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ABSTRACT
The design and implementation of air-bearings has to be dealt with approximations and empirical relations due to complexity of flow physics involved. For preliminary
design purposes simulation results from the
computational fluid dynamics software’s have been used.
The 3-D segmented configuration with reservoir has
been identified as the efficient simulation technique for
such geometries after many trials with various schemes
to capture the flow phenomenon in the most efficient
manner. The manufacturing drawings are also provided.
After preparing the actual model, parametric studies
have been performed to evaluate the effect of various
design parameters on the static and dynamic
performances of air-bearing platform and have been
explained through graphs. Also through a method of
trial and error an efficient configuration has been
deduced which consists of a slot at the bottom surface of
the Air-bearing. With this configuration it has been
observed that the bearing provides the highest load
capacity and produces the minimum amount of vibration
noise due to the air flow. Then finally, four air-bearings
have been put together on a platform and integrated
which can be used for real time load transport purposes
with a capacity of 250 kilograms. Detailed design and
manufacturing details are provided for re-creation of the
air-bearings and related experiments.

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com Volume 4, Issue 6 (October 2012), PP. 54-61

The Numerical Simulation of a Staged Transverse Injection behind a Rearward Facing Step into a Mach 2 Stream in a Confined Environment

1

1,2

John Vivian Prashant and 2Kuldeep Sharma

Bachelor of Technology Students, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Space Science & Technology,Valiyamala,Trivandrum,Kerala,India,695547 .

Abstract: The primary aim of this work was to carry out the numerical simulation of a staged transverse

injection behind a rearward facing step into a Mach 2 stream in a confined environment. This problem has been investigated experimentally by McDaniel et al. And the same conditions have been recreated for the numerical simulation. An extensive and in-depth comparison of the numerical predictions with the experimental results has been presented through plots of various flow parameters at different locations in the test section. The numerical results show an excellent agreement with the experimental results. Deviations from the experimental results are also observed in some scenarios due to the inability of the numerical schemes to capture the effects of shocks and expansion fans. Efforts to study the nature and cause of these deviations have also been made. This particular cold flow mixing problem has been completely analysed and has been solved numerically using k-omega (SST) and realizable k-epsilon viscous models. The flow parameters have been analysed and plotted for both with and without injection cases. The mixing has been performed using both with and without species utility of the software. The main focus of this work is to try to understand the mixing of the fuel and air in the combustion chamber. Good mixing is the most important prerequisite for good combustion. The central focus has been laid on trying to understand the staged transverse injection technique of mixing. Keywords--- Supersonic mixing, Scramjet, Transverse Injection, Numerical Simulation I. INTRODUCTION Basically a scramjet is a variant of a ramjet engine in which the combustion process takes place in supersonic airflow. This allows the scramjet to efficiently operate at extremely high speeds.

Fig.1: General Components of a Scramjet engine (Picture taken from NASA website on 20 sep 2010) Hypersonic flight within the atmosphere generates enormous drag and high temperature. Within the engine the temperature can be nearly six-times greater than that of the surrounding air. Maintaining combustion in the supersonic flow presents many challenges such as injection, mixing, ignition, and burning within very short duration of time. Mixing, Ignition and flame holding in a scramjet combustor are the major challenges in a scramjet operation. At high speeds when air enters in the combustion chamber its temperature increases due to shock interactions. And if the flow becomes subsonic the temperature increases to an extent that it causes dissociation of air molecules which is an endothermic reaction. This leads to inefficient heat addition. Due to this enough transitional kinetic energy isn’t imparted to the molecules and the thrust decreases. This is the reason to adopt supersonic free stream in the combustion chamber of scramjets. Recirculation regions are used for flame holding because of subsonic Mach numbers in these regions. Supersonic combustion involves turbulent mixing, shock interaction and heat release in supersonic flow. The flow field within the combustor of

54

DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENT Flow field description of the experiment conducted by James C.2 kg/s 1. TABLE 1 FLOW PARAMETERS PARAMETER TUNNEL INJECTOR Po 274 KPa 263 KPa To 300 K 300 K M 2 (test section inlet) 1 (exit) Pinf 35 KPa (free stream) 139 (exit) Tinf 167 K (free stream) 250 (exit) Uinf 518 m/s (free stream) 317 m/s (exit) Mass Flow Rate 0.The Numerical Simulation of a Staged Transverse Injection behind a Rearward Facing Step into a scramjet engine is very complex and causes a lot of difficulties in the design and development of a supersonic combustor with an optimized geometry. Hartfield and Steven D. The advantage of mathematical model is that once it is validated it can be used to conduct several numerical experiments with various modifications of flow parameters. Transverse Injection: The fuel is injected perpendicular to the flow direction. Efficient combustors should promote sufficient mixing of the fuel and air so that the desired chemical reactions can take place [1]. the quality of air is difficult to simulate in the test facilities.64 g/s The same conditions have been recreated for numerical analysis on FLUENT. Hollo is as follows: The air supply for the wind tunnel used for the non-reacting measurements in this experiment consisted of a centrifugal air compressor (0. they are much less expensive compared to experiments. The penetration of the fuel into the flow decides the extent of mixing.6 cubic meters of high pressure (2. Nominal tunnel stagnation conditions were 300 K and 274 kPa [2]. Fletcher. Ground tests alone cannot give data with sufficient accuracy for design of hypersonic systems. II. Fig. This is the current day approach to find solutions to the problems of high-speed flight. Numerical computation involves evolving algorithms to solve the Navier Strokes equations or their variants such that sharp gradient regions near the shocks are captured with numerical diffusion or overshoot. Fig. This can be accomplished only through the use of mathematical modelling of the flow.07 MPa) storage volume. The prediction of wall heat transfer rate. which is to be solved to first reproduce the result of the ground test and then used for predicting the flight conditions. 3: Schematic diagram of the experimental setup 55 . The air was filtered and dried to a nominal dew point of -56 C. Roy J. Also. bow shocks are produced which hinder the mixing. Douglas G. Mixing is more when the penetration is higher. But due to the obstruction of the flow by the injectant. Also. McDaniel.The 2 basic approaches for verification of scramjet design are Ground test facilities and Numerical simulations. Due to the complex nature of the problems component level testing will not be able to simulate accurately the complex flow field. Therefore there is a need to estimate the flight performance based on the results of ground tests.75kg/sec maximum output) and 56.[2]. 2: Transverse Injection III.

5: Grid Independence SOLV ER TABLE 2 Details & Default Model Constants of Fluent Analysis Conditions Density based.Beta_i(Inner)=0.Prandtl Number=0. COMPUTATIONAL DETAILS The grid independence test has been performed confirming convergence of the numerical result using three different grids of 212250 cells.25.622.Cw3=2.52 .Cw2=0.Beta_i(Outer)=0. Mto=0.TDR Prandtl Number=1. Schmidt Number=0. V. It is useful for free-shear layer flows with relatively small pressure gradients and for internal flows. TURBULENCE MODELLING Turbulent Flows are characterized by a fluctuating velocity field (in both position and time).Turb. Fig. TKE Prandtl Number=1.082. Schmidt Number=0.1. 4: Mesh structure for 383832 cells Test Fig. 383832 cells and 533700 cells. C2-Epsilon=1. a1=0. Explicit.Zeta*=1.The Numerical Simulation of a Staged Transverse Injection behind a Rearward Facing Step into a IV.Turb.85. SDR (Inner)Prandtl#=2.The velocity field is random.Beta*_inf=0. Velocity formulation (absolute). Gradient option (Green Gauss cell based).Wall Prandtl Number=0.85. The SST k-ω model can be used as a Low-Re turbulence model without any extra damping functions.176.09 .Alpha_inf=0.85.31. Steady.Wall Prandtl Number=0. Cb2=0.R_beta=8. 3D. Near wall treatment= Standard wall functions Cb1=0.075.TKE (Inner)Prandtl#=1.667.Cv1=7.The grids are fine near the wall and backward facing step region and relatively coarse in the outward region.5. K-Epsilon Model It is a two equation model containing two extra transport equations to represent the turbulent properties of the flow. SST K-Omega Model The SST k-ω turbulence model is a two-equation eddy-viscosity model.2.9. Porous formulation (Superficial velocity) Alpha*_inf=1.TKE (Outer)Prandtl=1.Energy Prandtl Number=0.85.7.7 VISCOUS MODELS OPERATING CONDITIONS SPALARTALLMARAS (1 EQN) REALIZAB SST KLE OMEGA KEPSILON (2 EQN) Operating pressure (Pascal) =0 INJECTIO N HOLE BOUNDA RY CONDITI ONS Gauge total pressure=263000 Pa Supersonic/initial gauge pressure=139000 Pa 56 .1355. Energy Prandtl Number=0.3.

K-omega model resolves viscous sub layer without any significant error. Effects of expansion fans & reattachment shocks can be clearly seen on these parameters from these plots.In figure 12 & 13 expansion fan. pressure decreases because of expansion fan encountered. K-epsilon model doesn’t give very good results near the wall even after using the wall function (standard wall function). The deviation from experimental results is due to the limitations of the viscous model to exactly model the real problem and errors involved in computation. It has been observed that computational results are well matching with experimental results and error is within 10%. reattachment shock and barrel shock regions can be seen clearly. So due to eddies two equation models are not able to capture exact phenomenon and that’s why experimental and computational results are not same. Spalart-Allmaras & SST k-omega was used to solve without injection case and SST k-omega & Realizable k-epsilon were used for with injection case. Similar phenomenon is observed in Figure 22.83 lakh cells. and w'. This is because SST (shear stress transport) k-omega model is capable of capturing the physical phenomenon near the wall which is because of shear stress. so as X/D increases air is mixed with free stream and more penetration takes place. 17 &18 represent shocks. Figure 15 shows the mole fraction spread of the injectant (air). velocity profile.05 shows the effect of recirculation region. and Mole fraction of injectant were plotted at different X/D (axial) locations. 10. So results were plotted for 3. As Y/D increase from 0 to 2. Results obtained from computational analysis were compared with experimental results taken from the paper by McDaniel et al. T/Tinf.First of all a grid independence study was carried out using SST k-omega viscous model and it was found that results become independent of grid size after around 3. 11 we can clearly see that as X/D increases penetration of injectant (air) into the free stream increases because air is injected into the free stream near X/D=0 . Simulations results for without injection and with injection cases were compared with results taken from experiments conducted by McDaniel et al. As y/D increases from 2 to 5 pressure starts to increase because of reattachment shocks and after that pressure becomes equal to free stream pressure. Here we have used 2 equation models (SST k-omega & k-epsilon) for turbulence modelling.83 lakh cells. 7. v'. Comparison of SST k-omega and Spalart-Allmaras is shown in Fig19 and it can be clearly seen that both models give very good prediction of actual problem. The large eddies are in a state of steady anisotropy. A major assumption of almost all two-equation models is that the turbulent fluctuations. Figure 23-25 show the variation of mole fraction of injectant at different X/D locations. RESULTS Flow field was simulated using FLUENT for both with and without injection cases and different parameters like P/Pinf. Figure 21 shows pressure and temperature variation along transverse direction at X/D=0 for without injection case. So we can use any one of the models for this problem. are locally isotropic or equal. Fig26 shows a comparison between SST k-omega and Realizable k-epsilon and it can be clearly seen that k-omega gives better results near the wall. Figure 14 shows the velocity profile in test section and recirculation region near the step can be seen clearly. Figure 27-30 show the P/Pinf . In a similar way Fig16. 9. From these figures we can see that computational results (left part of figure) are matching with experimental results (right part of the figure). Different viscous models were used to solve the problem. CONCLUSION 57 . These plots and contours are given in appendix. The temperature decreases and the pressure almost remains constant near the wall. It was found that computation results were closer to the LIIF VI. So to capture the phenomenon in viscous sub layer we have to use a more powerful wall function along with the k-epsilon model. From Figure 6. This is true for the smaller eddies at high Reynolds numbers. in test section without injection. Figure 20 P/Pinf & T/Tinf at X/D=-2. But here in this flow situation Mach number is pretty high so eddies are generated. T/Tinf at various X/D locations. It’s evident from the contour plot that eventually as X/D increases mixing of free stream and injectant (air) takes place. 8. u'. U/Uinf. recirculation region etc. Same trend is observed for temperature also. Commercially available software’s Gambit and Fluent were used to carry out meshing and simulation of the flow over a rearward facing step .The Numerical Simulation of a Staged Transverse Injection behind a Rearward Facing Step into a INFLOW Gauge total pressure=274000 Pa Supersonic/initial gauge pressure=35000 Pa OUTLET Gauge pressure=35000 Pa V. This happens due to vortex creation which lifts the plume from surface to core and hence plume spreads.Also simulations were carried out along with staged transverse injections.

.C. Kumar . 719-729. This happens because of the reason that numerical scheme tries to build a mathematical model of the real problem. The optimal gridding and selection of the relevant mathematical models is very necessary for achieving clear and accurate results. A. Aeronautical Journal. The FLUENT software was efficient in capturing the overall essence of the problem taken up. D. and Hollo. APPENDIX 1) Contour plots for cross-flow injectant mole fraction distribution Fig6:-X/D=-3 Fig7:-X/D=0 Fig8:-X/D=3 X/D=9 Fig9:- 58 .1991. But proper evaluation of the software’s capacity to predict correct results should be done.2003. Mcdaniel.Numerical investigation of staged transverse sonic injection in Mach 2 stream in confined environment.The Numerical Simulation of a Staged Transverse Injection behind a Rearward Facing Step into a results than PLIIF. Some deviations were noticed in computation and experimental results due to the inability of the numerical scheme to simulate the real flow. FletcheR. P Roychowdhury. V. R. It is also very important to select the correct mathematical models on the numerical solvers to ensure accurate results. Hartfield.AIAA paper No 91-5071. which is never exactly same as of the real problem. J. Ashok and P.. Numerical methods provide more freedom and agility to carry out hypersonic tests at an affordable price. The staged transverse injection gives good mixing but still more modifications could be made to enhance mixing further. Staged transverse injection into Mach 2 flow behind rearward facing step: a 3D compressible test case for hypersonic combustor code validation. S. References [1] [2] [3] D Chakraborty.107(1078).

The Numerical Simulation of a Staged Transverse Injection behind a Rearward Facing Step into a Fig10:-X/D=18 2) CONTOURS Fig11:-X/D=30 Fig12 :.Velocity vector plot (with injection) injection) Fig15 :.Mole fraction of air(with Fig16 :.P/P0 (with injection) injection) Fig13 :.T/T0 (with Fig14:.P/P0 (without injection) (without injection) Fig17 :.T/T0 59 .

The Numerical Simulation of a Staged Transverse Injection behind a Rearward Facing Step into a Fig18:-Velocity vector plot (without injection) 3)X-Y Plot Fig19:-Comparison between Spalart-Allmaras pressure variation in (without injection) Fig20:-Temperature and & SST K-omega schemes transverse direction at X/D=-2.Temperature and pressure variation along pressure variation along transverse direction at X/D=0(without injection) transverse direction at X/D=6.05(without injection) Fig21:.05 (without injection) Fig22:.Temperature and Fig23:.Variation of mole fraction of injectant fraction of injectant X/D=0(With injection) Fig24:.Variation of mole in transverse direction at in transverse direction at X/D=3(With injection) 60 .

6(with injection) Fig30:-Temperature 61 .Pressure variation along transverse and pressure variation direction at X/D=0(with injection) transverse direction at X/D=3(with injection) Fig28:.6(with injection) direction at X/D=6.Comparison Fig27:.Temperature Fig29:-Pressure variation along transverse direction variation along transverse at X/D=6.6(With injection) Realizable k-epsilon(With injection) Fig 26 :.Variation of mole fraction of injectant btw SST k-omega and in transverse direction at X/D=6.The Numerical Simulation of a Staged Transverse Injection behind a Rearward Facing Step into a Fig25 :.

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