You are on page 1of 16

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05); 2012: 244-259

ISSN: 2231-3354 Received on: 15-01-2012 Revised on: 29-04-2012 Accepted on: 07-05-2012 DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2012.2546

Prospects of botanical biopesticides in insect pest management
Hanem Fathy Khater

ABSTRACT Conventional insecticides possess inherent toxicities that endanger the health of the farm operators, consumers and the environment. Negative effects on human health led to a resurgence in interest in botanical insecticides because of their minimal costs and fewer ecological side effects. Botanicals have advantages over broad-spectrum conventional pesticides. They affect only target pest and closely related organisms, are effective in very small quantities, decompose quickly, and provide the residue free food and a safe environment to live. When incorporated into integrated pest management programs, botanical pesticides can greatly decrease the use of conventional pesticides or can be used in rotation or in combination with other insecticides, potentially lessening the overall quantities applied and possibly mitigating or delaying the development of resistance in pest populations. Although the use of rotenone and nicotine appears to be waning, pyrethrum and neem are well established commercially, and pesticides based on plant essential oils have recently entered the marketplace. Plant- based insecticides are not only toxic to pests, but can also deter and/or repel pests which may contribute to their overall efficacy against some pests that cause great economic loss at the pre- as well postharvest stages of the crop production and reduce transmission of diseases to plants and animals including humans. This review provides information about pyrethrum, rotenone, nicotine, and other traditional botanicals, as well as the newer botanicals, neem and essential oils. The effectiveness, uses, safety, commercialization, and future trends of plant- based insecticides are discussed. Botanical insecticides are desirable alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for controlling pests. They are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in developing countries as a new class of ecofriendly products for controlling pests.

Hanem Fathy Khater Medical and Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

Keywords: plant- based insecticides, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, neem, essential oils, nanotechnology.

For Correspondence Hanem Fathy Khater Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, (Moshtohor), Benha University, Toukh, 13736, Egypt. Mobile: 002-0114-1152717; Work: 002-013-2461411; Fax: 002-013- 2463074

INTRODUCTION Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances used to prevent, destroy, repel, attract, sterilize, or mitigate pests. The plant kingdom is recognized as the most efficient producer of chemical compounds, synthesizing many products that are used to defend plants against different pests (Isman and Akhtar, 2007).

Pyrethrins are common active ingredients in the insecticide products. safety. Even though pyrethroids can be useful insecticides. Moreover. as in many instances tropical farmers have not yet begun the generalized use of pesticides (Pretty. high and acute residual toxicity. Technical grade pyrethrum. plants have also been used for centuries in the form of crude fumigants where plants were burnt to drive away nuisance mosquitoes and later as oil formulations applied to the skin or clothes which was first recorded in writings by ancient Greek. 2011). 2007. 2000). and fish. double and triple application rates are needed to maintain control (Stoll. 1995). but they are much more toxic and long lasting (Singh and Srivasava. 2007). those normally kept under control by their natural enemies (Dubey et al.. pesticidal plants offer unique and challenging opportunities for exploration and development of their own botanicals. They can be grouped into five major chemical categories: nitrogen compounds (primarily alkaloids). typically contains from 20% to 25% pyrethrins (Casida and Quistad. pollinators and other wild life. 2011). Accordingly. they induce some deleterious effects as they irritate the human skin. Nicotiana. uses. 2009). and result in toxic residues in food (Dubey et al. upsetting the balance of nature through disruption of natural enemies. some pesitcidal plants serve as control agents for pests and diseases after intercropping or mix-cropping with the main crop. Overenthusiastic use of synthetic insecticides led to problems unforeseen at the time of their introduction. 1999).Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). have antifeedant and arrestant effects. A synergist such as piperonyl butoxide (PBO). 2009). antiviral. The flowers of Tanacetum cinerariaefolium (Asteraceae) are ground to a powder and then extracted with hexane or a similar nonpolar solvent. A. As a form of allelopathy. They also maintain the biological diversity of predators that are often killed by broad-spectrum synthetic pesticides (Grange and Ahmed. the use of synthetic chemicals has been restricted because of their carcinogenicity. The consumption of synthetic pesticides in some of the developed countries is almost 3000 g/hectare. Eucalyptus camaldulensis and some other pesticidal plants are also used as weed control in farmlands to maximize yields (Oyun and Agele. Botanical pesticides are easily decomposed by a variety of microbes common in most soils and. Botanical extracts kill and repel pests.e. for example. most of the paralyzed insects recover. such as Derris. planting Manihot esculenta (cassava) with Ocimum gratissimum (camphor basil). Moreover. As pests become tolerant to insecticides. spermatotoxicity. and growth regulators. Farming in the tropics has included intercropping and mixcropping of main crops with pesticidal plants. and antibacterial properties against pathogens (Prakash and Rao. killing any bypassing insect. Khater. extensive groundwater contamination. Traditional insecticides 1. long degradation period. . a practice that is still in wide use throughout the developing countries.. It was reported by the World Resources Institute that more than 500 insect and mite species are resistant to one or more insecticides (WRI. Pyrethroids Pyrethroids are synthetic materials designed to imitate natural pyrethrum. terpenoids. but its production began in Tasmania (Australia) in 1996 and it currently produces almost one-half of the world supply. every year. ability to create hormonal imbalance. The repellency of plant material has been exploited for thousands of years by man by hanging bruised plants in houses. Australia produces produces a technical grade material comprising 50% pyrethrins by weight. teratogenicity. they reduce environmental contamination. crops are protected naturally and simply using pesticidal plants without the carrying out formulation and application processes for pest and disease control. Following is an overview pointing out the effectiveness. and commercialization of the plantbased insecticides. and have antifungal.000 people are killed worldwide. Without formulation with one of the synergists. Pretty. 2009). and Ryania have been used to control pests during prehistoric times. 2009. i. In developing countries. for example. Feng and Zheng. outbreaks of secondary pests. evolution of resistance and resurgence of treated populations. Synthetic pesticides are generally persistent in nature. Sunlight does not break them down and they stick to leaf surfaces for weeks. 2011. when they were replaced by synthetic pesticides that were easier to handle and lasted longer. especially grasses (Ogunnika. 1986. Pesticidal plants were widely used until the 1940s. 1997). Repetitive use synthetic pesticides has resulted in pesticide residue hazards. increase insect mortality and extends the shelf life of the product. Pyrethrum Pyrethrum is the most widely and heavily used botanical insecticide worldwide and it is a widely used in household aerosols for fast knockdown of pests. 2007) have been found to possess this attribute. Locally available plants. proteinase inhibitors. some of them are extremely toxic to natural enemies. phenolics. as a result. The majority (> 75%) of the world’s supply of pyrethrum was produced in Kenya and Tanzania. 2011). 2012: 244-259 Botanicals have been in nature for millions of years without any adversative effects on the ecosystem. the resin used in formulating commercial insecticides. derived from sassafras or n-octyl bicycloheptane dicarboximide. removal of the solvent yields an orange-colored liquid that contains the active compounds (Casida and Quistad. affect insect growth and development. honey bees. 1994). Theobromae cacao (cocoa) with Carica papaya (pawpaw) and so on (Ogunnika. Achieving a zero pesticide strategy in tropical agroecosystems may be easier than in temperate zones. Integrated pest management can be defined as the use of all available means to maintain pest populations below levels that would cause economic loss while minimally impacting the environment. N. 1988). tabaccum and some other plant species. as a direct result of pesticide poisoning (CAPE. 2011). 1995). Roman and Indian scholars (Maia and Moore. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 200. They are more harmful to the environment than pyrethrum (Dubey.

the oral acute LD50 in rats is 132 mg/kg. Accordingly. such coils are licensed for outdoor use only due to these concerns (Goodyer et al.: Solanaceae) and Anabasis aphylla . Nicotine Nicotine and the related alkaloids nornicotine and anabasine are obtained from aqueous extracts of tobacco (Nicotiana spp. There are two types of pyrethroids. ticks. and death. It is a broadspectrum cytotoxin. 2006). sand flies. Dubey (2011).. and Mansonia. Rotenone continues to be sold for home and garden use. as it inhibits the electron transport chain in mitochondria. it is used to reclaim lakes for game fishing. 3. repellence. mosquitoes. about 200 kg are used annually. Development of synthetic derivatives.. Exposure to pyrethrins and/or pyrethroids as insecticide vaporizers may present a low-level health hazard to humans and so vaporizers containing these classes of insecticide should be used by travelers with caution. acting between NAD+ (a coenzyme involved in oxidation and reduction in metabolic pathways) and coenzyme Q (a respiratory enzyme responsible for carrying electrons in some electron transport chains). chigger mites. Mode of action Rotenone is a contact and stomach poison. see Ware and Whitacre (2004). but technical grade pyrethrum is considerably less toxic (almost 1500 mg kg−1) (Casida and Quistad. 2000) and its persistence on food crops after treatment. The use of impregnating fabrics with insecticide mixtures. Lonchocarpus. causing them to surface and be easily captured. Culex... 2004). The stimulating effect of pyrethroids is much more pronounced than that of DDT. Impregnated-treated fabrics reduce the burden of malaria and other vector-borne diseases and have been used in the Roll Back Malaria Program by the World Health Organization for tropical countries. As modern pyrethroids bear little structural resemblance to the natural pyrethrins. (2010) for more infomation. but liquid formulations used in organic agriculture can contain as much as 8% rotenone and 15% total rotenoids (Isman. leading eventually to paralysis. usually a pyrethrin or pyrethroid which when lit will smolder at a steady rate. will clear a room of insects in around 30 minutes and will remain effective for over 6 hours. similar to that of DDT.. but is used for organic food production. deterrence. but this should be taken in context of the amount likely to be inhaled over an evening and Exposure to mosquito coil smoke could be hazardous to humans due to its potential association with lung cancer. Axonic poisons affect the electrical impulse transmission along axons. (Goodyer et al. and is degraded rapidly. 2004). 1995). kissing bugs. knockdown. The safety of rotenone is a very controversial issue because acute exposure in rats produces brain lesions consistent with those observed in humans and animals with Parkinson’s disease (Betarbet et al. “pyrethroids”. The half-life of rotenone is 4 days. The half-lives of pyrethrins on field-grown tomato and bell pepper fruits were 2 hours or less (Antonious. Such effects are caused by their action on sodium channels in synapses (Ware and Whitacre. Exposure to mosquito coil smoke could be hazardous to humans due to its potential association with lung cancer. and Khater (2011). Safety Pure pyrethrins are moderately toxic to mammals (rat oral acute LD50 values range from 350 to 500 mg kg−1). Pyrethrum initially stimulates nerve cells to produce repetitive discharges. Pyrethroid insecticide is used as an insecticide vaporizer. resulting in failure of the respiratory functions (Ware and Whitacre. fleas. It kills fish at dosages that are relatively nontoxic to other organisms. 2010).or battery-operated electrical devices releasing a pyrethroid insecticide. The use of permethrin-treated clothing will be helpful in decreasing the biting frequency and transmission of arthropod-borne diseases among civilian travelers and deployed military personnel. mains. their molecular mechanism of action differs as well. Safety Pure rotenone is relatively toxic to mammals.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). 2006). Anopheles. Coils cause mosquito bite inhibition. a combination of a repellent and insecticide-treated bed nets or mixtures of repellents and non-pyrethroid–treated fabrics have become new promising tools for disease vector control in case of development of pyrethroid resistance in mosquito vectors. Natural pyrethrum has seldom been used for agricultural purposes because of its cost and instability in sunlight. Rotenone is a respiratory enzyme inhibitor. as burning one mosquito coil releases the same amount of particulate matter as does burning 75–137 cigarettes and emits formaldehyde equivalent to 51 cigarettes. whereas Type II have a positive temperature coefficient. 2. 2010). in South-east Asia to paralyze fish. and in olives at harvest residue levels were above the tolerance limit (Cabras et al. 2004). showing increased kill with increase in ambient temperature. 2002). Inhibition of nuisance biting is seen in all mosquito species: Aedes. It commonly sold as a dust containing 1% to 5% active ingredients for home and garden use. and tsetse flies. Other uses of Pyrethrum and Pyrethroids Permethrin-impregnated clothing provides good protection against lice. Rotenone Rotenone is an isoflavonoid obtained from the roots or rhizomes of tropical legumes in the genera Derris. mostly on lettuce and tomato crops (Isman. Pyrethroids dominated world insecticide use from the 1980s to the start of the current century representing an example of synthetic pesticide chemistry based on botanical model. that is more stable in sunlight solve this problem. In many countries. see Goodyer et al. Mosquito coils are made from a paste of powdered insecticide. For more details. and Tephrosia. as are the synthetic pyrethroids and DDT. Type I have a negative temperature coefficient. 2012: 244-259 Mode of action Pyrethrum is an axonic poison. In California. It is a traditional botanical insecticide in declining use in standard agriculture. It has been used for 350 years. They affect both the peripheral and central nervous system of the insect.

2002). anti-inflammatory. shallow. native to the Indian sub-continent and well known there as the' Botanical Marvel’. leaf miners. America. 2012: 244-259 (Chenopodiaceae). Khater (2011). Neem Neem (Azadirachta indica A. leading to irreversible blockage of postsynaptic nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors. is the most potent locust antifeedant discovered to date. Gilbert and Gill (2010). cockroaches.. contains bitter triterpenoids. greatly enhancing its efficacy and field persistence (Schmutterer. Nicotinoids include Imidacloprid. neonicotinyls. it is seldom used today in North America or Europe. It grows well even in poor. clothianidin. its antifeedant effect is highly variable among pest species. bactericidal (Schmutterer 1995. are quite toxic to mammals but. western flower thrips. and Merit®. and anticarcinogenic effects (Subapriya and Nagini. thiamethoxam (Actara®.. Dubey (2011). antimutagenic. Platinum®). neonicotinoids. 2002). Furthermore. 2005). antiulcer. 2010). It is the most biologically active constituent of neem. nitenpyram. as with rotenone. 2002) will resolve this problem. nematicidal. and flies (Mehlhorn et al. 4.. Woodchips and ground bark of this species and its related tree. preparation of stable nicotine fatty acid soaps. Gaucho®. Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae). For a review. Therefore. dinotefuran. The neonicotinoids. and mealybugs as well as some of the plant diseases. In countries in which it has been introduced. and Australia. and malformation that may contribute to mortality. the newest major class of insecticides. neem is more commonly used as a shade trees.. a small tree from Brazil. steroidal-type alkaloids. imidacloprid. Mode of action The efficacy of neem is linked to the physiological action of azadirachtin (C35H44O16). There are also effects on allatropin and juvenile hormone titres (Mordue and Blackwell. In addition. Nicotine is used mostly as a fumigant in greenhouses against softbodied pests. caterpillars. antihyperglycaemic. and even those species initially deterred are often capable of rapid desensitization to azadirachtin (Bomford and Isman. Crude neem. 2006. and they are highly effective for flea control on cats and dogs. degraded. Nevertheless. although it continues to be used in China and crude tobacco extracts are used in Africa (Morse et al. and more recently as the chloronicotinyls. An oral human lethal dose is 60 mg. containing < 1% ryanodine and its alkaloid analogues. 1992). thiacloprid. a nortriterpenoid belonging to the limonoids. 2005).Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). the concentration of alkaloids in the powdered seeds is quite low.treat. Newer botanical insecticides 1. Their common names are acetamiprid. 2011a). chloronicotines. As a result. or to a delay in the appearance of the last ecdysteroid peak causing a complete moult inhibition. diuretic. and thiamethoxam. or a source of firewood than for its medicinal or insecticidal purposes. They have been previously referred to as nitroquanidines. ‘ all. They induce highly insecticidal effects as they are synaptic poisons that mimic the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Other traditional botanicals A few other plant materials have seen declining commercial use as insecticides. windbreaks. dermal exposure or inhalation. and saline soil. Kumar et al. It acts as an insect growth regulator on larval insects by disruption of moulting. they cause symptoms of poisoning similar to those seen with organophosphate and carbamate insecticides (Hayes. bugs. loopers. including certain mildews and rusts (Dubey et al. The nicotinoids act on the central nervous system of insects.. Biological activities The discovery of neem is attributed to Heinrich Schmutterer. . Admire®. extracts. and ‘Gift of Nature’. Pure active compounds. On the other hand. growth inhibition. The ground stem wood.can. 1982). presumably with reduced bioavailability and toxicity to humans (Casanova et al. Juss: Meliaceae) is a newer botanical insecticide.. 2011a). mite. This is attributed to a disruption of endocrine events such as the down-regulation of haemolymph ecdysteroid levels through the blockage of release of prothoracicotropic hormone from the brain-corpus cardiacum complex. 2011a). It also exhibits immunomodulatory. antimalarial. and antiarthritic properties (Mehlhorn et al. molluscidial. B. and Mehlorn (2011). neem possess fungicidal. Neem is also effective against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. (2010).. Confidor®. Neem is widely grown in other Asian countries and in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa. acetamiprid (Assail®). Nicotine has seen declining use as it is quite toxic to humans through ingestion. 1996). clothianidin (Poncho®. Isman and Akhtar (2007). Isman (2005. ‘Village Pharmacy’. The low affinity of neonicotinoids for vertebrate relative to insect nicotinic receptors is a major factor in their favorable toxicological profile (Tomizawa and Casida. Nicotinoids Nicotinoids are similar to and modeled after the natural nicotine. such as wood of the Caribbean tree Ryania speciosa (Flacourtiaceae) that contains a suite of unique alkaloids that block neuromuscular junctions. nitenpyram (Bestguard®). such as lice. ‘Wonder Tree’. have outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing-sucking pests. antiviral. sweet potato whiteflies. see Ware and Whitecare (2004). Sabadilla is a powder based on the ground seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale (Liliaceae). antioxidant. who observed that swarming desert locusts in Sudan defoliated almost all local flora except for some introduced neem trees (National Research Council. a South American plant. and dinotefuran (Starke®). Azadirachtin. 1993). fleas.tree’. tick. Mehlhorn et al. providing a margin of safety to the user. has been used in organic fruit production. 2011). isolated in 1968. Neem controls gypsy moths. and products have this antifeedant effect. Ailanthus altissima have been used traditionally as an insecticide. azadirachtin has systemic effects in certain crop plants.

. natural enemies and pollinators (Naumann and Isman. 2008b).b. Production Neem seeds contain 0. Solvents such as methanol and ethanol have been found to extract the active ingredients better than water.. extracts.. On the other hand. and as formulations in neem oil..5 μg/kg bw).. crude plant parts. A neem seed extract contained in a fine shampoo formulation (Wash Away® Louse) blocked the aeropyles of the eggs (nits) of head and body lice (Pediculus humanus capitis and Pediculus humanus corporis). 2008a. Worldwide. Azatin. For a review. Locher et al. In order to produce and use effective neem pesticide. Al-Quraishy et al. Seeds should be efficiently and quickly dried after harvest and stored for later use. 2007a. and no adverse effects occur in water or groundwater (Mehlhorn. and the bloodsucking lice.000 ppm of azadirachtin did not show chronic toxicity (Melhor et al. 0. 2011b). this product offers a complete cure from head lice upon a single treatment. 2011a). of 15. Azadirachtin induces no accumulations in the soil. 2010). Precautions for effective application Worldwide. Neem derivatives have been applied against pests as leaves.. Sun screens such as Para amino benzoic acid can be added to reduce the photo-oxidation of azadirachtin by UV light. The pure compound azadirachtin. RD-Repelin. Khater. 1996). the unprocessed materials. so solvent partitioning or other chemical processes are required to produce 10% to 50% concentratrates for the technical grade material used for commercial production.. oil. 2009..6% azadirachtin by weight. From the ecological and environmental point of view. where no complex extractions can be performed due to a lack of solvents and equipments. Reproductive effects of aqueous leaf extract after daily feeding for 6 and 9 weeks led to infertility of rats at 66. 2012: 244-259 Vaporized neem oil is an effective inhibitor of mosquito landing and appears safe to humans (Sharma et al. On the other hand. Neem preparations should be kept away from sunlight to avoid photodegradation of active ingredients by UV light... Wellgro. A 90-day oral feeding of rats with 10. several commercial products are sold in the United States and the European Union. Linognathus setosus. 2010. the use of unprocessed and aqueous neem-based products should be encouraged (Boeke et al.3 mg/kg bw.. Neem products were neither mutagenic nor carcinogenic. The effect of azadirachtin on natural enemies is highly variable (Hohmann et al.b. 2011a). neem products are widely used for controlling arthropods. which may account for their limited penetration into the market place thus far (Isman. 2012a. Neem leaf extracts are less effective than seed extracts due to lower azadirachtin content. and 2 μl/kg bw/day. and other wild life. neem has important advantages over . Neemguard. no phytotoxicity and accumulation is seen in plants. a single treatment of dogs with neem seed preparations. and the seed oil are the safe to use as an insecticide to protect stored food for human consumption (estimated safe daily doses. there are over 100 commercial neem formulations. birds. the timing of treatment before parasitism is less deleterious to parasitoid emergence (Hohmann et al. 2006. It is harmless to non-target insects (bees. Safety Azadirachtin is nontoxic to mammals. Seeds that are greenish yellow in colour should be picked from the trees or collected regularly under the tree. respectively).Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). 2004).. (2008). and butterflies). This means that synthetic azadirachtin will be available in the future (Veitch et al. breaks down within 50–100 h.. azadirachtin is rapidly degraded by sunlight as the half-life of azadirachtin is only one day (Kleeberg and Ruch.b). 2010). Neem formulations are better applied at dusk when sun is weak. The application modes. 2011). 2010. 1993). Abdel-Ghaffar et al. and insects that molest animals and humans (Heukelbach et al. and they did not produce any skin irritations or organic alterations in mice and rats.. even at high concentrations. 2010a. 2010.. The biological compound MiteStop® based on a neem seed extract has a very high and broad efficacy against a wide spectrum of mites. onto the hair of dogs before it was washed away just with normal tap water (Mehlhorn et al. Abdel-Ghaffar et al.7% and 100%. seed oil. 0.. 2006). 1996). Mordue et al. Trichodectes canis. Recently. However. some points should be understood by the user to avoid reduction in bioefficacy. the chemical synthesis of azadirachtin was achived in 2007. Refined neem products are expensive to produce. thus preventing the embryos of both races of lice from accessing oxygen and from releasing carbon dioxide. Consequently. Safer’s ENI. and Neemazal. killed motile stages and eggs of the chewing lice. 2011). Azadirachtin is more effective when formulated as an oil that contains the other natural products of the plant. If applied with care. Moreover. In both cases. Wash Away® Louse also controlled Sarcoptes scabiei mites (AbdelGhaffar et al. adverse effects include reversible reproduction disturbances. Limnoids can be added to inert compounds to produce a neem product with a known stable azadirachtin concentration.. cake. leaving no residues.. if the lice (motile stages and eggs) are fully covered for about 10 min (Mehlhorn et al. ticks. are also the most advisable from a health risk viewpoint (Boeke et al.26. the aqueous extracts. azadirachtin is non-toxic to fish (Wan et al.. 2004.. In water azadirachtin. Thus. 2010). 2004). Schmahl et al. 2001). Neem seeds that are picked up from the ground can contain dangerous levels of aflatoxin. 2012). the rat oral acute dose is LD50 is >5000 mg kg−1 (Raizada et al. Neemark. After 41 years after its isolation and 21 years of full solution of its chemical structure. Kumar et al. MiteStop® or Wash Away Dog. and aqueous extracts. ESD.. respectively (Mehlhorn et al. most feasible for low-resource farmers in tropical countries. see Salako et al. Like the pyrethrins.2% to 0. spiders. For example. there are over 100 commercial neem formulations such as Margosan-O. Bioneem. Azadirachtin-based insecticides represented about one third (about 600 kg) of the botanicals used in agriculture in 2003 in California. Neemies. the product had been left for 20 min.. non-aqueous extracts turn out to be relatively toxic (ESD 12.

2002). geraniol. 2003) and Myrtus communis (Flamini et al.. To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens. the soil type. Aromatic plants produce many compounds that are insect repellents or act to alter insect feeding behavior. Some plants contain insect growth regulatory chemicals that disrupt insect maturation and emergence as adults.. insecticidal. 2008. triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40) also exist. Essential oils Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds produced as secondary metabolites in plants. 2004). long used as fragrances and favoring in the perfume and food industries. More recently they have become popular as agents for aromatherapy. borneol. medicinal. 2012: 244-259 chemical pesticides. Steam distillation of aromatic plants yields essential oils. (2009) for more information). menthol. ecdysis (moulting). plants naturally release a variety of volatiles including various alcohols. respectively. methyl eugenols. the climate. Khater et al. Mode of action of essential oils Essential oils interfere with basic metabolic. for example. Thyme oil and monoterpenoids including thymol. Aromatic compounds occur less frequently than the terpenes and are derived from phenylpropane e. virucidal. leaf tissue. or help in interplant communication (Pichersky and Gershenzon. and there is evidence for interference with the neuromodulator octopamine (Enan. see Khater (2011) for more details. even within species according to the part of the plant from which the oil is extracted (i. The composition of these oils can vary dramatically. eugenol.g.. and aromatic compounds. Essential oil of Matricaria recutita contains precocenes that interfere with the normal function of insect glands that produce juvenile hormones resulting in the suppression of insect growth while moulting. 2005) or GABA-gated chloride channels (Priestley et al. protect plants from disease. 2003.e. aldehyde: cinnamaldehyde. isopulegol. Azadirachtin is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as class IV (practically non-toxic). parasiticidal. Shalaby and Khater. Lauraceae. 1999. Neem can be considered as the most important among all biopesticides for controlling pests due to its non-toxicity and environmental safety. phenols: chavicol.... thujone). Biological activities of essential oils Since the middle-ages.. stem. 1. Juvabione. 1999). 1999) and approximately 3. fruits. and behavioral functions of insects.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). and behavior during mating and oviposition. terpeniol). was discovered by accident when paper towels made from this source were used to line insect-rearing containers resulting in a suppression of insect development (Varma and Dubey. and cosmetic applications. Khater and Shalaby.. 2009. ingest or absorb essential oils. rosemary oil collected from plants in two areas of Italy were demonstrated to vary widely in the concentrations of two major constituents. Khater. the phenological state of the plant.. 2011. found in the wood of balsam fir.g. aldehydes (citronellal. The rapid action against some pests is indicative of a neurotoxic mode of action. from Citrus fruits) have long been used successfully for insect control. . and other factors. anethole. Insects inhale. there are 17. Among higher plants. and cosmetic applications. alcohol: cinnamic alcohol.. thereby showing systemic antifeedant properties (Varma and Dubey.. 2008. etc.. terpenes. verbenol). especially in the pharmaceutical. The main group is composed of terpenes and terpenoids and the other of aromatic and aliphatic constituents all characterized by low molecular weight terpenes mainly the monoterpenes (C10) and sesquiterpenes (C15). citral). 1985). essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal. Several plant families. an analogue of insect juvenile hormones (Balandrin et al. carvacrol). Zingiberaceae. and citronellal combinations have been patented for pesticidal activity against cockroaches and the green peach 2. and pharmaceuticals industries (Bakkali et al. Essential oils are characterized by a strong odor and have a generally lower density than water.g. diterpenes (C20). Khater and Khater. citronellol).g. Chemistry of essential oils Monoterpenoids (90% of the essential oils) have a great variety of structures with diverse functions. Some essential oils have larvicidal effects and the capacity to delay development and suppress emergence of adults of insects of medical and veterinary importance (Mazyad et al. fungicidal. 2003). Azadirachtin and limonoids such as limonin and nomilin from different plant species in Meliaceae and Rutaceae (e. Khater. biochemical. Koul et al. elemicine. methylene dioxy compounds: apiole. phenols (e. eugenol. These volatiles can deter insects or other herbivores from feeding.g. Rutaceae. Asteraceae. Zhu et al. 2008) apart from pesticidal potential (Chang and Cheng. linalool.). 2002). perfume. They may also be used by the plants to attract pollinators. Lamiaceae.g. the season. They are ten carbon hydrocarbon compounds or related compounds such as acyclic alcohols (e. menthone. myristicine. Other plants with antifeedant and insect regulation effects Many plant chemicals deter insects from feeding. Apiaceae. cyclic alcohols (e. chrysanthemic acid) and oxides (cineole). sanitary. ketones (carvone.000 essential oils are known out of which 300 are commercially important for cosmetics.8-cineole (7% to 55%) and a-pinene (11% to 30%) (Flamini et al. thymol. 2005. 2002). safrole (see Isman (2006) and Tripathi et al.g. physiological. See Dubey et al. 2009. for example. methoxy derivatives: anethole. 2008. Azadirachtin protects newly grown leaves of crop plants from feeding damage. acids (e. have direct toxic effects.. 2011). estragole. Cupressaceae. 2011. but hemiterpenes (C5). growth and development.500 aromatic plant species (Bruneton. 1999). Ocimum basilicum contains juvocimenes. Such variation is common and has also been described for the oils derived from Ocimum basilicum (Pascual-Villalobos and Ballesta-Acosta. Poaceae. have been examined for anti-insect activities. especially in India. (2011) and Khater (2011) for more details. Kumar et al. and Piperaceae. thereby showing an antifeedant effect. or involve in recruiting predators and parasitoids in response to feeding damage. Myrtaceae. bicyclic alcohols (e.

In some cases.. For more details about fumigants. or aromatic carbon. the same terpenoid can repel certain undesirable insects while attracting more beneficial insects. Possible use of the compound for control of stored-grain pests is suggested (Rizvi et al. various mint species. having the hydroxyl group linked to a primary. citronellol. but the oils mainly act in the vapor phase via respiratory system.. 1997. The compound β-asarone extracted from rhizomes of Acorus calamus.5%. Repellent metabolites The repellent activity of essential oils include some metabolites. Ninkov. 2012: 244-259 aphid (Bessette and Beigler. including human head lice (Toloza et al. Other terpenoids can act as attractants. cineole. EPA. 1993). such as oils of basil. camphor. β-citronellol. Most of the arthropod-repellent compounds are oxygenated. are repellents against the tick. geraniol will repel house flies but attract honey bees (Duke. A compound 1. Tribolium castaneum and demonstrates both repellent and fumigant properties (concentration dependent) (Huang et al. It is important to note that chemosterilants are important in integrated pest management programs to break the life cycle of pests and to reduce the occurrence of pest resistance. such as clove. Unfortunately. 2010 for a review). induce sterility in the insect pests. 2000) and DDVP has a possible human carcinogen potential (Lu. Essential oils and their isolates have fumigant action. More importantly. Lactic acid is present in warm-blooded animal body odor and sweat. affecting people who are vulnerable to these diseases (Hopp and Foley. Reiter. 2003). Repellents Repellents are substances that act locally or at a distance. Papachristos and Stamopoulos 2002). 2001. for example. Phosphine is the major cause of suicidal deaths in India. Alkaloids isolated from Annona squamosa have shown larvicidal growthregulating and chemosterilant activities against Anopheles stephensi at concentrations of 50 to 200 ppm. Essential oils as chemosterilants Some of the essential oils and their components are chemosterilants. the sesquiterpenes. limonene. lavender. Methyl bromide has ozone-depleting potential (UNEP. Nutmeg oil has been determined to significantly impact both the maize weed. citronellal. Ixodes ricinus. thyme. such as the monoterpenes α-pinene. there is an increasing need for the development of safe alternatives that could replace the toxic fumigants for protection against stored product pests. and DDVP (2. it may cause environmental and human health risks (Pitasawat et al. Similarly. 1997). isolated from the essential oil of Dianthus caryophyllum. carvones and 1. . 7-trimethylxanthine. 2005. Anethum sowa. and is attractive to female mosquitoes. α-terpineol and limonene). and various mint species have demonstrated contact and fumigant toxicity to a wide spectrum of insects.. Essential oils distilled from members of the Lamiaceae (mint family that includes most culinary herbs). aegypti. and Pinaceae (pine and cedar family) are commonly used as insect repellents and many members of these families are used in rural communities through burning or hanging them within homes (see Maia and Moore. and dengue into some temperate and higher altitudes. in some metabolites that have the hydroxyl group linked to a tertiary carbon (linalool.2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) provoke some safety concerns. and rosemary. Synthetic chemicals have been developed in order to protect humans from mosquito bites. (2009). 2007). yellow fever. Curcuma longa.. Some essential oils. usually by providing a vapor barrier deterring the arthropod from coming into contact with the surface. and Khater (2011). and phenylethyl alcohol. eugenol. geraniol. As a consequence. methyl bromide. Action as repellents The repellent molecules interact with the female mosquito olfactory receptors and block the sense of smell. 2011 for more facts). Some essential oils express bioactivity against stored product pests. The exact mode of action of these oils as fumigant is unknown. see Tripathi et al. 1995). Lippia alba and isolates like d-limonene. citronellyl or a mixture of these have been patented as pest treatment composition against the human louse (Ping. possesses antigonadial activity causing the complete inhibition of ovarian development of different insects (Varma and Dubey. 1990).Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). Sitophilus zeamais and the red-flour beetle. Isman (2010). but not all essential oils are active against all the insect pests (Don-Pedro 1996. For that reason. 3. 2008). 2008). At similar concentration.. a linear diterpene alcohol is repellent against Anopheles gambiae. the compound had no phytotoxic effect on the crop plant Vigna mungo. causing nearly 100% sterility at a concentration of 1.N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is a broad spectrum repellent and the most effective and persistent on skin. Fumigant effects of essential oils Currently used fumigants including phosphine. 2009).. (Saxena et al. Lactic acid plays a role in host seeking behavior of mosquitoes.8-cineole have been well documented as fumigants (Tripathi et al. terpinolene. Insect resistance to phosphine is a matter of serious concern (Thie and Mills. phytol. eucalyptus. 2008). Dubey (2011). βcaryophyllene is repellent against A. It proved effective as a chemosterilant for Callosobruchus chinensis. secondary.. and thymol that are repellents against mosquitoes. Global warming has moved the mosquitoes that transmit malaria. citrus peel. search efforts are directed towards natural repellents through ethnobotany. cinnamyl alcohol. and α-pinene. citronellal. 1999). rosemary. was isolated from seed extract of Coffea arabica. Most insect repellents are volatile terpenoids such as terpenen-4-ol. the repellent activity is suppressed against A. It has been found that following a blood meal. 1980). Poaceae (aromatic grasses)... eucalyptus. 2005 & 2008. such as esential oil of Artemisia annua. cotronellol. 2007). gambiae. suggesting the possibility that the type of carbon where the hydroxyl substitution is present modulates repellency (see Nerio et al. DEET (N. Dubey et al.

cineole. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Liu et al. citronellal (from lemongrass). cockroaches. PMD is the only plant-based repellent that has been encouraged for use in disease. palm nut. and Hippobosca equine) infecting buffaloes for almost 6 days post-treatment. 2006. Recommendations for use in young children do vary between countries. 2007). 1990). have been introduced recently (Isman. respectively. lemongrass. d-Limonene is heavily used for controlling structural pests as termite in California. chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla). cassia. are effective against mosquitoes based on short-term tests with humans. Acarina. Flea and tick control products for companion animals based on dlimonene. mosquitoes. 2011) and its clinical efficacy to prevent malaria (Hill et al. termites. and ants (Zhu et al.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). 2001). and onion (Allium cepa). and lemongrass. Consequently. The fruit has a compound irritating to the feet of an insect that will cause that insect to spend less time in a treated area.. unfortunately. they may be useful as carriers for other repellent actives as they are cheap and contain unsaturated fatty acids and emulsifiers that improve repellent coverage and slow evaporation of volatile repellent molecules (Maia and Moore. 2011).b).10-dihydronootkatone have been patented as repellent against mosquitoes. (Peterson and Coats. Henderson et al. C. and other household insects (Scialdone. cinnamon. Hymenoptera. Surprisingly.. resulting in the insect “losing” the host (Davis and Sokolove. Its oil contain numerous sesquiterpenoids many of them were repellent to the German cockroach.. PMD was discovered in the 1960s though mass screening of plants for repellent activity such as lemon eucalyptus. and 2-phenethylpropionate (from groundnut). with some recommending lower concentrations and others suggesting that higher strengths can be used. The active ingredients of most essential oils evaporate rapidly leaving the user unprotected except PMD (para-menthane 3. repellents based on essential oils tend to being short-lived in their effectiveness. 1981). Illicium verum. the causation between the few reported cases of encephalopathy in children and the topical use of DEET cannot be supported by a good evidence base (see Goodyer et al. cinnamon. AG1000. 6. The safety profile in the second and third trimester of pregnancy has been established through observation of very low placental cord concentrations after maternal application of DEET and animal models do not indicate any teratogenic effects. indicating synergism with other unidentified human odor components (Geier et al. is used by cosmetic industries due to its fresh smell. Curuma aeruginosa. DEET is considered safe but there are few reports of systemic toxicity in adults following dermal application. Mosquito repellency caused by DEET is thought to be due to the blocking of lactic acid receptors. 2003). . Siphonaptera. peppermint (Mentha piperita). Pioneers in the American West placed the ripe fruit of the osage orange (hedgeapple) (Maclura pomifera) in cupboards to repel cockroaches and other insects.. It has a lower vapour pressure than volatile monoterpines found in most plant oils (Barasa et al. a constituent of citrus peel oil. Eucalyptus robusta. Essential oils of Cinnamomum camphora. has been shown to be repellent to the biting midge Culicoides imicola. Laurus nobilis. nonetheless. A patented natural repellent is based on nepetalactone and dihydronepetalactone obtained from Nepeta cataria that is effective against cockroaches. 2012: 244-259 the sensitivity of lactic acid sensitive neurons declines. Lindera aggregate. In addition. thyme. but lactic acid sensitivity returns to normal after oviposition (Davis. Large number of essential oils repels arthropod species. In behavioral studies. geraniol and piperidine found in bay leaves. Its oil. Nootkatone from Vetiver oil and its derivatives. which can spread cattle diseases (Braverman et al. Although all of these three oils are far less effective than DEET. 2005 a. However. zeylanicum repel mosquitoes (Kim et al. peppermint. Some botanicals are comparable to. such oils are Angelica sinensis. 1999). 2001). 1976). Due to its proven safety to human health (EPA. Hallahan. 2002). 2010) Lemon eucalyptus is a potent repellent. It worth to mention that some oils are mosquito repellents such as coconut. and andiroba oils. It is unclear if repellents work by common mechanisms in different arthropods. Blattella germanica L. 2005.8-pmenthane-diol (from lemon eucalyptus). Cyperus rotundus.endemic areas by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) (Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez and Roger Nasci. 2002). mites. 2011). abolishing upwind flight. 2009). Some essential oils of Chinese medicinal herbs repel the Germane cockroach. Haematobia irritans. the same oils repelled flies (Musca domestica. Essential oils have pronounced in vitro and in vivo pediculicidal activity as the number of lice infesting water buffaloes in Egypt was significantly reduced 3. comprising 85% citronellal. and C. 8 diol)... as well as hematophagous Hemiptera. and other plant oils (clove. ticks.. and the compounds 3. lactic acid is essential to attraction of Aedes aegypti.. Such oil. and Gnathobdellidae (an annelid family). although their duration is a very controversial issue (Fradin and Day. 2007). No adverse effects were noted on either animals or on pour-on operators after exposure to the applied oils (Khater et al. but lactic acid by itself is only mildly attractive. Ocimum basilicum. 2010). Stomoxys calcitrans. suggesting that DEET operates on a fundamental physiological basis common to members of the arthropod-annelid evolutionary line (Peterson and Coats. 1996). 2010 for a review). due to their volatility. 1984). there is a need for effective ecofriendly repellents. clove. Oils of soybean. possess repellent properties towards cockroaches (Verma and Meloan. or even better than synthetic repellents. or oils of peppermint.. and 6 days after treatment with the essential oils of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). DEET is effective against many other Diptera of medical importance. In addition. and this decline is co-incident with the cessation of host-seeking behavior. does not have EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) registration for use as an insect repellent. A neem extract proprietary product.. tetrahydronootkatone and 1. it provides very high protection from a broad range of insect vectors for several hours (Carroll and Loye 2006). Corymbia citriodora (Myrtaceae) (Curtis. 4.

Thyme. 2002). vanillin. suggesting that repellence makes a strong contribution to the efficacy of these products (Isman et al.. β Ocimene is repellent to the leaf. which is toxic to the eggs and larvae of insects. 2000. none of the plant extracts alone provided adequate crop protection (Sinzogan et al.. in order to improve mosquito repellent properties (Maji et al. 1981. Commercialization of essential oils Today. Repellent activity may also underlie the use of these oils in the long-term protection of foods and food products through their incorporation into packaging materials (Wong et al.00 million and a total world production of 45. Almost 90% of this production is focused on mint and citrus plants (Verlet. It is believed that ingestion of garlic or B vitamins makes skin unpalatable to blood feeding and biting arthropods. essential oils represent a market estimated at US $700. It enhances the shelf life of stored fruits and vegetables and inhibits microbial deterioration without altering the taste and odor of the fruits after treatment (Varma and Dubey. such as French marigold and coriander. Cymbopogon citratus. polymer mixtures. anise. reducing the dose of polluting substances and the risk of developing resistance.. 2005) and excitorepellency (Noosidum et al.000 tons. Citronella and geraniol candles are widely sold as outdoor repellents as continuous evaporation of volatile prolongs their repellency. Yet. especially in situations when DEET is ineffective and impractical (Kamsuk et al. Efficacy decreased in the order hydrophilic base > emulsion base > oleaginous base (Oyedele et al. some fixative materials such as liquid paraffin. improving formulations of plant oils increase their longevity through development of nanoemulsions (Nuchuchua et al. but oleic acid and linoleic acid have been indicated in death recognition and death aversion (repellency) in cockroaches and the term ‘necromone’ has been proposed to describe a compound responsible for this type of behavior (Rollo et al. Carvariella aegopodii.. although they do not provide significant protection against mosquito bites (Jensen et al. Experiments with the aphid. 1997). and Hyptis suaveolens) that provided greater efficacy than conventional products alone at their recommended rate. consequently.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). indicate that the aphid can be captured in traps baited with carvone. salicyluric acid. Essential oils act as a wood preservative solution by mixing eucalyptus essential oils with pyrethroids and borax (Urabe.. 1985). The LD50 value of carvone (in mice) is reported to be 1640 mg/kg (Isman. Oil of Indian prickly ash. 1987). 1995). Note that negative synergism can occur between the essential oil or their components and the other ingredients present in the total formulation. 2008). 2011). Carvone occurs in the essential oils of several plants of the Apiaceae. 2008).. Müller et al.. Anastrepha suspense. the essential oil of the Japanese pepper tree. Zanthoxylum piperitum is only one example for which there is a potential to be used on the development of combined repellents. Helicopverpa armigera (Hubner). However. Garlic and B vitamins must never be suggested as a natural method of bite prevention (Goodyer et al.. 2007).. 2012: 244-259 etc. Female Caribbean fruit flies. 1987). in addition to studying spatial repellency (Bernier et al.cutter ant. and coconut oils have been used. but is repelled by linalool (Chapman et al. (2010) and Khater (2011) for more details). 2006). 1993). Khya senegalensis. can be minimized by mixtures of conventional insecticides at one half the recommended rates by combining extracts of three local plants (Azadirachta indica. 2001). Formulations based on creams. The repellent activity of the mixture of essential oils from Artemisia princeps and Cinnamomum camphora against the adult weevils. It is a non-toxic botanical insecticide used under the trade name TALENT. Sitophillus oryzae and Bruchus rufimanus was significantly higher than that elicited by individual oils (Liu et al. Plants with strong smells. 2005). act as repellents and can protect the crops nearby (see Khater (2011) and Dubey et al.. and a proprietary monoterpene mixture was developed containing 0. was tested on different formulations. resulted in an increase of repellency duration. Zanthoxylum limonella... Furthermore. Several private companies produce essential oil- . lay their eggs readily in ripe grape fruit but do not oviposit in immature grape fruit because of the presence of linalool. 2009). 1982). A low pH and salinity (5% NaCl) can potentiate the activity of the product (Lachowicz et al. 2006). Attractant adhesive films with essential oils were prepared to control insects (see Nerio et al. Atta cephalotis. 2010). 1999). 2006). The effectiveness of a mosquito repellent in a topical application that contains oil of lemongrass. Carvone is a monoterpene of the essential oil of Carum carvi. Harborne.. 1992). field studies against mixed populations of nuisance mosquitoes show reductions in biting around 50%. Damage to cotton by the bollworm. Very little is known about the receptors responsible for the repellent responses in cockroaches. 2007). Limonene found in sour oranges (Citrus aurantium) is toxic to adult bean weevils (Callosobruchus phasecoli).) are used in the USA by professional pest control operators as ‘flushing agents’ for cockroach control and for ‘perimeter treatments’ of homes against ants and termites. .. which feeds on the aromatic Apiaceae (Apiales) species in summer. Improving the efficacy of essential oils The activity of an essential oil is affected by the salinity and pH. Although natural active ingredients are some times more expensive than synthetic products. enhancing the effectiveness of the major constituents through a variety of mechanisms (Berenbaum.. 1998)..9% active ingredient for use against foliar feeding pests (Hummelbrunner and Isman. or microcapsules for controlled release. Synergistic phenomena of essential oils A synergistic phenomenon among metabolites of essential oils may result in a higher bioactivity as minor constituents found in low percentages may act as synergists. and saffron oils have synergistic activity (Youssef.. but highly attractive to male Mediterranean fruit flies (Jacobson. mustard. in both field and laboratory experiments (Harborne. Mixtures of different monoterpenes produced a synergistic effect on mortality. In order to increase the repellency of essential oils. (2011) for more details). was successfully microencapsulated in glutaraldehyde crosslinked gelatin (a polymer).. Essential oils can also be incorporated with polymers into sheets.

. with acute oral LD50 values in rodents ranging from 800 to 3. flies. 2007). and repellents have been recognized by WHO as a useful disease prevention tool to complement insecticide-based means of vector control (Goodyer et al. such as production of plant resources on a commercial scale. and low vapor pressure.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05).. A mixture of essential oils trademarked hexahydroxyl and based on distinct combinations of different plant essential oils that significantly enhance the activity of these oils against insects was formulated (EcoPCO. Soybean oil in Bite Blocker helps only contributes to repellency as it is not repellent when evaluated on its own (Campbell and Gries. There are no harvest restrictions or worker re-entry restrictions for treated crops as they are compatible with biological control agents and indigenous natural enemies of pests. EcoSMART Technologies. In addition. geraniol (a powerful ingredient extracted from geranium oil through a unique refining process).000 mg kg-1 for pure compounds and >5. as lepidopterans. applied at rates exceeding that recommended on the product label). fleas. they are also classified as GRAS – generally recognized as safe (Isman and Akhtar.g. some essential oils can be irritating to the skin (Barnard and Xue. More importantly. 1999. Many of the commercial products that include essential oils are on the ‘Generally Recognized as Safe’ (GRAS) list fully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the USA for food and beverage consumption (Burt. the oils and their constituents are environmentally nonpersistent. peppermint oil. PMD has been proven to be suitably efficacious and safe to compete with DEET. vanillin. including conventional (synthetic or microbial) pesticide products. the essential oils and their major constituents are relatively nontoxic to mammals. is a commercial preparation containing glycerin.000 mg kg-1 for formulated products. They are used for home and garden use for flying and crawling insects and related pests.). cockroaches. Bite Blocker. and as personal repellents for application to the skin and/or clothing to prevent/limit attack by blood-feeding flies and ticks (see Isman et al. standardization of chemically complex extracts. 2004). wasps. flies. mosquito management/abatement. termites and carpenter ants). early in a growing season. in soil and in water (Isman et al. high molecular weight. 2009). They currently produce aerosol and dust formulations containing proprietary mixtures of essential oil compounds. other drawbacks are related to physical properties of essential oils. etc.2 hours mean protection time against a dengue vector and nuisance biting mosquitoes (Barnard and Xue. 2010). ex.. hinder them form large scale application. 2004). Owing to their volatility. Regarding the advantages of using essential oil-based pesticides. patchouli. and the lack of residual action and the availability of competing products (newer synthetics. Inc. EcoSMART). coleopterans.. lecithin. Despite their safety.com) is one of the leading companies for essential oil-based pesticides. regulatory approval. These essential oils are a complex mixture of components including minor constituents. This patented technology demonstrates rapid insecticidal activity by combining oils with a common molecular structure (a six membered carbon ring with an oxygenated functional group attached) and since they are directed at octpaminergic sites. 2010). 2004).. geranium. ants.ecosmart. especially soft-bodied and sucking insects as well as mites.g. management of turfgrass and landscape pests.. The disadvantages of limited persistence and phytotoxicity could be lessened through microencapsulation of essential oils when formulated (Yang et al. Oregon. for ectoparasite (viz. 2011). It provides 7. or for individual property ‘‘perimeter’’ treatments.. Essential oil-based insecticides can be used as ‘‘stand alone’’ products for some pests. in contrast to synthetic pesticides based on single products. 2011 for a review). 1995). For treatment of waterways and standing water using essential oil as larvicides and repellents has been a very active field of investigation in recent years. with outdoor half lives of about 24 h on surfaces. e. Safety and advantages In general. filaria. Inc. fermentation products. and microbials) that are cost-effective and relatively safe compared with other available products. They bring about reduce risks to honeybees and other foraging pollinators. Some of the essential oils effectively controlled pests that are resistant towards synthetic pesticides. In spite of the previous advantages. using controlled-release timers (‘‘puffers’’). they can be used in rotation or in combination (tank-mixed) with other crop protectants. 2005). and clove that have been found to repel vectors of malaria. and yellow fever for a period of 60-180 mins (Barnard. is done through large-scale urban fogging. So these products offer alternatives to professional pest managers for controlling structural pests (viz. including eugenol and 2phenethyl propionate aimed at controlling domestic pests (cockroaches. Trongtokit et al.. (www.. Thus natural insecticides could solve this problem. These challenges should be overcome for botanicals to be of particular use for human and high value animals and crops. and they act synergistically within the plant as a defense strategy (Feng and Isman. cedar oil. environmental non persistence of essential oils could be a disadvantage when used as stand-alone products as two or more carefully timed applications may be required to effect satisfactory management of pests. 2012: 244-259 based insecticides for controlling greenhouse pests and diseases and for controlling domestic and veterinary pests. flea and tick) control on dogs and cats. as high boiling point. Insecticides based on plant essential oils are useful where there is a premium on human and animal safety.. with 4-8 hours of protection against mosquito and black fly. They are effective under low pest pressure. Consep. and mosquitoes. Essential oils have limited efficacy against large chewing insects. Some commercial repellents contain a number of plant essential oils either for fragrance or as repellents such as thyme oil. Bend. oils of coconut. For more information about standardization. the slow action of many botanicals. and 2% soybean oil. regulatory . and they can be phytotoxic if misused (e. Barriers to commercialization of botanicals There are several barriers to commercialization of botanical insecticides.

2002). 2008). and the massive volumes required to satisfy these industries maintain low prices that make their use as insecticides attractive (Isman.. Azadirachta excelsa. southern China. PMD may be recovered from distillation of leaves of E. can be an economical and efficient source (Isman. attention has been paid towards the exploitation of higher plant products as novel chemotherapeutics in plant protection. Using gelatin-arabic gum microcapsules maintained the repellency of citronella up to 30 days on treated fabric stored at room temperature (22°C) (Miro Specos et al.. where it is grown for essential oil production and timber (see Maia and Moore (2011) for additional information).risk pesticides in California increased more than threefold (from 138 to 483 tons). to create stable droplets that increase the retention of the oil and slow down release. (2009). which estimated to be growing by 8% to 15% per annum in Europe and in North America (National Research Council. through genetic engineering of an existing field crop to produce high-value natural products originally isolated from a different botanical source (Isman. Research aimed at producing azadirachtin from neem tissue culture provided proof of concept. especially Brazil (6 million trees).. certain plant essential oils have numerous uses as fragrances and flavorings. such as extraction and screening of sawdust from tropical timber operations led to the discovery of potent insecticides in the stem wood of the Malaysian tree. Nanotechnology has become one of the most promising new technologies for pest control. 2009). 2009). Nanoparticles (NPs) are considered as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. the price of seeds increased 10-fold.5% surfactant and 100% glycerol..Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). citroidora or chemical modification of citronellal– available from plants of the genus Cymbopogon. 2008). 2010). citrus peel (Citrus sinensis) from orange juice production as the starting material for extraction of d limonene. using of reduced. Recently. 2010). 2002).. Encapsulated citronella oil nanoemulsion is prepared by high-pressure homogenization of 2. 2011). thus prolonging protection time. 2006). Ag NPs showed the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on the protozoan. In contrast. India. Release mechanisms include diffusion. a close relative of the Indian neem tree (Schmutterer et al. Neem seed oil had a long history of use in India for the production of soaps and low grade industrial oil. Isman (2006. pyrethrum.. e. and most countries in southern Africa. and Australia for multi purposes other than medicinal and insecticidal purposes. ex... 2004). an insecticide) is slowly but efficiently released to a particular host for insect pest control. Thus it will revolutionize pest management in the near future. Leishmania infantum (Baiocco et al. Biosynthesised Ag NPs are used in antimicrobial (Duran et al. Nanoparticles loaded with garlic essential oil are efficacious against T. 2010). Between 1998 and 2003. Such process can also deliver DNA and other desired chemicals into plant tissues for protection of host plants against insect pests (Torney. consequently a decrease in release rate can prolong mosquito protection time (Sakulku et al. Nanoencapsulation is a process through which a chemical (ex. 1997. 2012: 244-259 approval. Aluminosilicate filled nanotube can stick to plant surfaces. but economic feasibility has yet to be attained (Allan et al. As an alternative search strategy... and insect repellants (Owolade et al.. Sri Lanka. Using plants for NP synthesis can be advantageous over other biological processes because it can be suitably scaled up for large-scale NP synthesis (Shankar et al. Botanicals are helpful in case of the documented resistance of the diamondback moth to Bacillus thuringiensis and spinosad due to overuse (Tang et al. used by cosmetic industries.. Production of botanical insecticides by phytopharming. Nanotechnology is a fast emerging discipline in the field of physics. 2005). the used plants should be abundant in nature. and biology. while nano ingredients of nanotube have the ability to stick to the surface hair of insect . and Dubey (2011). Zhao et al. It was discovered that the waste distillate remaining after hydro-distillation of the essential oil of lemon eucalyptus. biodegradation. castaneum Herbst (Yang et al. or produced on a commercial scale. insecticides.Using of biomass that is a waste product of another industry. America. Nanoparticles help to produce new pesticides. botanicals face tremendous competition in conventional agriculture from the newest generation of “reduced risk” synthetic insecticides such as the neonicotinoids. Furthermore.. 2000). 2006). neem. 2009). see Tripathi et al. and osmotic pressure with specific pH (Vidhyalakshmi et al. When extraction companies began purchasing neem seeds in bulk to produce insecticides. Promising developments in botanical insecticides Botanicals are incorporated in integrated pest management programs as products in crop protectant rotations.g. and commercialization. Such plant products have also been formulated for their large-scale application in crop protection (Dubey et al. 2009). but such technologies are expensive implying that the traditional means of obtaining botanicals will continue for the near future. whereas biopesticide use declined (from 652 to 472 tons) (California Department of Pesticide Regulation. 2005). the use of microencapsulation has allowed slower release rates of oils to be achieved. In contrast.. Currently.. Such plants are already commercially cropped in malaria endemic countries including South America. botanicals are facing fewer competitions in organic food production. 2009). 2005). was far more effective at repelling mosquitoes than the essential oil itself. Neem is introduced to other Asian countries as well as tropical and subtropical areas of Africa. waste or by-products of plant-based industries are extremely helpful. rotenone. anti-viral and antihuman immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) studies (Elechiguerra et al. chemistry. The release rate relates well to the protection time. 2002). dissolution. and aromatic plants. Recently.. Scientists have started exploiting the bio-based synthesis of nano-metals using leaf extracts and microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi (Arangasamy and Munusamy. Resource availability of botanicals Regarding sustainability of botanical resources.

Observations on effects of a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) on biting lice (mallophages) and bloodsucking insects parasitizing horses. Consequently. Nanotechnology is used widely in Agriculture and Food (Joseph and Morrison. 6. Al-Quraishy S. 2009). excessive and otherwise inappropriate pesticide use is an unnecessary burden on farmers’ health and income. For more information about usages of nanoparticles. Mehlhorn H. such as the stomach of certain insects. Al-Rasheid KA. Antonious GF. The encapsulated product “gutbuster” only breaks open to release its contents when it comes into contact with alkaline environments.. Abdel-Ghaffar F. Ilari A. Abdel-Ghaffar F. limited literacy and a lack of protective equipment give rise to thousands of accidental poisonings annually. Afr J Biotechnol. oilseeds) (Isman. and garden) and in developing countries where they constitute an affordable tool for crop protection. Ceci P. 2008a. 2010. see Yang et al. Al-Quraishy S. Al-Rasheid KA. rice. 2011). One of the world’s largest agrochemical corporations.. (2009). Induction of hairy root cultures of Azadirachta indica A. Bhattacharyya et al. Sobhy H. maize.. Effects of a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) on mallophages (featherlings) of chicken: in vivo and in vitro studies. Morgan ED. Research on nanoparticles and insect control should be directed toward production of faster and ecofriendly pesticides to deliver into the target host tissue through nanoencapsulation. aqueous leaf extracts and synthesized Ag NPs of Euphorbia prostrata possessed high parasitic activity against the adult cattle tick. a quick release microencapsulated product containing the active compound lambda-cyhalothrin (a synthetic insecticide based on the structure of natural pyrethrins) which breaks open on contact with leaves. Neem seed extract shampoo. prolong the protection time. 2012b. J Environ Sci Health B. 2011). restaurants. the speed of kill. respectively (Jayaseelan et al. frequently. 2011. 2012a. ultrasound. Al-Quraishy S. Mehlhorn J. Gramiccia M. hospitals. accordingly. Although botanical insecticides are not helpful in controlling major agronomic crops (cotton. Residues and half lives of pyrethrins on fieldgrown pepper and tomato. 2011. the field efficacy and reliability. Marketed under the name Karate® ZEON. (2008. Botanicals help in preventing the dumping of thousands of tons of pesticides on the earth. and on the environment. Furthermore. Using of technologies for enhancement of the shelf-life. peanuts. Tapping the unexploited plant resources for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Haemaphysalis bispinosa and the haematophagous fly. Mehlhorn H. Integrated pest management programs have demonstrated that current levels of pesticide use in many circumstances are not necessary and. Recently. has been attracting increasing attention in recent years. Parasitol Res. moisture. 2009). Parasitol Res. Parasitol Res. The methanol. they are safer to the user and the environment because they are biodegradable and break down into harmless compounds within hours or days in the presence of sunlight. 2: 230–233. When conventional insecticides are affordable to growers through government subsidies. Zhao and Wang. 2012: 244-259 pests and ultimately enters the body and influences certain physiological functions (Patil. Semmler M. Mehlhorn J. Ahmed et al. 2008. Inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles on trypanothione reductase activity and Leishmania infantum proliferation. . nanotechnology is widely acceptable publicly because it is not yet linked to any toxicological and ecotoxicological risks (Zahir and Rahuman. and their production of azadirachtin and other important insect bioactive metabolites. Syngenta. Wash Away Louse®. magnetic fields. 106:423–249. and the cost of these natural insecticides are very curtailed for botanicals to be pro-poor and cost-effective and making botanical a more viable option for controlling pests.g. heat. rice. Parasitol Res. In vitro efficacy of ByeMite® and Mite-Stop® on developmental stages of the red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae.46. 2006). Colotti G. and accelerate the Green Revolution. Plant Cell Rep. 2009. they will release their cargo in a controlled manner (slowly or quickly) in response to different signals e. Khater (2011). Eeswara JP. Al-Rasheid KAS. Sobhy H. Al-Quraishy S. Encapsulated product from Syngenta delivers a broad control spectrum on primary and secondary insect pests of cotton. Juss.. the new technology improve pesticide and fertilizer delivery systems which can take action to environmental changes. and soybeans.. 39: 491–503.96 mg l−1). etc. 110 (2):617-22. and Zahir and Rahuman (2012). 2002. Baiocco P. There is a wide scope for the use of plant-based pesticides in the integrated management of different insect pests. Hashim (2011). REFERENCES Abdel-Ghaffar F. Semmler M. Klimpel S. Mehlhorn H. soybean. 21:374–79. ex. Green synthesis of NPs. 105:469– 471 Abdel-Ghaffar F. 7: 3162–3165. Stuchbury T. 2010). Parasitol Res. CONCLUSION Chemical pesticides induce development of pest resistance to applied agents and nontarget environmental impacts. they are promising alternatives to conventional insecticides in the developed world where a premium is placed on human and animal safety for controlling pest of medical and veterinary importance (at homes. Field study on the efficacy of an extract of neem seed (Mite-Stop®) against the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae naturally infecting poultry in Egypt. Semmler M. Orsini S. The pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs using an aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora cordifolia (sizes measuring 54–80 nm) showed maximum mortality against the head louse Pediculus humanus and fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus and Culex quinque-fasciatus (LC50 = 12. Farmers in the developing countries may not be able to afford synthetic insecticides. Parasitol Res. 2010). ACS Med Chem Lett. Di Muccio T. This will control pests efficiently. 2008b. Abdel-Ghaffar F. 104:145–148. Mehlhorn H. are even counter-productive (Pretty. Production of botanical insecticides would remove the high cost of importation in developing countries. Allan EJ.43 and 6. Semmler M. 103:481–485. an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt. Hippobosca maculata infesting cattle in India (Zahir and Rahuman. Nair et al. schools. Comparative in-vitro test on the efficacy and safety of 13 anti-head-lice products. 2004. is using nanoemulsions in its pesticide products. Munusamy V. traditional use of plants and plant derivatives for protection of stored products is long established. Abdel-Ghaffar F. on public health. 2012). such as silver or gold NPs. 110(1):335-9. (2011). Arangasamy L. 2012. Jarvis AP. Mordue Luntz AJ.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). Al-Rasheid K.

7 (5): 881-888. Shere. Klocke JA. 2012: 244-259 Bakkali F.) Recent Trends in Seribiotechnology. Ciba Foundation Symposium 200. Carroll SP. (Ed. Bhattacharyya A. on Caprione Promontory (East Liguria. Boca Raton. Alves OL. 41: 726–730. Exploitation of Natural Compounds in Eco-Friendly Management of Plant Pests. Averbeck D. Casida JE. Quistad GB. Duke SO. Prakash B. and chemical composition of their essential oils. van Loon JJA. 2011. Natural plant chemicals: sources of industrial and medicinal materials. 42:306–311. 2005. . Cabras P. 1 (pp. Barnard DR. indexed by chemical. 2005. Betarbet R. Pel´ aez C. N Engl J Med.cdpr. Medicinal Plants: Essential Oils. Burt S. http://cfpub. J Agric Food Chem. In: KP Chinnaswamy. Baldini R. Main agronomic-productive characteristics of 2 ecotypes of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Roger Nasci S. Regulation of sensitivity in the peripheral chemoreceptor systems for host-seeking behavior by a haemolymph-borne factor in Aedes aegypti. Isman MB. Balandrin MF. Esposito E.epa. Rani PU. Kline DL. Allan SA. Aedes aegypti. JE Simon (Ed. 2011. Florida: CRC Press. CAB International. 94: 223–253. UK (1995) 356 pp. 22: 507–514. Handbook of Plants with Pest Control Properties. (pp. TB.8-diols against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). J Agric Food Chem. 2009. Protection against mosquitoes.epa. In: NK Dubey (Ed. Fradin MS.8-diol (011550) Fact Sheet http://www. 132–148). Bhattacharyya A. the Netherlands: Springer. Goodyer LI. 2004. Cioni PL.). 30(2): 179–183. Hassanali A. Frances SP. Food Chem. Wiley. Boersma MG.cape. J Ethnopharmacol. Nano-particle (allelochemicals) and Silkworm Physiology. Xue RD. Hill N. Panov AV. Gries G. 39:736–741. Souza GI. J Biopestic. 2008. and Ochierotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). 2002. Dubey NK. Davis EE. Moore SJ. 2007. 2002. 59: 161-171. Chang ST. a registered botanical mosquito repellent with deet-like efficacy. Curtis (ed. 94: 25–41. (pp. Don-Pedro KN.A recent approach to insect pest control. Sen P. Rec Adv Phytochem. Boeke SJ. J Nanobiotechnol. Lwande W. (pp. Simpson SJ. Casanova H. Ahmed S. Culex nigripalpus. Investigation of single and joint fumigant insecticidal action of citrus peel. Chapman RF. Traditional use of repellents. (pp. Mandal S. Marcato PD. Shukla R. EPA. Comparison of contact and spatial repellency of catnip oil and N. Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents against Mosquito Bites. Maccioni S. Nano-particles . Moreno ME. New York (1988). Barik B. 51: 831–833.gov/ncer_abstracts/index. Bomford MK. USA: Timber Press Portland. 50:6389–6394. Gilbert LI. Dubey NK. 2nd ed. Pharmacognosy. Entomol Experiment Applicata. Selection for resistance to azadirachtin in the green peach aphid. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 19:139-169.abstractDetail/abstract/6500/report/0 EPA. van Huis A. Singh P. 2000. Phytochemical typologies in some populations of Myrtus communis L. 2010. Barasa SS. Angioni A. 2010. TT. Academic Press.html. 2010. 1995. Lactic acid-sensitive receptors on the antennae of the mosquito. Chinnaswamy KP. 2006. J Agric Food Chem. New York (1999) pp. Biological effects of essential oils -A review. Grange N. Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases. Cabras M. In: CF. 1: 182-186. 2005. 50: 2576– 80. Nat Neurosci. 1981. MacKenzie G. CAPE. Shukla R. J Med Entomol. Current status of plant products as botanical pesticides in storage pest management. Science. Morelli I. California Department of Pesticide Regulation. 1999. 81:307–313. Myzus Persicae. Position Statement on Synthetic Pesticides. 1985.ca. (1996). J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2004. Braverman Y. 228: 1154–1160. Pyrethrum Flowers: Production. Hallahan DL. Averbeck S. Enan EE. Insect repellent compounds. Cheng SS. Phytochemistry. In: U Gisi. Loye J.ca/toxicspesticidesps.) Advances in new crops. A search for components in human body odour that attract females of Aedes aegypti. Epidi. Debboun M. Wurtele ES. Caboni P. Gosh M. US Patent no. 1985. 18: 1126–1130.gov/ Campbell C. 13: 3–8. Toxicology and Uses. Lavoisier Publishing. Desensitization of fifth instar Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to azadirachtin and neem. 46: 79-84. J Insect Physiol. 36: 625–629. Ndiege IO. Zheng X. Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains. Ortiz C. ticks and other insects and arthropods. Kumar A. Barnard DR. Russo M. Day GF. Garcia-Osuna M. Greenamyre JT. John Wiley and Sons . Onyango SP. 2004. 1996. Bollinger WH. Croft AM. 85: 599604. http://www.NDiethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) Against Mosquitoes. 142: 405–414. 81–82). J Chem Ecol.) Appropriate technology in vector control. 9 (24): 3489-3493. Flamini G. India. Afr J Biotechnol. Sokolove PG. Berenbaum M. 58-63). Laboratory evaluation of mosquito repellents against Aedes albopictus. Vallejo A. (2008). (pp. Kundu P & Mandal S.htm Feng R. J Agric Food Chem.. Morelli I. Essential oil to control Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo. Bangalore. 105: 43– 54. Singh P. Idaomar M . 1-20). Is soybean oil an effective repellent against Aedes aegypti? Can Entomol. ML Gullino. Food Chem Tox. 17 (3): 182–192. Brementown revisited: allelochemical interactions in plants. J Med Entomol. Mullens B A. Insecticide formulations based on nicotine oleate stabilized by sodium caseinate. Alink GM. Geier M. p-Menthane-3. Int J Food Microbiol. Kumar A. Italy). Ceccarini L. 1976. Bernier UR. (1990) Natural pesticides from plants. Flamini G. In: J Janick. Kumar A. I Chet. Summary of pesticide use report data 2003. 20070231357 A1. Rotenone residues on olives and in olive oil. Bernays EA. Cavariella aegopodii. Bruneton J. Oxford. 347:13-18. Srivastava B. J Med Entomol. http://www. Chizov-Ginzburg A. 1996. 2002. (1990). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review. 1997. Furman KD. Cioni PL.cfm/ fuseaction/display.CDC Health Information for International Travel (“The Yellow Book”) Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides. 2004. 511–517). Expert Review of the Evidence Base for Arthropod Bite Avoidance. Oxford Univ. Chronic systematic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson’s disease. Antitermite activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Experientia ..Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). Duran N. PMD. (2010).gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/ingredients/factsheets/factshe et_011550. Pestic Sci. Attraction and repulsion of the aphid. 2010. Dicke M. 3: 1301–1306. J Med Entomol. Feng W. 50: 1389-1392. 2002. Acevedo M. 2005. UK. J Med Entomol. Molecular and pharmacological analysis of an octopamine receptor from American cockroach and fruit fly in response to plant essential oils. 2002. Insect Control: Biological and Synthetic Agents. Land Use Change and Malaria Transmission in a Highland Area of Uganda. RA Vijaya Bhaskar (Ed. 36(1): 113–115.461780. Davis EE. Gill SS. Global Scenario on the Application of Natural Products in Integrated Pest Management Programmes. Repellency of essential oils to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Repellent activities of stereoisomers of p-menthane-3. Rietjens IMCM. Curtis CF. (2009). 2008. Food Control. Sass H & Boeckh J. Chemistry. 50: 3512-3517.) Natural Products in Plant Pest Management. Macchia M. Press. 1999. Dubey NK. Isman MB. Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez RAW. Barnard DR. 2007. J Comp Physiol. Chichester. In: Olfaction in Mosquito-Host Interactions. Bhaumik A. 46: 446-475. 181–198. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Travel Med. 1984. 2002. by Plant Odors.

org. J Stored Prod Res. Kamaraj C. antifeedant and synergistic effects of monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the tobacco cutworm. (pp. Baruah I.6. 35: 317–328. 107:417–423. and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Maistrello L.) against acidtolerant food microflora. Williams and Wilkins. 21: 351-364. Flávia AC. Biopesticides of plant origin. Khater HF. Khater DH. doubleblind control trial of p-menthane diol repellent against malaria in Bolivia. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs to Blattella germanica L. Khater HF. Climatic Change. 109: 185–194. Synthesis of pediculocidal and larvicidal silver nanoparti-cles by leaf extract from heartleaf moonseed plant.214. Econ Bot. A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in-vitro. Effects of neem on adults of Eretmocerus warrae (Hym. and cockroaches. Parasitol Res. Neem: Today and in the New Millennium (pp. Isman MB. Light and scanning electron microscopic investigations on MiteStop®-treated poultry red mites. de Novaes TG. 98 (4): 840-844. (2004). In: O Koul. 2001. Henderson G. Moore SJ. 117 (6): 273–277. 36: 346-354. Parasitol Res. Al-Rasheid KAS. Morsy TA.Madawy RS. 2001. Silva FAC.. In: C Regnault-Roger. Wahab (Eds). Wahab N. 5: (3)176-183. 4(1): 63–84. Singh (Ed. 283–91. Lavoisier. Shalaby AA. ovicidal. et Thomas against the grain storage insects. 17-60). 1995. Ho S. Contact and fumigant activities of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils against Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae). 33: 289-298. . Dordrecht. Rajakumar G. Chemical signals in the ecosystem. 2007. ElMadawy RS. Bioresource Technol. Arnez AM. development and testing. Ahn YJ. Jacobson M. 10(Suppl 1): S11 Maji TK. 2005b. Jones GP. Lachowicz KJ. 2007. Li XM. Ruch B. El. Toxic and antifeedant action of nutmeg oil against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Plants. Isman MB.). Briggs DR.890. Aphelinidae). Foley JA. Kamsuk K. US Patent no. Locher N. Control of the myiasis-producing fly. Rahuman AA. antifeedant and synergistic effects of monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the tobacco cutworm. The efficacy of the volatile oils of three plants for controlling Lucilia sericata. Laine RA. 99:353–356. Isman MB. 48: 441–463. Coventry MJ. 2008. Kunming. Pitasawat B. Heukelbach J. 2011. Noctuidae). Brit Med. Neotrop Entomol. Khater HF. Speare R. Yu M. Joseph T. The synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Hayes WJ Jr. 1987. Parasitol Res. In: I Shaaya. Aedes aegypti. 49: 715-720. Commercial opportunities for pesticides based on plant essential oils in agriculture. 2011. Lucilia sericata. Lenglet A. PhD thesis. China. 2011. 29: 91–100. Koul O. Ramadan MY. Abdel-Ghaffar F. Field efficacy of commercial antimosquito products in Illinois. Lett Appl Microbiol. 10:197–204. Parasitol Res. deterrents. AR Horowitz (Ed. 1999. Hohmann CL. Hussain MR.) Industrial crops and uses CAP International (2010) pp. 2011. Extracts of vetiver oil as repellent and toxicant to ants. Jensen T. Journal of Stored Products Research J Stored Prod Res. Kleeberg H. In vitro and field studies on the contact and fumigant toxicity of a neemproduct (Mite-Stop®) against the developmental stages of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Hummelbrunner LA. Wan J. Agric Food Chem. 1982. Lu FC. Tan JMWL. Kumar P. Dhaliwal GS. Riyong D. Phytochem Rev. Ohh MH. Tinospora cordifolia Miers. 2010. Selectivity of neem to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Hummelbrunner LA. C Vincent (Eds. Malar J. Wan T. Reg Toxico Pharmacol. insects and man . 2011. Botanical insecticides. Tippawangkosol P. Elango G. 26: 209. US Patent no. Heidelberg (2007) pp. Walia S. Mazyad SA. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. for poorer. 60(4): 39-57. 1997. Lampman R. 39 (6):985-990. Ann Bot. 2011. Isman MB. Aleyrodidae) in tropical horticulture systems. Isman MB. 51: 45–66. Botanical insecticides. Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food. 85-88. Oliveira FA. Int J Dermatol. 2010a. 16: 148–152. 50 (2): 107-112. In: F Perveen (Ed. Jitpakdi A. 2008. Abdel-Ghaffar F. deterrents. Pesticides Studied in Man. 11–15 November 2006. Berlin. J Stored Prod Res. industry and consumer products. Vet Parasitol. 2011. Biopest Intern. Prod. 2006. 39: 11-19. Noctuidae). 1999. with Egyptian essential oils. Ho SH. Bagavan A. Al-Rasheid KAS. 2003. a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Hom. Croatia: In Tech. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. Factors limiting commercial success of neem insecticides in North America and Western Europe. Morrison M. Insecticides Design Using Advanced Technologies.906. Zagazig University: Benha Branch. Standardization of neem-extracts. Chu SS. 48 (5): 492. and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Global-scale relationships between climate and the dengue fever vector. Klimpel S. The insecticidal activity of four medicinal plants against the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt. In: BP. 2009. Vishnu AK. Spodoptera litura (Lep.their inter-relationship. Isman MB. Slamecka MC.). www. Poehling H. Jayaseelan C. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Rec Nat. 1998. J Plant Dis Protec. Miresmailli S. 2001. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy. 2011. Liu Z. Biocontrol of some insects. Bioactivity of the essential oil extracted from Evodia rutaecarpa Hook f. J Agric Food Chem.) Advances in integrated pest Management. Henderson G. 64 (2-4): 257-266. Randomised. Heumann DO. Essential Oils as Green Pesticides: Potential and Constraints. Cainero I. Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. Mehlhorn H.108. 2007. 1–11. Hashim A. Pest Mgt Sci. 100: 339-345. Spodoptera litura (Lep. 49: 715-720. Singh HP. Botanical insecticides: For richer. Novak RJ.497. 2006. Cho HC. 50 (2): 187–194. Parasitol Res. Ann Rev Entomol.The lousicidal. Khater HF. Acute sublethal. 2000. Zahir AA. El-Serougi AO. 2008. 2003. Effectiveness of Zanthoxylum piperitum -derived essential oil as an alternative repellent under laboratory and field applications. Locher N.960. Problems and opportunities for the commercialization of botanical insecticides. Isman MB. Isman MB. (2007) Plant natural products as a source for developing environmentally acceptable insecticides. Liu ZL. Akhtar Y. Wilcock A. Zhu BCR.. 2012: 244-259 Harborne JB. Microencapsulation of Zanthoxylum limonella oil (ZLO) in glutaraldehyde crosslinked gelatin for mosquito repellent application. Hanafy A. 335: 1023. Chaithong U. 64: 8-11. Chen F. S. Ecosmart Biorational Insecticides: Alternative Insect Control Strategies. Warikoo R. Zhu BCR. ticks. Kim SII.. Benha Khater HF. Dube S. Advances in nanocomposite technology. Heumann DO. BJR Philog` ene. Park C. Isman MB. Int J Dermatol.. Rev Inst Med trop S Paulo. R Nauen. 433-445. 2010. Maia MF. pp. Hopp MJ. Ramadan MY. Bienvenu FE. Acute sublethal. Marimuthu S. Santhoshku-mar T. Baltimore (1982) 672 pp. Huang Y. Choochote W. Kumar S. Hill N.nanoforum. 2006. Khater HF. Proceedings of International Neem Conference. Machial C. Croatia (2011). 2005a. Springer. Mehlhorn H. 2010b. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. A Nanoforum report. Abdel-Mageed AD. Laine RA.107: 433–437. 235–248.Vetiver oil extracts as termite repellent and toxicant. 6. J. Kini RM. repellents and oils.A review of the acceptable daily intakes of pesticides assessed by the World Health Organization. 2006. Chen F. Potential of biologically active plant oils for control mosquito larvae Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality. 33–41). InTech. 2009. Paris (2005) pp.

Sakulku U. p. 2002. Sukumaran P. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles. School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology. 2–7). J Insect Physiol. The Federal University of Technology. Pandey SK. Azadirachtin : an update. Riyong D. 20:123-128. a constituent of thyme essential oil. Prakash A. Ahmad A. Thymol. 39: 477– 483. Repellent. Hermida LG. India(2009). The Neem Tree Story: Extracts that Really Work. Mehlhorn H. Sastry MJ. toxic and reproduction inhibitory effects of essential oil vapours on Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Lethality of essential oils constituents towards the human louse Pediculus humanus. Adenekan MO. 2000. Environ Entomol. Biochem Syst Ecol. 1996. Aquat Toxicol. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc. 28 (2): 234-240.). Sattelle DB. Abdel-Ghaffar F. Rizvi SJH. 2002. J Vect Ecol. Pest treatment composition. 2009. Litsea cubeba (Lour. 275: 496–502. In: LI Gilbert. Sakulku U. industry and other purposes. Revay EE. Choochote W. Nuchuchua O. Repellency of aromatic turmeric Curcuma aromatica under laboratory and field conditions. Abdel-Ghaffar F. Rao J. Agele SO. Mehlhorn (Ed. The efficacy of neem seed extracts (Tresan®. Arthropod semiochemicals: mosquitoes. Appl. Malar J. (1992) DC: Natl. Bioresource Technol. Olaifa JI. Della Vecchia M. and Litsea salicifolia (Nees) on Aedes aegypti (L. A review of neem biopesticide utilization and challenges in Central Northern Nigeria. 372:105–111. 90: 378–381. is a positive allosteric modulator of human GABAA receptors and a homo-oligomeric GABA receptor from Drosophila melanogaster. Pichersky E. Garba CD. Endogenously produced repellent from American cockroach (Blattaria: Blattidae): function in death recognition. 31 (1): 128-133. Earthscan. Junnila A. 1986 (pp. Exp Agric. Azadirachtin. Towards a More Sustainable Agriculture. 2008. Curr Opin Plant Biol. Marino P. Uawongyart N. Nigeria: The Federal University of Technology. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Garcia JJ. Larvicidal and chemosterilant activity of Annona squamosa alkaloids against Anopheles stephensi. USA. Choi J. Orafidiya LO.) Insect Control: Biological and Synthetic Agents. Burgess IF. Chandrapatya A. Chemical variation in an Ocimum basilicum germplasm collection and activity of the essential oils on Calosobruchus maculates. Stamopoulos DC. a new chemosterilant for stored grain pest. Indian Agricultural Research Institute. J Appl Entomol. Williamson EM. Academic Press. 2001. Oyedele AO. Saxena RC.) Persoon. 7(50): 2942-2947. Borden JH. Ballesta-Acosta MC. 24: 154–160. 101: 31–37. 2007. SS Gill (Eds. Stashenko E. Wafford KA. 1993. Rollo CD. 2010. 2007. Patil SA. Medicinal plants: A Potential agroforestry components in Nigeria. Schlein Y. Callosobruchus chinensis (L. 2001. 12:154-158. Gershenzon J.) mosquitoes. Wash Away Dog). Naumann K. Williamson EM. 1. 7 (25): 4758-4764. Characterization and mosquito repellent activity of citronella oil nanoemulsion. Prakash A. 2003. Exploring the factors that influence the uptake of botanical insecticides by farmers: a case study of tobacco-based products in Nigeria. 1980. Abdel-Ghaffar F. Papachristos DP. A Tree for Solving Global Problems. Olivero-Verbel J. London (2009) Priestley CM. Volatility and mosquito repellency of Hemizygia welwitschii oil and its formulations. 2008. Tippawangkosol P. National Research Council. Singh RP. Noosidum A. Al-Rasheid KAS. Mukerji D. 2011. Uawongyart N. 38: 469 -79. Excito-repellency properties of essential oils from Melaleuca leucadendron L. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Prabaripai A. Harshan V. The Pesticide Detox.211 Pitasawat B. Schmidt J. Ruktanonchai U. Mehlhorn H. Rao J. Ward A. 107:261–269. In: Proceedings of the Humboldt Kellog / 3rd Annual Conference of School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology. 89–93). Müller GC.. Pretty J. 2012. Intern J Pharm. 140:1363– 7278. Ovicidal effects of a neem seed extract preparation on eggs of body and head lice. 38: 117-128. AlRasheid KA. 35: 271–297. Soottitantawat A. Blackwell A. J Colloid Interface Sci. Washington. CRC Lewis Publishers. Chareonviriyaphap T. 2008. VCH . Washington. Kaushal RA. Mordue AJ. Ping JH. Azadirachtin. McNamara N. Acacia auriculiformis Gliricidia sepium for weed suppression in a maize farm . 24: 116-124. Nigeria (pp. Ruktanonchai U. Mathur S N. (2010). Mehlhorn H. Biochem Soc Trans. Press. Mordue J. 136: 518–520. (2011a). Saxena A. Isman MB. Kanjanapoth D. Parasitol Res. Press. Ability of essential oil candles to repel biting insects in high and low biting pressure environments. Insect Repellents . Miro Specos MM. J Vector Ecol. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Nisbet AJ. Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Schmutterer H. Am Bee J. 2009. Peterson C. a neem biopesticide: subchronic toxicity assessment in rats. a Natural Product in Insect Control 5:185. Biting and bloodsucking lice of dogs--treatment by means of a neem seed extract (MiteStop®. Puttipipatkhachorn S. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech. Juss) and other meliaceous plants: sources of unique natural products for integrated pest management. Defain Tesoriero MV. Soottitantawat A. Semmler M. Rai A. Tuetun B. medicine. Walldorf V. Kravchenko VD. In: H. Afr J Biotechnol. Klimpel S. 1990. Owolade OF. 7Trimethylxanthine. 9 (1): 84-87. Proceedings from the Symposium on Residues and Environmental Pollution. The formation and function of plant volatiles: perfumes for pollinator attraction and defense. Boca Raton. Parasitol Res. Lamikanra A. 2008. Pesticide Outlook. 2003. Nerio LS. Kumar ML. Global warming and malaria: knowing the horse before hitching the cart. Mordue Luntz AJ. Park SY. 7(Suppl 1): S3. Lee SW. J Stored Prod Res. Al-Quraishy S.. Jitpakdi A. Puttipipatkhachorn S. Shankar SS. Mehlhorn J. H. 33:305–312. Neem. 3. Butler J. National Research Council. 2011b. Schmutterer. Ondo State. Botanical pesticides in agriculture. Parasitol Res. Br J Pharmacol. Ann Rev Entomol. 101(1): 372-378. Nair PM. 10: 1234–1242.282. Acad.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). Omolohunnu EB. 1995. (2009). 2010. 2003. Ag and bimetallic Au shell nanoparticles using Neem. Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree. 2006. 5: 237-243. 141 pp. Testing of extracts from Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Raizada RB. Caey IB. Abdel-Ghaffar F. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Parasitology Research Monographs 1. Insect Sci. Ogunnika CB. (1997). Morgan ED. 104: 653–658. Schmahl G. New Delhi. midges and sealice. Priestley CM. DC: Natl. Titanium Dioxide affects disease development and yield of edible cowpea.Past. Reiter P. Pascual-Villalobos MJ. 77: 303–309. Nuchuchua O. 2001. 1995. 7. 301pp. Ondo State. 2008. 481. MiteStop®) on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites. Orlova OB. 110(2):769-73. Morse S. Oyun MB. 2002. Economics of agri poverty: Nano-bio solutions. 2010. Tornesello J. 201–205). 2004. Akure. 109(5):1299-302. Food ChemToxicol. Ogunleti DO. Anjorin ST. Evaluation of plant products as antifeedants against the rice storage insects. 31: 673679.In: Proceeding of the Humboldt Kellog5/ th SAAT Annual Conference of formulations of Medicinal Plants in Plant and Animal Production in Nigeria. In vitro characterization and mosquito (Aedes aegypti) repellent activity of essential-oils-loaded nanoemulsions. In: The neem tree Azadirachta indica (A. Differential expression of ribosomal protein gene. gonadotrophin releasing hormone gene and Balbiani ring protein gene in silver nanoparticles exposed Chironomus riparius. Fitoterapia.) Nature Helps (4: 77-108). Akure. Denholm I. (2000) Acad. Sharma MC. Rapid synthesis of Au. Al-Rasheid KA. E J Environ Agric Food Chem. 1993. and its eggs. 39: 903-924. 2012: 244-259 Mehlhorn H. Present and Future. Azadirachta indica. US Patent no. Salako EA. School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (pp. 1980.203. Srivastava MK. Al-Rasheid KAS. Weiss RW. Coats J. uss) seed extracts to larval honeybees and estimation of dangers from field applications. 2003.

Toxic and synergistic properties of several volatile oils against larvae of the house fly. Boyer A. Gusukuma. Structural Characterization of Nanoparticles Loaded with Garlic Essential Oil and Their Insecticidal Activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). 2007a. Medicinal Properties of Neem Leaves: A Review. Roush RT. Bioresource Technol.0. The Neem Tree. Van Huis A. J Agric Food Chem. Zeng X. Wong KKY. 1999. Neem Foundation. World Resources. 1997. Yang FL. Neonicotinoid insecticide toxicology: mechanisms of selective action.Minuto L. 99:7341–7347. Torney F. US Patent no. 1992. Boyer A. Weikersheim (2000) p. Chemosphere. Curtis CF.com/science/article/pii/S0960852403002438 bib14 Schmutterer H. Kossou DK.02. Burke BJ. Li XG. 2005. Henderson G. J Econ Entomol.6. Wang WX. Tripathi AK. Motion RL. J Agric Food Chem. 2012: 244-259 Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. 76: 172–179. Scialdone MA. 6th ed. Germany. UNEP. US Patent no. 30: 885–892. Cur Sci.V. Picollo MI. 24(1): 161-168. Bhattacharya PR. Acta Hort (ISHS). Signal FA. http://www. 2002. An evaluation of the acute toxicity to juvenile Pacific northwest salmon of azadirachtin. A review on prospects of essential oils as biopesticide in insect-pest management. 2 nd ed. 892 pp. Trongtokit Y.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05). (2005). Xuehttp://www. 36: 1423–1431.80. Varma J. 1994/1995. 2012. 333:65-72. Wan MT. Tucker B. Egypt Germ Soc Zool. Synthesis of azadirachtin: a long but successful journey.2987/8756971X(2008)24%5B161:MLAOBM%5D2. Chem Anticancer Agents.1016/j. Med.vetpar. Lucía A. Coats J. p. Inheritance. Dubey NK. neem extract and neem-based products. Natural Crop protection in the tropics: Letting information come to life. Burke BJ. Sharma VP. Zerba E. 13: 64-69. Toxic effect of synthetic pyrethroid permethrin on the enzyme system of the freshwater fish Channa striatus. Muscidae). Maslen SL. Ley S. Mumbai. 1999.244. 1981. Strub R. 2006. Zhao JZ.fn104 R. Interspecific hybridization of Eucalyptus as a potential tool to improve the bioactivity of essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. Shalaby AA. Thompson GD. (48E): 69. Formulations containing insect repellent compounds.org/doi/abs/10. J. Verlet N. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 46: 7633–7635. Resistance to phosphine in stored-grain insect pests in Brazil. The Pesticide Book. F. Insect control in wood. 2000. Patent JP 92-308238 921021. Ohio (2004). Meloan CE. Vidhyalakshmi R. Evaluation of different extracts and synthesised silver nanoparticles from leaves of Euphorbia prostrata against Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Hippobosca maculate. Phys. 2011. Meister Media Worldwide. 8: 143–147. Upadhyay S. Beckmann E. 1996. 5 (2): 149-156(8). Isman MB. Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Botanical-Based Mosquito Repellents. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 46: 7629–7632. Effectiveness of neem oil mats in repelling mosquitoes. 3(3-4): 96103. 1999. Zahir AA. Environ Toxicol Chem. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. Subapriya R.255. Vet parasitol. 2009. Collins HL. Perspective of botanical and microbial products as pesticides of tomorrow.. 1(5): 052-063. 1993. Ware GW. Citronella as an insect repellent in food packaging. Laine RA. Willoughby. Zhu J. 95:430–36. 45: 247268. Tomizawa M. 696. Am. Econ Entomol. 2008. Veitch GE. Encapsulation the Future of Probiotics -A Review. Sinzogan AAC. Srivastava VK. Beckmann E. Nagpal BN . Interdepartmental Plant Physiology Major Fall Seminar Series. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Mau RFL. doi:10. 496 pp.bioone. Weinheim. Subhasree RS. Bhakyaraj R. Advan Biol Res. In press. 2006. Zhu BCR. Dihydronootkatone and tetrahydronootkatone as repellents to arthropods. Singh A. Atachi P. 2007b. Shelton AM. Watts RG. Urabe C. Nagini S. Li YX. Toloza A. Comparison of acute and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate to Daphnia magna. 2008. stability and lack-of-fitness costs of field-selected resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Florida. 2005. Srivastava A. Shelton AM. Lab. Casida JE. Rahuman AA. Musca domestica vicina Maquart (Diptera. 90:732–741. Participatory evaluation of synthetic and botanical pesticide mixtures for cotton bollworm control. Campion SH. India (2002). 376. 2008. Zhu. 2005. Whitacre DM. J Egypt German Soc Zool. 56:432–439. 87:626. A natural cockroach repellent in bay leaves. Veitch GE. 226: 246.897. Efficacy of repellent products against caged and free flying Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. UK (1994). Oxford University Press. Ley SV. J Pharmacognosy Phytother. Schultz G. 57(21): 10156-10162. Margraf Verlag. Bartholomay L. Ann rev pharm toxicol. 2005. Ayats C. 53: 4633–4636. 2nd ed. 2005.CO%3B2 . 2009. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. Khater HF. 696. Bhuiyan M. 22: 131-149. 1993. 2005. Tang JD. Emerging technologies in plant science research. Thie AI. Overview of the essential oils economy.2012. Braz J Food Technol. Gilboa S. Rongsriyam Y. O'neal M. Masuh H. Stoll G. J Am Mosq Control Assoc.sciencedirect. (2009). 39: 1951–1956. Mills KA. p. 1997.001 Zhao CM. . Monitoring and characterization of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to spinosad. Nanoparticle mediated plant transformation. 2009. Verma M. 20060223878 A1. Youssef NS. Intl J Trop Insect Sci. WRI. Toxicity of certain solvent extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex pipiens larvae. A relay route for the synthesis of azadirachtin. Lei CL.