12700 9500 6700 4750 3350 2360 1700 1180 850 600 425 300 212 150 106 75 53 38 Mid-Size % Ret % Pass 100.10 60.00 0.44 13.13 4.00 97.57 21.00 0.73 9.72 7.19 8.57 21.00 0.00 0.00 0.18 29.37 2. tph (dry) Total Energy.88 96.04 14.66 17.57 8.53 89. ton/m3 Slurry Density.00 0.00) (0.00) (0.00 0.00) (0.91 2.00 100.00 0.50 22.00 (0.77 42.00 0.8 2.742 0.% 100.72 3.74 Mill Disch.75 3.06 % Solids (by weight) Ore Density.81 91.24 18.47 10.40 0.92 35. (smoothed) Exp Adj. % Error wi wi ABS(error) 21997 15554 10984 7978 5641 3989 2812 2003 1416 1001 714 505 357 252 178 126 89 63 45 0.xls.00 (0.18 29. tons Apparent Ball Slurry Density Charge Interstitial Excess ton/m3 296.48 47.31 11.76 8.05 0.% Filling.32 93.06 25.00) (0.51 2.00) (0.13 4.19 8.00 Lift Angle.525 0.00 1.00) (0.00 3348 0 536 3885 10.96 30.56 2.57 8.85 7.12 39.91 31.28 2.44 13.10 60.51 36.02 80.08 24.00 0.85 7.51 36.16 74.53 51.08 24.22 14.19 75.74 6.24 18.86 6.33 2.35 6.% 18.07 8.18 29.41 4.10 4.53 24.80 1. ton/m3 72.00) (0.00 0.00 98.19 8.84 12.88 96.00) (0.00 Moly-Cop Tools / 138336330.00 85.20 7.84 12.00 2.92 35.72 5.51 3.83 4.00 72.47 10.06 25. (°) 35.41 31.56 2.02 35.33 2.00) 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 0.38 5.68 6.44 83. ton/m3 Balls Density.00 0.86 7.00) (0.40 3.76 71.16 86.23 21.08 (0.97 18.00 0. (exp) % Ret % Pass 100.00) (0.10 4.82 Interstitial Slurry Filling.81 91.0 38.44 83.37 2.48 0.82 7.60 40.16 4.20 7.68 6.21 0.00 100.00 1.23 39.65 5.12 39.32 93.04 14.36 66.02 35.00 98.75 Charge Volume.72 3.49 55.76 Mill Charge Weight.23 21.78 1.12 2.96 30.28 2. m3 63.ms_office 4/6/2013 / 2:24 PM .84 Mill Disch.98 4. (adj) % Ret % Pass 100.00 5.76 8.53 51.28 79.00 0.

00 Moly-Cop Tools / 138336330.21 -400 0 19 8.74 0.00 18.57 (0.84 0.00) 3 0.00 18.00 24.xls.84 0.ms_office 4/6/2013 / 2:24 PM .57 24.

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