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# Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 www.elsevier.

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A CFD modeling system for airﬂow and heat transfer in ventilated packaging for fresh foods: I. Initial analysis and development of mathematical models
Qian Zou a, Linus U. Opara
b

b,* ,

Robert McKibbin

c

c

a Food Systems and Technology, AgResearch Limited, Ruakura MIRINZ Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand Department of Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 34, Al-Khod, Oman Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany Campus, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand

Received 1 December 2004; accepted 2 August 2005 Available online 30 September 2005

Abstract Ventilated packaging is commonly used in the horticultural industry to facilitate eﬃcient cooling of fresh produce during forced-air cooling. The airﬂow patterns and heat transfer processes inside such packaging systems are complex and research is needed to aid in the thermodynamic design and testing of such packaging systems to ensure adequate cooling and maintenance of produce quality. The aim of this research program was to develop a computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) modelling system of the airﬂow patterns and heat transfer inside ventilated packages. In Part I of this article series, we ﬁrst describe the packaging systems modelled and then present the relevant mathematical models for both airﬂow patterns and heat transfer inside such ventilated packaging systems based on the porous media approach. In the subsequent article (Part II), the computational solution and simulation software for the solution implementation are discussed, and then simulation results are compared with experimental data for model validation. Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: CFD modelling; Forced-air cooling; Ventilated packages; Heat transfer; Air ﬂow

1. Introduction Forced-air cooling (pressure cooling) is the most common method for pre-cooling of horticultural produce to the optimum storage temperature. Ventilated packaging is required to achieve fast and uniform cooling. The cooling rates of produce mainly depend on heat transfer between cooling medium (air) and produce items in the packages. The heat transfer processes are closely related to airﬂow transport within the packages. Materials and conﬁgurations of produce packaging system (trays, cartons, bins, palletisation patterns, stacking patterns, etc.) have major impacts on the heat transfer and airﬂow pat*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +968 24415226. E-mail address: linus@squ.edu.om (L.U. Opara).

terns during force-air cooling. A packaging system needs to be carefully evaluated before implementation to ensure good cooling eﬃciency. It is usually considered expensive, time-consuming and situation-speciﬁc to only use experimental methods for studying heat transfer and airﬂow processes. Alternatively, mathematical modelling is overall a cost-eﬀective strategy for predicting the airﬂow patterns and temperature variation in the controlled environments such as ventilated packages. If information on packaging system, cooling conditions, produce properties is used as model input data, the results obtained can predict the eﬀects of these factors on the airﬂow patterns and cooling rate. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) employs numerical methods to solve the fundamental ﬂuid transport equations that are derived from the laws of conservation of mass, momentum

m sÀ 1 intrinsic phase average of air velocity component in the direction of y-axis. m air dynamic viscosity. K produce surface temperature. m Red Rp Sp t Ta hTaia Tpack hTpip TPSur u huia v hvia Vp w hwia yn l / /1 /gap qa qB qp qpack Reynolds number product respiration heat. m sÀ1 mean volume of produce item. K intrinsic phase average of product temperature. Airﬂow was modelled by deﬁning an airﬂow pathway according to experimental data. In general three types of models have been developed for modelling airﬂow patterns and heat transfer in horticultural produce packages or refrigerated spaces during cooling processes. Zoned model requires much less computing eﬀort. 1990. W kgÀ1 mean surface area of produce item. based on particle dimension p air pressure. m2 Ka air thermal conductivity. and energy conversation equations (Wang & Touber. However. m sÀ 1 intrinsic phase average of air velocity component in the direction of x-axis. momentum. N mÀ2 hpia intrinsic phase average of air pressure. Tanner. W KÀ1 mÀ1 Kp product thermal conductivity. and the temperature of products and packaging materials. air humidity ratio. If the model is used for the transport processes within a produce package. since the airﬂow patterns were estimated from measured data for certain packages or coolstores. W mÀ2 KÀ1 K permeability. kg mÀ3 bulk density of container packed with products. kg mÀ3 density of product.1038 Q. m3 air velocity component in the direction of z-axis. and it is easy to write computer codes for model solution. in which the domains considered were divided into a number of zones. W mÀ3 qtray-Psur conduction heat ﬂux from trays to the outer surface of produce item per unit produce volume. K packaging material temperature. K air velocity component in the direction of x-axis. The diﬃculties in grid generation for detailing the geometries of diﬀerent types of packaging systems largely reduced the accessibility of this type of model. W KÀ1 mÀ1 Kdis dispersion conductivity. 1998). m sÀ1 air velocity component in the direction of y-axis. kg mÀ3 packaging material density. J kgÀ1 KÀ1 Cpack packaging material speciﬁc heat capacity. mÀ1 ap-exposed exposed-to-air produce surface area per unit volume of air-produce region (mÀ1) B empirical constant b empirical constant c constant Ca air speciﬁc heat at constant pressure. 1999). in which produce items inside the packages are treated as saturated porous media. a complex body-ﬁtted grid system has to be generated to describe the complicated geometries inside the package. kg mÀ3 and energy. Zou. W KÀ1 mÀ1 Kpack packaging material thermal conductivity. The second type is fully-distributed model. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 Nomenclature A empirical constant a empirical constant aap speciﬁc interfacial surface area. Energy and water vapour mass balances were performed on each zone to determine air temperature. N mÀ2 Ped Peclet number based on particle dimension Pr Prandtl number qPSur heat ﬂux entering the outer surface of produce item per unit produce volume. m2 time. m F Forchheimer coeﬃcient ht heat transfer coeﬃcient between air and solid surface. which applies numerical methods to solve 2D or 3D mass. . this approach limits the model application under diﬀerent package designs or coolstore arrangements. N s mÀ2 porosity average porosity estimated porosity of the vertical tunnel along package wall air density. 1998). W mÀ3 r spatial variable along sphere radius. which could be a daunting task for most model users. s air temperature. Zou et al. 1995. J kgÀ1 KÀ1 d constant deq equivalent mean diameter. K intrinsic phase average of air temperature. As the airﬂow patterns are solved explicitly. no experimental data are required to run the model. 1998. The ﬁrst type is zoned model (Amos. m sÀ 1 intrinsic phase average of air velocity component in the direction of z-axis. m sÀ1 distance from the wall. Xu & Burfoot. The third type is porous-medium model (Tassou & Xiang. W KÀ1 mÀ1 Nud Nusselt number. J kgÀ1 KÀ1 Cdis empirical constant Cp product speciﬁc heat. The increasing capacity and decreasing cost of modern computers have made the application of CFD modelling more eﬃcient and popular.

Such a modelling system can ﬁnd practical applications in evaluating forced-air cooling operations and assessing the cooling performance of alternative packaging designs for a range of horticultural commodities. Xu & Burfoot. 1: • Bulk packages. the domain inside an individual package or stack of packages can be divided into three types of regions as shown in Fig.2. In Part II. 2. thermal and mass dispersion. 1992. then after discussing the general modelling strategies are discussed. existing studies (Tassou & Xiang. General analysis of transport processes Since the air velocity is relatively large during forced-air cooling. it has the temperature approximately equal to that of the air leaving the evaporator of the cooling system. Due to the similar airﬂow conditions inside the package stacks in diﬀerent forced-air cooling systems. airﬂow pressure is approximately equal to the pressure of surrounding environment.1. The volume-averaged approach eliminates the need to generate complicated meshes to describe the geometric details of the packaging systems. 1998. so the airﬂow conditions inside the package stack are very similar. the airﬂow and heat transfer models are presented. and packaging materials. bulk bins and cartons are grouped into pallets or stacks in front of fans or plenum. Analysis of ventilated packaging and forced-air cooling systems 2. Geometric features of ventilated packaging systems For both layered and bulk packaging systems. Modelling strategies 3. cross-stacked patterns may be used as shown in Fig. the computational solution adopted and software developed to integrate the overall modelling system are presented. permeability. airﬂow leaves/enters the vents with an approximately constant ﬂow rate. However. • If airﬂow enters a vent. For most ventilated packaging systems. and therefore avoided dealing with minor details of various cooling systems. • On the stack sides other than the one close to the fans.Q. and thus are not readily applicable to a wide range of packaging systems and horticultural crops. These parameters are found in the expressions for porosity. 3. in which produce items are placed on a stack of trays During forced-air cooling. For secure palletisation. Therefore this study took account of two domains of the packaging systems: individual package and stack of packages. 1999) only dealt with some speciﬁc cooling conditions and bulk containers. the ventilated packages and forced-air cooling systems are analysed.) and the structure of the stack should be considered. and interfacial heat and mass transfer coeﬃcients. • Solid regions (package walls and trays). Watkins. and the model predictions for various packaging systems are compared with the experimental results for model testing. Zou et al. which indicates . and the related airﬂow transport equations were decoupled from the unsteady-state heat transfer equations. 3. The aim of this research program was to develop a CFD modelling system for simulating airﬂow and heat transfer processes. Forchheimer constant. 1. airﬂow transport processes were treated as steady state. the vents on the bottom and top surfaces of packages are either blocked or do not exist when the packages are stacked. the eﬀect of buoyancy forces is considered negligible. Therefore. these ventilated packages can be divided into two main types. the fans are closely positioned in front of one side of the stack. To investigate the performance of a packaging system in terms of produce cooling eﬃciency. and can be approximately described as follows: • On the stack side close to the fans.2. Since certain information with respect to microscopic structure is lost in the spatial averaging process. Therefore the porous medium models usually require less computing capacity than the microscopic models. 2: • Produce-air regions (the void spaces and produce inside bulk packages and the void spaces and produce between trays in layered packages). this study focused on the transport processes taking place inside packaging systems. both the characteristics of individual package (conﬁguration. Forced-air cooling systems In most forced-air cooling systems (Mitchell. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 1039 Macroscopic volume-averaged transport equations are solved to ﬁnd the volume-averaged velocity and temperature. etc. 1989). • Layered packages. the heat transfer was assumed to have no eﬀects on the airﬂow mass and momentum transfer. By neglecting buoyancy forces. in which produce items are held in a bin or carton without any other packaging materials. and therefore to predict airﬂow patterns and temperature proﬁles in ventilated packaging systems during the forced-air cooling of fresh produce. Ventilated packaging systems Based on the way products are packed in the containers. as shown in Fig. a set of empirical parameters is required for the closure of the macroscopic equations. • Plain air regions (the spaces in the vents). vents. In Part I of this paper series. dimensions. 2.1.

Zou et al. saturated porous media with uniform spherical particles. which is considered negligible compared with the heat transfer between airﬂow and products during forced-air cooling. Porous media treatment of produce-air region in bulk packages To avoid dealing with the geometric details inside the packages the porous media approach was adopted. Hence. it was assumed that eﬀects of radiative heat transfer were negligible.1. pressure. no air movement between diﬀerent package layers in a stack. Thus it was assumed that air density. rigid.2. Most fresh products are more or less sphere-shaped. and have relatively uniform sizes. and each package layer in a stack can be modelled independently. 1.5–3. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 Fig. For airﬂow in a vent. . The heat transfer between the package layers is mainly achieved by heat conduction through the package surfaces. speciﬁc heat capacity. the individual produce item would likely receive minimal net radiative heat transfer (Tanner. 1998). Examples of layered and bulk packaging systems. thermal conductivity and viscosity are constant. The dimensions of bulk bins are generally at least one-order larger than the sizes of individual products. As produce items are packaged in boxes or bins. and moisture content will not cause any signiﬁcant changes in most air properties. so one-dimensional airﬂow and heat transfer in the vents were assumed. the dominant direction for air movement and heat transfer is perpendicular to the package wall with the vent. Therefore it was assumed there is no air movement and heat transfer between the package layers. Therefore it was assumed that the produceair regions inside bulk packages are isotropic.0 m/s) in forced-air cooling indicate that the possible changes in air temperature. 3. The range of air velocity (0.1040 Q.

Similarly the heat transfer within the airﬂow in the produce-air region in the vertical direction was assumed to be negligible. Pseudo-porous-media treatment of produce-air region in layered packages The geometry inside a layered package is more complex than that of bulk package. However.2.Q. 3. so it was assumed that the airﬂow in each produce layer between two trays has only horizontal movements. Airﬂow and heat transfer within a produce layer The air movement along the vertical direction within a produce layer is usually negligible when compared with the air movement at horizontal directions. the package interior geometric structure with ﬁve layers of product is transformed into six porous media layers. and the volume-averaged equation for air mass. The distances between two neighbouring trays usually have the same order as the sizes of produce items. it was found that the structure of the produce layer between two trays is very similar to that of a section cut from a packed bed since the trays are designed to tightly ﬁt the shapes of produce. when examining the geometric characteristics of the layered packages carefully. i. if package length and width are at least one-order larger than sizes of individual products. The thickness of a produce layer. . 2. rigid.2. so the strict porous media approach cannot be used. As shown in Fig. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 1041 Fig. 3. In general. the produce-air region inside the layered package is divided into several produce layers by the trays. the distance between two trays. The assumption of porous media is eﬀective for air movement and heat transfer within the air in produce-air region. 3. saturated porous media with uniform spherical particles. Regions in layered and bulk packages for fresh produce. The additional bottom porous layer is used to represent the space between the package bottom wall and the bottom tray. 3. is the same order as the sizes of produce items. as shown in Fig. so in theory the air-produce region in the produce layer cannot be treated as a porous medium.2. A pseudo-porous-media treatment was employed to deal with the geometries of layered packages.3.e. Hence the produce-air regions between trays were treated as isotropic. Zou et al.

However. it was assumed that the air movement between produce layers is only along the direction of the package height. which is the key for accurate prediction of he temperature proﬁles of individual produce items. the produce items in the layered packages are generally not allowed to be in contact with each other so as to reduce the incurrence of produce mechanical damage. 3. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 Fig. 3. and the area in contact with the produce item below) were used. the trays were transferred into ﬂat plates. 3. Airﬂow and heat transfer between produce layers Produce in layers are separated by trays. and the ﬂat plates were irrelevant. and energy conservation can be used. For the heat transfer model. 3. and therefore facilitates the development of a general modelling system suitable for a wide range of packaging designs. As shown in Fig. and only the heat transfer within individual items should be considered. the resistance to airﬂow caused by produce items close to the packaging was estimated by the Darcy and Forchheimer terms in the generalised macroscopic momentum equation for porous media (Section 4). and the air movement between these produce layers is in the gaps between the tray edges and package walls.1042 Q. In Fig. produce types and stacking arrangement inside cool-stores. this treatment can be considered adequate as long as it provides relatively accurate estimation on air distribution. The vertical airﬂow between the product layers is related to the horizontal airﬂow within the produce layers in the following two aspects: • The momentum conservation equations for airﬂow within the product layers share the pressure ﬁeld with the momentum conservation equation for airﬂow between the product layers. Due to the complicated geometry in the near-package-wall regions in the tunnels. This approach enables us to avoid dealing with the situation-speciﬁc and complex geometries inside the packaging systems. • The velocity of the vertical airﬂow on the boundaries of the product layers should satisfy the mass conservation for each product layer. Illustration of the porous media approach for a layered package. The above pseudo-porous-media treatment did not completely satisfy the conditions for classic porous media due to the existence of trays and the comparable dimensions of produce items and packages. momentum. Parts of the near-package-region in the vertical tunnel overlap with the product layers. so it is unnecessary to use the porous media approach for produce energy conservation. the actually tray areas (the area exposed to air. To simplify the treatment of air movement between produce layers. which may cause extra modelling errors. the area in contact with the produce item above. the vertical airﬂow from one product layer to the others was assumed to pass through narrow tunnels with the widths of the gaps between tray edges and package walls. Zou et al. and mainly caused by pressure diﬀerence.4. . However. For the airﬂow model. the ﬂat plates were only used for deﬁning the positions of produce layers.2.

Stewart. For the boundaries between the plain air regions and the produce-air porous regions. i. m sÀ1. Kaviany. 1960):   du d du dp l ð3aÞ qa u À ¼À dx dx dx dx   dv d dv dp l ð3bÞ qa v À ¼À dy dy dy dy where p is air pressure.Q. as airﬂow is perpendicular to the interfaces.1.1. and the heat conduction between trays and produce items in layered packages. assumptions were made as follows: • Airﬂow enters the vents with ﬁxed velocities in the direction perpendicular to the vent if the fans blow air into the packages. and surfaces around the perimeters of vents. 1990.e. v is air velocity component in the direction of y-axis. The boundary conditions for single produce items need to take account of the heat convection between air and the exposed surfaces of produce items.4.2. huia is the intrinsic phase average of air velocity component in the direction of x-axis.1. air in the gaps was treated in the same way as in the vents. Airﬂow model formulation 4. surfaces of trays. 4. 1960): du ¼0 dx dv ¼0 dy ð1aÞ ð1bÞ where u is air velocity component in the direction of x-axis.1. the heat conduction between produce items in bulk packages. m sÀ1. 3. and heat transfer in the gaps is one-dimensional and perpendicular to the trays. 1990. Continuity equation for air mass conservation in the plain air regions The air mass conservation in vents is described by the one-dimensional continuity equation (Bird. Zou et al. it is adequate to maintain the mass. and energy conservation on the boundaries. Equations for describing air momentum conservation in the plain air regions The air momentum conservation in vents is described by one-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations (Bird et al. 4. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 1043 In terms of heat transfer. m sÀ1. m sÀ1.2. 4. Volume-averaged momentum equations for air momentum conservation in the produce-air regions The conservation of air momentum in the produce-air regions is described by the generalised volume-average momentum equation (Hsu & Cheng. 4. The heat transfer between airﬂow and walls was modelled with NewtonÕs cooling law. it was assumed that air pressure is equal to the pressure of the surrounding environment.1. No-slip boundary condition was used for airﬂow transport equations. 1981): Á oÀ Á o oÀ ðqa /huia huia Þ þ qa /hvia huia þ qa /hwia huia ox oy oz       o oh ui a o oh ui a o oh ui a l/ l/ l/ À À À ox oy oz ox oy oz 2 3  1 oð/hpia Þ l/ huia F / qa 2 2 2 2 À ¼À À pﬃﬃﬃﬃ huia þ hvia þ hwia huia ox K K ð4aÞ Á oÀ Á o oÀ q /huia hvia þ q /hvia hvia þ ðqa /hwia hvia Þ ox a oy a oz       o oh v i a o oh v i a o oh v i a l/ l/ l/ À À À ox oy oz ox oy oz 2 3  1 oð/hpia Þ l/ hvia F / qa 2 2 2 2 À ¼À À pﬃﬃﬃﬃ huia þ hvia þ hwia hvia oy K K ð4bÞ . kg mÀ3. hvia is the intrinsic phase average of air velocity component in the direction of y-axis.. Wall boundaries include inner surfaces of package walls.3. qa is the air density. 1995. m sÀ1. l is the air dynamic viscosity. Airﬂow model in bulk packages The mathematical model for airﬂow in bulk packaging systems consists of the equations presented as follows. For the vents on the stack sides other than the one near the auxiliary fans. and the air temperature was assumed to be invariant along the direction normal to the vent if air leaves the vent. N s mÀ2. When considering the heat transfer on a vent boundary a ﬁxed temperature value was assumed if cold air enters the vent. & Lightfoot.5. Analysis of domain boundaries For the vent boundaries on the stack side near the auxiliary fans. momentum. the interfaces between the vents and the regions inside package. Vafai & Tien. N mÀ2. 4. • Airﬂow leaves the vents with ﬁxed velocities in the direction perpendicular to the vent if the fans extract air out of the packages. Kaviany. hwia is the intrinsic phase average of air velocity component in the direction of z-axis. so the gaps are plain air regions. 1995): Á oÀ Á oÀ Á oÀ /huia þ /hvia þ /hwia ¼ 0 ð 2Þ ox oy oz where / is porosity.1. Volume-averaged continuity equation for air mass conservation in the produce-air regions The air mass conservation in the produce-air regions is described by the volume-averaged continuity equation (Hsu & Cheng.

Volume-averaged momentum equations for air momentum conservation in the produce-air regions between trays The volume-averaged equations of motion for airﬂow with only horizontal movements were written as follows (Hsu & Cheng. 1995): o o ð/huia Þ þ ð/hvia Þ ¼ 0 ox oy ð 9Þ 4. Kaviany. Momentum equations for air momentum conservation in the vertical tunnels (airﬂow between produce layers) The momentum conservation equation for one-directional ﬂow was employed. 1990.2. Kaviany.2.1044 Q. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 o o o ðqa /huia hwia Þ þ ðqa /hvia hwia Þ þ ðqa /hwia hwia Þ ox oy oz       o ohwia o oh w i a o ohwia l/ l/ l/ À À À ox oy oz ox oy oz 1 oð/hpia Þ l/2 hwia F /3 qa  2 2 2 À À pﬃﬃﬃﬃ huia þ hvi2 ¼À þ h w i a a hwia oz K K ð4cÞ where K is the permeability.6. Auxiliary algebraic equations for the porosity and permeability in the produce-air regions To account for channelling eﬀects. /1 is the free stream porosity.5.7). hpia is the intrinsic phase average of air pressure. B is empirical constant (=1.8). (6) and (7) were taken for the work by Amiri and Vafai (1994. 1981):   Á o o oÀ ohuia ðqa /huia huia Þ þ qa /hvia huia À l/ ox oy ox ox     o oh ui a o ohuia l/ l/ À À oy oz oy oz 2 1 oð/hpia Þ l/ huia F /3 qa  2 2 À À pﬃﬃﬃﬃ huia þ hvi2 ¼À a h ui a ox K K ð11aÞ o o o ohvia ðq /huia hvia Þ þ ðqa /hvia hvia Þ À l/ ox a oy ox ox     o oh v i a o ohvia l/ l/ À À oy oz oy oz 2 1 oð/hpia Þ l/ hvia F /3 qa  2 2 2 À À pﬃﬃﬃﬃ huia þ hvia hvia ¼À oy K K ð11bÞ 4.2. Vafai & Tien. Volume-averaged continuity equation for air mass conservation in the produce-air regions between trays The two-dimensional volume-averaged continuity equation was employed (Hsu & Cheng. permeability K and Forchheimer coeﬃcient F can be expressed as (Ergun. F is Forchheimer coeﬃcient.1. Momentum equations for air momentum conservation in the plain air regions The air momentum conservation equation in the vents of the layered packages is the same as that of the bulk packaging system (Eq. 1998):   À by / ¼ /1 1 þ ae d eq ð5Þ where / is porosity. 1994. y is the distance from the nearest boundary (m). Zou et al. 4. m sÀ1.4. N mÀ2. 1952): K¼ 3 d2 eq / 2 4. b is empirical constant (=6).2. 1990. 4. Sp is the mean surface area of produce item. m2.3. 1960): dw ¼0 dz ð10Þ where w is the air velocity component in the direction of z-axis. (1)). Continuity equation for air mass conservation in the plain air regions The air mass conservation equation in the plain air regions of a layered packaging system is the same as that of the bulk packaging system (Eq. 4. 4.2. a is the empirical constant (=1. The values of the empirical constants used in Eqs. For packed beds of sphere-like particles.1. . and the Darcy and Forchheimer terms were used to account for the resistance caused by   Að1 À /Þ B F ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ A/ 3 ð6Þ ð7Þ where A is empirical constant (=180). 1995. (3)).2. Continuity equation for air mass conservation in the vertical tunnels (airﬂow between produce layers) The air mass conservation in vertical tunnels is described by the one-dimensional continuity equation (Bird et al. 1998).5.2. Airﬂow model in layered packages The mathematical model for airﬂow in the layered packaging systems consists of the equations presented as follows: 4.. the porosity near a package wall is modelled by an exponential decaying function of the distance to the wall (Amiri & Vafai.2. m3. m2. The equivalent mean diameter of produce items is calculated as: d eq ¼ 6 Vp Sp ð8Þ where Vp is the mean volume of produce item.

. oðqa /C a hT a ia Þ oðqa /huia C a hT a ia Þ þ ot ox oðqa /hvia C a hT a ia Þ oðqa /hwia C a hT a ia Þ þ þ oy ox     o oh T a i a o ohT a ia ð/K a þ K dis Þ ð/K a þ K dis Þ À À ox  ox  oy oy o oh T a i a ð/K a þ K dis Þ À ¼ ht aaP ðT PSur À hT a ia Þ oz oz ð15Þ where hTaia is the intrinsic phase average of air temperature.1. Ka is the air thermal conductivity. Heat transfer model in bulk packages The mathematical model for heat transfer in the bulk packaging systems consists of the equations presented as follows: 5.. speciﬁc surface area is (Dullien. J kgÀ1 KÀ1.1. kg mÀ3. Rp is product respiration heat. TPSur is the produce surface temperature. 1981):       ow o ow o ow o ow À l l l qa w À À oz ox ox oy oy oz oz ¼À 2 op l/gap w F /gap qa À À pﬃﬃﬃﬃ jwjw oz K K ð12Þ 5. 1995). W mÀ2 KÀ1.1. the item on the RHS of the Eq. the porosity at any position on each tray can be calculated accordingly. m. K. K. Tpack is the packaging material temperature. Volume-averaged air energy equation in the produceair regions The volume-averaged energy conservation equation for the ﬂuid phase in porous media was written for air energy conservation. 1979): where /gap is the estimated porosity of the vertical tunnel along package wall. Zou et al.Q. Kdis is the dispersion conductivity. Kp is the product thermal conductivity. (6) and (7)). W mÀ1 KÀ1. Auxiliary algebraic equations For a sphere-packed bed. hTpip is the intrinsic phase average of product temperature. 1995). aap is the speciﬁc interfacial surface area. kg mÀ3. (Vafai & Tien. Cp is the product speciﬁc heat. W KÀ1 mÀ1.     o qp C p ð1 À /ÞhT p ip oh T p i p o ð1 À /ÞK p À ox ot ox     ohT p ip oh T p i p o o ð1 À /ÞK p ð1 À /ÞK p À À oy oz oy oz ð16Þ ¼ Àaap ht ðT PSur À hT a ia Þ þ ð1 À /Þqp Rp where qp is the product density.1. Kpack is the packaging material thermal conductivity. Cpack is packaging material speciﬁc heat capacity.2. K. and the onedimensional air energy equations were written (Bird et al. Heat transfer model formulation 5.1.3.2. . W KÀ1 mÀ1.5.7. 5. mÀ1 (m2 solid–ﬂuid/m3 porous medium). ht is the heat transfer coeﬃcient between air and solid surface. 4. 5. W kgÀ1. Air energy conservation equation in vents Air was treated as an incompressible ﬂuid. Ta is the air temperature.. K. K. the ﬁrst item on the RHS of Eq.6. (15) represents heat exchange between produce and air (Hsu & Cheng. 5. 1990.1. Kaviany. Auxiliary algebraic equations for calculating porosity and permeability in the air-product regions As the number and position of produce items on each tray is pre-deﬁned for a layered package. (14) represents heat exchange between produce and air (Hsu & Cheng. s. 5. 1990. J kgÀ1 KÀ1. 5. Kaviany.4. 1960):   oðqpack C pack T pack Þ o oT pack K pack À ox ot ox     o oT pack o oT pack K pack K pack À À oy oz oy oz ¼0 ð14Þ where qpack is packaging material density.1. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 1045 produce items next to the package walls. The permeability K and Forcheimer coeﬃcient F are calculate with the same equations as for the bulk packages (Eqs. Energy conservation equation in single produce items The energy conservation equation for a spherical solid was written for energy conservation of single produce items (Bird et al. Volume-averaged product energy equation in the produce-air regions The volume-averaged energy conservation equation for the solid phase in porous media was written for produce energy conservation. Energy conservation equation in the solid regions The energy equation for package walls was written (Bird et al. 1960):   oðqp C p T P Þ 1 o 2 oT p K pr À 2 ð17Þ ¼ qp R p r or ot or where r = spatial variable along sphere radius. Ca is the air speciﬁc heat at constant pressure. 1960):   oðqa C a T a Þ oðqa uC a T a Þ o oT a þ À Ka ¼0 ð13aÞ ot ox ox ox   oðqa C a T a Þ oðqa vC a T a Þ o oT a þ À Ka ¼0 ð13bÞ ot oy oy oy where t is time.1. W KÀ1 mÀ1. J kgÀ1 KÀ1.

The values of constant c and d are associated with speciﬁc crops. 5.2.1046 Q. For the gaps between tray edges and package walls. 1993): / Nud 2:876 0:3023 Pr0:66 ¼ þ :35 Red Red Pr Re0 d ht d eq Nud ¼ Ka  1 2 2 2 2 /q huia þ hvia þ hwia d eq Red ¼ l Cal Pr ¼ Ka ð19Þ ð20Þ 5. 5.2. Kaviany.3. Solid energy conservation equation in single items of produce The energy conservation of single items of produce in the layered packaging system is the same as that of the bulk packaging system (Eq. The outer surface boundary conditions for the energy equation of single produce item takes account of heat convection between air and exposed produce surface.5.2. 1998): Rp ¼ cðT p À 255:35Þ d 5. The dispersion conductivity is a tensor that is a function of Peclet number based on the superﬁcial velocity in the main ﬂow direction (Kaviany. the tensor is simpliﬁed as a scalar. Red is Reynolds number.2. d is constant.2. and heat conduction between the produce item and trays. . and assumed to be a linear function of the Peclet number based on the local superﬁcial velocity: K dis ¼ C dis Ped K a ð23Þ  1 2 2 2 2 C a qa / huia þ hvia þ hwia d eq Ped ¼ ð24Þ Ka where Ped is Peclet number based on particle dimension.2. 1990. energy conservation equation along z-axis was written:   oðqa C a T a Þ oðqa wC a T a Þ o oT a þ À Ka ¼0 ot oz oz oz ð27Þ ð21Þ ð22Þ where Nud is Nusselt number. which includes the heat convection between air and exposed produce surface.2).2. and were summarised by Tanner (1998). W mÀ3. (13)). 1995. Solid energy conservation equation in package walls and trays The energy conservation equation in solid regions of the layered packaging system is the same as that of the bulk packaging system (Eq. (16)).4. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 aap ¼ 6ð1 À /Þ d eq ð18Þ The heat transfer coeﬃcient between air and the surfaces of produce items was calculated with the following relations (Geankoplis. 1982). Heat transfer model in the layered packages The mathematical model for heat transfer in the layered packaging systems consists of the equations presented as follows: where qtray-PSur = conduction heat ﬂux from trays to the outer surface of produce item per unit produce volume. Air energy equation in vents or gaps between tray edges and package walls The energy conservation equation in vents of the layered packaging system is the same as that of the bulk packaging system (Equation 5. Auxiliary algebraic equations All auxiliary equations in heat transfer model for the bulk packaging systems were the same as for the layered packaging systems apart from the outer surface boundary condition for the energy equation of single produce item. Cdis is the empirical constant (\$0. The heat conduction between the produce item and trays is related to the contact areas between produce item and trays: qPSur ¼ qtray-PSur À ap-exposed ht ðT PSur À hT a ia Þ ð29Þ ð25Þ where c is constant.1). Since the main ﬂow direction is diﬃcult to deﬁne.1. 1995): oðqa /C a hT a ia Þ oðqa /huia C a hT a ia Þ oðqa /hvia C a hT a ia Þ þ þ ot ox oy     o oh T a i a o ohT a ia ð/K a þ K dis Þ ð/K a þ K dis Þ À À ox oy ox oy   o oh T a i a ð/K a þ K dis Þ À ¼ ht ap -exposed ðT PSur À hT a ia Þ oz oz ð28Þ where ap-exposed is exposed-to-air produce surface area per unit volume of air-produce region (mÀ1). Zou et al. 5. Pr is Prandtl number. Product respiration heat was calculated as follows (Tanner. Wakao & Kaguei. W mÀ3. 5. Volume-averaged air energy equation in the produceair regions The volume-averaged energy conservation equation for the ﬂuid phase in porous media was written for the energy conservation of airﬂow with horizontal movements (Hsu & Cheng. and heat conduction between the produce items:     ohT p ip oh T p i p o o qPSur ¼ ð1 À /ÞK p ð1 À /ÞK p þ ox oy ox oy   o h T i o p p ð1 À /ÞK p þ À aap ht ðT PSur À hT a ia Þ oz oz ð26Þ where qPSur is the heat ﬂux entering the outer surface of produce item per unit produce volume.

Z. Wakao.. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publisher. Wang. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. (1990). & Burfoot. 48. D. N. Massey University. Distributed dynamic modelling of a refrigerated room. Heat and mass transfer in packed beds. B. Transport processes and unit operations (3rd ed. Vafai. (1981). L. (1998). Journal of Food Engineering. & Tien. 195–203. the solution methods for airﬂow and heat transfer models will be discussed. & Cheng. Amos.Q. Transport phenomena.. Transient analysis of incompressible ﬂow through a packed bed. F..). 41. A. (1998). Boundary and inertia eﬀects on ﬂow and heat transfer in porous media.). B. Zou. W. Master thesis. S. Brisbane. D. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Palmerston North.). J. New York: Academic Press. 214–222. 33. Opara. Forced-air cooling (2nd ed. Principle of heat transport in porous media (2nd ed.. Porous media: Fluid transport and pore structure. New York: Wiley. (1995). & Lightfoot. C. 4259–4279. and therefore facilitates the development of a general modelling system suitable for a wide range of packaging designs. 38. 89–94. Massey University. A. J. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 1037–1047 1047 6. International Journal of Refrigeration. K. References Amiri. N. The produce-air regions inside the bulk packages or between trays in the layered packages were treated as porous media. Mathematical modelling for design of horticultural packaging. H. K. Mitchell. Mathematical modelling of heat transfer and water vapour transport in apple coolstore. Conclusions Airﬂow and heat transfer models in bulk and layered packaging systems have been developed based on a porous media approach. D. Q. (1960). C. A. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.). variable porosity incompressible ﬂow through porous media... Chemical Engineering Progresses. non-Darcian. 13. (1993). Fluid ﬂow through packed columns. Acknowledgement The authors gratefully acknowledge the ﬁnancial support of Mr Collis Blake for a Research Award to Dr Linus U. K. & Vafai. in which volume-averaged transport equations were employed. produce types and stacking arrangement inside cool-stores. This approach avoids dealing with the situation-speciﬁc and complex geometries inside the packaging systems. S. New Zealand. Palmerston North. (1989).. and Massey University. Zou et al. 39. (1990). A. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Tassou. Xu. Palmerston North. Simulating the bulk storage of foodstuﬀs. PhD thesis. In A. Bird.. R. J. CA: University of California. Watkins. C. S. . Geankoplis. 1585–1597. (1998). Dullien. Davis. 24. Kaviany. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Journal of Food Science. Ergun. M. New Zealand. (1999). Analysis of dispersion eﬀects and nonthermal equilibrium. & Xiang. (1979). Amiri. 939–954. (1982). Thermal dispersion in a porous medium. Tanner. (1992). In Part 2. & Kaguei.. F. Y. New Zealand. & Vafai.. (1994). Massey University. (1952). W. Modelling the environment within a wet air-cooled vegetable store. and produce-air regions. P. (1995). and model simulation results for several package systems will be presented and compared with the experimental data. L. New York: Springer. 23–29. PhD Thesis. T. Kader (Ed. Hsu. A. for a postgraduate research award to Dr Qian Zou. The areas inside the packaging systems were categorised as solid. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 37. Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. Cooling horticultural commodities. plain air. G. Stewart. New Zealand. Z. N. & Touber. CFD modelling of airﬂow and heat transfer in a ventilated carton. S. (1998). 169–187.