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475 . To cynically condemn the same for lack of conclusive data would be to put oneself in a cycle of constant disbelief and denial. This is followed by the computational fluid dynamics analysis results which point to positive possibility. Cooling. The phenomenon of flow separation occurs because of the inability of the flow to INTRODUCTION The technique to achieve short distance take-off is in a very nascent phase. The major methods currently implemented have been enumerated in this paper along with their pertinent disadvantages. The new method proposed in this paper is better classified as a hypothesis since it is not found in established literature. By virtue of this energizing flow separation is delayed in turbulent flows compared to laminar flows.Innovative Short-Distance Take-Off Methodology for Fighter Aircrafts A. resulting in moving back of the flow-separation point. it doesn’t solve the problem on a general basis. And in case of turbulent flows the skin friction drag is high due to irregular fluid motion. This paper tries to address this concern by suggesting an innovative solution which can be deployed on any type of fighter aircraft without making any permanent modifications in its design. higher energy fluid elements are pumped in to the boundary layer due to which the flow velocity near the solid surface is larger for a turbulent flow in comparison to a laminar flow. In case of laminar flows the streamlines are smooth and regular. Thus it is clear that flow separation depends upon Reynolds number since it is the deciding factor for the flow to be turbulent. And finally a very roughly conceived idea of integrating this method to actual flight hardware is also suggested. Hence the skin friction drag is less .But laminar flows are more prone to early flow separation resulting in high pressure drag. Aircraft take-off This may be useful to future works in reducing the burden of undergoing this daunting exercise. Since there is no literature available on this methodology only computational fluid dynamics tools could be used to prove its validity. CFD. The extension of this theoretical idea is made into a preliminarily conceived setup for future experimental studies which would give the hypothesis a more firm stance. Also this paper tries to put forth a very preliminary implementation suggestion for the actual flight tests of the same. It is to be kept in mind that this being a very unexplored territory is to be approached with utmost positivism and the proper scientific temperament required to appreciate an innovative method. Efforts have been made to suggest various references which have been explored during the course of literature survey done in order to find relevant data or information. Hence the pressure drag is less. But due to this agitated motion. THEORITICAL BASIS Viscous flow is characterized by the presence of shear forces which exist due to the velocity gradients. The boundary layer can be either turbulent or laminar depending on the Reynolds number. The hypothesis is explained in a very simplistic fashion rather than taking an academically specialized approach in order to put forth the idea in a simple and easily conveyable structure. The concept used here to tackle the problem is by delaying the flow separation at high angle of attack which will result in higher lift generation over a shorter runway length. A noble flow control strategy is postulated which involves cooling the airflow near the airfoil. The analysis of viscous flow is greatly simplified due to the boundary layer theory. In this regard and expectations of future work being carried on the same certain recommendations are made as in where the author feels that he has delivered scarcely. computational fluid dynamics analysis has been resorted to as a starting point.Short distance take-off by fighter jets from fighter vessels deployed in the seas is becoming a very crucial need for augmenting the naval security of our waters. Therefore it is felt essential to investigate into this innovative methodology of augmenting the lift by controlling the airfoil temperature. ultimately hindering the spirit of innovative engineering. Though these problems have been addressed by employing catapult mechanisms and even in certain cases by developing aircraft with vertical take-off ability. After undergoing a through literature survey it is found that the presently implemented methodologies pertain only to the mechanical aspect of short distance take-off and not enquire into the basic flow characteristics which can be modified to achieve the same. The validation of the concept in question here had been studied by computational fluid dynamics results and the phenomenon of delay in the separation point was observed. But to restrict the study to existing methodologies is to handicap one-self from the potential gains which could be achieved with the proposed method. Since this is a very unexplored territory various possibilities and suggestions for future study on the same are also proposed Keywords: Flow separation. Thiruvananthapuram john1989iist@gmail. To overcome the inability of stating credible data from previous studies which is unfortunately not available on this method. The velocity outside the boundary layer is same as that of the free stream velocity and inside the boundary layer the velocity builds up from zero at the solid surface(due to no slip condition) to the free stream velocity value at the boundary layer. John Vivian Prashant Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre.com ARMS2012-MSM-24 Abstract .

The existing methods to delay flow separation are – 1) Introducing perturbations causing mechanisms to make the flow turbulent. All these effects result in delaying the flow separation.225kg/m3. 3) Leading edge rotating devices used on airfoils to energize the boundary layer. K-epsilon viscous model was chosen. HYPOTHESIS Observing closely the factors affecting flow separation it can be pointed out that temperature plays a crucial role in affecting flow separation.325KPa. GRID TEMPERATURE=300K TEMPERATURE=50K 476 . 4) Injecting high velocity jets to force the flow to remain attached on the surface. Thus it could be summarized that flow separation depends on the following parameters1) Reynolds NumberA high Reynolds number ensuring turbulent flow which would delay the flow separation.Density=1. Number of grids=28. the viscous coefficient decrease due to which the Reynolds number increases. R Reynolds Number IJ Shear Stress µ Viscous Coefficient Velocity gradient in normal to flow direction P Pressure ȡ Density r Characteristic gas constant T Temperature V Velocity L Characteristic length µ=C* T1/2 (2) (3) (4) On reducing temperature (cooling). To begin with a simulation on Fluent has been performed and the results are presented. Flow velocity=60m/s. It is in these same lines that some the existing flow control methodologies have been conceived.possess enough momentum to overcome the shear force and the adverse pressure gradients [1]-[6]. the Shear stress and the Pressure decrease. 2) Shear ForceThe lesser the shear force more would be the delay in flow separation. This is very evident from the theoretical & empirical relations. (1) µ* P= ȡ*r*T Where. 2) Employing suction devices reduce the adverse pressure gradients.Pressure=101.800.2m. 3) Adverse pressure gradientThe lesser the adverse pressure gradient more would be the delay in flow separation Based on understanding of the stated parameters affecting flow separation it is can be effortlessly concluded that by manipulating these factors it is possible to alter the flow separation. SIMULATION RESULT The main emphasis would be to identify the appropriate numerical scheme which would capture the effects properly. Diameter of cylinder=0.

Smoke visualization technique could be appropriate for this purpose.[3]. experiments could be done on circular cylinders because it would be easy to understand the phenomenon. we could reduce the temperature from ambient conditions to 70K in step size of 25 keeping all other flow parameters constant. 2)Vertical The high temperature flames could burn the Take-Off deck. This would let us achieve uniform cooling over the cylinder and airfoil test models kept inside the subsonic wind tunnel.This would let us have some helpful guidelines from the existing data regarding the flow regimes and heat transfer studies. Therefore there is no extra weight on the aircraft while in cruise. they remain a Devices permanent part of the aircraft even after the take-off and act almost like a dead weight because it is not used much in the cruise phase. In case of both cylinders and airfoils. In the proposed method vacuum storage tanks containing liquid nitrogen can be fitted on the aircrafts by a deployable mechanism. the tanks can be dropped into the sea after take-off. existing research papers provide a great deal of understanding about “flow over cylinders” . The delay in flow separation could be measured in terms of the angle at which the flow separates from the cylinder. And in order to do this the angle of attack has to be increased to high values which lead to stalling instead of increasing the lift. Some methods presently employed to achieve short distance take-off from ships and their disadvantages are presented [1].The effect of cooling on the delay of flow separation is clearly visible from the above presented simulation results. The testing is to be done in 2 phases using subsonic wind tunnels. Therefore it becomes very essential to generate high lift at low velocities. SUGGESTED EXPERIMENTS & IMPLEMENTATION IN FUTURE STUDIES To test the effect of cooling on flow separation both simulations and experiments could be performed. The separation delay data can then be noted down for various Reynolds number to study the behavior in case of laminar and turbulent flows. METHOD DISADVANTAGE 1)Catapult These are very unreliable and have caused Mechanism lot of accidents in the past. The angle of attacks beyond the normal stalling angle could be tested for delay in flow separation. In case of the circular cylinder test model. Temperatures as low as 70K could be achieved with this setup. 3)Suction Although these are efficient.Schematic Of The Proposed Experimental Setup 477 . An inherent advantage of such a method would be that. But simultaneously there is a necessity to address the concern that. The theoretical & simulation results would have to be compared and reasoned for discrepancies if any do show up. A similar exercise could be repeated in case of the aerofoil test model (NACA0012) along with variation in angle of attack. Also it adds weight to the aircraft. hollow structures would have to be used. Firstly. Also this seems to be a very simple alternative in comparison to the above listed existing methods. After a thorough understanding and interpretation of results. The tank would then be connected to a dispensing mechanism so as to be able to cool a strip of the airfoil during take-off. A thorough analysis of the data would have to be done to really identify the conditions where cooling becomes really advantageous. COMPARISON OF THE PRESENT METHOD OVER THE CONTEPORARY METHODS A major challenge faced by fighter planes operating from ships is the take-off and landing routines. Fig1. Also. In general the commonly used present day fighter aircrafts require a runway length of 350m but even the very large classes of Nimitz vessels provide a 200-250m runway length. the aerofoil material should be checked for effect of such low temperatures and some kind of protective coating must be employed. The structure would then be connected to vacuum storage tanks containing liquid nitrogen.[2]. experiments could be done on airfoils.

(Eds. 5.W.A..com) 1. R.A.). Sewartson. 3. 2.Schematic Of A Hornet Fighter Integrated With The Proposed Mechanism (Picture taken from defencegalleries. A. K.: Boundary layer theory. 206-224 (1958). Soc.Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar Flow Control.Y.13. 1-22 (1973). H.. The steady compressible laminar boundary layer. Proc.: On slot injection into a supersonic laminar boundary layer. 6.Fig2. Hussaini. Curie.J.I. Sot. F.Springer-Verlag. 616-622 (1975). Barnwell. A332. N. T. Review of theoretical investigation oneffect of heat transfer on laminar separation. 1377-1385 (1965). London Ser. and M. New York: McGrawHill 1979 478 . REFERENCES Inger. with arbitrary pressure gradient and uniform wall temperature. G. Proc. Morduchow. R. Smith. 1992. 4. R. Schlichting. T. Roy. Swean. New York. AIAA JI3(8). A249. M. E: Vectored injection into laminar boundary layers with heat transfer.