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EEL 5245: Power Electronics I

Lecture # 8 Non-Isolated Dc-dc Converters

Insturctor: Dr. Sam Abdel-Rahman

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Central Florida



The analysis thus far has been based on the assumption that all components, switching devices and diodes are ideal. Study the second-order non-ideal effects on the output voltage and efficiency. The following non-ideal characteristics will be investigated: (1) Inductor resistance (rL), (2) Transistor and diode voltage drops (VQ, VD), (3) Switching and conduction losses (rsw). Other non-idealities is the equal series resistance of the output capacitor, rESR.

Correction: Reverse the polarity of the diode voltage drop

Inductance Resistance
The buck converter:


Buck converter with inductor resistance

Io = I L min + I L max Vo = R 2 The voltage gain,
D rL 1+ R

Inductor current including rL

Vo = Vin

When rL 0, the gain becomes D.

M vs. D under different inductor 3 resistance values for the buck converter


The Boost Converter

Boost converter with inductor resistance

Boost inductor current

Average output current

+ I L min I I o = L max (1 D ) 2

The voltage gain,

Vo = Vin 1 rL 1 (1 D ) + R 1 D

M vs. D under different inductor resistance 4 values for the boost converter


Switch Resistance

Buck converter with a switching resistance. Voltage gain

Inductor current


D 1+ D rsw R


M vs. D Curves with rsw

Buck M vs. D for the buck converter under different values of rsw/R

Boost M vs. D under different values of rsw/R for the boost converter.

Buck - Boost M vs. D under different values of rsw/R for the buck-boost converter.


Transistor and Diode Voltage Drops

Assume that when the transistor is ON, a non-zero voltage drop across it, VQ, is present, when the diode is turned ON, a voltage VD appears across it. The voltage across the inductor; Switch ON: V L = Vin Vo VQ Switch OFF: V L = Vo V D the inductor currents
iL(t ) = 1 V Vo VQ t + I L min L in 1 i L (t ) = ( Vo V D )(t DT ) + I L max L

0 t DT DT t T 0 t DT DT t T

Evaluating the above equations at t = DT and T and using this input and output average power, the voltage conversion,
VQ V D Vo = D D (1 D ) Vin Vin Vin

If we normalize voltages by Vin, we obtain,

1 M = D 1 VnQ VnD 1 D

where, VnQ and VnD are normalized transistor and diode voltage drops.


Example 4.12
A buck converter is modeled by including a switch resistance, rsw, an inductor resistance, rL, and a diode voltage drop, VD. Assume: Vin= 50V, VD = 0.9V, Vo = 20V, R = 4, rsw = Vo 0.08, rL = 0.06. (a) Derive the relation for Vin that includes the above effects, (b) find the duty cycle, D, and (c) find the efficiency. = Po

(a) The inductor current relations are given by,
V I L ( rL + rsw ) Vo I L max I L min = in DT L Vo I L rL VD I L min I L max = (1 D )T L Vo IL = R


result in,
VD VD D 1 + Vin Vin Vo = rL rsw Vin 1+ +D R R

(b) Substitute for Vin= 50V, VD = 0.9V, Vo = 20V, R = 4, rsw = 0.08, rL = 0.06 we obtain D = 0.42 (c) The power loss in the inductor and switch resistors are given by,
Ploss = ( I in )2 rsw + ( I L )2 rL V 20 = 2.1 I in = DI o = D o = (0.42) 4 R Io = 5A Ploss = ( 2.1 ) 2 ( 0.08 ) + ( 5 ) 2 ( 0.06 ) = 0.353 + 15 . = 1853 . W
Pin = Vin I in = ( 50 )( 2.1 ) = 105W

Po = Vo I L = ( 20)(5) = 100W

100 100% = 95.2% 105 8