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Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran
Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon1, Chomdao Sikkhamondhol2 and Chawladda Tiangpook2

Reungmaneepaitoon, S., Sikkhamondhol, C. and Tiangpook, C.

Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran
Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(Suppl. 1) : 89-97
Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC): OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w). The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, βglucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05). Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept1

M.Sc.(Food Technology), 2M.Sc.(Product Development), Researcher, Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10903, Thailand Corresponding e-mail: Received, 2 December 2004 Accepted, 28 November 2005

or by addition of meat or egg and vegetables or soluble fiber. which met the FDA approved health claim which requires 0. OBC also brings several processing and texture benefits. Materials and Methods Raw materials Wheat flour was purchased from Siam Flour Mills Ltd. By using 10-15% OBC in the formulation. and nutrition and energy bars.5 g/serving. Finland.S. (1995) found that diets containing soluble oat extracts improved the glucose an insulin responses of moderately hypercholesterolemic men and women. 2000) . Oat β-glucan biological activity was also demonstrated in hamsters (Yokoyama et al. β-glucan.Songklanakarin J. The U. and . called groats. up to 25%. Marketing strategies used by the manufacturers to promote their products include 1) more choices of flavors. Thus. contain 15% β-glucan. FDA has allowed a health claim for soluble oat β-glucan when consumed at a level of 3 g/d (FDA. 1997a. instant fried noodle having its wheat partially replaced with 10-15% OBC contained β-glucan in the range of 0. about half which is soluble fiber. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran concentrate as a substitute for wheat flour to improve the nutritional quality of instant noodle.oat bran extruded flour. 1998). Both are packaged in either plastic bags or cups. Behall et al. 4) nutrient fortification. There are two forms of instant noodles: un-fried instant noodles and instant fried noodle. ability.75 g/ serving. Vol. with 80-94% of 125-500 µm particle size and 4-20% of 500-1000 µm particle size. S. snacks. 3) shortened preparation time (rehydration) and. It is located in endosperm cell wall. Addition of oat bran concentrate (OBC) to the diet brings many nutritional benefits.. acceptabitity Since instant noodles were first commercialized in Japan in 1958. if prepared from defatted oat groats. instant fried noodle.27 g/serving (50 g). Oat bran concentrates. Hallfrisch et al.80-1.. Sci. The content of β-glucan in oat bran is thereby elevated to about 6-9%. The OBC was high in β-glucan.1). is a linear polysaccharide usually called β-glucan. The main component of the soluble fiber. which is the thickest part in the sub-aleurone layer adjacent to the aleurone alkki. b). Therefore. 2) OBC XEF oat bran extruded fine flour. Key words : oat bran. which provides most of the physiological effects. Instant noodles in Thailand have several flavors based on Thai eating preferences. 1994). It is easy to formulate it into health and functional foods. There were three types of the OBC: 1) OBC XF . (1997) reported that oat extract containing β-glucan was effective in lowering blood cholesterol in men and woman. The soluble β-glucan from the oat component is known to contribute a hypocholesterolemic property to food (Inglett and Newman. et al.0-4. their popularity was rapidly spread worldwide. Dry regular instant noodles provide mainly carbohydrates and some proteins. Oat dietary fiber is the fiber of dehulled oats. 2) different styles and texture. it was possible to satisfactorily make instant fried noodles. Technol. The total dietary fiber content in the groats varies from 6 to 9%.28 (Suppl. produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion. and the rest is insoluble. and contained dietary fiber in the range of 3. The products were introduced rd and later produced in Thailand in 1970 (The 3 World Ramen Summit. They have since become one of the food products that is consumed by people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas of the country. 2001). while instant fried noodles also have some fats. Oat bran concentrate (OBC) was obtained from AVENA. prepared by dry milling. which can be increased further. with 95% of particle size less than 150 µm. 2006: Nutraceutical and Functional Food 90 Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles Reungmaneepaitoon. such as breakfast cereals. layer (M˙˙ Oat bran is prepared by separating the outer layers of groats from the starch-containing endosperm by mechanical milling and separating operations. their nutritional quality may be improved by fortification with certain amino acids.

28 (Suppl. The measurements were done in triplicate at three random locations on the surface of each noodle sample. 100 = white). RVU). smoothness. break down (different between peak viscosity and trough. The panelists were asked to evaluate the acceptability of the best sample from the experiments. with particle size 100-500 µm. RVU) and set back from trough (the difference between final viscosity and trough. a*.. 1987). The sample was heated from 50 to 95ºC at the rate of 12ºC/min with constant stirring at 160 rpm and held at 95ºC for 2. The values reported included pasting temperature (ºC). +b* = yellowness). using a balanced incomplete block design (t = 10. gloss. Sci. peak viscosity (RVU). Noodle color measurement Noodle color was measured using CIELAB 1976 L*. The flours were formed into dough sheets with 3 mm thick and rested for 30 min before further size reduction and cutting... firmness.5 min (break down). . r = 9. Technol. 9 = like extremely) was used to evaluate the acceptability of product attributes (color. S. C* = chromaticity. firmness. Godalming. The CIE color values were recorded as L* = lightness (0 = black. texture and overall acceptance). r = 4). et al. 0-360). +a* = redness). Instant noodle was made from the prepared flour by mixing with 35% water and proper amounts of salt and alkaline solution. Flour preparation and pasting properties Wheat flour in noodle formulation was substituted with each type of OBC at 5. The color of the flours was measured with Spectraflash 600 plus (Datacolor International. 3) OBC Native . Texture measurement The textural qualities of the cooked noodles. protein.XT2i (Stable Micro ystem Ltd. Lammas Rd. RVU). break distance (extensibility).00 g flour (dry basis) in 25 g of distilled water by using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) model 3 D (Newport Scientific Pty Ltd. Australia). For consumer acceptance of instant fried noodles. using a Spaghetti Tensile grips (A/SPR) and a 100 mm cylinder probe. The noodles were steamed in a steamer for 90 s and placed into a wire basket fitted with a lid. trough (lowest viscosity. using a spectrophotometer (Spectraflash 600 plus. and the basket was dipped in hot palm olein at 150ºC for 1 min and cooled to room temperature before packing in a polyethylene bag. C*. and the result of each sample was an average of ten measurements. USA). in tensile strength. and H* = hue (angle. b = 18.oat bran native flour.. The total cycle was 12. Datacolor International. a*.1). and stickiness were measured on a Texture Analyser model TA . protein. 2006: Nutraceutical and Functional Food 91 Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles Reungmaneepaitoon. b* (-b* = blueness. elasticity. A 9-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely.0 mm and the noodle sheet was cut through a cutter and waver. and H* values.. k = 5. All samples were stored in a cool and dry warehouse till use. The pasting properties of the flours was determined from 3. Sensory acceptability The samples were evaluated for sensory acceptability by 18 trained panelists. Vol. b* color scale. final viscosity (RVU). flavor. fat and ash content according to AOAC (2000). fat. set back from peak (the difference between final viscosity and peak viscosity. Vienna Court. then cooled to 50ºC at the rate of 13ºC/min (setback) and held for 2 min. 10 and 15% of its dry weight. Pasting temperature was recorded as the temperature at which an increase in viscosity was first observed. a* (-a* = greenness.5 min. The flours were analyzed for moisture. USA) and expressed in L*. b*. Instant fried noodle making The experimental samples were prepared according to the basic formulation (Moss et al. Surrey GU7 1YL England). Chemical properties of instant fried noodle Instant fried noodles were analyzed for moisture.Songklanakarin J. respectively. The final cutting roll gap was adjusted to 1. The noodles were tested individually. RVU). ash and dietary fiber contents using the standard methods of AOAC (2000). the samples were evaluated by 100 untrained panelists.

00c 94. High starch paste viscosity is indicative of good eating quality of noodles (Moss. S.48b 7. The results from RVA measurements are given in Table 2.30b 7. Chemical composition and color measurement of raw materials used in noodle production. retrogradation occurred more easily as compared with the other samples. darker.96c 15.Lightness (0-100) (0 = black.. Among the OBC groups. and of the wheat flour was 13.73b 7.31c 2. The β-glucan content was 16-17% in OBC.00a Means in a column followed by the same superscripts are not significantly different (p>0. Technol. +b* = yellowness) C* . The mixes with OBC-XEF showed the highest peak viscosity values. (1980) found that starch pasting properties correlate well with noodle eating quality.0 16. the OBC XF was of light brown color.7) 22.05.26c 87. Flour OBC-XF OBC-XEF OBC-Native Wheat flour Moisture % 7.0 ND 11. which reflected retrogradation of the starch.05b 23. Vol. The noodles with 15% OBC exhibited the highest β-glucan content (1.(-b* = blueness. Among the OBC flours..Hue (angle) (0-360) .16a CIELAB SYSTEM a* b* C* 3.04a 13.59b 81. The color of the wheat flour was lighter than of the OBC flours. +a* = redness) b* . Chemical composition of instant fried noodle with various OBC The results of the chemical composition of instant fried noodles with various OBCs are shown in Table 3.0b 11. 100 = white) a* .0b 11.(-a* = greenness. and fat content was 11.21b 22.39d 18. Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to detect mean differences. This may be because particle sizes of OBCXEF were smaller than those of the others.Songklanakarin J.0% and 1.1).28 (Suppl.21%.35b 0. 1980.20a 13. therefore. and more yellow than other OBC samples.05) by ANOVA and DMRT.99b 82.0 17. 2006: Nutraceutical and Functional Food 92 Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles Reungmaneepaitoon. 1970).60b 11.16% in OBC and wheat flour. 1989). The results revealed that incorporation of OBC in the formulation affected the rheological behavior on heating and cooking of the flour samples. Results and Discussion Properties of raw materials Chemical composition of raw materials are shown in Table 1. et al.not determined L* .0b 1.00b 13. β-glucan content Table 1.00-23.27 g/serving) (1 serving = 50 g). which implied that OBC-XEF can improve the swelling and water absorption properties of the mixes more than other OBCs.Chromaticity H* .55c 84.54a H* 80. native flour had the highest set back values. ND . respectively.201.72b 7. resulting in more firmness of the cooked paste.00a 1. Increasing the amount of various OBCs in the mixes raised the protein and β-glucan contents in the products.58d L* 77. Flours with a higher peak viscosity had a higher thickening power than flours with a lower peak viscosity.57d 18. The final viscosity of the mixes with OBC-XEF was relatively high. Statistical Analysis Data collected from the sensory evaluation were analyzed using ANOVA and mean procedure of SAS (Statistical Analysis System) (SAS. In white salted noodles.55a Protein % (5. Crosbie et al. Oda et al.90c 15.28d 85. Protein content of various OBC was 22. Sci.16%.16a β-glucan Fat (ds) % (ds) % 16. The color of all samples was significantly different from one another at p<0.

25 24.13 6.00 4.92 261.67 285.50 30.06 19.58 101.37 5.80 1.84 20.94 19. S.60 68.51 5.50 2.33 141. b).40 5.00 258.25 5. Those with 10-15% OBC had β-glucan in the range of 0.83 98.13 6.75 Trough 137.20 6.20 0.00 67.12 3.00 4.77 13.30 .57 5.80-1.80 67.34 13.75 97.42 103.58 240. OBC-XEF.81 18. or OBC-Native using Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA)* (RVU Unit) Sample Wheat flour OBC-XF 5% 10% 15% OBC-XEF 5% 10% 15 % OBC-Native 5% 10% 15% Peak Viscosity 227.50 157.42 Break down 89.40 0. The noodle samples also had total dietary fiber content of 3.40 g/serving.58 247.not determined of the noodles with 5% OBC was 0.33 268.12 3.32 19.50 2.05 β-glucan per serving* (g) 0. Table 3.83 145. Therefore.33 31. Sci.83 258.25 26.20 0. Vol.25 146.27 g/serving.75 g β-glucan/serving. these noodles can claim to be a good source of dietary fiber and β-glucan.73 12. Pasting properties of wheat flour mixed with OBC-XF.50 157.00 4.61 18.13 6.27 6.85 1.50 285.00 67. (min) (ºC) 35.69 13.07 66. .08 244.20 6.00 68.15 20.33 107.75 g/serving (FDA.10 13. US FDA .50 234.67 276.67 6.92 281.94 Fat % 19. Table 2.50 24.0-4.13 6.05 19.42 151.54 13.59 5.58 23.08 274.92 97.12 3. ** n = 2 ND .09 22. 1997a.60 68. Chemical composition of instant fried noodles with various OBCs** Noodle OBC XF 5% 10% 15% OBC XEF 5% 10% 15% OBC Native 5% 10% 15% Control (wheat flour) Moisture Protein % % (Factor = 5.17 96.83 273.10 13.approved health claim requires 0.42 0.80 67.13 6.75 136.32 13.00 274.5 g/ serving.7) 5.62 20.58 243.67 243.40 0.60 * Mean values of two measurements.75 103.50 1.33 94.58 Final Viscosity 263.09 35.60 5.25 * Serving size of noodle = 50±2 g.28 (Suppl.27 18. which still meets the FDA-approved health claim which requires 0.17 Set back Peak time Pasting temp.07 6.67 145. Technol.Songklanakarin J.80 67.83 264.27 ND Dietary fiber* (g) 2. et al.25 157.60 13.80 1.64 5. 2006: Nutraceutical and Functional Food 93 Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles Reungmaneepaitoon.1).04 13..95 67.

64.30a 12.28b 1.68b 16. In this experiment rehydrated noodles were tension-tested to assess their elasticity and break distance in order to determine their extensibility. The noodles with 5-10% OBC-XF. had tensile strength (maximum force) values lower than the control. The noodles with OBC-XF and XEF at 5% were not significantly different in elasticity and firmness from those of the control (p>0.70a 87.38c 89. Noodle OBC-XF 5% 10% 15% Control (wheat Flour) OBC-XEF 5% 10% 15% Control (wheat Flour) OBC-N 5% 10% 15% Control (wheat Flour) L* 85.79c C* 15. b*.50d 88. Table 7 showed the maximum forces for noodles with 10% OBC-XEF.11d 0.80b 18. and 12.1). a* = 0.18b 86. OBC-XEF.06b 83.. as shown in Table 5.29. 13. C*. Sensory evaluation Table 6 showed the results of sensory evaluation of rehydrated noodles. a* = 0. 1997).78a 16.79) due to the darker color of the OBC flours.79d 15.99) had higher a* and b* values and lower L* values than the control (L* = 88.79c 13.76c 1. except OBC-XEF. 2006: Nutraceutical and Functional Food 94 Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles Reungmaneepaitoon.Songklanakarin J.98b 15.74c 81.63c 84.28 (Suppl.63d 88.90c 16.99a 12.64a 84. (1987) also reported that noodles with coarse particles broke easily before or after cooking.10.06. Technol. Table 4 showed the L*. The results are shown in Table 5. a*. S.38b 17.42b 17. Addition of OBC flours also affected the firmness and stickiness of the rehydrated noodles.55c 81.10b 1.77 g. The OBC-substituted noodles were significantly more red.05) in elasticity. Sci. The L* value (Lightness) of the noodles with the OBCs decreased as the quantity of the OBC flour in the mixes increased.48a 1. more yellow and darker than the control. and their cooking losses increased.63-86.11c b* 15.11d 0. Moss et al.72b 1.73b 16. XEF and Native had no significant difference (p>0.75a 12. Noodles substituted with 10% OBC containing finer particles (OBC-XEF) had higher maximum force and extensibility than OBC with coarser particles. b* = 12.05) by ANOVA and DMRT. or Native of 16.24c 85.78a 0.03d 89. All noodles with 5-15% OBC substitution. and H* values of the noodles.04d 88. Textural characteristics of instant noodles It is generally accepted that the main criterion for assessing the overall quality of cooked pasta is based on the evaluation of texture (Smewing. were considerably less extensible than regular wheat noodles. Their preference scores for elasticity.97b 15. et al.70a 87.69a 12.78.64a a* 0.08c 80. XF.70a Means in a column followed by the same superscripts are not significantly different (p>0. It is clear that noodles in- corporated with various OBCs. Vol. Table 8 .79d 15.67c 84.97-17. texture and acceptability compared to the control.11. and OBC-native.79c H* 82.54a 0.84a 16. All the noodles prepared from wheat flour mixed with the OBCs (L* = 80. n = 3 The color measurement of dry instant fried noodles.79c 13.33d 89.78b 17.59a 0. b* 13.05). texture and acceptability were 6 to 7 (slightly like to moderately like).09b 85. Color measurement of dry instant fried noodle with OBCXF.07a 12.63b 83. except 5% OBC-XEF.88c 16.04b 84.64a 86.16b 83.81c 1. respectively.22a 12.72-1. Table 4.

24a 271.32ab 5.91ab 6.29a 3704.00a 6.06d 137.53b 3227.47a 15.40ab 5.96a 45.79a 6.28ab 5.91b 5.91d 17.90±135.91c 4016.51 6.11b 7.54c 7.93a 6.78ab c 5.80ab 6.34ab 5.30a 6.86c 6.03b ab 6.39 7.69a 6.64a 6.04bc 5.28c 6.16±170.42±6.37b 6.13 6.75ab 27.90 6.76b 7. Table 5.00±2.67ab c 5.51 6.03b 12.36a 6.69±23.03a 6.97ab 24.08a 6.50a Noodle in soup 6.37b 5.92b 7.08a 6.74c 7.14a ab 6. Mean sensory evaluation scores (1-9 hedonic scale) of rehydrated noodles with OBCs Treatment XF 5% 10% 15% XEF 5% 10% 15% N 5% 10% 15% Control (wheat flour) XF 5% 10% 15% XEF 5% 10% 15% N 5% 10% 15% Control (wheat flour) Color 7.97ab 231.02b 6. 10.21c 7.19c 3915.44c 7.30c 7.50b 20.28b ab 6.17b 5.49c 7.70c 7.28 (Suppl.76ab 24.09b 6.17a 6.96ab 6.74b 5.00bc 6.98±27.85a Firmness ± SD (g) 4365..72 6.09ab 7.05a 6. 2006: Nutraceutical and Functional Food 95 Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles Reungmaneepaitoon.45ab 5.63b 7.10a 6.86a 6.76ab 5.75e Means in a column followed by the same superscripts are not significantly different (p>0.63±3.24b 5.49c 51.88b 7.22c 207.96±0.91b 6.40ab 5.18ab 5.61b 2884.47a 7.57a 3926.23a 39.78c 7.12a ab 6.52a 6.31ab 5. Sci.63a 6.70±184.80ab 6.57a Means in a column followed by the same superscripts are not significantly different (p>0.14b a 7.01±20.81bc 7. Technol.23 6.66a 7.53ab 7.58ab 7.85bc 6.78ab 5.01c 59.93b 6.74bc 7.50ab 5.23b ab 6.64±21.55a Stickiness ± SD (g) 190.32±1.05a ab 6.05±20. et al.32b 7.49a 6.32ab 7.81 7.59bc 6.35ab 6.10c 215.66ab 5.55ab 5.18ab 6.79d 17.81b 5.24 6.68a Flavor Elasticity Smoothness Firmness Gloss Texture Acceptability 7.43a 7.59ab 7.33 6.31 6.10±1.93±23.09c 10.38 6.98ab 6.1).44 7. n = 18 .63ab 5.68±3.98±2.28±0.23a ab 6.90a 213.38b 181.36b 7.97a ab 6.63a 6. Vol.90±230.95ab 5.34b 47. Textural characteristics of rehydrated instant noodle with 5.52±6.84±117.15±14.89a 6.81±1.33b 16.92a 6.64ab 5.59c 7.48a 6.80±20.87ab 6.73a 6.38ab 5.10a 6. Noodle OBC-XF 5% 10% 15% OBC-XEF 5% 10% 15% OBC-Native 5% 10% 15% Control wheat flour Max Force ± SD Distance ± SD (g) (mm) 16.91 7.64±0.36b 12.78a 4265.10±162.61ab 5.59±19.05) by ANOVA and DMRT.67±275.13±0.06c 7.56ab b 5.16±3.36a 6.38a 6.41ab 6.66c 7.53±0.19±112. 15% of various OBCs.96ab 6.15a 6.81ab 6.91ab 6. n = 10 Table 6.96±225.86ab 6.86ab 6.56 5.32±12.44ab 5.46b 7.90ab 6. S.88bc 6.59±6.05) by ANOVA and DMRT.70ab 12.Songklanakarin J.72±5.19a 4076.57ab 5.54ab 169.18a 6.64ab 6.08b a 7.00d 157.02a Plain noodle 6.72ab 6.85 6.64ab 6.85±8.11a 6.13a 6.14c 14.43a ab 6.37 7.08a 6.60c a 7.35ab 5.98ab 6.39±1.83c 7.28a 6.08±1.32ab 5.44ab c 5.87c 11.40ab b 5.93ab ab 6.99±189.03a 3663.75 6.

27b 6. firmness.96±1.66 7.03a 6.83ab 6. The noodles with 10% OBC-XEF had higher elasticity.47ab 5.40b 7.38±2.60c 7.43a 6.1).43a 6.37bc 7.13 5.67a 5.47ab 6.47 7..24d 51.80a 7.13c 6. Therefore.96±2.07c a 7.27b 7.47bc 7.80 7.99b 24.50c 39.93a 7.43 7.05) by ANOVA and DMRT. Textural characteristics of rehydrated instant noodles measured with Texture Analyser (TA .10a 6.90ab 6.20b 7.33bc 7.73a 5. Consumer test on acceptability of rehydrated instant noodles with 10% OBC-XEF. Vol.31±2. et al.12ab 12.87b a 7.13bc 6. as presented in . n = 10 Table 8.10±1.20b ab 6.11a Distance ± SD (mm) 29. texture and acceptability scores than with other OBCs.20a 7.27a 6.30a 6.77±1.XT2i) Treatment OBC-XF 10% OBC-XEF 10% OBC-Native 10% Control (wheat flour) Max Force ± SD (g) 13.10a Flavor Elasticity Smoothness Firmness Gloss Texture Acceptability 6. showed the sensory scores of the 10% OBCsubstituted noodles compared with the control.47ab 5. Mean sensory scores (1-9 hedonic scale) of rehydrated noodle with 10% of different OBCs Treatment OBC-XF 10% OBC-XEF 10% OBC-Native 10% Control (wheat flour) OBC-XF 10% OBC-XEF 10% OBC-Native 10% Control (wheat flour) Color 7.00a 7. Sci. Technol.17a Noodle in soup 6.13bc 6.96b 16.93a Plain noodle 6.00a b 6.07a 6.07c 6. n = 18 Table 9. S. Table 7.40b 7.30a 6.47b ab 6. 2006: Nutraceutical and Functional Food 96 Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles Reungmaneepaitoon.20b 6.93b 6.07a 7.03b 17.56ab 5. they were used for consumer test.39±2.63a 6.73ab 6.79±0.67 6.13c 6.87ab 6.33a 6.93c 7.05) by ANOVA and DMRT.Songklanakarin J.93b 6.00a 6.20c 6. Acceptability of consumer (100 persons) Like extremely Like very much Like moderately Like slightly Neither like nor dislike Dislike slightly Dislike moderately Dislike very much Dislike extremely Hedonic scale (1-9 scores) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 % Frequency* 0 24 47 13 8 2 4 2 0 84 16 * 84% of the consumers like the noodles at the scores of 6-9.13a 6.90a 7.97b 7.10ab b 6.28 (Suppl.70a Means in a column followed by the same superscripts are not significantly different (p>0. The results.56a Means in a column followed by the same superscripts are not significantly different (p>0.

J. Table 9. The pasting properties of some wheat starches free of sprout damage.. 1997. 63: 713-715. Oda. like slightly to like extremely (6-9). Analyzing the texture of pasta for quality control..E. Scholfield.H.. G. Y. Raw and processed oat ingredients lower plasma cholesterol in hamsters. 62: 15343-15344. Vol.E. References AOAC. 2000. Miskelly. I. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 42: 8-12. Technol..J. The chemical. Diets containing soluble oat extracts improve glucose and insulin responses of moderately hypercholesterolemic men and women. S. composition.. J.S. Sci. D. The influence of ingredients and processing variables on the quality and microstructure of Hokkien. J. textural and sensory properties of the noodles. Food and Drug Administration. Behall K.. 1997a. OBC with fine particles (OBC-XEF. and OBCNative at 5. with 84% consumer acceptance frequency.J. and Newman. (ed.M. particle size less than 150 µm) was easier to incorporate and produced more uniform doughs than those with coarse particles (OBC-Native. T. W. M. W. et al. Conclusion Substitution of wheat flour in noodle formulation with OBC-XF. and 15% affected the physical... Oat fibers: Production. 1995. 10. Inc. R. 1987. Crosbie. Kunckles.e. B. 8: 297-302. S. Clin. J.C. they enhanced the nutritional value of the noodles by raising their soluble fiber content (β-glucan) beyond the 0. M. Agric. Regist. Food Microstructure.. D. 2006: Nutraceutical and Functional Food 97 Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles Reungmaneepaitoon.1). oats and coronary heart disease. and Hallfrisch. . J. 1980. Y. 45: 53-61. 17th edition.. Gore. and Yokoyama. 100-150 µm). 1994. and Inglett. 57: 253-254. The products can also claim to be a good source of dietary fiber. physiological effects. and Murrey. Food and Drug Administration.J.Songklanakarin J.E. Among the OBC-substituted noodles. Fed.75 g/serving required by the FDA for health claims. Finland. Am. A method of flour quality assessment for Japanese noodles.. Maryland. 1997. 1997b. OBC-XEF. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Institute of Food Research and Product Development and Finn Cereal Ltd.M. G.) Handbook of dietary fiber and functional foods. 1980. R. Nutr.. Yasida. W. J. and Behall. Smewing. New York. J. Moss. Inglett. 31: 83-88. 1990. Food Sci. and Dewan. Aust. Fed.. 6: 46-51. Moss. safety and food application. Am. A.. 6: 63-74. Regist. 1998. Oat beta-glucanamylodextrins: preliminary preparations and biological properties. K. Cereal Res. In: Cho.. 61: 379-384. 62: 3584-3601. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. USA. Horwitz. Coll. Y. Comm. Hallfrisch. M˙˙ alkki. (Eds.. H. soluble fiber from whole oats and risk of coronary heart disease..28 (Suppl. Wheat quality for the Japanese flour milling and noodle industries. chemical. was 84%. G. those with 10% OBC-XEF produced the best quality noodles. physico-chemical properties. Nutr. extruded fine flour. and Drecher.. P. 2000. i. S. physical and sensory properties of the products varied with the type and amount of the OBC added. Cereal Chem. Yokoyama. Okazaki. Marcel Dekker. Cereal Foods World. Food labeling: health claims.. Y. Food labeling: health claims. Cantonese and instant noodles.. Effect of beta-glucan level in oat fiber extracts on blood lipids in men and women. J. With 10% substitution. showed that the frequency of the acceptability scores of the 10% OBC-XEF-substituted noodles. Stafford. Yamauchi.). Scholfield. D.