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ENSURING F O O D SAFETY .. .

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A n Introduction

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A Resource Guide for Retail Deli Managers +
Robert J. Price, Pamela D. Tom, and Kenneth E. Stevenson

ENSURING FOOD SAFETY.. . THE HACCP WAY
An Introduction to HACCP & a Resource Guide for Retail Deli Managers

Robert J. Price, Pamela D. Tom, and Kenneth E. Stevenson

1993 Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture National Sea Grant College Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce

PREFACE
This booklet introduces the “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point” (HACCP) system of food safety control in retail delis. It includes an introduction to HACCP, an example of how to set up a HACCP plan for the preparation and display of seafood salads, a listing of resource materials, examples of HACCP plans for some deli foods, and examples of forms for record keeping. The intent of the publication is not to train you to become a HACCP expert, but to familiarize you with this important new concept of food safety control. The HACCP concept does not stand alone. For HACCP to work properly, your store must first have Standard Operating Procedures (SOP S) for equipment sanitation and personal hygiene, and be operating under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). This booklet assumes that these procedures and practices are in place and are being followed. Robert J. Price, Ph.D. Extension Specialist, Seafood Products Food Science & Technology/Sea Grant Extension Program University of California Davis, California 95616-8598 Pamela D. Tom, M.Sc. Program Representative Food Science & Technology/Sea Grant Extension Program University of California Davis, California 95616-8598 Kenneth E. Stevenson, Ph.D. Senior Director of Microbiology/Sanitation National Food Processors Association Dublin, California 94568

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participation of these individuals should in no way be taken as an endorsement of this publication by them or the organizations they represent. the following individuals graciously contributed their time to critique successive drafts of the manuscript: Rosemary Amidei. U. Raley’s. In addition. Bureau of Environmental Health. The U. and Bonnie Warren. Harold (Bud) Anderson and Linda Stratton. Food Marketing Institute.. Jonessco Enterprises. The Kroger Company. Extension Service.S. Lawrence Pong. Department of Veterans’ Affairs. Linda James. NutriClean. Stier. California Sea Grant College.. Department of Agriculture. Department of Agriculture. Kermit McKemie and Brenda Holman. Treena Rainwater. Charles Stoffers. This work is funded in part by the Extension Service. Be1 Air Markets.S.1 through the California Sea Grant College. formally titled the University of California HACCP for Food Operations Advisory Committee.S. NOAA. in part by a grant from the National Sea Grant College Program. first suggested that we prepare this manual. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USDA. Al Lovi. Mar-Val Food Stores. and many of its members provided invaluable advice on its development. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Food and Drug Administration. Margaret Kolk. Jeanne von Zastrow. Joe Sisneros. Jo Petro. Inc.. Libra Laboratories. Elizabeth Andress. Emilio’s Deli. Sacramento Natural Foods Co-op. under grant number NA89AA-D-SG138. but unavoidably we have fallen short in some cases. Cornell University. This group. Further. We wish first to acknowledge the members of our advisory committee: Jack Breslin and Ben Gale. Bureau of Environmental Health.S. Inc. Winifred Kovac. Wyoming Department of Agriculture. Vons Grocery Company. Inc. Anne-Scott Ettinger. Mary Wang. Mark Kidd. or any of their subagencies. and in part by the California State Resources Agency.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This publication would not have been possible without the contributions of a large number of knowledgeable and dedicated people. under special project number 91-EFSQ-1-4022. Deli University. Debra Fonts. Fresh Experience. We tried very hard to address all of the suggestions and criticisms made. Be1 Air Markets.S. and Sheila Jones. California Department of Health Services. U. Robert Gravani. 4 . Department of Commerce. Safeway. U. Gale Prince. Annette Maggiora. U. Richard F. project number A/EA. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute for governmental purposes. Davis Food Co-op.

20 Fried Chicken. 24 HACCP Training Materials Books and Printed Materials. 18 Flowcharts and Critical Control Points for Selected Deli Foods Seafood Salad. 21 Potato Salad. 9 Setting Up a HACCP Plan for Seafood Salad Preparing a Seafood Salad. 13 Conclusion. 40 35 37 . 25 Food Safety Information Hotlines. 32 Videotapes. 39 Display Product Temperature Form. 23 Sliced Poultry/Meat Sandwich. 7 7 9 13 19 25 HACCP Systems The S e v e n Steps in HACCP. 32 Bibliography Appendices Receiving Reject Form. 30 Posters and Signs. 37 Receiving Temperature Form.TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction What Is HACCP?. 31 Slide Sets and Transparencies. 38 Cooler Temperature Form. 22 Hot Entrees.

Once you identify problems. Selling unsafe foods can cause illness. many food companies use the HACCP system to make sure their products are safe. And you know that it is your responsibility to provide safe foods. The HACCP system prevented food safety problems. The HACCP system has other benefits as well. The HACCP system is the best way to keep foods safe. Is HACCP New? In the 1960s The Pillsbury Company developed HACCP for foods as part of its effort to produce foods for the space program. . Many of these foods are commonly prepared in delis. and improved pride in their work. The system Pillsbury developed identified potential problems with food safety in advance and set up methods to control each possible hazard. you can easily correct them. How Will HACCP Help You? Food safety is key to good business. Keeping foods safe means jobs. Department of Agriculture. So Pillsbury developed a system to predict and prevent safety problems throughout the food-preparation process. Today. The foods are in order of decreasing risk. This includes deli food preparation in retail food stores. With this HACCP system. You probably already know that deli foods may cause illness.INTRODUCTION What Is HACCP? HACCP (pronounced “Hassip”) is a difficult name for a simple and effective way to ensure food safety. and happy customers. The company kept records to make sure the controls worked. Figure 1 lists the most common prepared foods linked to illness. Records produced for the HACCP system also have benefits. you understand the importance of food safety. HACCP focuses only on critical areas and thus saves time. delis will no longer have to rely solely on routine inspections to spot potential food safety hazards. improved food quality. Food and Drug Administration. The U. As a deli manager. so those with the greatest risk are at the top. HACCP stands for the “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point” system. By using HACCP. HACCP makes inspections more useful by concentrating only on potential problems. and Department of Commerce all encourage HACCP safety plans for food processing. and lost customers. Pillsbury made safe foods. You can imagine how serious it would be if astronauts got food poisoning in space. lost sales. It allows you to predict potential risks to food safety and to prevent them before they happen. good business. Workers’ interest can lead to better food handling. Testing the foods for safety was unnecessary.S. Tracking food temperatures and other data lets deli workers become interested in food safety.

RISK T Roast beef Turkey Chicken Ham Pork products Mexican-style foods Chinese foods Potato salad Rice Chicken salad Cream-filled pastry Meat tacos and enchiladas Shrimp Macaroni salad Pizza Turkey salad Tuna salad Ground meat Barbecued meat Egg salad Figure 1. . Prepared foods tied to outbreaks of food poisoning. Those at the bottom have the lowest risk. Foods at the top of the list have the greatest risk.

Chemical hazards include toxins.) 5. and improperly used pesticides. (Identify corrective actions. Set up procedures to handle control problems. Recall that the first two letters in HACCP stand for “Hazard Analysis. Set limits to control potential problems. chemical. (Monitor Critical Control Points. Determine where and when to prevent problems.) 3. and wood. Keep good records and make routine reviews of records to check that controls work.) 7. Physical hazards include foreign objects that may cause illness or injury-for example. heavy metals. or physical. Each one is necessary for the overall program to work. Conduct periodic audits to ensure that the HACCP system works properly.HACCP SYSTEMS The Seven Steps in HACCP A HACCP food safety system has seven basic steps. Each food-preparation process has its own potential safety hazards.) Let’s examine each step in turn. The Seven The seven steps are these: Basic Steps 1. l l l Biological hazards include harmful bacteria. Identify potential food safety hazards. metal.) 2. you determine the primary potential food safety risks at each stage of the preparation process. glass. plastic. Do a Hazard Analysis Step 1. Identify potential food safety hazards. and food additives. These hazards may vary from deli to deli and from recipe to recipe. Hazards may be biological. Set up methods to monitor limits. cleaning compounds. (Identify which stages are Critical Control Points. (Audit the HACCP system. Figure 2 gives examples of improper practices that may cause potential food safety hazards.” When you do a hazard analysis. or other microorganisms.) 6. .) 4. (Review records. viruses. (Set critical limits at Critical Control Points. (Do a hazard analysis. A Hazard is any food property that may cause an unacceptable health risk to your customers.

Examples of critical limits might include: l l l Purchasing specifications Cooking. In addition to determining major potential hazards. you will need to identify at what point in the food-preparation process these hazards can best be controlled. Examples of CCPs might include: l l l Cooking. looking for off-colors. salt content. Set up methods to monitor limits. Thus. Once you identify CCPs. you must set up methods to be sure they are followed. Set limits to control potential control problems. Monitor CCP Step 4. and hot-holding stages Chilling. Set Critical Limits Step 3. A Critical Control Point (CCP) is a stage in the food-preparation process where (1) hazards can be reduced or eliminated. inspecting raw materials) Sensory evaluations (smelling for off-odors. temperatures.Identify Critical Control Points Step 2. and chilled-display stages Receiving. chilled-storage. Typical methods for Monitoring CCP Limits may include: Visual observations (watching the practices of deli workers. viscosity. a CCP is a stage where hazards to food safety can and must be controlled. thawing. Determine where and when to prevent problems. and where (2) later stages won’t correct these safety problems if they are not controlled here. you must determine Critical Limits that will reduce or eliminate potential hazards. and other food-handling stages So the HACCP system includes two major ideas: Hazard Analysis (HA) and Critical Control Points (CCP). or feeling for texture) Chemical measurements (pH or acidity. and hot-holding temperatures Chilling and chilled-storage times. Now that you have established limits for potential hazards. and handling practices Figure 3 gives examples of some specific critical limits for reducing or eliminating potential safety hazards. or water activity) Physical measurements (time and temperature) 10 . mixing ingredients. reheating. reheating.

abuse. Examples of practices that increase potential food safety hazards. and Hot Holding Cook poultry to at least 165° F Cook pork to at least 150° F Cook roast beef to at least 130° F Reheat all foods rapidly to at least 165° F Hold all hot foods at 140° F or higher CCPs: Chilling and Chill Storage Chill roast beef from 120° F to 55° F in less than 6 hours. CCPs: Receiving Potentially hazardous foods must be at or below 40° F Frozen foods must not have thawed There must be no evidence of spoilage. overloading refrigeration units Using hot display cases without thermometers Storing food in improperly labeled containers Other Hazards Using improper or inadequate cleaning and sanitation practices Using poor food preparation and handling practices Using utensils or food contact surfaces made from improper materials Keeping inadequate documentation and records Storing chemicals and personal items improperly Figure 2. or contamination in foods CCPs: Cooking. Examples of critical limits to reduce or eliminate potential hazards at CCPs.Cross-Contamination Storing raw foods with ready-to-eat foods Practicing poor employee sanitation Failing to clean equipment properly Failing to protect food adequately from contamination Improperly storing refuse in food-preparation areas Improper Hot or Cold Storage Storing foods at improper temperatures Using coolers and display units without thermometers Using poor cooling practices. foreign objects. and from 80° F to 40° F in 6 hours Do not leave potentially hazardous foods at room temperature Do not overload or stack containers in coolers Do not cover hot foods tightly in the cooler until chilled Chill and store foods in shallow pans (2-3 inches deep) CCPs: Food Handling (Covered by sanitation SOPS and GMPs) Thoroughly wash vegetables in clean cold water Use proper hand-washing techniques Use proper dish-washing and sanitizing techniques Cover and protect open cuts and scratches Handle cooked foods only with clean gloves or utensils Use clean and sanitized equipment and utensils Stay home when sick Figure 3. Reheating. 11 . and continue to chill to 40° F Chill all other foods from 130° F to 80° F in 1 1/2 hours.

this requires only common sense and a knowledge of basic food-preparation practices. These records indicate to management and government inspectors that you properly evaluated. These procedures are called Corrective Actions. handled. For multi-ingredient foods. Keep records and make routine reviews of records to check that controls work. Together. Monitoring results for each CCP must be recorded for review by management. Audit the HACCP System Step 7. and processed foods and ingredients. or new processes. your HACCP plans for each food product make up your HACCP system. Each of these requires a new HACCP plan. and that workers handled foods properly. investigate immediately. that proper information was recorded. Document your findings. Additional audits should be conducted whenever there are new products. new recipes. Examples of corrective actions might include: Rejecting products that do not meet buying specifications Adjusting a cooler’s thermostat to get the proper temperature Extending cooking time Recooking or reheating a product to the proper temperature Modifying food-handling procedures Discarding products Review Records Step 6. A daily record review ensures that controls are working. Conduct periodic audits to make sure the HACCP system works.Identify Corrective Actions Step 5. Record keeping is an essential part of the HACCP system. For most foods. Management should conduct an in-depth audit of the entire HACCP system at least once a year. If records indicate potential problems. you may need technical assistance. You must set up procedures to deal immediately with such failures. . Set up procedures to handle control problems. HACCP plans should cover all deli foods. Problems occur when critical limits are not met.

poultry. and some of these may survive cooking. An example of such a diagram. raw celery. the cooked seafood. and salad dressing) are acidic. In our seafood salad. You may not realize that herbs and spices frequently contain spoilage bacteria. On the other hand. The dressing and lemon juice are acidic and should help to slow bacterial growth. mayonnaise. like the celery and onions in our seafood salad. You know that raw animal foods (such as meat. Thoroughly wash raw celery in cold water to remove many of the surface bacteria. receiving. 13 . dairy products. So do raw vegetables. seafood. appears in Figure 4. Let’ s start at the first stage in the process shown in Figure 4. and spices contain spoilage bacteria. They may also contain illness-causing bacteria. called a Flowchart. some ingredients (like lemon juice. you will need to make a simple diagram that shows the stages you go through in preparing your salad. Measure the quantities added to the salad. Make a Flowchart To get started on the HACCP plan. and eggs) often contain spoilage and illness-causing bacteria. Peel onions to remove bacteria on the outer skin. Most of these bacteria occur naturally in foods. Then study each stage in the flowchart to determine where potential hazards occur and how you can control them. the ingredients will be as follows: l l l l l l Chilled cooked seafood Salad dressing Celery Onions Lemon juice Spices The ingredients in deli foods can increase or decrease the risk of safety problems. Acidic ingredients may help to slow or stop bacterial growth. List Ingredients For our seafood salad example. Deli workers may add others during preparation and handling. Never use less dressing or lemon juice than the recipe calls for.SETTING UP A HACCP PLAN FOR SEAFOOD SALAD Preparing a Seafood Salad Let’ s see how to use the seven basic steps to develop a HACCP plan for preparing and storing seafood salad.

Note that those stages that are Critical Control Points are shown by bold. 14 .Cooked Dressing Seafood Receiving Other Ingredients I CCP 1 PrechiyFients 1 CCP Mix Ingredients Put in Dish or Storage Container + Display in Case (40° F) + CCP Figure 4. Flowchart showing the stages in the preparation and storage of seafood salads. colored boxes.

Make sure rejected ingredients do not get into the deli. Set maximum acceptable temperature limits for cooked seafood. Trying to control or eliminate them later in the process wastes time and money. In your mind. or spoiled ingredients No ingredients containing foreign objects Monitor the limits to control potential hazards at receiving: l l Check for proper temperature Visually inspect all incoming ingredients for damage. spoiled. set limits on damaged. management should review and revise the HACCP plan to prevent further problems. This means rejecting or discarding foods that do not meet the HACCP limits. focus on the receiving stage as you think through each of the HACCP steps. The safety of ingredients received directly affects the safety of deli products prepared from those ingredients. For example. So receiving is a CCP. and contaminated ingredients. Set limits for accepting or rejecting seafood salad ingredients. That means you must control the potential hazards at receiving. All of the ingredients could be contaminated or contain foreign objects. If contamination or damage is found after receiving and traced back to the delivered products. spoilage. immediate action is necessary.Receiving Receiving is the first stage in the preparation of all deli products. such as receiving. Also. outdated. Fresh celery may show signs of spoilage. Is receiving a Critical Control Point for seafood salad? Receiving is a stage where these potential hazards can be controlled. Potential hazards during receiving of seafood salad ingredients include: l l l l Contamination Spoilage Rapid bacterial growth Foreign objects Cooked seafood is more likely to have a problem with rapid bacterial growth than is any other ingredient. later stages in the salad preparation process will not correct these hazards. Include these limits in buying specifications. and may be impossible. reject the following: l l l Damaged. contamination. 15 . damaged. Limits for seafood salad ingredients might include: l l l Chilled cooked seafood below 40° F No contaminated. and foreign objects When control problems occur at a CCP. For example. or contaminated ingredients Chilled cooked seafood above 40° F Ingredients that do not meet company buying specifications Record rejected or discarded items on the invoice or on a Receiving Reject Form (Appendix 1).

lower the thermostat to get the desired temperature. l l Monitor this CCP (Prechill) by measuring and recording the air temperature in the cooler every 4 hours. verify that the foods are chilling rapidly by monitoring foods placed in the cooler.Record chilled food temperatures on the invoice or on a Receiving Temperature Chart (Appendix 2). Opening doors frequently causes the inside air to rise above 40° F. Periodically. Supervisors should review and initial charts and records daily to assure that the controls are working. Here are other things to keep in mind: l Chill foods in high-chilling-capacity walk-in coolers rather than reach-in coolers. 16 . or ingredients change. new recipe. So your limits at the Prechill stage are 40°F and containers 3 inches deep or less. and whenever conditions. prechill ingredients. Investigate any irregularities. processes. Prechill is a CCP because rapid bacterial growth can and must be controlled by prechilling the major ingredients. Your seafood will chill faster if you keep it in shallow containers no deeper than 3 inches. Now let’s move along to the next stage on the flowchart in Figure 4. Record the temperature on the Cooler Temperature Form (Appendix 3) or install a recording thermometer. management should review the HACCP plan for seafood salad as part of its review of the HACCP system for all deli products. Investigate irregularities immediately. A new HACCP plan must be developed for every new product. Prechill Ingredients As you continue to think about preparing the seafood salad. Sign or initial the invoice after the inspection to indicate that all products are acceptable. or new process. At least annually. Always store finished products away from raw foods to prevent contamination. Record any thermostat changes made. Review cooler temperature records daily. What limits should you set to control bacterial growth at this stage? You will want to store or chill the major salad ingredients in a cooler with an air temperature cold enough (below 40° F) to chill the ingredients to 40° F or below. If the air temperature in the cooler is above 40° F. remember that rapid bacterial growth is still a potential hazard. Caution deli workers to keep the cooler doors closed.

This step is not a CCP either. or the mixer. keep in mind that mixing seafood with other ingredients can lead to bacterial and viral contamination of the salad. For example: l l l Set cooler temperature below 40°F Cover the container. Set limits on the temperature and maximum storage time. Transfer to Dish or Container Transferring the seafood salad to a dish or storage container may result in contamination if the dish or container is not clean and sanitized. lower the cooler thermostat to keep the temperature of the salad at 40° F or below. This stage is not a CCP. If necessary. Contamination can come from workers’ hands. however. this stage is a CCP. Store Salad in Cooler Bacterial growth continues to be a hazard during storage of the seafood salad in the cooler. Because it can and must be controlled during storage. modify SOPs and handling practices to prevent contamination at this stage. Just because this stage is not a CCP does not mean you should ignore it. Verify periodically that the cooler is keeping the salad at 40°F or below by measuring the temperature of the salad. utensils. because later stages in the process (storage and display at 40° F or below) will control any potential hazards. To control potential contamination: l l l Use clean and sanitized dishes. containers. Use a recording thermometer or record temperatures on a Cooler Temperature Form (Appendix 3). To control this stage: Make sure the major salad ingredients are at 40° F or below Avoid hand contact with the salad Use clean utensils and mixer Comply with sanitation and with personal hygiene rules in your Standard Operating Procedures (SOPS) Follow Good Manufacturing Practices If necessary.Mix Salad Ingredients As you apply the HACCP steps to this preparation stage. modify SOPs and handling practices to prevent contamination. and label it with the date and time of preparation Store the salad for only 2 to 3 days to make sure bacterial growth is not a problem You can monitor the temperature limit by measuring and recording the air temperature of the cooler every 4 hours. 17 . because later stages in the process (storage and display at 40° F or below) will control any potential hazards. Thoroughly mix dressing and lemon juice with the seafood and other ingredients to lower the risk of a safety problem. and utensils Comply with sanitation and personal hygiene SOPs Follow Good Manufacturing Practices If necessary.

Verify periodically that the temperature of the display case is keeping the salad at 40° F or below. however. Your limits at the display stage might include the following: l l Keep seafood salad at 40° F or below Hold salad for no longer than 2 to 3 days Monitor this limit by measuring and recording the temperature of the display case every 4 hours. And HACCP is a simple system for deli workers to follow. modify Standard Operating Procedures and handling practices to prevent contamination. lower the thermostat to keep the salad at 40° F or below. Remember that customers may add potential safety problems depending on how they handle and store the food they buy at your deli. If necessary. If necessary. 18 . Record the temperature on a Product Temperature Form (Appendix 4) or use a recording thermometer.Display Salad in Case As in the cooler. This stage is not a CCP. To control contamination: Transfer old salad to a smaller container. Instructions and informative labels may lower the probability of these safety problems. Restocking Salad When restocking the salad in the display case. and put the fresh salad in a new container Do not add new salad on top of old salad Use clean utensils and containers. and avoid hand contact with salad Comply with sanitation and personal hygiene Standard Operating Procedures Follow Good Manufacturing Practices Observe replenishing practices to make sure proper procedures are followed. HACCP concentrates on critical hazards and will help prevent foodborne illness. remember that contamination can occur from workers’ hands and utensils. This stage is a CCP. growth of harmful bacteria continues to be a potential hazard in the display case. because display at 40° F or below will control this potential hazard. Conclusion This example of setting up a HACCP plan for seafood salad shows you how easy it is for most products.

FLOWCHARTS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS FOR SELECTED DELI FOODS The following flowcharts give examples of critical control points for some deli foods.) 19 . (See Food Marketing Institute [1989a] in the Bibliography. The HACCP manual prepared by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) contains similar flowcharts and HACCP plans for most deli foods.

chilled items above 40° F.SEAFOOD SALAD Flowchart Cooked Other Ingredients Rapid bacterial growth. No spoilage.I Visual inspection. Spoilage. and items with spoilage. Contamination. or foreign objects Rapid bacterial growth Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Adjust thermostat Mix Ingredients Contamination contacts. contamination. Use clean Observe practices Modify practices Contamination Use clean dish/container Observe practices Modify practices I Store in Cooler (40° F) / Rapid bacterial growth CCP Product below 40°F Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Observe practices Adjust thermostat I Restock Contamination Avoid hand contact Modify practices I Display in Case (40° F) Rapid bacterial growth CCP Product below 40° F Measure/record display case temperature every 4 hours Adjust thermostat .. or foreign objects Chill in shallow containers to below 40°F Minimize utensils {_. Measure/retard t e m p e r a t u r e Reject thawed frozen items. Frozen items with no signs of thawing. Foreign objects Potential Hazards C C P Critical Limits Monitoring Procedures Corrective Actions CCP Chilled items below 40° F. contamination.

Foreign objects CCP Chilled items below 40° F. or foreign objects Visual inspection. No spoilage. contamination.FRIED CHICKEN Flowchart Potential Hazards CCP Critical Limits Monitoring Procedures Corrective Actions Rapid bacterial growth. Contamination. Immediate transfer to hot hold after cooking observe thawing g Modify thawing practice Batter/Breading contamination observe practices Modify practices I Cook in Oil l Undercooking may not causing bacteria Follow time/temperature instructions. Measure/record center temperature Continue cooking until center temperature reaches 165° F Hold Hot in Steam Table Rapid bacterial growth CCP Product above 140° F. Hold batches less than 5 hours Product Measure/record case temperature every 4 hours Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Observe practices Reheat or chill I Rapid bacterial growth CCP below 40° F Adjust cooler thermostat I I I I Contamination Avoid hand contact Modify practices 1 Rapid bacterial growth CCP Product below 40° F Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Measure/record case temperature every 4 hours Adjust cooler thermostat I Display in Gse (40° F) Rapid bacterial growth I CCP Product below 40° F Adjust use thermostat . Rapid bacterial Thaw in cooler or under cold running water Chill to 40° F after thawing Do not recycle used batter/breading Internal temperature of 165° F. Frozen items with no signs of thawing. contamination. Spoilage. and items with spoilage. or foreign objects Incomplete thawing can cause undercooking. Measure/record temperature Reject thawed frozen items. chilled items above 40° F.

Use Minimize hand contact. CCP Contamination. Contamination Avoid hand contact Observe practices Modify practices CCP Product below 40° F Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Adjust cooler thermostat I Restock I Display in Case (40° F) Rapid bacterial growth . contamination.POTATO SALAD Flowchart Potatoes Other Mayonnaise Ingredients Potential Hazards CCP Critical Limits Monitoring Procedures Corrective Actions I I Receiving I Spoilage. contamination. or foreign objects Adjust cooler thermostat I Chill CCP Chill to below 40° F Measure/record cooler air temperature Observe I Wash . Use clean sink. Put in Dish/Storage Container Contamination . or foreign objects Visual inspection Reject items with spoilage. Rinse sink between items Contamination Spoilage removed practices Modify practicess I Peel/Trim/Cut Observe practices Follow time/temperature instructions Modify practices Cook longer I Prechill Ingredients (40° F) Rapid bacterial growth CCP Chill in shallow containers to below 40° F Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Observe practices Observe practices Adjust cooler thermostat I I Mix Ingredients . Foreign objects Spoilage No spoilage. clean utensils Use clean dish/container Modify practices Contamination Modify practices I store in Cooler (40° F) I Rapid bacterial growth . CCP Product below 40° F Measure/record case temperature every 4 hours Adjust case thermostat .

contamination. Hold batches less than 5 hours Chill in shallow container to below 40° F product below 40° F Measure/record center temperature every 2 hours Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Reheat or chill Chill to Below 40° F Rapid bacterial growth CCP Adjust cooler thermostat Store in Cooler (40° F) I Display Chilled (40°F) I Rapid bacterial growth CCP Adjust cooler thermostat Rapid bacterial growth CCP Product below 40° F Adjust display thermostat . Foreign objects Rapid bacterial growth CCP Critical Limits Monitoring Procedures Corrective Actions Poultry/Meat/ vege. of foreign objects Adjust cooler thermostat CCP Chill to below 40° F Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Incomplete thawing. chill to 40° F after thawing Cook to internal temperature of 165° F. Rapid bacterial growth CCP Thaw in cooler or under cold running water. Immediate transfer to hot-hold after cooking Observe thawing Modify thawing practice Undercooking may not kill illness causing bacteria CCP Measure/record center temperature Continue cooking Rapid bacterial growth CCP Product above 140° F.HOT ENTREES Flowchart Fresh Raw Poultry/Meat “‘p”l”b’” Frozen Raw Potential Hazards Rice and Other Ingredients I Spoilage. Contamination. contamination.~bles Receiving I CCP spoilage. or foreign objects No Visual inspection Reject items with spoilage.

chill to 40° F after thawing Observe thawing Modify thawing practice Under cooking may not kill illness-causing bacteria CCP Cook to internal temperature as specified for each product Chill in shallow container to below 40° F Avoid hand contact.SLICED POULTRY/MEAT SANDWICH Flowchart Fresh Raw Poultry/Meat Frozen Raw Poultry/Meat Bread and other Potential Hazards CCP Critical Limits Monitoring Procedures Corrective Actions Spoilage. or foreign objects Visual inspection Reject items with spoilage. Foreign objects CCP No spoilage. Rapid bacterial growth CCP Thaw in cooler or under cold running water. contamination. Use disposable gloves Measure/record center temperature continue cooking C 40°F Rapid bacterial growth CCP Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Observe practices Adjust cooler thermostat Contamination Modify practices *8 Contamination Contamination Avoid hand contact. Use disposable gloves Avoid hand contact. or foreign objects Adjust cooler thermostat Rapid bacterial growth CCP Chill to below 40° F Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Incomplete thawing. Contamination. Use disposable gloves Observe practices Modify practices Observe practices Modify practices Rapid bacterial growth CCP Product below 40° F Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Measure/record cooler air temperature every 4 hours Adjust cooler thermostat Rapid bacterial growth CCP product below 40° F Adjust display thermostat . contamination.

Washington. Independence Ave. SW. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.S.E. HFF-326.T.C.A.9113. 20204-0001. 20250. Food and Drug Administration. SW. D. Bacterial hazards: Shigella in food. Industry Programs Branch. D.S. merchandising. Tel: 202/205. D. 200 C Street. Washington. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. HFF-326. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. and food facts. SW. South Agriculture Building. Inc. U. Tel: 202/447. Industry Programs Branch. 200 C Street. Books and Printed Materials Bacterial hazards: Clostridium perfringens in food. 20204-0001. Bacterial hazards: Staphylococci in food.5251.C. 214/985-7961. (1981) A brief description of the cause and prevention of staphylococci contamination. Information Office. 20204-0001. unless a price is noted. An English/Spanish consumer leaflet. (1990) FSIS facts.C.C. FSIS-40. SW. (1991) A 10-page test booklet designed to test your knowledge of bakery safe handling principles. Tel. Tel: 202/205. Jonessco Enterprises. Food and Drug Administration. (1981) A brief description of the cause and prevention of Shigella contamination. Bacteria that cause foodborne illness.S. U. D. Washington. US. Food and Drug Administration. Tel: 202/205. 25 . An English/ Spanish consumer leaflet. An English/Spanish consumer leaflet. Industry Programs Branch. (Development and Training Evaluation). 17610 Midway Rd.S.5251. 200 C Street. Food and Drug Administration. U. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. This 1l-page leaflet gives information and statistics on foodborne illness. D.5251. 200 C Street. Tel: 202/205 .C.C. SW. 20204-0001. Industry Programs Branch.HACCP TRAINING MATERIALS Materials are free. Bacterial hazards: Escherichia coli in food. Dallas. HFF-326. Bacterial hazards: Salmonella in foods. Bakery D. Industry Programs Branch. Food and Drug Administration. 200 C Street. An English/Spanish consumer leaflet. HFF-326. SW. D. An English/Spanish consumer leaflet. Washington. TX 75287. 20204-0001.5251 . Tel: 202/205-5251. Washington. (1981) A brief description of the cause and prevention of Clostridium perfringens contamination. Department of Agriculture.. #13433 1. Washington. (1981) A brief description of the cause and prevention of Escherichia coli contamination.S. U. Food Safety and Inspection Service. (1982) A brief description of the cause and prevention of Salmonella contamination. U. HFF-326..

Cheyenne. (1991) A 72-page manual in English/Chinese. A Chinese guide to safe food handling practices This guide is based on the 1976 U. 800 Connecticut Ave. sanitizing. PO Box 9441. Tel: 202/447. Food Marketing Institute.A. stamped envelope to Acute Disease Epidemiology Section. Food Safety and Inspection Service. (1989) A 20page basic guide to: personal hygiene. U. Tel: 507/285-l155. SW. $7. 214/985-7961. St. California Department of Health Services. storing. merchandising. Jonessco Enterprises. $5. Minnesota Department of Health. (1992) A 14page test booklet designed to test your knowledge of deli safe handling principles. Send a self-addressed. Dallas. coli 0157:H7 and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Tel: 612/646-7077. Campylobacter questions and answers. cleaning.95/copy.50 (member) $5. By W. Washington. pest control. Publications Sales. (Development and Training Evaluation). Contact John Misock (307/777-6587) or Bud Anderson (307/ 777-6588).E.C. and temperature control stickers. Delaware Street. Adler. A packet covering microbiology. Paul.Basic food safety program. (1988) Employers can give this self-instruction booklet to job applicants or new employees to introduce them to safe food-handling concepts and practices.50. Deli D. display. and cleaning and sanitizing..C. MN 55114.. D. and food facts.9113.W.T.S. and temperature. 26 . Minneapolis. Tel: 612/623-5414. coli facts. Safe Foods in Different Languages. Information Office.E. 1655 NW 21st Avenue. Food handler’s pocket guide for food safety & quality. 20006. Employee food safety: A self-instruction text. Food and Drug Administration Food Service Rules. 17610 Midway Rd. Washington. personal hygiene. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management. (1989) A fact sheet that answers the most commonly asked questions about E. preparation. cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Tel. time/temperature controls. (1991) A four-page consumer leaflet discussing causes and prevention. Wyoming Department of Agriculture Food and Drug Section. plus $2. MN 55440. WY 82001. California Uniform Retail Food Facilities Law (California Health and Safety Code Section 27500 et seq. E. 717 S. cross-contamination.00 (nonmember).. (1991) Includes two laminated posters on proper hand washing. First Edition. Rochester.). $6.: 202/452-8444. Tel. MN 55901. 2219 Carey Avenue. receiving. Department of Agriculture. Suite 35. South Agriculture Building. #134331. some illustrations included. Inc. $2. Independence Ave. D. 830 Transfer Road.50 for postage and handling.S. 20250. Check with County Environmental Health Departments or the California Department of Health Services Food and Drug Branch. TX 75287.. N.

National Environmental Health Association. and maintain an ongoing sanitation program.H. Creamery. Guidelines for handling Hepatitis A in the food industry. c/o William Kinder. 720 S. 1993). N. A handbook for the practical application of the HACCP approach to foodservice establishment inspection. Send a self-addressed. Van Nostrand Reinhold.95. Food and Drug Administration. Jr. Tel: 303/756-9090. Reed. Lebhar-Friedman Books. 27 . HACCP regulatory applications in retail food establishments. New York. Pierson and D. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. HACCP principles and applications. (1989) A two-page guide to the whys and wherefores of hand washing. and plan. 115 Fifth Avenue. NY 10003. State Training and Information Branch. 230 pp. $2 (member) $2. Division of Environmental Health and Safety. University of Massachusetts. This 5lpage booklet discusses critical control points and guidelines for developing a HACCP flow diagram in a food service establishment. This text is designed as a reference for those who are responsible for food safety management. MPH. 414 Morrill Science Center. (1991) A 39-page document providing a simple explanation of HACCP and basic instructions for applying HACCP to regulatory work in retail food service establishments.Food store sanitation. increase equipment life and reduce maintenance costs. CO 80222. Gravani.. Reed Jr. 1207. Pisciella. Fax: 301/443-2143. Rm. (Eds. Corlett. organize a personnel training program. Philadelphia Conference of the Central Atlantic States Association of Food and Drug Officials. stamped envelope to George H. $5. MD 20857. Box 300. By R. HFC-61. Tel: 813/664-6700. Colorado Boulevard. $54. Tampa. FL 33619-8321. P.S. Fax: 813/664-6884. PA 19430.. Jr. Senior Environmental Health Specialist. implement. Hand washing guide. By G. Tel: 800/926-2665. Suite 970. MA 01003. South Tower. Denver. Rockville.) Covers HACCP topics presented at a 1991 short course sponsored by the Continuing Education Committee of the Institute of Food Technologists. Tel: 301/443-5871. (1990) Prepared by the Food Protection Section of the National Environmental Health Association. 5600 Fishers Lane. U. $39.A. The guidelines also specify actions public health agencies can take to help food service and retail food operations prevent the spread of Hepatitis A. this booklet details the precautions food managers should take to protect their employees and customers from Hepatitis A and the procedures they should follow in the event of an infectious hepatitis illness among the staff.50 (nonmember).B.O. (1992) By M.A.95 (paperback). (Available June. 3922 Coconut Palm Dr. (1990) By J. This book advises managers how to increase perishable shelf life.D. Amherst.

C. Editor and Publisher. etc. A colorful 4-page brochure with numerous tips on pest control and preventive measures. Insect infestation at retail: Detection and control. 200 C Street. 20204-0001. (1990) H&G bulletin 247. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (FDA) 88-1146. (1988) DHHS Publication. Publications Sales. D. Tel: 202/205. NW. Department of Agriculture. U. Industry Programs Branch. Washington..5251. 20250. ( 1991) This 39page catalog lists audiovisuals and printed material on a wide variety of topics and training aids of interest to food safety professionals. 200 C Street. HFF-326.. Preventing foodborne illness. 372 pp. U. D. South Agriculture Building. Food Protection Report. regulations. VA 22075. Tel: 717/534-4676. Kraft. Tel: 202/2055251. U. Inc. MA 02142. A 29-page listing of publications and audiovisuals on retail food protection. Microorganisms in foods 4. 238 Main St. Charles Felix Associates. Box 1581. 20006.C. Austin Kraft. VA 22075. (1988) A guide that tells food handlers what to do to keep foods safe “for health and for profit.S.S. 800 Connecticut Ave. Washington. A 22-page consumer leaflet providing general storage and handling tips for meat and poultry items. 28 . (FDA) 90-2017.. PA 17033-0815. Tel: 800/759-6102. Inspecting incoming food materials (booklet). Leesburg. power outage advice. $95 (member) $195 (non-member)..O. imports. D.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food and Drug Administration. sanitation. International Commission of Microbiological Specifications for Foods. Information materials for the food and cosmetic industries (booklet). This 12-page brochure contains photos and a sample inspection report for checking incoming product.C.95. Includes a discussion on perishable delicatessen foods (luncheon meat and self-service salad bar).A. Fax: 703/777-4453. P. Hershey Chocolate U. $59. (1990) DHHS Publication No. and an overview of the most common foodborne illness bacteria. Independence Ave. (1989) A reference for managers.HACCP: The hazard analysis critical control point system manual..” Training Aids Dept. HFF-326. Box 1581.C.O. (1989) This training manual is aimed at helping retail managers reduce the risk of bacterial contamination of prepared foods. 20204-0001. Hershey. Washington. Leesburg. SW. Cambridge. Tel: 202/447. $10 per 100 copies. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Quality and Maintenance Manager.: 202-452-8444. SW. (1990) By A. 1991 Information Catalog. $10.S. Industry Programs Branch. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Food Marketing Institute. Information Office. Food Protection Report.. Tel: 703/777-7448. P. Charles Felix. 19 East Chocolate Avenue. Here’s how. Washington. D.9113. Application of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system to ensure microbiological safety and quality. Tel. No. Tel: 703/777-7448. SW.

O. HFF-342.50 to cover postage and handling for the first copy. U. Quality and Maintenance Manager. South Agriculture Building. Based on the 1976 U. 19 East Chocolate Avenue. Washington. By A. D. PA 17033-0815. Tel: 800/369-6337. University of California. SW. (1988) A 4-page consumer leaflet describing salmonellosis and its prevention. A 2-page leaflet discussing cross-contamination.A. Procedures to implement the hazard analysis critical control point system. Food Safety and Inspection Service. (1989) A 65-page manual in English/Vietnamese.75 for each additional copy. IA 50322. Department of Health & Human Services. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. York. Price.C. D.J. Safe Foods in Different Languages. D. Fax: 512/276-8655. Adler. Committee on Communicable Diseases Affecting Man. SW.S. Tel: 202/205-8140. Food Safety and Inspection Service. 20250. “how-to-do-it” instructions on implementing HACCP. U. personal hygiene. Food Science & Technology Department.. some illustrations included. Tel: 717/757-2888.50) (non-member). Spanish and Vietnamese]. add $1. PA 17402-3425. By R. (1982) This booklet provides industry. Food and Drug Administration.. $5 (member) (7. Hershey Chocolate U. Washington.S. Tel: 202/447-9113. Salmonella and food safety. (1990) UCSGEP 90-6. ( 1990) A colorful 3-page brochure with tips on handling and storage measures. 20250. Food and Environmental Sanitarians. Inc. MN 55901. CA 95616. $7. Information Office. Retail food sanitation code. Washington. good sanitation. Retail seafood cross-contamination. ( 1991) International Association of Milk. $. and seafood handling practices. Food and Drug Administration Food Service Rules. insect control. $4.C.. Korean. First Edition. Des Moines.S.C. South Agriculture Building. 200W Merle Hay Center. Retail Food Protection Branch. A 72-page manual providing step-by-step. 29 .S. P. Tel: 507/285-l155. Tel: 202/447-9113. Translation of selected food code provisions in designated languages [English. (1989) U. IAMFES. Retail store sanitation. Independence Ave. 1655 NW 21st Avenue. Austin Kraft. Department of Agriculture. Hershey. 20204-0001. state and local governments with a uniform food protection code for operation of retail food stores. Association of Food and Drug Officials. Information Office. Box 3425. Chinese. Kraft. Rochester. Tel: 717/534-4676.50.S.Preventing foodborne listeriosis. 6200 Aurora Avenue. (1992) This 8-page leaflet explains listeriosis and preventive measures. A Vietnamese guide to safe food handling practices. SW. 200 C Street.. By W. Davis. Department of Agriculture. Independence Ave.

Messages change monthly.4 pm central time (to speak to a registered dietitian). cooking.Thursday. storing.Friday.S. Telephone: 404/332-4555 Centers for Disease Control Information 1600 Clifton Road. Chicago. DC 20250 Expertise: Time: This meat and poultry hotline is designed for consumers. after the message you may leave your name for a copy of the brochure. 9 am . DC: 202/720-3333 Food Safety and Inspection Service (telecommunications device for hearing impaired) External Affairs Room 1165-S Washington. RI 02879 Expertise: Time: Telephone: 800/EAT-FISH Buying. but advice is also given to industry. NE Atlanta. Telephone: 800/535-4555 U.5 pm eastern time for consumers. 10 am . Department of Agriculture Washington. Available by touchtone phone on a 24-hour basis.Food Safety Information Hotlines American Seafood Institute 406A Main St. Recorded messages (also in Spanish) available 24 hours daily.4 pm eastern time. GA 30333 Expertise: Time: An automated information hotline that includes foodborne illness information. through Friday for industry inquiries. Wakefield. 9 am . Telephone: 800/366-l655 National Center for Nutrition and Dietetics of the American Dietetic Association 216 West Jackson Blvd. Staffed by registered dietitians. and handling fish and shellfish Monday . The hotline is staffed by registered dietitians and home economists. Usually three messages available. Monday . Monday . 30 .Friday. IL 60606-6995 Expertise: Time: Provides consumers with reliable nutrition information and free brochures on nutrition topics.

and storage of seafood products. Department of Health and Human Services. D. Automated menu system operates 24 hours. N.. Charles Felix Associates. Covers: personal hygiene. 20006. food protection. MN 55114. Hand washing poster. Order no.9113. (1989) These posters advise food handlers to be on their guard about health.2 pm eastern time. Training Aids Dept. and the U. temperature danger zones and safe cooling and reheating. St. Food and Drug Administration.S. laminated 11" x 17" poster gives food processing temperatures as related to pathogen multiplication temperatures and food quality temperature standards.W. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management. Tel: 202/452-8444. 20250. Paul. No date. $2 plus $2. Time: Posters and Signs Food safety posters (four). Department of Agriculture. crosscontamination. Independence Ave.50 for postage and handling. add $2 to cover postage and handling for every $10 incremental order. Leesburg. 830 Transfer Road.S.S. U. Food Handling posters (five) 11 -l/4" x 13". 800 Connecticut Ave.. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management. D. Washington. Box 1581.50 per 20 sets (100 posters). VA 22075. Food Marketing Institute. 31 . Paul. This colorful.C. Temperature guide for food processing procedures in foodservice poster. An FDA consumer affairs specialist is on duty Monday .. Food & Drug Administration Washington. Washington. South Agriculture Building. clean hands.C. 2-61. P. SW. NW Suite 110 Washington. Tel: 703/777-7448. 830 Transfer Road. Suite 35.50 for postage and handling. St. (1992) Covers safe food handling practices.C. D.O. Help prevent foodborne illness-follow these rules to protect food in the delicatessen (sign). 8-l/2" x 11". $1. Tel: 612/646-7077. clean service. $8 (member/nonmember). DC: 202/205. No date.. 10 am . and correct temperatures. Tel: 202/447. buying. $7. (No date) This 8-l/2" x 11" laminated poster shows the steps to hand and fingertip washing procedure.Friday. USDA/FSIS Information Office.Telephone: 800/FDA. including illness will be referred to specialists.4314 Office of Seafood 1110 Vermont Avenue. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Suite 35. More urgent calls.50 plus $2. Minnesota 55114.4010 U. 20005 Expertise: This service answers consumer questions about labeling. handling. Tel: 612/646-7077.

Food Marketing Institute. (1987) Receiving: inspected delivered items and monitoring food and equipment temperatures. Order no. IL 60606-5834. The necessary step . Chicago. NW.” and “Correct storage techniques. 800 Connecticut Ave. MN 55114. F-322. equipment and work surfaces.S. and dealing with patron and employee fears. (1988) These two videos cover the disease. Cleaning and sanitizing: cleaning procedures and sanitizing dishes.” “Safe food preparation.. Beltsville.” “Microorganisms that cause illness. Chicago. utensils. MD 20705. Slides . Tel: 202/452-8444. 250 S.. Back of the House III. an ounce of prevention and Serve food.” “Personal hygiene. Tel: 301/344-3755. 20006. (1989) These eleven transparencies with instructional materials from the U. Washington.C.$15. $99 (member) $129 (nonmember).95. Basic facts about AIDS for food service employers (tape 1). Beltsville. The Educational Foundation. Safe food handling: Health. (1982) A guide to compliance with FDA’s model ordinance for sanitation in retail stores. Tel: 301/344-3755.Slide Sets and Transparencies Food safety quality assurance for food service employees. Washington. Wacker Dr. $75 (member) $150 (nonmember). text . 830 Transfer Road. Storage: storeroom maintenance and product inspection and rotation. 2-53. test packet . (1989) A very basic 39-slide.” Hospitality Institute of Technology & Management. AIDS What you [the employees] need to know (tape 2). 250 S. $99 (member) $129 (nonmember). IL 60606-5834. Food and Nutrition Service may be obtained through interlibrary loan from the Food and Nutrition Information Center at the National Agricultural Library. D. Holding and serving: avoiding bacteria and contaminants. St. DC 20039. Tel: 800/765. 1200 17th St. The Educational Foundation. Available through interlibrary loan from the Food and Nutrition Information Center at the National Agricultural Library.a sanitation package. F&N order no.$5. National Restaurant Association. (1992) Topics include: “The illness hazards. Suite 1400. F&N order no. Videotapes Back of the House II. Department of Agriculture. 32 . laws on employment of persons with AIDS. (Also available in Spanish) National Restaurant Association. Publications Sales. sound cassette program for food service workers.2122. not illness.. MD 20705. and labeling and dating foods. $33. ” “Cleaning and sanitizing. Your sanitation responsibilities. Wacker Dr. ” “Proper thermometer care and use. Tel: 800/765-2122.. (1987) Preparation and handling: maintaining food quality and forecasting quantities. Suite 1400. NW. Tel: 612/646-7077. Tel: 800/424-5156. Paul. 138.$100. (Also available in Spanish) National Restaurant Association.

Toronto. Washington. laminated hand washing poster. (1990) Discusses how to implement a HACCP program in a food service operation. $95 (Spanish/English).. Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Association. 100 Degrees of doom! The time and temperature caper. Food Safety and Inspection Service. $20. (1989) Twopart video with four food safety posters. instructor’s guide. 14 minutes. Publications Sales. Paul. 80 Bloor Street West. Petersburg. academics. Hospitality Institute of Technology & Management. a copy of Food Handler’s Pocket Guide for Food Safety and a Consumer Guide to Food Quality & Safe Handling.C. The invisible challenge: food safety for food handlers. 5000 Park St. Department of Agriculture.C.. Tel: 215/337. student lesson sheet with quiz. 761 Fifth Avenue. Harrisburg. HACCP: Safe food handling techniques. NW. and health departments).. Food Service Facilities Section. Educational Communications Inc. MN 55114. $65 (English). $200 (member) $400 (nonmember). The only drawback for U. Comes with “Instructor’s Technical Background” booklet. Tel: 800/2374599. Suite 35. Washington. (1989) A food service sanitation video training program produced by the U. Foodborne Disease: It’s your business. Suite 1201.1011. N. Tel: 202/452-8444. $95 (member) $225 (nonmember). (1989) International Dairy-Deli Association. P. North.The Danger Zone (a deli food safety and sanitation program). Box 5528. $90 (members. Includes: videocassette. FL 33709. Food Marketing Institute. two posters and a metal stem thermometer. WI 53705. (1988) Covers the procedure and microbiological reasons for keeping hands clean.O. 830 Transfer Road. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Telephone: 608/238-7908. Tel: 612/646-7077. Food Marketing Institute. $95. and fingernail brush. (1991) Covers store-level employee food handling and safety practices. 33 . 20006. Ontario. P. Produced by Modern Talking Picture Service.O. Madison. St.W. a probe thermometer. Contact: Duain Shaw. 800 Connecticut Ave. ” 22 minutes. Food safety is no mystery. PA 17120. Telephone: 416/923-84 16. Publications Sales. D. D. Grime fighters. trainers is that the graphics present temperatures in Celsius rather than in Fahrenheit. 20006. St. Chief. (1992 ) Introduces HACCP to foodservice owners and managers. King of Prussia. Canada M5S 2Vl. (1988) A private eye approach investigates the causes of a salmonella food poisoning outbreak. Safe hand washing..S. PA 19406. Box 2357. although the narration includes both. $65 (member) $105 (nonmember). Tel: 202/452-8444. 800 Connecticut Ave.50 (English) $36 (Spanish/English includes four posters in Spanish and English). Comes with a 20-page “Leader’s Guide.S.

$395 each. bakeries.C. The Spoilers I. 20006. (1990) Discusses basics of correct food service sanitation and sanitization with bleach. nor is criticism implied of similar products or services that are not mentioned. The Education Foundation. Tel: 202/452-8444. Order no. No endorsement of named products or services is intended. Washington. F&N order no.” (1991) Also available in Spanish. Inc. (1969) Stresses using time and temperature to thwart bacterial growth plus the importance of constantly checking for the right temperatures everywhere food is handled or stored. Four videos on: “Introduction to food safety: employee health and hygiene. methods of preventing cross-contamination. Inquiry Handling Services. IL 60606.” “Safe food handling: receiving and storage. ” “Keeping microbes in check.Sanitation: It’s your responsibility. Tel: 202/452-8444. (1987) Covers the dangers of bacteria. Every video includes a leader’s guide. F-1787.” and “Personal hygiene in food service. $850/set. Also presents information on hot delicatessens. $329/set or $115 each (member) $399/set or $135 each (nonmember). San Fernando. 200 Parkside Drive. Suite 102. how you can prevent it. These videos may also be borrowed through interlibrary loan from the Food and Nutrition Information Center at the National Agricultural Library. $50 (member) $100 (nonmember). Clorox Company. Food Marketing Institute. Publications Sales. NW. D.. Washington. Receiving Department. Food Marketing Institute. 818/700-0504. Tel: 301/344-3755. no statement regarding the quality or usefulness of the material is intended. Chatsworth. Order no. Beltsville. Tel: 800/765-2122. 800 Connecticut Ave. D. Includes instructor’s guide. 2-53.” and “Cleaning and Sanitizing.” (1989) Also available in Spanish. The purpose of this guide is to provide a source for training aids and background information. 2-53. and basic steps to keep departments with perishables clean and safe. Advantage Media. and fish departments. ” “Safe Foodhandling: preparation and service. CA 91311... MD 20705. Suite 1400. 20006. 34 . 21356 Nordhoff Street. CA 91340. This tape is a basic course in food safety. Tel: 800/ 545-0166. Chicago. 800 Connecticut Ave. Publications Sales.C. Spoilers II. $50 (member) $100 (nonmember). Sanitizing for safety: foodborne illness. Three videos on: “Preventing foodborne illness. National Restaurant Association. 250 South Wacker Drive. Some of this material has not been reviewed by the authors. SERVSAFE Serving Safe Food Program. NW.

Corlett. L. 5 1(6):498-508. Washington. Food Marketing Institute. North Carolina State University. 1992. Bryan. Dairy. Hazard analysis and critical control point system. Trends in Food Science & Technology. NACMCF. Seafood Current. Start a quality improvement program. 1989b.A. University of Toronto Press. Meat and Poultry. 16:1-23. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems for retail food and restaurant operations. 1990. R. FMI. Sea Grant College Program. HACCP: A re-emerging approach to food safety.R. Microorganisms in Foods 4. 1989. International Association of Milk. Journal of Food Protection. Inc. K. 51(8):663-673. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) concept. McIntyre. Raleigh. Kemp. Oregon Sea Grant. 1990a. Oregon State University. 38(2): 14-22. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) identification. Sampling for microbiological analysis: Principles and specific applications. International Journal of Food Microbiology. OR. S. Food Marketing Institute. Toronto.Journal of Food Protection. 1989.. Jr. Risks of practices. A program to ensure food safety in the supermarket . 1992. ICMSF. Bryan. Bryan. 10(7):416-418. 43(2):91-94. Corvallis.. 1988b. 53( 11):978-983. NC. Lee.L. Food Technology. J. DC. Food and Environmental Sanitation. S. what it isn’t and how your operations will be affected. 11(7):357-358. L. FMI. 1988a. Hazard analysis & critical control point applications to the seafood industry. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1989a. F.the hazard analysis critical control point system. 2nd ed. Journal of Food Protection. Des Moines. Bryan. ORESU-H-92-001. with Hilderbrand Jr. Food handler’s pocket guide for food safety and quality. Buchanan. ICMSF. IAMFES. IA. C. November 1990. DC.S. F. 1991.. HACCP in your plant: What HACCP is. F. . 1990b. 1991. 1991. F. 35 . Procedures to implement the hazard analysis critical control point system. Risks associated with vehicles of foodborne pathogens and toxins. 5( 1). Refrigerated foods and use of hazard analysis and critical control point principles. Washington. Microorganisms in Foods 2.BIBLIOGRAPHY Bjerklie. Food and Environmental Sanitarians.S. Inc. Boston.L. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. Elsevier Science Publishers. Food and Environmental Sanitation. 1986. procedures and processes that lead to outbreaks of foodborne diseases. D.L. Dairy. 1992. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system to ensure microbiological safety and quality.

Food Science & Technology Department. 1991. 1991.. USDA and USHHS. HACCP.Final Report (special project number 91-EFSQ-4021). O. Sumner.P. 36 . P.NEFDA. 1992.A. HACCP . VA. $5. Introduction to HACCP Procedures. Sea Grant Extension Program. Journal of Food Protection. R.P. Boston. Fax: 6 17/ 439-5481.P. training manual. Dairy. Arlington. Price. Food and Environmental Sanitation. Food Conference Bulletins. HACCP . University of Nebraska.an industry food safety self-control program-part I.O. 42(5):179-180. 1991. O. UCSGEP 90-6. University of California. Lincoln. third edition. O. R. Food Technology.S.an industry food safety self-control program-part II. Price. 1990.an industry food safety self-control program-part III. NFPA. DC.an industry food safety self-control program-part V. 12(2):84-86. HACCP and total quality management-winning concepts for the 90’s: A review. Retail seafood cross-contamination. Bulletin FC92-09. 11(2):73-81.S. J. 1992. 1990. c/o William Kinder. Seafood retailing manual. Dairy. 1992. CA 95616. MA 0221O-2001. HACCP . National Fisheries Institute.) 1985. FDA Prime Connection. Department of Health and Human Services. 1992. Pisciella. et al. 1992. New England Fisheries Development Association. Food and Environmental Sanitation. 1992. Snyder. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. University of California. 12(3): 164-167. Davis. Food and Environmental Sanitation. Dairy. PA 19430. Food and Environmental Sanitation. Dairy. Dairy. 12(5):29 l-295.an industry food safety self-control program-part IV. HACCP in the retail food industry. Dairy. hazard analysis critical control point. 1992. Food and Environmental Sanitation.E. Retail seafood temperature control. Seafood industry. Snyder. HACCP . Snyder. Snyder. S.P. 309 World Trade Center. University of California. 1990. Food Science & Technology Department. $45. J. Snyder. Listeria: Deli manager letter. J. O. CA. (Ed.P. Creamery. J. NFI.S. A handbook for the practical application of the hazard analysis critical control point approach to food service establishment inspection. 55:459-462. UCSGEP 90-5. CA 95616. HACCP . Davis. 1992. Microbiology and Food Safety Committee of the National Food Processors Association. 12(4):230-232. Stevenson. Food and Environmental Sanitation. Telephone: 6 17/439-5480. Food Safety/Food Sanitation Workshop. Department of Agriculture. HACCP manual for processors. Food and Drug Administration. R. Washington. K. NE 68583-0919. Snyder. O. Central Atlantic States Association of Food and Drug Officials. Price. Davis.P. Box 300. Food Safety and Inspection Service and U. 1991. 12(1):26-27. U. Nebraska Cooperative Extension. O. Implementing HACCP in the food industry.

APPENDIX 1 Date Reviewed by: Date 37 .

APPENDIX 2 Date Receiving Temperature Form Reviewed by: Date 38 .

M. 7:00 P. 3:00 A.M.M. A. I 11:00 P.M.APPENDIX 3 Date I Time 7:00 A.M.M. ~~ ~ #l #2 Cooler Temperature Form Temperature #3 Initials/Comments 1 1:00 3:00 P. Reviewed by: Date 39 .

M. Initials 1:00 A. 1 1:00 A.m.APPENDIX 4 Date Display Product Temperature Form Product: Initial Temp.M.M.M.M. 5:00 a. 9:00 A. 3:00 A. Product Temperature 7:00 A. Reviewed by: Date 40 ..