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NANOELECTRONICS

ABSTRACT
Nanoelectronics is perceived as one of the key technologies of the 21st century with an enormous potential to flourish dramatically in the near future. Albert Einstein first proved that each molecule measures

about a nanometer (a billion of a meter) in diameter. And in 1959, it was Richard P. Feynman who predicted a technological world composed of self-replicating molecules whose purpose would be the production of nano-sized objects. This breakthrough technology enables creation of things one atom or molecule at a time. It offers a broad set of opportunities by focusing on quantum devices and addressing their potential for high performance through increases in density (factors of 5 to 100), speed (factors of 10 to 100), and reduced power (factors of more than 50). The definition of features on the nanometer length scale (NLS) is impossible via conventional lithography, but can be done using extreme ultraviolet, synchrotron-radiation, or electron beam lithography. However, since these techniques are very expensive and barely in their infancy, their exploitation in integrated circuit (IC) processing is still highly putative. Geometries on the NLS can however be produced with relative ease using the spacer patterning technique, that is, transforming vertical features (like film thickness) in the vicinity of a step of a sacrificial layer into horizontal features. This work is devoted to describing a scheme (essentially based on the existing microelectronic technology) for their production without the use of advanced lithography and how it can be arranged to host molecular devices. Potential applications are in digital radar, electronic support measures (ESM) receivers, ATM data stream processing, wide bandwidth communications, digital image processing, waveform generation, and the broad area of analog to digital (A/D) applications. This paper presents a scenario on existing studies on Nanoelectronics with its importance in making a new class of smaller, faster and lower power consumed computer chips illustrated. Carbon tubes, which are the heart for this technology, is highlighted which possesses extraordinary physical and chemical properties because of which it is possible to make incredible components. Most of the preceding discussion is premised upon the implicit assumption that future quantum effect nanoelectronics devices will be fabricated in nanometer scale using molecules. The paper also presents that it is the different construction which is based on helical logic, atomic scale motion of electrons in an applied rotating electric field. Finally, the latest developments taken place in the world are exemplified, ending with an interesting conclusion about the performance of this elegant technology in the immediate future.
This seminar paper builds on concepts, as they say "TOO SMALL TO SEE TOO LARGE TO IGNORE.

Keywords: Nanorobots,

Nanolayers, Carbon Nanotubes(CNT), Electron Beam Lithography, Electromigration, Quantum Dots, MEMS Devices, Nano MOSFET, Nano Wires & Nano Radio

Amrit Patnaik Regd. No- 0901317019 Branch- ECE 7th Sem, 4th Year Gandhi Institute Of Science & Technology