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# EEL 5245: Power Electronics I

## Lecture # 8 Non-Isolated Dc-dc Converters

Insturctor: Dr. Sam Abdel-Rahman

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## THE EFFECTS OF CONVERTER NON-IDEALITIES

The analysis thus far has been based on the assumption that all components, switching devices and diodes are ideal. Study the second-order non-ideal effects on the output voltage and efficiency. The following non-ideal characteristics will be investigated: (1) Inductor resistance (rL), (2) Transistor and diode voltage drops (VQ, VD), (3) Switching and conduction losses (rsw). Other non-idealities is the equal series resistance of the output capacitor, rESR.

## Correction: Reverse the polarity of the diode voltage drop

Inductance Resistance
The buck converter:

Non-idealities

## Buck converter with inductor resistance

Io = I L min + I L max Vo = R 2 The voltage gain,
D rL 1+ R

Vo = Vin

## When rL 0, the gain becomes D.

M vs. D under different inductor 3 resistance values for the buck converter

Non-idealities

## Average output current

+ I L min I I o = L max (1 D ) 2

## The voltage gain,

Vo = Vin 1 rL 1 (1 D ) + R 1 D

M vs. D under different inductor resistance 4 values for the boost converter

Non-idealities

Switch Resistance

Inductor current

M=

D 1+ D rsw R

Non-idealities

## M vs. D Curves with rsw

Buck M vs. D for the buck converter under different values of rsw/R

Boost M vs. D under different values of rsw/R for the boost converter.

Buck - Boost M vs. D under different values of rsw/R for the buck-boost converter.

Non-idealities

## Transistor and Diode Voltage Drops

Assume that when the transistor is ON, a non-zero voltage drop across it, VQ, is present, when the diode is turned ON, a voltage VD appears across it. The voltage across the inductor; Switch ON: V L = Vin Vo VQ Switch OFF: V L = Vo V D the inductor currents
iL(t ) = 1 V Vo VQ t + I L min L in 1 i L (t ) = ( Vo V D )(t DT ) + I L max L

0 t DT DT t T 0 t DT DT t T

Evaluating the above equations at t = DT and T and using this input and output average power, the voltage conversion,
VQ V D Vo = D D (1 D ) Vin Vin Vin

## If we normalize voltages by Vin, we obtain,

1 M = D 1 VnQ VnD 1 D

where, VnQ and VnD are normalized transistor and diode voltage drops.
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Non-idealities

Example 4.12
A buck converter is modeled by including a switch resistance, rsw, an inductor resistance, rL, and a diode voltage drop, VD. Assume: Vin= 50V, VD = 0.9V, Vo = 20V, R = 4, rsw = Vo 0.08, rL = 0.06. (a) Derive the relation for Vin that includes the above effects, (b) find the duty cycle, D, and (c) find the efficiency. = Po

Solution:
(a) The inductor current relations are given by,
V I L ( rL + rsw ) Vo I L max I L min = in DT L Vo I L rL VD I L min I L max = (1 D )T L Vo IL = R

Pin

result in,
VD VD D 1 + Vin Vin Vo = rL rsw Vin 1+ +D R R

(b) Substitute for Vin= 50V, VD = 0.9V, Vo = 20V, R = 4, rsw = 0.08, rL = 0.06 we obtain D = 0.42 (c) The power loss in the inductor and switch resistors are given by,
Ploss = ( I in )2 rsw + ( I L )2 rL V 20 = 2.1 I in = DI o = D o = (0.42) 4 R Io = 5A Ploss = ( 2.1 ) 2 ( 0.08 ) + ( 5 ) 2 ( 0.06 ) = 0.353 + 15 . = 1853 . W
Pin = Vin I in = ( 50 )( 2.1 ) = 105W

Po = Vo I L = ( 20)(5) = 100W