Media Ownership – General What is Media Ownership? By Sheila S.

Coronel, PCIJ The fall of Ferdinand Marcos in a 'people power' uprising in 1986 transformed the structure of media ownership in the Philippines. Marcos controlled the media by limiting the ownership of newspapers and broadcast stations to his kin and cronies, and by imposing a regime of censorship over what used to be one of the freest presses in Asia. When Marcos fell, the system of media controls that he had established was dismantled overnight. Once they were set loose, the media blossomed. Suddenly, there were two dozen daily newspapers publishing out of Manila alone, compared to only halfa-dozen during the Marcos years. The three major nationwide TV networks became six. At the same time, radio stations were set up as if air waves were running out of fashion. Twelve years after people power, there are 156 television stations (excluding cable and UHF) operating in various parts of the country; 402 radio stations, 25 nationally circulating dailies and over 200 other weekly or fortnightly newspapers. The new freedoms unleashed by the 1986 uprising gave journalists wide latitude to report on events and issues. The Philippine media are not only free, they are also extremely powerful.  Sheila S. Coronel is winner of the 2003 Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature and the Creative Communication Arts. She is also one of the founders of the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. In 2006 she was named the inaugural director of The Toni Stabile Center for Investigative Journalism at Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism. She is an alumna of the College of the Holy Spirit, in Mendiola, Manila, Philippines. Other Definitions: Private media ownership has both positive and negative qualities. Private media ownership can result in better quality products due to competition. The threat of losing market share to a competitor forces firms to put forth their best products. Furthermore, large media firms achieve efficiencies due to economies of scale. (In microeconomics, a situation in which a producer’s cost per unit of a product falls as more of that product is produced.) Lastly, the very fact that these firms are not owned by governments allows perspectives that dissent from official sources to be shared. On the other hand, private ownership leads to media firms placing profit above public interest.

Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation or media convergence) is a process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media. Contemporary research demonstrates increasing levels of consolidation, with many media industries already highly concentrated and dominated by a very small number of firms. Globally, large media conglomerates include Viacom, CBS Corporation, Time Warner, News Corp, Bertelsmann AG, Sony Corporation of America, NBC Universal, Vivendi, Televisa, The Walt Disney Company, Hearst Corporation, Organizações Globo and Lagardère Group. As of 2010, The Walt Disney Company is the largest media conglomerate in the US, with News Corporation, Time Warner and Viacom ranking second, third and fourth respectively. In nations described as authoritarian by most international think-tanks and NGOs like Human Rights Watch (China, Cuba, Russia), media ownership is generally something very close to the complete state control over information in direct or indirect ways. Who Owns the Media? Here in the Philippines, I could say that we have 3 major owners of the Media Industry. Here they are: 1. Mr. Eugenio Lopez III The Lopez family has always been a major player in Philippines business and politics. They ran a multimillion peso business empire until 1972. When their economic power caught the ire of former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, he closed down all their businesses when he declared Martial Law. In 1986, President Cory Aquino assumed the presidency and she gave them back their businesses. They were able to rebuild them from scratch. Today, the Lopez family runs a business empire which affects virtually every aspect of the average Filipino's life.... from electrical power....to water and phone services...to broadcasting, movies and recording. 47-year old Gabby Lopez is one of the heirs to his family's conglomerate of businesses. He studied political science in Bowdin College in Maine, USA and has an MBA from Harvard Business School. He is CEO and Chairman of the family's broadcast networks ABSCBN. 2. Mr. Felipe Gozon

Under his watch. He was the former Chairman of the Board of Trustees ofAteneo de Manila University. or enterprise at any level. at some point toppling the longdominantABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation in 2004 from their Mega Manila stronghold until today in the Mega Manila ratings. or ABC that they are receiving a different perspective.. is a Filipino businessman. It is the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. Accenture. also known as Manny Pangilinan and MVP. and the Isle of Man. industry. He received his MBA degree in 1968 from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. government ownership or state property. Birmingham. There always be larger andpowerful conglomerates Drive for profit means less independent autonomy and creativity in media production Reliance on new media technology. Conclusions: • • • • Media ownership is transforming.com Free Encyclopedia Free Market A free market is a market where the price of a good or service is determined by supply and demand. mostly from advertising and other revenue sources. but far too often overlooked by many others. are property interests that are vested in the state. Coca-Cola. retail or IT. one of the largest media networks in the Philippines. He graduatedcum laude from the Ateneo de Manila University with a Bachelor of Arts degree inEconomics.com and NASA. Cignal Digital TVand Smart Communications. He is the Chairman of the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company. banking. science. Groupon. regional or local(municipal). or to common (full-community) non-state ownership. The media distributes information that shapes the attitudes and opinions of people every day. London and Salford and smaller production centres throughout the UK. What Does Concentration of Media Ownership mean? What exactly does “Concentration of Media Ownership” mean? It means that a very small number of corporations are controlling an increasing amount of the media industryThough people may believe that by watching Fox. 3. Starbucks. It is time to set it right. SalesForce. Glasgow. NBC. Cardiff. Felipe L. It has revolutionized business in a way that can no longer be ignored by those seeking to gain competitive advantage over their competitors. national. rather than an individual or communities. Social media . whether in health. with about 23.Felipe Gozon is the current chief executive and chair of GMA Network Inc. Manny V. destroys more traditional outlets of ditribution and retail MEDIA AS BUSINESS Social media in business is no longer a choice.000 staff. the Channel Islands. The BBC is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London and has major production centres in Belfast. State ownership may refer to state ownership or control of any asset. Social Media in Business – Succeeding in the New Internet Revolution is a guide to the understanding of social media’s business value as well as to its successful implementation within the realm of your organisation. Its main responsibility is to provide impartial public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom. Philippines). Gozon obtained a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of the Philippines and a Masters of Laws degree from Yale University. supply or demand are distorted by regulation or direct control by government. social media has something for everyone. the network has also experienced stability in terms of revenues.[2] He is also the owner of ABC/TV5 network. rather than by governmental regulation. where price. Pangilinan spent his elementary and high school days at San Beda College. Social media offers several key business opportunities that have been jubilantly capitalized on by iconic companies such as Cisco. the excessively downgrading effect its lack can inflict upon businesses. CNN. Pangilinan Manuel V Pangilinan (born July 14. Bristol. 1946 in Manila. The process of bringing an asset into public ownership is called nationalization or municipalization. Atty. Source: Wikipedia. Whatever industry you operate in. In this phase of Internet evolution and revolution. A lawyer by profession. from 1998 up to the present. An economy composed entirely of free markets is referred to as a free-market economy or free-market anarchism. Forms of Media Ownership State Ownership State ownership. companies need to understand the incredible business power social media can have and in parallel. also called public ownership. the Yale-educated Gozon is seen as the network executive who has successfully turned-around GMA from its state as the one of the leading television networks in the Philippines to its current stature. Mr. it is very likely that they really aren’t. A free market contrasts with a controlled market or regulated market. Public Service BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcasting corporation.

when customers shared negative stories about McDonalds on Twitter. including the six in Minot. ease of reading/viewing. enjoyment). and new partners.' “The Media Monopoly” by Ben H. When the emergency alert system failed. It acknowledged that the democratic • Commoditized news does not create economic value. It owns 1. Most news enterprises still have a long way to go. Wilson argues that social media equips the average person with four “factors empowering bad behavior. So take Wilson’s advice: consider the risks associated with social media and have a compelling reason for using it. Pets and livestock were killed. you have to provide something unique if you are going to get the public to pay for it Consumer payments are becoming a more important revenue source than advertising and success come through creating more sources of revenue than merely audience sales and advertising sales Paid apps for news on smartphones and tablets are gaining better acceptance than general online payments. Clear Channel is the largest radio chain in the United States. no one answered the phone at the stations for more than an hour and a half Three hundred people were hospitalized. if they can influence the presentation and consumption and interact with content and other users. Some news organizations are making good progress in getting things right and the public is increasingly seeing value provided by news on digital platforms and evidencing increased willingness to pay. the police called the town radio stations. irritating the respiratory system and burning exposed skin. Dak. six of which are owned by the corporate giant. But as all good business leaders know. It fuses clothing to the body and sucks moisture from the eyes. Those factors mean that news organizations have to offer digital content that differs from the print newspaper in many ways... Clear Channel. must be realistic about financial expectations (you won’t make as much money as in the 1990s and growth won’t be highly rapid).240 radio stations with only Zoo employees. N. • • It is also apparent that users expect more from digital environments than the print environment and that they are more willing to use and pay for news if it offers a better experience (convenience. so embrace it now before you end up lagging behind everyone else.. but we have no reason to be highly pessimistic about the future of news in the digital world. one person has died and 40o have been hospitalized. Most of its stations. and if it offers various usability tools. about the "news. and that you cannot just transfer the same content among platforms because each platform requires different types of presentations. He points to the #McDStories disaster. story forms and navigation. the risks of not using social media are even greater. there are some important lessons to embrace about news businesses in the digital environment: • Anonymity and (4) No Accountability. networks. Anhydrous ammonia is a popular fertilizer that also creates a noxious gas. simplicity. releasing a deadly cloud over the city of Minot. Democrat of North Dakota. had a potential disaster in his district when a freight train carrying anhydrous ammonia derailed. Social media.  MEDIA MONOPOLY Senator Byron Dorgan." It is the mass media which decide what *is* the news. bad for business In the post. We have learned that to make money from news in the digital world companies have to focus on customer needs (not the needs of the news organization). To date. While the risks Wilson highlights are real in some cases. as an example of how social media is having this negative effect. and value configurations are needed in the digital world. those in power have it in their interest to control the information "The Age of Enlightenment created a new kind of society. some partially blinded by the ammonia . are operated nationwide by remote control with the same prerecorded material. It’s all about the calculated risks you take. Bagdikian More than at any time in our history. what is important and what is trivial." "Authorities have always recognized that to control the public they must control information. if it includes audio-visual material. we depend on the mass media to inform us about what is occurring. According to news accounts.for business is here to stay." Thus. if content includes more analysis and access to additional material. what is reality and what is fantasy. If we look at what has occurred in the past decade. risk taking is critical for progression. particularly against companies:” (1) No Guilt (2) The Mob (3) Relative . "The mass media become the authority at any given moment for what is true and what is false.

"." When we see "commercials" on television. chiefs of their corporations. "Modern technology and American economics have quietly created a new kind of central authority over information -. B.focusing* on other issues.. Cable.... it becomes harder and harder to distinguish them from outright propaganda. If citizens cannot make *informed* choices they will be led to *badly formed* choices. prefer to use material they own or that tends to serve their economic purposes. it had the effect of *de... once thought to be a fundamental alternative to programs on commercial television." The chief executive officers of the twenty-three corporations "that control most of what Americans read and see." The mass media "is being reduced to a small number of closed circuits in which the owners of the conduits. In the United States. [Thus. which means giving voters full information and real choices. these slaves of mammon will allow a controlled range of debate.. democracy begins to fail. the parent corporations seldom refrain from using their power over public information.." Thus *information* was crucial in a democracy. 80 percent of the daily newspapers in the United States were independently owned. has seldom seen in their newspapers." "When the same corporations expand their control over many different kinds of media.." Although it is true that within the dominance of the fifty corporados controlling the media there still is *some* mixture of news and ideas -.. it is time for Americans to examine the institutions from which they receive their daily picture of the world. The limits are felt on open discussion of the system that supports giantism in corporate life and of other values that have been enshrined under the inaccurate label 'free enterprise. [a] heavy hand. the answer to government power is accountability..'" Sure. "The fifty men and women who head these corporations.the public. a plurality of information.. "What is reported enters the public agenda.R." But unfortunately. By the 1980s." Bagdikian gives numerous examples of the trend toward centralized control of the media.. More common is something more subtle." Without unrestricted and accurate information.. control more than half the information and ideas that reach 220 million Americans. By choosing what issues to focus on. economic conservatives.] More than any other single private source and often more than any governmental source. the experience has been that the common control of different media makes those media more alike than ever... But "when their most sensitive economic interests are at stake.. but by 1989 the proportion was *reversed* [my emphasis]. 2...consent of the governed is meaningless unless the consent is informed consent. or broadcasts anything to suggest the political and economic dangers of concentrated corporate control. Conflicts of interest between the public's need for information and corporate desires for 'positive' information have vastly increased.]. It allowed them to create the national atmosphere that they desired.." The author stresses that this concentration of media control into the hands of a few CEOs of a small group of mega-corporations is a topic that is *verboten* in the mass media." The corporados can especially exert a subtle control over our information by emphasizing some items more than others.." The believers in this economic mythology "know which side their bread is buttered on. the majority of all major American media... "News and public information have been integrated formally into the highest levels of financial and nonjournalistic corporate control. the first amendment sought to guarantee a plurality of viewpoints..." The permissable range of discussion is defined by the mass media. It had the effect "of undernourishing society of other news and ideas necessary for informed democratic decision making.. He cites the fact that "At the end of World War II." . with 80 percent owned by corporate chains. is increasingly an imitation of commercial television..the national and multinational corporation... and to treat subjects favorable to the corporate ethic frequently and in depth." Bagdikian argues that ". they do tell the public what to think about." This power of the media monopoly caused two negative effects on the quality of public discourse: 1.. were controlled by fifty giant corporations. more professionally respectable and more effective: the power to treat some unliked subjects accurately but briefly. the fifty dominant media corporations can set the national agenda. constitute a new Private Ministry of Information and Culture.." "When fifty men and women.while it is not possible for the media to tell the population what to think [at least not overtly.." These powerful information czars can easily drown out attempts by the less powerful to put forth dissenting viewpoints. "In a democracy.still "there are also limits. "Most owners and editors no longer brutalize the news with. [are] almost without exception. "Diversity of expression was assumed to be the natural state of enduring liberty. magazines. almost totally dependent on the media.

engaged in a strange act. Proper credits were given to them.31 pages. They sell their boiled pine trees [i..Samuel Thurm.e. 43 pages ads (65%)." And. senior vicepresident. In a dozen years the powerful system of noncommercial broadcasting in the United States had been destroyed. newspapers] for about one-third less than they pay for them.." Americans pay for the advertising which supports these media by paying *extra* for the goods being promoted in the advertisements.the advertising-supported newspapers. 2009 It can be safely said that the media has a very important role in shaping the markets and the economy. they are much more beholden in their attitude toward their advertisers than they are towards their reading public.were created as advertising bait.. 23 pages "news" Note in the above chart that most of the "news" pages added between 1940 and 1980 ". "Fluff continues to spread." The newspaper publishers pull off this magic through the help of advertising fees. The media is after stories that attract attention. "Americans do not get their newspapers and magazines at less than cost. It will not therefore settle for anything that is even less than mediocre. All of these were researched thoroughly and were derived from reliable sources. Newspaper publishers are ".5 pages "news" * 1980 -. who would pay for the media? The good fairy? -. The role of media on the economy Posted by Kyle. For example: "Ads in early magazines were segregated in the back pages since editors assumed they were an intrusion on the reader. an area called 'fluff' in the trade. The normal sequence of events is for the advertiser to start out having a minimal influence and to wind up having a huge influence over the content of what is disseminated. 12." Because large quantities of radios had already been sold. But in the 1890s.. but it also has the power to bring that business down. "Heavy sections of newspapers -." Daily Papers (averages) * 1940 -.66 pages... makes clear that readers want more hard news. 18.. "Revenue Related Reading Matter [fluff]" is pretending to be hard news."  MEDIA AS AN ECONOMIC AGENT Listed below are the articles used by the researcher with this report. "In the security of their domination of the market.. newspaper publishers have been converting newspapers into agencies for merchants.. Association of National Advertisers." But publishers have consistently ignored their readership's wants in favor of submitting to the demands of their advertisers. according to Bagdikian. By the 1930s.. They pay for everything.."With no ads. The media has the potential to bring fame to a business. the educational stations were no longer necessary as stimulants to the sale of radio receivers. They do not get their radio and television free. "Every serious survey.used their influence in government to force educational stations to give up popular frequencies and broadcast times. An article that put the reader in an analytical frame of mind did not encourage the reader to take seriously an ad that depended on fantasy or promoted a trivial product." This blurring of the distinction between "news" and advertising is becoming more and more of a problem. magazines. More and more. Either the story is extremely negative or ." The history of advertisers' relationship with various media shows a consistent pattern. And ironically." "As the 1920s progressed so did commercials. including those by the newspaper industry itself..like fashions. Sometimes the material in the special sections is genuinely useful and is produced by professional journalists. food. but publishers are not much interested in what type of paper you want. The influence of advertising on magazines reached a point where editors began selecting articles not only on the basis of their expected interest for readers but for their influence on advertisements.. Yahoo! Contributor Network on March 12. and real estate -. "All of this is never made clear to them in the communications they most depend on -. and commercial broadcasting.were not 'news' but were in a grey area between real news and ads..5 pages ads (40%). Most fluff is wanted by advertisers to create a buying mood. Or rather. Commercial stations ". advertising agencies insisted that ads be moved from the back of magazines to the front." You pay money for your newspaper. More often it is a mixture of light syndicated features and corporate press releases. radio made all its money from advertising and created its programs to support advertising. Serious articles were not always the best support for ads.

Social Media Today are the brightest examples in this context. They simply cannot compete with these giants. Small business suffers and many families and local business people lose everything they have worked hard for. It’s a vicious cycle. Wal-Mart then makes a huge profit but the folks that work there make minimum wages and have to buy their own medical coverage. what to eat. The company used is Journatic and they use underpaid workers to create the news thousands of miles away from the US. when the media reports news of half of the population of the US believing that the economic situation will worsen and turn into something like the Great Depression. But where did those products come from and where is that money going. entertainment. June 27. several major media giants including Sam Zell's Tribune are outsourcing the news to content farms in the Philippines. Emergence of social media has led people think of starting off their own social media companies and agencies. But think what this really means. Another result of this "trend" is to put the small local retailers out of business. Is it really the media though that is the causal factor. Everything we see and hear from the media has such a huge influence on the way we live our lives that it is inconceivable that the economy is not the main focus of the media. Now. Hub Pages The Sobering Facts It is a sobering fact of our modern lives. but it also has been providing millions of job opportunities since 2009 both online and offline. Media Influence and how it affects our economy Posted by Mark Weller. Media and the Economy The economy.extremely positive. And the media supports this trend. to radio. while the mother company is earning a lot of money from such stories. crippling the economy even more. attitudes and beliefs of society. Just take the issue of shopping. According to "This American Life". Instead of thinking of other business routes. Just recently. Mashable. what to feel. such a story is going to have millions of people glued to their TV sets. Many of the products we purchase in these "low cost" retailers come from other countries and therefore the money we spend is leaving this country and going elsewhere. but this is one situation that illustrates well how the media can affect the economy. is the main area of attention in the media today. emergence of startups in social media consulting business has become very common these . The economy is but one area where the media has a huge and powerful influence. Radian6. Techcrunch. and this can mean more money from ad revenues. Did you get that? The news at times is not even written on out shores! Social media’s effect on world economy Posted on Monday. On the other hand. We get constant messages about shopping. diet and health and a host of other issues daily. The huge increase in technology has also caused a huge increase in the power and influence of the media. people are considering to launch dedicated social media organizations and websites. 2011 in World economy and social media By SocialF5 Any economy can be either good or bad from an individual’s point of view. that the media plays a huge part in directing the events. So it is not hard to imagine that the messages we get daily are very highly crafted. Many times working their whole lives to build. where do you think the money for those ads comes from and who are the people with this huge amount of money that control the messages and ads that we see? Offshore Media We are told what to think. running such compelling stories is one way the network the news outlet is involved in is able to earn money. more and more Americans are like to spend less money and pulling out their stock investments. After all. when to buy and when to sell. It's not only because it has changed the whole concept of online marketing. which can supersede one economic phase over others. Apart from that. In the current global economy. The economy is controlled by a very select few in the world. For example. you can almost bet on the media to exert all means to get to the bottom of the story. we shop at Wal-Mart for example and purchase low cost products saving money. True. There must be a force. social media is the driving force. and the media is owned and controlled by those same people in the end. I came across some disturbing information. being the one most important issue in everyone's lives. and designed to "guide" our society in a pre-determined direction. There are 4 or 5 major corporations that "own" the media and those corporations are owned and run by the big money people. or is it the corporations and the money people behind these media giants that are the true cause of influence? The media has grown and changed over the last century from the early days of telephone. housing. to television and onto the modern internet. We are told that big retailers like Wal-Mart and Target are a great place to shop and millions do this daily.

gaming sector has got a huge boost from social media. Its purpose is to contribute peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education. PCIJ • Main point of the article is that the ratings game has become very competitive.The book will assist people working in the media to assess progress on gender equality. The document assesses the key challenges faced by female journalists and the need for concrete policies for ensuring more equality in mainstream media. Related Article: The Battle over Ratings by Luz Rimban. promotion and training opportunities as men. They are even marginalised in the unions that represent them. For examples. In many countries women are strongly represented in newsrooms but media are still very male dominated when the top positions are examined. It takes argument. In spite of the progress made over the last 25 years media still churns out female stereotypes that limit the power of women in society. Health and safety assessments are useful tools for assessing the depth and degree of the risks faced at work. 57% of all television news presenters were women by 2005. Every industry is making money hand over fist from social media and there’s no denial in that. But they do not play an equal role in the reporting process and only few women journalist write or cover “hard” news. Pay audits may be the only way to find out whether there is a gender pay gap within a company. and culture in order to further universal respect for justice. How? Social media alone contributed 8. when people accessed social networking sites for chatting and personal interaction. regional and global debates leading to the formulation of concrete policies to promote gender equality and the advancement of women worldwide. LinkedIn with 900 employees. the rule of law. Battles for equality are being fought in every country. identify challenges. and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the UN Charter. a global survey taken every five years. Facebook Ads contributes a great deal into their approximate $4 billion revenue. ( UNESCO [United Nations Educational. Groupon alone has 4500 employees. called business. But now these platforms are being used for a more serious cause. Gender Equality In Media Gender equality is also known as sex equality or sexual equality or equality of the genders which implies that men and women should receive equal treatment unless there is a sound biological reason for different treatment. Scientific and Cultural Organization] . Women are marginalised in the news both in the content of the jobs they do and in the opportunities they have to make their way in the profession. The high growth of employment has definitely affected the overall economy in the world. downright unfair and at times dirty. yet only 29% of news items were written by female reporters. Publisher: International Journalists. training and practical commitment to confront discrimination. Equal opportunity legislation should ensure that women journalists get the same access to jobs. debate. followed by Facebook with 2000 employees. and Twitter with 300 employees. which provides a huge rate of employment in private sector.days. ILO Maternity convention 183 entitles all women to a minimum 14 weeks paid maternity leave. Late-night shift assignments should be compensated by late-night transport home for women and men. C. and contribute to local. According to the Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP).5% to the global economy since 2008. Flexible work allows a person to complete a number of works but within working hours that suit. Ever since social media has grown its status from the basement to the penthouse. This booklet provides useful inputs to the armoury of people within journalism who are fighting discrimination and championing journalistic standards. This handbook is a timely. some social networking channels are inventing innovative ideas to earn revenue. 2009 Federation of Presently more women than ever are working in media. Apart from providing thousand of jobs. which deals in gender issues in media. illustrated and easyto-read guide for understanding the gender issues in media. Advocating gender equality in media Getting the balance right is an illustrated resource handbook by UNESCO. science. ) . There was time. A host of tips are provided in the manual for achieving more gender equality in media: Leadership: Map your workplace. people have started to look at social media jobs respectfully.

Media professionals' beliefs about gender to some extent undergird decisions on content. All violence is basically alike. harassment and discrimination faced by many in highpressure newsrooms and media companies. News on the violations of women's human rights and discrimination against women are few and far between. Women become front-page and headline news when they engage in activities which are not in line with society's prescription of what women 'should' and 'should not' do. If fear is created. Women reporters are often assigned to health. the angle to adopt and the choice of spokespeople. religious groups. In order to be effective. News focus. Invisible women. the Eisenhower Violence Commission was established to study violence in the United Stated. which we might call immediate and ultimate. and media professionals make each day. Other Issues on Sex and Gender Why gender should be an issue for the media Gender biases and prejudices in the media emerge through the 'choices' media managers. violence moves toward its ultimate goal of power. When women do appear in the media. 2. The ultimate goal of violence is the power to control behavior of others. the incidence of which on television has been a topic of concern and debate over the last ten years. biases and prejudices manifest themselves in the numerous ways in the media. Let us examine why these statements are erroneous. In the newsroom : Opportunities in the workplace. such as elderly women. It is only necessary that violence generate fear of pain or death in its victim. 1. but are false. Gender inequalities. 3. Violence on television is like violence in movies or books. Take a moment to test your own knowledge in this area by answering the following true-false statements. Violence on television reflects a violent world. d. and social issues. We cannot presume that what is portrayed on television will have the same effects on viewers as would similar portrayals in other media. the aggressor has then gained the power to make the victim do The goal of violence is to hurt or D. these articles are often confined to special pages and segments in the media and tagged as 'women's issues'. The goal of violence is to hurt or kill. When the media does cover gender issues. war and conflict). they most often are portrayed as sex objects. while men are given the political and economic assignments which are seen as part of the career path to senior editorial and media management positions. 6. In 1967. Gender stereotypes. Having generated fear of pain or death in the victim. Television must be judged as a total system and not by isolating one component of television fare from all others. The majority of those who are quoted in stories on events of the day are men. The uniqueness of television in the world of mass media means that we cannot study its effects in the same way as we do other media. 1. Scientists have no evidence so far that television viewing alone has any significant and systematic effect on behavior. and women with different sexual orientations. Equal professional opportunity. Women are made 'invisible' by the media's omission of their voices and images. Certain categories of women receive even less attention in the media. poverty. women from minority ethnicities and . kill. In the content : News sources. Violence actually has two objectives. The main danger of television violence is that it makes children (and perhaps other viewers) more aggressive and violent. These statements all sound correct. advertisers. 5. rather than being placed on the news pages as issues of concern to everyone. This is particularly true of violence. as homemakers and as victims (of violence.1 Sex and Violence in Media What is the relationship between the risks in the real world and the “symbolic violence” of television? Television may lead to an increased dependence on established authority.Dignity at work clauses help to combat bullying. although women and men live in the societies reported on and both have views on the events and issues. This same year marked the beginning of studies in violence on television by the communications research team at the Annenberg School of Communications of the University of Pennsylvania. 4. The immediate foal of violence is fear.Women often comprise the rank and file of journalists and presenters in the print and broadcast media but few are in the top leadership positions. natural disasters. education. violence need not hurt or kill. story choices. the working class.

stabbings. In a much broader sense. Video games and violence." the researchers write. Violence on television portrays how power works in society and who can get away with what. 4. It demonstrates who has power and who will have to acquiesce to that power. Scientists have no evidence so far that television alone has any significant evidence regarding the effect of television viewing on the way people deal with reality. still photographs. Cyber Sex and Child Pornography in the Internet PORNOGRAPHY is first and foremost massproduced representations ofsexuality which consumers use as a fantasy material for sexual arousal. . Television violence achieves the power that can be achieved because of it. . Teens in both Japan. the authors found that children who played violent video games early in the school year exhibited increases in physical aggression such as kicking. A violent act might be committed to thwart injustice or brutality. 5. The authors conclude that the two cultures' similar behavior "strongly supports the theory that playing violent video games is a causal risk factor for relative increases in later physical aggressiveness. the area of concern is violence that cultivates fear and prejudice. The outcry against television violence is not directed at acts of violence which. 2. considered a "low violence" culture. They advise health care professionals to encourage parents to install software that blocks and filters violent sites as a way of reducing access to online violence. children and adults alike. Television show us who are the victims and who are the aggressors. are the main dangers of television violence to all viewers. Results showed that 28 percent of women interviewed indicated. or the inhuman an unjust use of power. motion pictures or sound.588 10-to-15-year-olds were asked about the types of Web sites they visited. but a medium that may assume various forms: words. shooting. or heard selectively. Rather. pornography was part of the abusive incident”. Television distorts the violence found in reality. Relationship of sexual violence and pornography: Bergen and Bogle examined “women’s experiences of sexual violence and their abuser’s use of pornography”. students (ages nine to 12 years). seen. It is not sex. The real effect of television violence is the result of the selective and stereotypical portrayals of power and people in society. 3. . dramatic purpose. and vulnerability. Highway and industrial accidents are the leading causes of violent death and injury in this country. punching. of “those whose abusers used pornography. robberies. “their abusers used pornography”. . researchers say.231 Japanese students (ages 12 to 18 years) and 364 U.something that he or she would not ordinarily do. Youths who most frequently visited sites depicting real people fighting. 6." and rules out the notion that naturally aggressive children prefer violent video games. a "high violence" culture. One would never know that from watching television. "Violence online may be particularly important to our understanding of seriously violent behavior among today's young people. Television violence poses a serious effect on the viewer’s sense of safety. Violence on television reflects a violent world. Research thus far has shown us that television has a very definite lesson to teach about the perpetrators and victims of violence. who chronically play violent video games behave more aggressively than classmates who don't play these games. and hitting three to six months later. d. or to perpetrate them. and the United States. “Approximately 40% said . serve a legitimate. . Finally. The ubiquitous nature of television means that television violence will have different effects from violence that is read. Rape crisis center employees administered a survey to 100 women who had contacted the center after experiencing abuse or violence. or killing were five times more likely to report engaging in assaults. This is true of all forms of violence. by helping people to distinguish just and unjust uses of power. The main danger of television violence is that it makes children (and perhaps other viewers) more aggressive and violent. Analyzing data from studies of 1. mistrust. In each case. pornography affected the nature of abuse”. The evidence shows that heavy television viewing creates an exaggerated sense of danger. A total of 1.2 Pornography. the message of the act will be vastly different. All violence is basically alike. The presentation of a violent scene carries a message with it. television teaches a lesson about the social constructs of our world. Only in a relatively few pathological cases is violence itself the goal or purpose of a violent act. Web sites and teen violence. 43% of survivors believed . Violence on television is different from all other mass media. from muggings to war. and other violent behavior than were those who never visited violent Web sites.S.

Internet sex. Therefore. post fordism society.S. integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic.). media industries from a number of other countries are also heavily across the world. 2002). In one form. That spread has involved the interlacing of economic and cultural activity. mud sex.S. Time Warner and Disney generated around 15 percent of their income outside of the United States in 1900. referencing them with some of the vaguest terminology imaginable and thus leaving potential innocent parties open to investigation and action.). and regulate almost all media outlets.).). cybering or conversex is a virtual sex encounter in which two or more persons connected remotely via computer network send each other sexually explicit messages describing a sexual experience. Information Revolution. THE INFORMATION SOCIETY An information society is a society where the creation. Like Acta and Ceta. Closely related concepts are the post. INTERNET CHILD PORNOGRAPHY is only one of a number of problems related to either child abuse or the internet. and two media groups that are part of much large industrial corporations: General Electric/NBC (U. often at an international level. a figure that rose to 3035 percent by 2002. distribution.S. six are American (counting News Corporations as Australian).). Alternatively. TinySex and colloquially. however. supporting large population with a high capacity for division of labor. netsex. and network society (Manuel Castels).industrial society ( Daniel Bell). Time Warner (U. Industrial Society Refers to a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production.) and Sony/Columbia/ TriStar (Japanese) (Variety. Viacom (U. post modern society.and announced the launch of the Office of Cybercrime. MEDIA GLOBALIZATION Globalization' is commonly used as a shorthand way of describing the spread and connectedness of production. Bertelsmann (German).unlike Acta or Ceta. Today people talk more about globalization because it is apparent that although American media play a prominent role in the global scene. use. ADVANTAGES -Global Mass Media Ties the word together -Increased flow of communications allows vital information to be shared between individuals and corporations around the world -Reduction of cultural barriers increases the global village effect. most of the major investigations of Internet child pornography have involved cooperation among jurisdictions. It is unlike most crimes local police departments handle. communication and technologies across the world. it is targeting nearly any cyber activity it can think of. A handful of firms dominate the globalize part of the media system. political. Local citizens may access child pornography images that were produced and/or stored in another city or on another continent. Of the top 10 global media firms. An investigation that begins in one police district will almost certainly cross jurisdictional boundaries. through using information technology (IT) in a creative and productive way Information society is seen as the successor to industrial society. . Because of many cases of cyber sex in the Philippines.S. -Spread of democratic ideals to developed nations The Global Media Twenty years ago people talked about Americanization of media in the world.which criminalises a wide range of cyber activities from hacking and identity theft to cybersquatting and spamming -. The six largest are AOL. mostly produce. The other four main global firms are AT&T (U. The aim of the information society is to gain competitive advantage internationally.CYBER SEX also called computer sex. and cultural activity. liquid modernity. the vague terms used to outlaw cyber sex and the update of the Revised Penal Code to criminalise libel communication via computers or "any other similar means which may be devised in the future".S. distribute. Vivendi-Universal (French). Microsoft (U. President Benigno Aquino III has signed the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012-. It is. the act is seeking to control and curtail certain cyber behavior through criminalisation -. they may produce or distribute images that are downloaded by people thousands of miles away. that is of most concern. then. and Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation (Australian).S. These types of companies were growing and globalizing quickly. this fantasy sex is accomplished by the participants describing their actions and responding to their chat partners in a mostly written form designed to stimulate their own sexual feelings and fantasies. Disney (U.

political. with some interruptions. for many centuries. economic and cultural changes caused by the spread of networked. (Merriam Webster Dictionary) >the modern world in which all countries depend on each other and seem to be closer together because of modern communications and transport systems. social and technological trends beyond the Industrial Revolution. in most industrialized countries since the late 20th century.Post. The intellectual origins of the idea can be traced back to the work of early social theorists such as Georg Simmel who analyzed the effect of modernization and industrial capitalism on complex patterns of affiliation. performing specialized tasks repetitively.Fordism Also named Flexibilism. organization. digital information and communications technologies. It regards their state as a continuation or development of modernity. A number of academics (see below) are credited with coining the term since the 1980s and several competing definitions exist. Network Society The term Network Society describes several different phenomena related to the social. definitions of the nature and scope of PostFordism vary considerably and a matter of debate among scholars. crystallization of conceptions of formalized international relations. rather than as a distinct new state. but the main focus of the discussion of globalization is on relatively recent times.mid-18th c) >Growth of national communities. Post. >Globalization as a concept refers to both the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole. The processes and actions to which the concept of globalization now refers have been proceeding. of standardized citizenly individuals and a more concrete conception of humankind Phase III: The Take-Off Phase (1870s– 1920s) . consumption and associated socioeconomic phenomena. production and experience. THE GLOBAL VILLAGE AND FUTURE INTERCONNECTEDNESS Definition of Global Village >the world viewed as a community in which distance and isolation have been dramatically reduced by electronic media (as television and the Internet). Given by some scholars to what they describe as the dominant system of economic production.Industrial Society Is a concept in economics describing when the service sector produces more wealth than the industrial or manufacturing sector in some countries. accentuation of concepts of the individual and of ideas about humanity Phase II: The Incipient Phase (mainly Europe: mid-18th century–1870s) >Sharp shift towards the idea of the homogeneous. postmodernity. It is contrasted with Fordism. The concept was popularized by Daniel Bell. expanding scope of the Catholic Church. The five phases of globalization: (Roland Robertson) Phase I: The Germinal Phase (Europe: early 15th c. the system formulated in Henry Fords automotive factories. Late Modernity Late modernity (or liquid modernity) is a term that has been used to describe the condition or state of some highly developed present day societies. in which workers work on a productive line. (McMillan Dictionary) Globalization: The Global Village >Globalization is about human interconnections that have assumed global proportions and transformed themselves. Information Revolution The term information revolution (sometimes called also the "informational revolution") describes current economic. unitary state.

increasing global conceptions of ‘acceptable’ national society. Systems theory derives in part from the structural functional analysis which was prevalent in the social sciences in the 1950s. both historically (such as the reproduction and broadcast of past events) and spatially (through vivid and detailed photographic reproductions of different cities and landscapes). Globalization as a general process. from which was derived the idea that any deviations from this – crime. and that international institutions should seek to boost the infrastructures of such countries to help them achieve such an aspiration. Compression: The Growing Interconnectedness of the World At a theoretical level. For others. increasing number of global institutions and movements. widespread access to nuclear and thermonuclear weaponry. ‘globality’ is a far more useful term than ‘globalization’. Structural-functionalism faded from the scene during the 1960s. Globality. Western society. however. which emerged from structural-functionalism. impossible to observe with any accuracy and thus pretty much meaningless from a research point of view. Globalization. was the suggestion made by more radical scholars that the ‘ideal’ society presented by the structural-functionalists mirrored modern. applicable to anything. Global Experiences The rise of media and the printed word has contributed to the establishment of a consciousness beyond immediate physical territories for thousands of years. Indeed. poverty. individuals. As a process. Phase IV: The Struggle-for-Hegemony Phase (1920s–60s) >Establishment of the League of Nations and then the United Nations. as a new generation of scholars felt that its vision of society was static and conservative.>Formalization of the problematic relationship between national societies. meaning a conscious process of globalization or a set of policies designed specifically to effect greater global rather than international interactions. early thematization of the ‘problem of modernity’. by contrast. Phase V: The Uncertainty Phase (1960s– 90s?) >Moon landing. incapable of appreciating human experiences and motivations. the concept of global interconnectedness is closely allied to the perspective of systems theory. unemployment and other such ‘social problems’ – resulted from some systemic malfunction and could be ‘fixed’ in much the same way that an illness of the body can be treated. Modernization theory carried an often-implicit assumption that Western industrial societies represented a ‘higher’ stage of development to which ‘under-developed’ countries should aspire. industrial. is itself measured according to the amount of globality its subject exhibits. through satellite television and the internet. Globality: The Evolution of Global Consciousness The one word that suggests the emergence of something greater than the accident of interconnections is globalism. it was seen as too holistic. individuals and groups are now increasingly adept at accessing and interpreting information from a wide range of sources. Such is the power of media technologies that individuals across the world are now able to simultaneously experience events beyond the . For some critics. and thus entirely measurable. >In many respects. ‘international society’ and humankind. Global Events. is a quality. hard to pin down. it was too consensus-oriented. establishment of principle of national independence. the quality of being global (Albrow 1996). perhaps. Even more damning. capitalist. or a broken machine can be repaired. has radicalized this process to the extent that distinctions of space and time are no longer as easy to denote. presenting an image of the ‘ideal’ and fully functioning system as one of equilibrium. accentuation of ‘postmaterialist’ values. globalization is fluid. It is certainly more concrete. >Globality appears increasingly to permeate the affairs of all societies and multitudes of people across the world. This was most apparent in ‘modernization theory’. end of Cold War and rise of the problem of ‘rights’.

mass media. mass education. magazines). and what lies beyond the sphere of our personal experience. and Broadcast Media (radio and television. Sell more and turn more profit. Photographs."  The demassification of media simply refers to the restructuring of media industry into smaller independent operating entities. and synchronization. books. mass recreation. When a company breaks down it opens up countless avenues and has the potential to drastically increase its revenue. globalization has allowed for the possibility of global events – events that are intrinsically global in their reach.) . as media shape our sense of place in the world. To customize a mass medium so as to meet the requirements of individual consumers. arose out of the height of industrialization in the 20th century. MEDIA DEMASSIFICATION Media” or “Second Wave  This is when a method of mass communication has to move from targeting a broad audience to a niche target. mass distribution. factory managed system where its media products and images were mass produced in the millions on the assumption that the target mass audience had more or less standardized and homogenized tastes. general-interest audiences to smaller. This turns one magazine into several. media reproduction plays a significant role in rationalizing and rearticulating history. which adds revenue to their companies. in order to reach a specific. During this time. mass entertainment. and turn more of a profit.   Media Demassification is the process in which we are taking the mass media and breaking it down to fit specific individuals. centralization. film (commercial film). By breaking down. it opens the doors to success. Print (newspapers. concentration. this is Media Demassification. people and moments in history. In essence. It all comes down to the amount of money that can be made. books. You combine those things with standardization. the choice of media content was limited to the tastes and preferences of this According to Alvin Toffler. literature and television dominate our experience of and engagement with certain places. In order to have a strong hold in the dynamic mass media industry. and weapons of mass destruction. Since the 1960s. When targeting a specific audience. MEDIA DEMASSIFICATION Definition of term/s: DEMASSIFICATION De-massify: To break (something standardized or homogeneous) into elements that appe al to individual taste orspecial interests: t o demassify the magazine industry into s pecial-interest periodicals. targeted audience. a media corporation has the ability to make different forms of media tailored to the specific interests of certain people. both in how knowledge is accessed and identity is constructed. When a company breaks down into smaller entities. DE-MASSIFICATION EXPLAINED The three major mass media: print (newspapers. "The Second Wave Society is industrial and based on mass production. magazines). audience and impact.physical reach of the vast majority. When a company introduces other options. The thinking behind this is that if a company can tailor to the specific interests of certain groups of people. Being products of an industrial age these three major media were termed as "second wave" media and their operations were characterized by a smokestack-like. In effect. the opening of this ‘global village’ has established broader and more structural social consequences. Publishers shifting their focuses from large. film (commercial films). and you wind up with a style of organization we call bureaucracy. companies gain a stronger following. First. and broadcast media (radio and television). mass consumption. it will be able to sell more. more specialized audience. This creates a ‘mediated worldliness’. the control and ownership of these media were confined either to the government or to a few private corporations and individuals. a company must have many avenues to follow and must be able to connect to everyone.

electronic video recording. TELEVISION DEMASSIFIED Television's mass audience has also been splintered by the arrival of cable and satellite television and its myriad channels serving different splintered audiences. In a survey conducted in the third quarter of 2004 by A. to MP3 in the 1990s. This in part explains why opinions on everything from pop music to politics are becoming less uniform. a music video cable channel launched in the 1980s. The only way the magazine companies would have survived against the assault of television was to demassify. Jay Bautista. COMMERCIAL FILMS DE-MASSIFIED Even commercial films are not immune having suffered stiff competition from cable television's movie channels. and electronic games in the 1980s to the internet. During the second wave era the continual pounding of the standardized imagery pumped out by the media created what critics called a "massive mind". As the entire society shifts toward Third Wave diversity. the video compact disc and dvd players in the 1990s. computer online games. With every change in the media there are always negative effects. disclosed the findings. has diminished through the years with the advent of MTV. and more recently by the Apple I-Pod in the early 21st century. dvds. and soon television on mobile phones. Visayas and Mindanao. However. Bantam Books. “The purpose of a magazine is not to tell you how to fix a faucet but to tell you what the world is about. online movies in the internet in the coming years. RADIO DE-MASSIFIED Radio's influence for example. Consensus shatters. we are all besieged and blitzed by fragments of imagery. (Source: The Third Wave by Alvin Toffler. On a personal level. . and lots of advertisements to grab your attention. contradictory or unrelated. more stories are written about how to do things instead of informing readers about the world today.one mass majority group of times at the expense of diverse minority audiences whose tastes and preferences were ignored. Nielsen Media director. with a margin error of plus or minus 2 percentage points.” Since the demassification of magazines. quick quizzes to entertain you.2%. Norman Cousins stated.C. NEWSPAPERS AND MASS MAGAZINES DEMASSIFIED Demassification can be defined in many ways. instead of masses of people all receiving the same messages. it was found that overall readership for newspapers (broadsheet and tabloid) plunged by about 3% from 2003's 25. smaller de-massified groups receive and send large amounts of their own imagery to one another. that shake up our old ideas and come shooting at us in the form of broken or disembodied "blips". covering 2. in fact. In the end this is the way we know magazines today. Today. 1981 edition). The critics of the demassification of the magazine industry believed that the traditional role of the magazine was no more. in the 1950’s magazine companies were forced to demassify. then by the video cassette recorder and betamax machines in the 1980s. in a "blip culture". Even the Philippines is not spared from this phenomena. The demassification critics believed that the importance of the magazine has been lost due to the fact that now only bits and pieces of information are given to the readers instead of the whole story. "The demassification of the media demassifies our minds as well. to the digital camera and soon. This means that the magazine companies broke up their original magazine outline into smaller independent units. Short stories that teach you. the new media reflect and accelerate the process. We live. Nielsen Media Research.000 respondents aged 10 years and older from all socioeconomic classes in 31 cities in Luzon.

Old media still exists because the creators of it are the deciders of what is newsworthy and what is not. magazines etc. For example. The smaller the page (generally eight and half by eleven inches) permits even small ads to stand out. There more options to different types of people. and while driving. We as an audience are being participants in our entertainment rather than passive observers. Most people listen to the radio at one time or another during the day. During the past ten years. it permits you to target your advertising dollars to the market most likely to respond to your offer. and social media sites based on their own needs.Demassification: The progress from mass production to demassification due to more users Negative • Newspapers have short shelf life. This concept is known as narrow casting. which includes newspapers. You're paying to send your message to a lot of people who will probably never be in the market to buy from you. Also to create a personality for your business using only sounds and voices. There is competition for attention against large ads run by large companies. radio. Piracy or underground media and communicating illegally are now massive. genres. Society uses technologies such as cell phones. Because radio listeners are spread over many stations. The day after a newspaper appears its history. and broadcast. The distribution of your message is now unlimited to any geographic area. to totally saturate your market you have to advertise simultaneously on many stations. Radio is a universal medium. Effects of Media Demassification Positive • • Sell more and turn more of a profit. which means that audiences are being characterized. styles. Demassification is the process in which we are taking the mass media and breaking it down to fit specific individuals. radio rates have gone up less than other media. computers. In radio. More waste from print media. High reader involvement means more attention will be paid to your advertisement. Now the audience has control versus producers or creators. Independent stations and cable offer new opportunities to pinpoint local audiences. Although new media is vital for us old media is still important because there is still an audience for old media. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Creative and production costs can quickly mount up. Demassification is a part of audience autonomy. fashions. Your competitors can quickly react to your prices. Telemarketing can be extremely expensive. at work. A highly visible medium. This new development in media is important because it is a form of entertainment for everyone. Least inflated medium. Waste circulation. Television permits you to reach great numbers of people on a national or regional level. Can be enjoyed at home.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.