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Differential geometry of surfaces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

**Differential geometry of surfaces
**

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In mathematics, the differential geometry of surfaces deals with smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a Riemannian metric. Surfaces have been extensively studied from various perspectives: extrinsically, relating to their embedding in Euclidean space and intrinsically, reflecting their properties determined solely by the distance within the surface as measured along curves on the surface. One of the fundamental concepts investigated is the Gaussian curvature, first studied in depth by Carl Friedrich Gauss (1825-1827), who showed that curvature was an intrinsic property of a surface, independent of its isometric embedding in Euclidean space. Surfaces naturally arise as graphs of functions of a pair of variables, and sometimes appear in parametric form or as loci associated to space curves. An important role in their study has been played by Lie groups (in the spirit of the Erlangen program), namely the symmetry groups of the Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1828 Euclidean plane, the sphere and the hyperbolic plane. These Lie groups can be used to describe surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature; they also provide an essential ingredient in the modern approach to intrinsic differential geometry through connections. On the other hand extrinsic properties relying on an embedding of a surface in Euclidean space have also been extensively studied. This is well illustrated by the non-linear Euler-Lagrange equations in the calculus of variations: although Euler developed the one variable equations to understand geodesics, defined independently of an embedding, one of Lagrange's main applications of the two variable equations was to minimal surfaces, a concept that can only be defined in terms of an embedding.

Contents

1 Overview 2 History of surfaces 3 Curvature of surfaces in E3 4 Examples 4.1 Surfaces of revolution 4.2 Quadric surfaces 4.3 Ruled surfaces 4.4 Minimal surfaces 4.5 Surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature 5 Local metric structure 5.1 Line and area elements 5.2 Second fundamental form 5.3 Shape operator 6 Geodesic curves on a surface 6.1 Geodesics

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Differential geometry of surfaces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

6.2 Geodesic curvature 6.3 Isometric embedding problem 6.4 Orthogonal coordinates 7 Geodesic polar coordinates 7.1 Exponential map 7.2 Computation of normal coordinates 7.3 Gauss's lemma 7.4 Theorema Egregium 7.5 Gauss–Jacobi equation 7.6 Laplace–Beltrami operator 8 Gauss–Bonnet theorem 8.1 Geodesic triangles 8.2 Gauss-Bonnet theorem 8.3 Curvature and embeddings 9 Surfaces of constant curvature 9.1 Euclidean geometry 9.2 Spherical geometry 9.3 Hyperbolic geometry 9.4 Uniformization 10 Surfaces of non-positive curvature 10.1 Alexandrov's comparison inequality 10.2 Existence of geodesics 10.3 Von Mangoldt-Hadamard theorem 11 Riemannian connection and parallel transport 11.1 Covariant derivative 11.2 Parallel transport 11.3 Connection 1-form 12 Global differential geometry of surfaces 13 Reading guide 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References

Overview

See also: Surfaces Polyhedra in the Euclidean space, such as the boundary of a cube, are among the first surfaces encountered in geometry. It is also possible to define smooth surfaces, in which each point has a neighborhood diffeomorphic to some open set in E2, the Euclidean plane. This elaboration allows calculus to be applied to surfaces to prove many results.

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Differential geometry of surfaces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Two smooth surfaces are diffeomorphic if and only if they are homeomorphic. (The analogous result does not hold for higher-dimensional manifolds.) It follows that closed surfaces are classified up to diffeomorphism by their Euler characteristic and orientability. Smooth surfaces equipped with Riemannian metrics are of foundational importance in differential geometry. A Riemannian metric endows a surface with notions of geodesic, distance, angle, and area. An important class of such surfaces are the developable surfaces: surfaces that can be flattened to a plane An without stretching; examples include the cylinder and the cone. In addition, there are properties of surfaces which depend on an embedding of the surface into Euclidean space. These surfaces are the subject of extrinsic geometry. They include Minimal surfaces are surfaces that minimize the surface area for given boundary conditions; examples include soap films stretched across a wire frame, catenoids and helicoids. Ruled surfaces are surfaces that have at least one straight line running through every point; examples include the cylinder and the hyperboloid of one sheet. Any n-dimensional complex manifold is, at the same time, a real (2n)-dimensional real manifold. Thus any complex one-manifold (also called a Riemann surface) is a smooth oriented surface with an associated complex structure. Every closed surface admits complex structures. Any complex algebraic curve or real algebraic surface is also a smooth surface, possibly with singularities. Complex structures on a closed oriented surface correspond to conformal equivalence classes of Riemannian metrics on the surface. One version of the uniformization theorem (due to Poincaré) states that any Riemannian metric on an oriented, closed surface is conformally equivalent to an essentially unique metric of constant curvature. This provides a starting point for one of the approaches to Teichmüller theory, which provides a finer classification of Riemann surfaces than the topological one by Euler characteristic alone. The uniformization theorem states that every smooth Riemannian surface is conformally equivalent to a surface having constant curvature, and the constant may be taken to be 1, 0, or -1. A surface of constant curvature 1 is locally isometric to the sphere, which means that every point on the surface has an open neighborhood that is isometric to an open set on the unit sphere in E3 with its intrinsic Riemannian metric. Likewise, a surface of constant curvature 0 is locally isometric to the Euclidean plane, and a surface of constant curvature -1 is locally isometric to the hyperbolic plane. Constant curvature surfaces are the two-dimensional realization of what are known as space forms. These are often studied from the point of view of Felix Klein's Erlangen programme, by means of smooth transformation groups. Any connected surface with a three-dimensional group of isometries is a surface of constant curvature. A complex surface is a complex two-manifold and thus a real four-manifold; it is not a surface in the sense of this article. Neither are algebraic curves or surfaces defined over fields other than the complex numbers.

History of surfaces

Isolated properties of surfaces of revolution were known already to Archimedes. The development of calculus in the seventeenth century provided a more systematic way of proving them. Curvature of general surfaces was first studied by Euler. In 1760[1] he proved a formula for the curvature of a plane section of a surface and in 1771[2] he considered surfaces represented in a parametric form. Monge laid down the foundations of their theory in his

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paths of shortest length between two fixed points on the surface[4] (see below). this royal patronage could explain why these papers contain practical calculations of the curvature of the earth based purely on measurements on the surface of the planet. the properties which are determined only by the geodesic distances between points on the surface independently of the particular way in which the surface is located in the ambient Euclidean space. Curvature of surfaces in E3 See also: Gaussian curvature and Mean curvature Informally Gauss defined the curvature of a surface in terms of the curvatures of certain plane curves connected with the surface. One of the first was in terms of the area-expanding properties of the Gauss map. i. The presentation below largely follows Gauss. The nineteenth century was the golden age for the theory of surfaces.[3] This marked a new departure from tradition because for the first time Gauss considered the intrinsic geometry of a surface. The defining contribution to the theory of surfaces was made by Gauss in two remarkable papers written in 1825 and 1827. However. a point on S2 en. The principal curvatures are the maximum and minimum curvatures of the plane curves obtained by intersecting the surface with planes normal to the tangent plane at the point. The Gaussian curvature at a point on an embedded smooth surface given locally by the equation z = F(x . For a time Gauss was Cartographer to George III of Great Britain and Hannover.e. the free encyclopedia classical memoir L'application de l'analyse à la géometrie which appeared in 1795. but with important later contributions from other geometers. then.[5] the mean curvature is defined to be their average. He later found a series of equivalent definitions.wikipedia.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . is defined to be the product of the principal curvatures at the point. The crowning result. F will have the Taylor series expansion The principal curvatures at a point on a surface The Gauss map sends a point on the surface to the outward pointing unit normal vector. the Theorema Egregium of Gauss. If the point is (0.e. 0) with tangent plane z = 0. 0. before obtaining a more intrinsic definition in terms of the area and angles of small triangles. with most leading geometers devoting themselves to their study.y) in E3. Gauss needed to make an in-depth investigation of the properties of geodesics on the surface. after a rotation about the z-axis setting the coefficient on xy to zero.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 4/34 . a map from the surface to a 2-dimensional sphere. invariant under local isometries. i.[citation needed ] Darboux collected many results in his four-volume treatise Théorie des surfaces (1887– 1896).Wikipedia. established that the Gaussian curvature is an intrinsic invariant. from both the topological and the differential-geometric point of view. This point of view was extended to higher-dimensional spaces by Riemann and led to what is known today as Riemannian geometry.

in general and where the derivatives at the point are given by P = Fx. S = Fx y. b). In coordinates the map sends (x .[7] Examples Surfaces of revolution Main article: Surface of revolution A surface of revolution can be obtained by rotating a curve in the xz plane about the z-axis. and T = Fy y. the Gaussian curvature is given by and the mean curvature by Since K and Km are invariant under isometries of E3.[6] For every oriented embedded surface the Gauss map is the map into the unit sphere sending each point to the (outward pointing) unit normal vector to the oriented tangent plane at the point.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 5/34 .wikipedia. the free encyclopedia The principal curvatures are k 1 and k 2 in this case. R = Fx x. Suppose that the curve is given by with t lies in (a. assuming the curve does not intersect the z-axis.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . Q = Fy.Wikipedia. and is parametrized by arclength.y. so that Then the surface of revolution is the point set en.z) to Direct computation shows that: the Gaussian curvature is the Jacobian of the Gauss map.

Quadric surfaces Main article: Quadric surface Consider the quadric surface defined by[9] This surface admits a parametrization A quadric ellipsoid The Gaussian curvature and mean curvature are given by en. The Gaussian curvature and mean curvature are given by[8] Geodesics on a surface of revolution are governed by Clairaut's relation.Wikipedia.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . the free encyclopedia The surface of revolution obtained by rotating the curve x = 2 + cos z about the z-axis.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 6/34 .

org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 7/34 . Then.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . the free encyclopedia Ruled surfaces Main article: Ruled surface A ruled surface is one which can be generated by the motion of a straight line in E3.[10] Choosing a directrix on the surface.[6] (An equivalent condition is given below in terms of the metric.e. to the surface being developable along the curve. i. i.[12] More generally a surface in E3 has vanishing Gaussian curvature near a point if and only if it is developable near that point.e.[11] This condition is equivalent to the surface being the envelope of the planes along the curve containing the tangent vector v and the orthogonal vector u. a smooth unit speed curve c(t ) orthogonal to the straight lines. if A single-sheeted quadric hyperboloid which is a ruled surface in two different ways.) Minimal surfaces Main article: Minimal surface In 1760 Lagrange extended Euler's results on the calculus of variations involving integrals in one variable to two variables.Wikipedia. the velocity vector v =ct and u satisfy The surface consists of points as s and t vary.[13] He had in mind the following problem: en. and then choosing u(t ) to be unit vectors along the curve in the direction of the lines. the Gaussian and mean curvature are given by The Gaussian curvature of the ruled surface vanishes if and only if ut and v are proportional.wikipedia.

There has been extensive research in this area. In particular a result of Osserman shows that if a minimal surface is non-planar. obtained by considering the two-sheeted hyperboloid q(x . a student of Gauss.wikipedia. In 1868 Beltrami showed that the geometry of the pseudosphere was directly related to that of the hyperbolic plane. such as the catenoid. then its image under the Gauss map is dense in S2. Minimal surfaces have a simple interpretation in real life: they are the shape a soap film will assume if a wire frame shaped like the curve is dipped into a soap solution and then carefully lifted out. summarised in Osserman (2002). had obtained trigonometric formulas for the pseudosphere identical to those for the hyperbolic plane. y. and has been described by other models such as the Klein model or the hyperboloid model.[18] en.[16] The latter case is the classical curvature pseudosphere generated by rotating a tractrix around a central axis.[15] The unit sphere in E3 has constant Gaussian curvature +1. Particular cases are obtained by taking φ(t ) negative. F. zero and positive Gaussian = C cosh t .Wikipedia. Already in 1840. In 1776 Jean Baptiste Meusnier showed that the differential equation derived by Lagrange was equivalent to the vanishing of the mean curvature of the surface: A surface is minimal if and only if its mean curvature vanishes.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 8/34 . In 1930 Jesse Douglas and Tibor Radó gave an affirmative answer to Plateau's problem (Douglas was awarded one of the first Fields medals for this work in 1936). it is called a surface of constant curvature . y. Such a surface is called a minimal surface . z) = x 2 + y2 – z2. the free encyclopedia Given a closed curve in E3. find a surface having the curve as boundary with minimal area. The Euclidean plane and the cylinder both have constant Gaussian curvature 0. C sinh t and C et. where q(x . Surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature If a surface has constant Gaussian curvature. the Scherk surface and the Enneper surface. discovered independently by Lobachevsky (1830) and Bolyai (1832) . to r.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . the helicoid. The surfaces of revolution with φtt = φ have constant Gaussian Surfaces with (from l.) constant curvature –1. The question as to whether a minimal surface with given boundary exists is called Plateau's problem after the Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau who carried out experiments on soap films in the mid-nineteenth century. Minding. z) = −1 in three-dimensional Minkowski space.[14] Many explicit examples of minimal surface are known explicitly.[17] This surface of constant curvature is now better understood in terms of the Poincaré metric on the upper half plane or the unit disc.

In each local chart a Riemannian metric is given by smoothly assigning a 2×2 positive definite matrix to each point. A chart for the upper hemisphere of the 2sphere obtained by projecting onto the x-yplane Line and area elements Taking a local chart. and more generally any developable surface. the free encyclopedia Each of these surfaces of constant curvature has a transitive Lie group of symmetries.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces .[6] The matrix Coordinate changes between different local charts must be smooth en. the matrix is transformed according to the Jacobian matrix of the coordinate change. Classically in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries only surfaces embedded in R3 were considered and the metric was given as a 2×2 positive definite matrix varying smoothly from point to point in a local parametrization of the surface. Just as contour lines on real-life maps encode changes in elevation. it is possible to measure the length of a curve on the surface.Wikipedia. for example by projecting onto the x . exactly as the planet Earth is mapped by atlases today. when a different chart is taken. due to Poincaré's uniformization theorem (see below). all the more remarkable because of the central role these special surfaces play in the geometry of surfaces. tangent developables.wikipedia. Changes of coordinates between different charts of the same region are required to be smooth. The expression E dx 2 + 2F dx dy + G dy2 is called the first fundamental form. The idea of local parametrization and change of coordinate was later formalized through the current abstract notion of a manifold. a topological space where the smooth structure is given by local charts on the manifold.y plane (z = 0). This structure is encoded infinitesimally in a Riemannian metric on the surface through line elements and area elements. so the Riemannian metric describes distances and areas "in the small" in each local chart. the line element ds and the area element dA can be written in terms of local coordinates as ds2 = E dx 2 + 2F dx dy + G dy2 and dA = (EG − F2)1/2 dx dy. the angle between two curves and the area of a region on the surface. taking into account local distortions of the Earth's surface to calculate true distances. This group theoretic fact has far-reaching consequences. Local metric structure Main article: Riemannian manifold For any surface embedded in Euclidean space of dimension 3 or higher.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 9/34 . The manifold then has the structure of a 2-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Other examples of surfaces with Gaussian curvature 0 include cones.

a map of one surface onto the other preserving distance. defined classically as follows.e. certain properties of surfaces also depend on an embedding into E3 (or a higher dimensional Euclidean space). there is an isometry of E3 carrying one surface onto the other. In a similar way line and area elements can be associated to any abstract Riemannian 2-manifold in a local chart. has the form e dx 2 + 2f dx dy + g dy2 plus third and higher order corrections. the free encyclopedia is required to be positive-definite and to depend smoothly on x and y.wikipedia. With this more rigid definition of similitude. The most important example is the second fundamental form. In extrinsic geometry. Although the primary invariant in the study of the intrinsic geometry of surfaces is the metric (the first fundamental form) and the Gaussian curvature. It is described by a 2 × 2 symmetric matrix Definition of second fundamental form en. the length of the perpendicular dropped from the nearby point to the tangent plane.Wikipedia. y + dy) to the tangent plane at (x . y) on the surface in a local chart. the cylinder and the plane are obviously no longer the same. two surfaces are "the same" if they are congruent in the ambient Euclidean space. i.e.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces .org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 10/34 .[19] Take a point (x . The Euclidean distance from a nearby point (x + dx . In intrinsic geometry. i. The above expression. Second fundamental form Main article: Second fundamental form The extrinsic geometry of surfaces studies the properties of surfaces embedded into a Euclidean space. i. two surfaces are "the same" if it is possible to unfold one surface onto the other without stretching it. y). a symmetric bilinear form at each point. Thus a cylinder is locally "the same" as the plane. is the second fundamental form. typically E3.e.

They admit generalizations to surfaces embedded in more general Riemannian manifolds.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . One of the other extrinsic numerical invariants of a surface is the mean curvature Km defined as the sum of the principal curvatures. The Gaussian curvature can be calculated as the ratio of the determinants of the second and first fundamental forms: Remarkably Gauss proved that it is an intrinsic invariant (see his Theorema Egregium below).[21] Pierre Bonnet proved that two quadratic forms satisfying the Gauss-Codazzi equations always uniquely determine an embedded surface locally. precisely identifying where the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures come from. It is given by the formula[6] The coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms satisfy certain compatibility conditions known as the Gauss-Codazzi equations. Shape operator Further information: Peterson operator The differential df of the Gauss map f can be used to define a type of extrinsic curvature. w (the inner product makes sense because df (v ) and w both lie in E3). The eigenvalues of Sx are just the principal curvatures k 1 and k 2 at x .Wikipedia.[24] Since at each point x of the surface.[25] The right hand side is symmetric in v and w. so the shape operator is selfadjoint on the tangent space. known as the shape operator[23] or Weingarten map. they involve the Christoffel symbols associated with the first fundamental form:[20] These equations can also be succinctly expressed and derived in the language of connection forms due to Élie Cartan. In particular the determinant of the shape operator at a point is the en. This operator first appeared implicitly in the work of Wilhelm Blaschke and later explicitly in a treatise by Burali-Forti and Burgati.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia which depends smoothly on x and y.[22] For this reason the Gauss-Codazzi equations are often called the fundamental equations for embedded surfaces. the tangent space is an inner product space.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces Wilhelm Blaschke (1885-1962) 11/34 . the shape operator Sx can be defined as a linear operator on this space by the formula for tangent vectors v .

The principal directions specify the directions that a curve embedded in the surface must travel to have maximum and minimum curvature. In intrinsic geometry. By the Euler-Lagrange equations. Its mean curvature is not zero. The length is independent of the parametrisation of a path. its length is defined by and energy by A geodesic triangle on the sphere. y(t )) in the chart for t in [a.Wikipedia. these being given by the principal curvatures. since the mean curvature is half the trace of the shape operator. meaning that every piece of it is intrinsically indistinguishable from a piece of a plane since its Gauss curvature vanishes identically. In general.wikipedia. b]. they are the shape that an elastic band stretched between the two points would take. if c(t ) is a path minimising length. The mean curvature is an extrinsic invariant. parametrised by arclength. a cylinder is developable. The differential geometry of surfaces revolves around the study of geodesics. The eigenvalues correspond to the principal curvatures of the surface and the eigenvectors are the corresponding principal directions. the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the shape operator at each point determine the directions in which the surface bends at each point. It is still an open question whether every Riemannian metric on a 2-dimensional local chart arises from an embedding in 3-dimensional Euclidean space: the theory of geodesics has been used to show this is true in the important case when the components of the metric are analytic. The geodesics are great circle arcs.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 12/34 . though. the free encyclopedia Gaussian curvature. hence extrinsically it is different from a plane. it must satisfy the Euler equations + Γ¹11 ² + 2Γ¹12 + Γ¹22 ² =0 and + Γ²11 ² + 2Γ²12 + Γ²22 ² =0 where the Christoffel symbols Γk ij are given by en. Mathematically they are described using partial differential equations from the calculus of variations. but it also contains other information. Geodesics Given a piecewise smooth path c(t ) = (x (t ). The shape operator is given in terms of the components of the first and second fundamental forms by the Weingarten equations:[26] Geodesic curves on a surface Curves on a surface which minimize length between the endpoints are called geodesics.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces .

0) using the Cauchy-Kowalevski theorem and yield a solution of the original embedding equations. Differentiating gives the three additional equations uxx • uy = 0. F and G are analytic. the so-called "Weyl problem". uy • uy = G. on an oriented surface is defined where n(t ) is the "principal" unit normal to the curve in the surface. constructed by rotating the unit tangent vector through an angle of + 90°. the Cauchy-Kowalevski theorem is used twice to produce analytic geodesics orthogonal to the y-axis and then the x -axis to make an analytic change of coordinate so that E=1 and F=0. en. A unit speed curve on a surface is a geodesic if and only if its geodesic curvature vanishes at all points on the curve. whether this is possible in E3 remains an open question. ux • uy = 0. By the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a path minimising energy is just a geodesic parametrised by arc length. An isometric embedding u must satisfy ux • ux =1. A path satisfying the Euler equations is called a geodesic.y) prescribed.y) and ux(0. uxx • uyy = uxy • ux y .½ Gxx with u(0. soon afterwards Élie Cartan generalised this to local embeddings of Riemannian n-manifolds in Em where m = ½(n² +n).0). A unit speed curve c(t ) in an embedded surface is a geodesic if and only if its acceleration vector is normal to the surface. parametrised by arc length. g12=F. Apart from some special cases.wikipedia. The geodesic curvature measures in a precise way how far a curve on the surface is from being a geodesic. for any geodesic. Isometric embedding problem A result of Jacobowitz (1972) and Poznjak (1973) shows that every metric structure on a surface arises from a local embedding in E4. The geodesic curvature at a point is an intrinsic invariant depending only on the metric near the point.[27] Geodesic curvature See also: Geodesic curvature and Darboux frame The geodesic curvature to be[28] at a point of a curve c(t ).org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 13/34 . the parameter t is proportional to arclength.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . and. To prove Janet's theorem near (0. the free encyclopedia Γk ij = g km ( j gim + i gjm – m gij) where g11 = E. These equations can be solved near (0. uxx • ux = 0.[29] In 1926 Maurice Janet proved that it is always possible locally if E. g22 =G and (gij) is the inverse matrix to (gij).Wikipedia.

[32] One and a quarter centuries after Gauss and Jacobi. thus determine a tangent vector at the base point. Marston Morse gave a more conceptual interpretation of the Jacobi field in terms of second derivatives of en. Geodesic polar coordinates are obtained by combining the exponential map with polar coordinates on tangent vectors at the base point. These two bits of data. first considered by Gauss and later generalized by Jacobi. If H=(EG)½. The convexity properties are consequences of Gauss's lemma and its generalisations. defining a local coordinate chart at that base point.y(t )) and the line y = constant is given by the equation In orthogonal coordinates φ is the angle the tangent L to the geodesic C makes with the x-axis The derivative of is given by a classical derivative formula of Gauss:[31] Geodesic polar coordinates Once a metric is given on a surface and a base point is fixed.wikipedia. so that H=G½. A convenient way to understand the curvature comes from an ordinary differential equation. then the Gaussian curvature is given by[30] If in addition E=1. The neighbourhood swept out has similar properties to balls in Euclidean space. a vector field along the geodesic. The direction of the geodesic at the base point and the distance uniquely determine the other endpoint. arising from the change of normal coordinates about two different points. a direction and a magnitude. the free encyclopedia Orthogonal coordinates When F=0 in the metric. namely any two points in it are joined by a unique geodesic.and y-axes are orthogonal and provide orthogonal coordinates .org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 14/34 . This property is called "geodesic convexity" and the coordinates are called "normal coordinates". The Gauss–Jacobi equation provides another way of computing the Gaussian curvature. lines parallel to the x . Geometrically it explains what happens to geodesics from a fixed base point as the endpoint varies along a small curve segment through data recorded in the Jacobi field. The map from tangent vectors to endpoints smoothly sweeps out a neighbourhood of the base point and defines what is called the "exponential map". The Gaussian curvature of the surface is then given by the second order deviation of the metric at the point from the Euclidean metric. Roughly speaking this lemma states that geodesics Carl Jacobi (1804–1851) starting at the base point must cut the spheres of fixed radius centred on the base point at right angles. then the angle at the intersection between geodesic (x (t ). there is a unique geodesic connecting the base point to each sufficiently nearby point.Wikipedia. The explicit calculation of normal coordinates can be accomplished by considering the differential equation satisfied by geodesics. Gauss's celebrated Theorema Egregium.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . In particular the Gaussian curvature is an invariant of the metric.

M.v ) + μ(u.v ) = β v + M(u. Euler's equations imply the matrix equation g(v )v = v .tv ) and y(t ) = y(tu. usually called the Gauss lemma. there is a geodesic cv(t ) defined on (−2.y0). tv ) can be considered as formal power series solutions of the Euler equations: this uniquely determines α. then csv = cv(st ). L.v ) + ··· where L.v ) to expp (v ) gives a local diffeomorphism onto a neighbourhood of (p. The exponential map gives geodesic normal coordinates near p.v ) + λ(u. y at (0.p).[34] Contour lines tracking the motion of points on a fixed curve moving along geodesics towards a basepoint Computation of normal coordinates There is a standard technique (see for example Berger (2004)) for computing the change of variables to normal coordinates u. v at a point as a formal Taylor series expansion. β. v ) is smooth then the differential equation dv /dt = f (t . more generally the map sending (p.2) with cv(0) = (x 0. write x (u. If the coordinates x . x (t ) = x (tu.v ) with initial condition v (0) = v0 has a unique solution for |t| sufficiently small and the solution depends smoothly on t and v 0. a key result.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 15/34 .3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces .wikipedia. Geometrically it states that the geodesics through 0 cut the circles centred at 0 orthogonally.v ) = α u + L(u. λ and μ. This implies that for sufficiently small tangent vectors v at a given point p = (x 0.y0) and v(0) = v . The exponential map is defined by expp (v ) = cv (1) and gives a diffeomorphism between a disc ||v || < δ and a neighbourhood of p. Gauss's lemma Main article: Gauss's lemma (Riemannian geometry) In these coordinates the matrix g(x ) satisfies g(0) = I and the lines t ↦ tv are geodesics through 0. M are quadratic and λ. the free encyclopedia the energy function on the infinite-dimensional Hilbert manifold of paths.v ) + ··· y(u. If u and v are fixed.[33] Exponential map Main article: Normal coordinates The theory of ordinary differential equations shows that if f (t . en. Moreover if |s| ≤ 1.0) are locally orthogonal.Wikipedia. μ cubic homogeneous polynomials in u and v .

i.q). yields the Sturm–Liouville equation satisfied by H(r.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 16/34 . v ) as ds2 = du2 + dv 2 + K(u dv – v du)2 + ··· This extraordinary result — Gauss' Theorema Egregium — shows that the Gaussian curvature of a surface can be computed solely in terms of the metric and is thus an intrinsic invariant of the surface.θ) = G(r.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . In geodesic coordinates.wikipedia. Hrr = – K H The Jacobian of this coordinate change at q is equal to Hr. it is easy to check that the geodesics through zero minimize length. the Gauss–Jacobi equation shows that the Gaussian curvature measures the spreading of geodesics on a geometric surface as they move away from a point.θ) can be interpreted as the length of the line element in the θ direction. discovered by Gauss and later generalised by Jacobi.v ) = ||v ||. so that in normal coordinates d(0. any two points in U are joined by a unique geodesic lying entirely inside U.[5] In geodesic polar coordinates the geodesics radiating from the origin cut the circles of constant radius orthogonally. Because H(r. The topology on the Riemannian manifold is then given by a distance function d(p.y) = k 1 x 2 + k 2 y2 + ···.θ)½.Wikipedia.e.θ) dθ2.θ)½ times the angle they subtend. independent of any embedding in E³ and unchanged under coordinate transformations. The distances along radii are true distances but on the concentric circles small arcs have length H(r.θ). the free encyclopedia Taking polar coordinates (r. a slight sharpening of the Gauss lemma shows that the image U of the disc ||v || < δ under the exponential map is geodesically convex. If the radius δ is taken small enough. In particular isometries of surfaces preserve Gaussian curvature. it follows that the metric has the form ds2 = dr2 + G(r.θ) = G(r. the power series expansion of the metric is given in normal coordinates (u.[5] Theorema Egregium Main article: Theorema Egregium Taking x and y coordinates of a surface in E3 corresponding to F(x . This gives another way of establishing the intrinsic nature of Gaussian curvature. namely the infimum of the lengths of piecewise smooth paths between p and q. Gauss–Jacobi equation Main article: Jacobi field Taking a coordinate change from normal coordinates at p to normal coordinates at a nearby point q. This distance is realised locally by geodesics.[35] Laplace–Beltrami operator On a surface with local metric en.

In isothermal coordinates.[38] There is an elementary proof for minimal surfaces.Wikipedia.e. a constant for these surfaces.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 17/34 . a triangle all the sides of which are geodesics. This en. the Gaussian curvature at a point is given by the formula[36] where r is the denotes the geodesic distance from the point.wikipedia. hyperbolic and high school trigonometry (see below). the difference is zero.[39] Gauss–Bonnet theorem On a sphere or a hyperboloid. Gauss generalised these results to an arbitrary surface by showing that the integral of the Gaussian curvature over the interior of a geodesic triangle is also equal to this angle difference or excess. The constant of proportionality is just the Gaussian curvature. These are standard results in spherical. first considered by Gauss. although all proofs to date rely on non-trivial results on partial differential equations. the metric is required to be of the special form In this case the Laplace–Beltrami operator is given by and φ satisfies Liouville's equation[37] Isothermal coordinates are known to exist in a neighbourhood of any point on the surface. Gauss proved that this integral was remarkably always 2π times an integer. reflecting the fact that its Gaussian curvature is zero. Since Δ is manifestly an intrinsic invariant. is proportional to the difference of the sum of the interior angles and π. a topological invariant of the surface called the Euler characteristic. His formula showed that the Gaussian curvature could be calculated near a point as the limit of area over angle excess for geodesic triangles shrinking to the A triangulation of the torus point. For the torus. the free encyclopedia and Laplace–Beltrami operator where H2 = EG – F 2.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . Since any closed surface can be decomposed up into geodesic triangles. the area of a geodesic triangle. this gives yet another proof that the Gaussian curvature is an intrinsic invariant. i. As a special case of what is now called the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. the formula could also be used to compute the integral of the curvature over the whole surface.

triangulated like an icosahedron.Wikipedia. and faces of the triangles in the decomposition. 18/34 . it follows that M K dA = 2π·χ(M) where χ(M) denotes the Euler characteristic of the surface.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces The Euler characteristic of a sphere. In fact if there are F faces. dA = Δ KH dr dθ = – dθ + Hrr dr dθ = dφ = α + β + γ − π.θ). Gauss' formula shows that the curvature at a point can be calculated as the limit of angle excess α + β + γ − π over area for successively smaller geodesic triangles near the point. E edges and V vertices. Geodesic triangles Gauss proved that. edges. Qualitatively a surface is positively or negatively curved according to the sign of the angle excess for arbitrarily small geodesic triangles. This interaction between analysis and topology was the forerunner of many later results in geometry.π.θ) dθ = where the second equality follows from the Gauss–Jacobi equation and the fourth from Gauss' derivative formula in the orthogonal coordinates (r. 1− Hr(rθ . the free encyclopedia invariant is easy to compute combinatorially in terms of the number of vertices. then ΔK dA = α + β + γ − π. In fact taking geodesic polar coordinates with origin A and AB. In particular properties of the curvature impose restrictions on the topology of the surface. if Δ is a geodesic triangle on a surface with angles α.wikipedia. This theorem can be interpreted in many en. β and γ at vertices A.[6] Gauss-Bonnet theorem Main article: Gauss-Bonnet theorem Since every compact oriented 2-manifold M can be triangulated by small geodesic triangles. also called a triangulation. namely the Euler characteristic.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . then 3F = 2E and the left hand side equals 2π·V – π·F = 2π·(V – E + F) = 2π·χ(M). B and C. culminating in the Atiyah-Singer index theorem.30 + 20 =2. This is the celebrated Gauss-Bonnet theorem: it shows that the integral of the Gaussian curvature is a topological invariant of the manifold. AC the radii at polar angles 0 and α ΔK The area of a spherical triangle on the unit sphere is α + β + γ . is V E + F = 12 .

Another related result. Any other closed Riemannian 2-manifold M of constant Gaussian curvature.[41] By Poincaré's uniformization theorem. In the case of the sphere and the Euclidean plane. Here K is isomorphic to SO(2). however. b. These 19/34 . the unit sphere in E3. this criterion for convexity can be viewed as a 2-dimensional generalisation of the well-known second derivative criterion for convexity of plane curves. in this case the surface is convex. the vector field defines a map into the unit circle. In other words. and the hyperbolic plane. by multiplying the metric by a positive scaling factor.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . will have one of these three surfaces as its universal covering space. As Hadamard observed. has real dimension 6g .)[6] Curvature and embeddings If the Gaussian curvature of a surface M is everywhere positive.[42] Euclidean geometry In the case of the Euclidean plane. γ: A triangle in the plane en. a free Abelian subgroup of rank 2. which can be proved using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. +1 or –1. the Gauss map provides an explicit diffeomorphism. such as the cosine rule for a triangle with sides a.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia ways. If in addition the surface is isometrically embedded in E3. the index is just the winding number of this map.[40] Surfaces of constant curvature The simply connected surfaces of constant curvature 0. Each of these has a transitive three-dimensional Lie group of orientation preserving isometries G. is the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem for vector fields on M which vanish at only a finite number of points: the sum of the indices at these points equals the Euler characteristic. any orientable closed 2-manifold is conformally equivalent to a surface of constant curvature 0.[43] Geodesics are straight lines and the geometry is encoded in the elementary formulas of trigonometry. the semidirect product of the two dimensional group of translations by the group of rotations. after scaling the metric by a constant factor if necessary. In the orientable case.Wikipedia. as Adriano Garsia showed using the Beltrami equation for quasiconformal mappings. perhaps one of the most far-reaching has been as the index theorem for an elliptic differential operator on M. Hilbert proved that every isometrically embedded closed surface must have a point of positive curvature.6 . (On a small circle round each isolated zero. c and angles α. this is always possible for some conformally equivalent metric. the symmetry group is the Euclidean motion group. the moduli space of Riemann surfaces obtained as Γ varies over all such subgroups.e. Each of the two non-compact surfaces can be identified with the quotient G / K where K is a maximal compact subgroup of G. +1 and –1 are the Euclidean plane. Thus a closed Riemannian 2-manifold of non-positive curvature can never be embedded isometrically in E3. the fundamental group Γ of M can be identified with a torsion-free uniform subgroup of G and M can then be identified with the double coset space Γ \ G / K. For closed surfaces of genus . which can be used to study their geometry.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces Flat tori can be obtained by taking the quotient of R2 by a lattice. the only possible examples are the sphere itself and tori obtained as quotients of R2 by discrete rank 2 subgroups. i. then the Euler characteristic is positive so M is homeomorphic (and therefore diffeomorphic) to S2. β. the Gaussian curvature can be made to take exactly one of these values (the sign of the Euler characteristic of M). one of the simplest cases of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem.

then the spherical cosine law states that The area of the triangle is given by Area = α + β + γ .[44] Spherical geometry See also: spherical trigonometry and spherical triangle The isometry group of the unit sphere S2 in E3 is the orthogonal group O(3). The geodesics between two points on the sphere are the great circle arcs with these given endpoints. with the rotation group SO(3) as the subgroup of isometries preserving orientation. A spherical triangle is a geodesic triangle on the A spherical triangle sphere.Wikipedia.1) is the orbit of the subgroup of rotations about an axis through antipodal points on the equator. unique up to sign. i. The geodesics can also be described group theoretically: each geodesic through the North pole (0. Using stereographic projection from the North pole. there is a unique shortest geodesic between the points. so that S2 = SO(3)/SO(2).0. b. the sphere can be identified with the extended complex plane C {∞}. The stabilizer subgroup of the unit vector (0.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . It is the direct product of SO(3) with the antipodal map.0. the free encyclopedia Flat tori can be obtained by taking the quotient of R2 by a lattice. β. the spherical metric becomes[47] en. B. The explicit map is given by Under this correspondence every rotation of S2 corresponds to a Möbius transformation in SU(2). a free Abelian subgroup of rank 2. in the easiest case this follows from the fact that the torus is a product of two circles and each circle can be isometrically embedded in E2. sending x to –x . If the lengths of the sides are a.1) can be identified with SO(2). CA.e. AB formed from great circle arcs of length less than π. If the points are not antipodal. They do nevertheless admit isometric embeddings in E4. γ. v ) in the complex plane. C on the sphere with sides BC.wikipedia. c and the angles between the sides α. These closed surfaces have no isometric embeddings in E3.[46] With respect to the coordinates (u.π.[45] The group SO(3) acts transitively on S2. It is defined by points A.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 20/34 .

do not act freely on S2. the hyperboloid model of Wilhelm Killing in 3-dimensional Minkowski space. the Poincaré disk. while the real projective plane has fundamental group Z2. he decided not to put into print. the free encyclopedia The unit sphere is the unique closed orientable surface with constant curvature +1. intersections of Euclidean lines with the open unit disk).wikipedia.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . In 1830 Lobachevsky and independently in 1832 Bolyai.Wikipedia. although privately circulated. based on a disk. However it was not until 1868 that Beltrami. the son of one Gauss' correspondents.The last model has the advantage that it gives a construction which is completely parallel to that of the unit sphere in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The first model. who made extensive computations at the turn of the nineteenth century which. gave concrete analytic models for what Klein dubbed hyperbolic geometry. Let Eugenio Beltrami (1835-1899) Felix Klein (18491925) be the Poincaré disk in the complex plane with Poincaré metric In polar coordinates (r. The finite subgroups of SO(3). so the corresponding quotients are not 2-manifolds. just orbifolds. θ) the metric is given by en. however. The sphere is simply connected. The quotient SO(3)/O(2) can be identified with the real projective plane. Hyperbolic geometry See also: hyperbolic triangle and hyperbolic geometry Non-Euclidean geometry[48] was first discussed in letters of Gauss. It is non-orientable and can be described as the quotient of S2 by the antipodal map (multiplication by –1). corresponding to the finite subgroups of O(2) and the symmetry groups of the platonic solids. Because of their application in complex analysis and geometry. followed by Klein in 1871 and Poincaré in 1882. the Poincaré upper half-plane. for which they were severely criticized. published synthetic versions of this new geometry. The four models of 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry that emerged were: the Beltrami-Klein model. has the advantage that geodesics are actually line segments (that is. the models of Poincaré are the most widely used: they are interchangeable thanks to the Möbius transformations between the disk and the upper half-plane.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 21/34 .

parametrized by arclength.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 22/34 . the free encyclopedia The length of a curve γ:[a.1)/±I is the group of orientation-preserving isometries of D. γ. The topology defined by this metric is equivalent to the usual Euclidean topology.r) = 2 tanh−1 r and c(t ) = tanh t /2 is the geodesic through 0 along the real axis. c with corresponding angles α. although as a metric space (D. w in D are joined by a unique geodesic.b] D is given by the formula The group G = SU(1. The distance between z and w is given by A hyperbolic triangle in the Poincaré disk model In particular d(0. The unit disk and the upper half-plane are conformally equivalent by the Möbius transformations en. b. β. given by the portion of the circle or straight line passing through z and w and orthogonal to the boundary circle.d) is complete.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . Any two points z. If the sides have length a. A hyperbolic triangle is a geodesic triangle for this metric: any three points in D are vertices of a hyperbolic triangle. then the hyperbolic cosine rule states that The area of the hyperbolic triangle is given by[49] Area = π – α – β – γ.Wikipedia.1) given by Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) acts transitively by Möbius transformations on D and the stabilizer subgroup of 0 is the rotation group The quotient group SU(1.

Wikipedia. by the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. Thus to show that a given surface is conformally equivalent to a metric with constant curvature K' it suffices to solve the following variant of Liouville's equation: When M has Euler characteristic 0. Examples . in such a way that In this case Γ is a finitely presented group. The unit disk with the Poincaré metric is the unique simply connected oriented 2-dimensional Riemannian manifold with constant curvature -1.1) on D. Any oriented closed surface M with this property has D as its universal covering space.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces .wikipedia. The metric on H becomes Since lines or circles are preserved under Möbius transformations.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 23/34 . so is diffeomorphic to a torus. so the equation to be solved is: en. Its fundamental group can be identified with a torsion-free concompact subgroup Γ of SU(1. the Bolza surface of genus 2. The new Gaussian curvature K' is then given by where Δ is the Laplacian for the original metric. the Klein quartic of genus 3. geodesics are again described by lines or circles orthogonal to the real axis. K' = -1.[50] When M has negative Euler characteristic. so this amounts to solving By standard elliptic theory. K' = 0. the metric on M can be changed conformally by scaling it by a factor e2u .R) by Möbius transformations on H corresponds to that of SU(1. the free encyclopedia Under this correspondence the action of SL(2. the Macbeath surface of genus 7. this is possible because the integral of K over M is zero. the First Hurwitz triplet of genus 14.1). The generators and relations are encoded in a geodesically convex fundamental geodesic polygon in D (or H) corresponding geometrically to closed geodesics on M. Uniformization Given an oriented closed surface M with Gaussian curvature K.

3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . this non-linear equation can always be solved.[54] Surfaces of non-positive curvature In a region where the curvature of the surface satisfies K≤0. t ) by After finite time. It follows that g1 = eφ g is a complete metric of constant curvature 0 on the complement of P. The equation Δv = 2K – 2. this characterisation of non-positive curvature in terms of the underlying metric space has had a profound impact on modern geometry and in particular geometric group theory. thanks to the vision of Gromov. where δP is the point measure at a fixed point P of S2. are equally valid in this more general setting. previous results of Hamilton could then be used to show that K' converges to +1. K' = 1 and the equation becomes: So far this non-linear equation has not been analysed directly. Alexandrov's comparison inequality The simplest form of the comparison inequality. Alexandrov and Toponogov. it follows that there is a smooth function u such that e2u g has Gaussian curvature +1 on the complement of P. geodesic triangles satisfy the CAT(0) inequalities of comparison geometry. Many results known for smooth surfaces and their geodesics. Chow showed that K' becomes positive. which is therefore isometric to the plane. developed by Richard Hamilton. because the right hand side has integral 0 by the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. Let G be the Green's function on S2 satisfying ΔG = 1 + 4πδP. first proved for surfaces by Alexandrov around 1940.Wikipedia.[52] In fact the Ricci flow on conformal metrics on S2 is defined on functions u(x . Composing with stereographic projection. states that The distance between a vertex of a geodesic triangle and the midpoint of the opposite side is always less than the corresponding distance in the comparison triangle in the plane with the same side-lengths. gives another proof of existence based on non-linear partial differential equations to prove existence. The method of Ricci flow.wikipedia. although classical results such as the Riemann-Roch theorem imply that it always has a solution. and considered later from a different point of view by Bruhat and Tits.[53] A simple proof using only elliptic operators discovered in 1988 can be found in Ding (2001).org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 24/34 . the free encyclopedia Using the continuity of the exponential map on Sobolev space due to Neil Trudinger. studied by Cartan. Thus φ = 2G + v satisfies Δφ = 2K away from P. such as Birkhoff's method of constructing geodesics by his curve-shortening process or van Mangoldt and Hadamard's theorem that a simply connected surface of non-positive curvature is homeomorphic to the plane.[51] Finally in the case of the 2-sphere. en. The function u automatically extends to a smooth function on the whole of S2. has a smooth solution v .

The completeness assumption is automatically fulfilled for a surface which is embedded as a closed subset of Euclidean space. a consequence of the non-negativity of the derivative of the Wronskian of H and r from Sturm–Liouville theory.[55] The median in the comparison triangle is always longer than the actual median.v ) corresponds to the unit vector . This is a special case of the Hopf-Rinow theorem.e. For surfaces.wikipedia. Taking geodesic polar coordinates with origin at a so that ||c(t )|| = r(t ). von Mangoldt (1881) and Hadamard (1898) proved that the exponential map at a point is a covering map. v at c(t ). However.Wikipedia. This result was generalised to higher dimensions by Cartan and is usually referred to in this form as the Cartan–Hadamard theorem. in this example two points which are diametrically opposite across the origin cannot be joined by a geodesic without leaving the punctured plan). Von Mangoldt-Hadamard theorem For closed surfaces of non-positive curvature. it is no longer fulfilled if. where (u. then f (t ) = d(a.c(t ))2 − t 2 is a convex function. which also applies in higher dimensions. Existence of geodesics On a complete curved surface any two points can be joined by a geodesic. we remove an isolated point from a surface. This follows from the inequality Hr ≥ H. en. this result follows from three important facts:[56] The exponential map has non-zero Jacobian everywhere for non-positively curved surfaces. the complement of the origin in the Euclidean plane is an example of a non-complete surface. the free encyclopedia The inequality follows from the fact that if c(t ) describes a geodesic parametrised by arclength and a is a fixed point. convexity is equivalent to Changing to normal coordinates u. i. a consequence of the non-vanishing of Hr.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . for example. For example. so that the universal covering space of the manifold is E². this inequality becomes u2 + H − 1 Hr v 2 ≥ 1.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 25/34 George Birkhoff (1884-1944) .

Élie Cartan and Hermann Weyl in the early twentieth century. called the covariant derivative .[58] The approach using covariant derivatives and connections is nowadays the one adopted in more advanced textbooks. the free encyclopedia Every geodesic is infinitely extendible.[5] A vector field v (t ) along a unit speed curve c(t ). For a general curve. As Ricci and LeviCivita realised at the turn of the twentieth century. Indeed a vector field on a surface embedded in can be regarded as a function from the surface into R3. is said to be parallel along the curve if en. a result known as the Hopf-Rinow theorem for n-dimensional manifolds. a topological impossibility.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 26/34 . A vector in the tangent plane is transported along a geodesic as the unique vector field with constant length and making a constant angle with the velocity vector of the geodesic. is very simply described in terms of orthogonal projection. if a geodesic tended at infinity towards a point x . Parallel transport along geodesics. Parallel transport Parallel transport of tangent vectors along a curve in the surface was the next major advance in the subject. the lift to an operator on vector fields. The resulting vector field will not be tangent to the surface. In the case of an embedded surface.wikipedia.[6] It is related to the earlier notion of covariant derivative. which measures how far the curve departs from being a geodesic. the "straight lines" of the surface. this process has to be modified using the geodesic curvature.Wikipedia. Riemannian connection and parallel transport Main article: Riemannian connection on a surface The classical approach of Gauss to the differential geometry of surfaces was the standard elementary approach[57] which predated the emergence of the concepts of Riemannian manifold initiated by Bernhard Riemann in the mid-nineteenth century and of connection developed by Tullio Levi-Civita.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces .[59] Covariant derivative Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941) Connections on a surface can be defined from various equivalent but equally important points of view. a closed disc D centred on a nearby point y with x removed would be contractible to y along geodesics. covariant derivative and parallel transport gave a more conceptual and uniform way of understanding curvature. The Riemannian connection or Levi-Civita connection[6] is perhaps most easily understood in terms of lifting vector fields. to differential operators on the tangent bundle or frame bundle. called characteristic classes. due to Levi-Civita. can also easily be described directly. with geodesic curvature k g (t ). because it is the monodromy of the ordinary differential equation on the curve defined by the covariant derivative with respect to the velocity vector of the curve. considered as first order differential operators acting on functions on the manifold. which not only allowed generalisations to higher dimensional manifolds but also provided an important tool for defining new geometric invariants. The notion of connection. but this can be corrected taking its orthogonal projection onto the tangent space at each point of the surface. Another vector field act as a differential operator component-wise. this process depends only on the metric and can be locally expressed in terms of the Christoffel symbols. Every two points in a homotopy class are connected by a unique geodesic (see above). In two dimensions.

3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . thus formalising the classical theory of the "moving frame". the connection form.[61] Lifts of loops about a point give rise to the holonomy group at that point. Equivalently curvature can be calculated directly at an infinitesimal level in terms of Lie brackets of lifted vector fields.[60] The connection can thus be described in terms of lifting paths in the manifold to paths in the tangent or orthonormal frame bundle. using connection 1-forms on the frame bundle of M. The length of the transported vector and the angle it makes with each side remain constant.Wikipedia.wikipedia. This approach is particularly simple for an embedded surface.[63] Élie Cartan in 1904 Global differential geometry of surfaces en. so that the angle θ(t ) should remain constant on any geodesic segment. gives a third way to understand the Riemannian connection. the free encyclopedia it has constant length the angle θ(t ) that it makes with the velocity vector satisfies This recaptures the rule for parallel transport along a geodesic or piecewise geodesic curve. favoured by French authors. Thanks to a result of Kobayashi (1956). Since it therefore depends continuously on the L2 norm of k g . Connection 1-form The approach of Cartan and Weyl. because in that case k g = 0.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 27/34 . it follows that parallel transport for an arbitrary curve can be obtained as the limit of the parallel transport on approximating piecewise geodesic curves. This enabled the curvature properties of the surface to be encoded in differential forms on the frame bundle and formulas involving their exterior derivatives. The Gaussian curvature at a point can be recovered from parallel transport around increasingly small loops at the point. The existence of parallel transport follows because θ(t ) can be computed as the integral of the geodesic curvature. They noticed that parallel transport dictates that a path in the surface be lifted to a path in the frame bundle so that its tangent vectors lie in a special subspace of codimension one in the three-dimensional tangent space of the frame bundle. Parallel transport of a vector around a geodesic triangle on the sphere.[62] Using the identification of S2 with the homogeneous space SO(3)/SO(2). the connection 1-form on a surface embedded in Euclidean space E3 is just the pullback under the Gauss map of the connection 1-form on S2. The projection onto this subspace is defined by a differential 1-form on the orthonormal frame bundle. the connection 1-form is just a component of the Maurer-Cartan 1-form on SO(3).

is necessarily a sphere. The conjecture has been proved for large classes of torus immersions.Wikipedia. Rigidity. Isoperimetric inequalities . There are other important aspects of the global geometry of surfaces. homeomorphic to a sphere. Carathéodory conjecture : This conjecture states that a closed convex three times differentiable surface admits at least two umbilic points. defined as the largest r such that two points at a distance less than r are joined by a unique geodesic. It is also known that the integral is a conformal invariant. In one dimension higher. Wente constructed immersed tori of constant mean curvature in Euclidean 3space. In the 1980s. This conjecture states that the integral of the square of the mean curvature of a torus immersed in E3 should be bounded below by 2 π2. The first work on this conjecture was in 1924 by Hans Hamburger. the free encyclopedia Although the characterisation of curvature involves only the local geometry of a surface. The Willmore conjecture . In 1927 Cohn-Vossen proved that two ovaloids – closed surfaces with positive Gaussian curvature – that are isometric are necessarily congruent by an isometry of E3. the Shortest loop on a torus perimeter is minimized by when the curve is a circle for the metric. Moreover a closed embedded surface with positive Gaussian curvature and constant mean curvature is necessarily a sphere. Hilbert's theorem (1901): no complete surface with constant negative curvature can be immersed isometrically in E3. there are important global aspects such as the Gauss-Bonnet theorem.[64] These include: Injectivity radius . i. Zero Gaussian curvature : a complete surface in E3 with zero Gaussian curvature must be a cylinder or a plane.e. likewise a closed embedded surface of constant Gaussian curvature must be a sphere (Liebmann 1899). In 1939 Schmidt proved that the classical isoperimetric inequality for curves in the Euclidean plane is also valid on the sphere or in the hyperbolic plane: namely he showed that among all closed curves bounding a domain of fixed area. The contribution of Hamburger and those of subsequent authors to proving this local conjecture are inconclusive. in other words a geodesic realising the metric distance between two points cannot have length greater than δ.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . the von Mangoldt-Hadamard theorem. en. Wilhelm Klingenberg proved in 1959 that the injectivity radius of a closed surface is bounded below by the minimum of and the length of its smallest closed geodesic. the surface area is minimized for a Euclidean ball. the uniformization theorem. five years later Alexandrov removed the topological assumption. Heinz Hopf showed in 1950 that a closed embedded surface with constant mean curvature and genus 0.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 28/34 .wikipedia. and the embeddability theorem. who noted that it follows from the following stronger claim : the half-integer valued index of the principal curvature foliation of an isolated umbilic is at most one. This improved a theorem of Bonnet who showed in 1855 that the diameter of a closed surface of positive Gaussian curvature is always bounded above by δ. it is known that among all closed surfaces in E3 arising as the boundary of a bounded domain of unit volume.

Gray.wikipedia. There is also a version for metrics on the sphere. with equality in the flat (constant curvature) case. 13. the more modern copiously illustrated undergraduate textbooks by Gray. 197–213. pp. ^ Stillwell 1996. 7. with a lower bound of 2/π also attained in the constant curvature case. do Carmo 1976. An accessible account of the classical theory can be found in Hilbert & Cohn-Vossen (1952). p. 270–291. Pressley (2001) and Wilson (2008) might be found more accessible. More sophisticated graduate-level treatments using the Riemannian connection on a surface can be found in Singer & Thorpe (1967). pp. although this is not optimal. 168–170. pp. 249–251. 61–65. ^ Eisenhart 2004. . In 1949 Loewner proved a torus inequality for metrics on the torus. 15. pp.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . ^ O'Neill. 188–197. ^ do Carmo 1976. 1–5. 9. namely that the area of the torus over the square of its systole is bounded below by . Gromov conjectured a lower bound of in 1980: the best result so far is the lower bound of 1/8 obtained by Regina Rotman in 2006. 161–162 ^ Eisenhart 2004. A similar result is given by Pu's inequality for the real projective plane from 1952. 12. ^ Eisenhart 2004. its systole is defined to be the smallest length of any non-contractible closed curve on the surface. Blatter and Bavard later obtained a lower bound of . Accounts of the classical theory are given in Eisenhart (2004). 11. pp. O'Neill. Abbena & Salamon 2006. taking for the systole the length of the smallest closed geodesic. 241–250. 8. pp. do Carmo 1976. pp. p. 194. Three years later Mikhail Gromov found a lower bound given by a constant times g1/2. pp. the free encyclopedia Systolic inequalities for curves on surfaces . See also Zoll surface Notes ^ Euler 1760 ^ Euler 1771 ^ Gauss 1825-1827 ^ This is the final position into which a rubber band stretched between two fixed points on the surface would fall. Hebda and Burago showed that the ratio is bounded below by 1/2. 223 ^ do Carmo 1976. 4. pp. 2. 3. do Carmo. pp. Given a closed surface. Abbena & Salamon (2006). 249–251. For the Klein bottle. ^ Douglas' solution is described in Courant (1950). Kreyszig (1991) and Struik (1988). 14. pp. ^ a b c d Berger 2004 ^ a b c d e f g h Eisenhart 2004. en. 10. charting the historical development from before Gauss to modern times. 5. Hilbert & Cohn-Vossen 1952. 6.Wikipedia. Asymptotically sharp upper and lower bounds given by constants times g/(log g)2 are due to Gromov and Buser-Sarnak. ^ Eisenhart 2004. 123 ^ Singer & Thorpe 1967. do Carmo (1976) and O'Neill (1997). p. 250–269.[65] Reading guide One of the most comprehensive introductory surveys of the subject. 228–229 ^ Eisenhart 2004. and can be found in Katz (2007).org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 29/34 1. For a closed surface of genus g. pp. is by Berger (2004). 16.

47–49 42. pp. Jürgen (1997). p. 123–124. Adriano M. Chapter 2. 25. 195–216. ^ Berger 2004. 32. ^ Eisenhart 2004. ^ O'Neill 1997. ^ Wilson 2008. Chapter XII. 222–225. Abbena & Salamon 2006. 25–49. pp.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 30/34 17. ^ Wilson 2008. 48. ^ Note that in some more recent texts the symmetric bilinear form on the right hand side is referred to as the second fundamental form. 1–5. Wilson 2008. pp. ^ This follows by an argument involving a theorem of Sacks & Uhlenbeck (1981) on removable singularities of harmonic maps of finite energy. Chapter II. ^ Berger 1977. 156 ^ O'Neill 1997. p. 123–124. ^ do Carmo 1976.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces .1896 62. 47. 58. (1961). ^ Berger 2004. p. Wilson 2008. ^ Wilson 2008. Euclidean geometry. it does not in general correspond to the classically defined second fundamental form. Berger 2004. ^ do Carmo 1976. Jost. ^ Eisenhart 2004. 92 37. 357 33. p. O'Neill 1997. ^ Wilson 2008. Appendix I. ^ Taylor 1996b. 386. pp.. Berger 2004. ^ Berger 1977. p. Kreyszig 1991. 43. Lectures in Mathematics. pp. ^ Chen. Abbena & Salamon 2006. Garsia. Taylor 1996b. 60. ^ Helgason 1978. Chapter 5. the free encyclopedia ^ Stillwell 1996. 35: 93–110. ^ Kobayashi & Nomizu 1969 63. ETH Zurich. 55. ^ do Carmo 1976. Berger 2004. p. 31–32 40. ^ Gray. 114–115. do Carmo 1976. 248. Chapter I. 20. Appendix C. pp. ^ Eisenhart 2002. 21. Comment. Carslaw & Enriques 1955. p. Taylor 1996a. 1–23. p. 257 ^ do Carmo 1976. ^ Singer & Thorpe 1967. Taylor 1996b. 26. 39. Birkhäuser. 57. ^ Wilson 2008 35. 301–306. ^ Stillwell 1990. 101–108. p. 31. ^ Chow 1991. 237 29. O'Neill 1997. ^ doCarmo 1976. 131. pp. 286 38. ^ Imayoshi & Taniguchi 1992. Nonpositive curvature: geometric and analytic aspects.1889. ^ Eisenhart 2004. pp. ^ Ivey & Landsberg 2003. 49. 23. ISBN 0-8176-5736-3 56. 46. 50.Wikipedia. pp. doi:10.doi. 216–224. ^ Osserman 2002. Berger 2004. 22. 45. p. Helv. . ^ Eisenhart 2004. "An imbedding of closed Riemann surfaces in Euclidean space". pp. ^ Wilson 2008. however. Berger 1977. 263–264. p. ^ Arnold 1989. Taylor 1996. Bonola. 27. 44. p. 309–314 ^ O'Neill 1997. pp. 227 39. ^ Kobayashi & Nomizu 1969. 54. 134–153. 394. 107. 53. p. p. 110. 24. Math. 341–343. do Carmo 1976.1007/BF02567009 (http://dx. ^ Darboux 1887. ^ Milnor 1963 34. 52. Lu & Tian (2006) pointed out a missing step in the approach of Hamilton and Chow. p. Wilson 2008. 395 36. 59. en. ^ Eisenhart 2004.wikipedia. 19. ^ do Carmo 1976. pp. 61. Milnor 1963. Spherical geometry. Singer & Thorpe 1967. ^ Eisenhart 2004. 28. ^ Gray. pp. pp. 51. pp.org/10. pp. ^ Han & Hong 2006 30. ^ O'Niell 1997. Pressley 2001. 18. Singer & Thorpe 1967. Berger 2004.1007%2FBF02567009) 41. pp.

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Differential Geometry: Curves . Springer Undergraduate Mathematics Series. Georges (1986). Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces: A Concise Guide. ISBN 0-12-526750-9 Osserman.php?title=Differential_geometry_of_surfaces&oldid=539082910" Categories: Differential geometry of surfaces This page was last modified on 19 February 2013 at 18:32. 112 (1): 1–24. Partial Differential Equations III: Nonlinear equations. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Shoshichi. Vol. ISBN 0-470-49648-7 Kobayashi. Springer-Verlag. "Isometric imbedding of two-dimensional Riemannian metrics in Euclidean spaces". ISBN 978-0-521-71390-0 Retrieved from "http://en. Katsumi (1963). Foundations of Differential Geometry. Russian Math. Differential Geometry. Academic Press. Rend. Dover. Springer-Verlag.1070%2FRM1973v028n04ABEH001591) Pressley. ISBN 1-85233-152-6 Sacks. (1996a).jstor.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 33/34 . "The existence of minimal immersions of 2-spheres". John (1996). ISBN 0-470-49648-7 Kreyszig.. Math Sci Press. (2005). ISBN 0-82180558-4 Struik. Poznjak. Karen (1981). ISBN 1-4419-7051-7 Taylor. doi:10. Surveys 28 (4): 47–77. en.2307%2F1971131) .wikipedia. Springer-Verlag. Tullio (1917). Lecture Notes on Elementary Topology and Geometry. American Mathematical Society..org/stable/1971131) Singer. ISBN 1-4419-7048-7 Toponogov. John A. additional terms may apply. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-00264-8 .org/10. Vol. Andrew (2001). "Nozione di parallelismo in una varieta qualunque". Porteous (2001) Geometric Differentiation: for the intelligence of curves and surfaces. Curved Space: From Classical Geometries to Elementary Differential Geometry. Thorpe.doi.1070/RM1973v028n04ABEH001591 (http://dx. (1996b). Springer-Verlag. Mat.google. Lectures on classical differential geometry: Second Edition. doi:10. The Classical Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces.doi. the free encyclopedia Kobayashi. Sources of Hyperbolic Geometry. ISBN 0-387-90202-3 Stillwell. Katsumi (1969). Michael E. Nomizu. Nomizu. Partial Differential Equations II: Qualitative Studies of Linear Equations. Robert (2002). Cambridge University Press. (1973). ISBN 0-915692-39-2 Full text of book (http://books.org/w/index.1007/BF03014898 (http://dx. E. ISBN 0-486-66721-9 Kühnel.wikipedia. Dover. Dirk Jan (1988). II. I.org/10.Surfaces . American Mathematical Society. See Terms of Use for details. Uhlenbeck. JSTOR 1971131 (http://www.Wikipedia. Michael E. ISBN 0486-65609-8 Taylor. Isadore M. Shoshichi. Pelham (2008). Springer-Verlag. Wiley Interscience. Foundations of Differential Geometry. Wiley Interscience. Dover. Ann.doi. Victor A. Elementary Differential Geometry. Of Math. A Survey of Minimal Surfaces. Palermo 42: 173–205.com/books? id=IQXstKvWsHMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=valiron+surfaces&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0) Wilson. ISBN 0-486-49514-0 Ian R.2307/1971131 (http://dx. Elementary Differential Geometry. J.1007%2FBF03014898) O'Neill. Wolfgang (2006). Circ. ISBN 0-8176-4384-2 Valiron. (1967).org/10. Barrett (1997). Erwin (1991).3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . ISBN 0-8218-3988-8 Levi-Civita.Manifolds. doi:10.G.

a non-profit organization.3/28/13 Differential geometry of surfaces . en. the free encyclopedia Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_geometry_of_surfaces 34/34 .. Inc.Wikipedia.

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In mathematics, the differential geometry of surfaces deals with smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a
Riemannian metric.

In mathematics, the differential geometry of surfaces deals with smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a

Riemannian metric.

Riemannian metric.

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