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Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol.


. Psychometric ..

2-1 (evaporation) (Condensation) (Standard Air) (Specific Heat of Air) Daltons Law 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-10 (Temperature) (Temperature) (Temperature) on nsat on 2-10 2-11 2-13 2-17 2-19 2-19 (Specific Volume) ( Enthalpy ) 2-23 2-24 2-27 2-27 2-31 2-39 2-39 2-43 2-45 (ETS) an at a n 2-48 2-49 (Heat) 2-50 2-51 2-53 Air Washer 2-54 2-55


. . . . s o t at .. Dry Bulb .. Wet Bulb .. Dew Point .. .. Humidity Ratio .. Relative Humidity .. .. . ns l at at (Cooling . Lat nt . Sensible (Humidification Latent Process

heating) Dehumidification)

. Air Mixing Process . Determining Supply Air Condition . Coil Process . Psychometric Analysis . Contact Factor(CF) Bypass Factor(BF) . Reheat . Fan . Steam injection . Chilled Water . . Water Spray into Air Steam (Adiabatic Saturation)



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Chapter-2 Psychromatics ( ( ) on t on n Dry Bulb Enthalpy meaning) () ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Psychrometric (equation) s Ps o o t t at at Sensible heat lat nt (property of a at total at (mixed air) s ns l lat nt total ool n on pt (properties) at n loa (air property) (air property Wet Bulb Standard s o t s f u t Dew o nt Ps o t (physical Relative Humidity(RH) sp

. Psychometric American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) a (humidity) on t on n (cleanliness) (treat on t on n u air conditioning (temperature) (distribution) p o ss

s the process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, st ut on to tt qu nts of t on t on spa

t , l anl n ss an

air con on Confort a on t on n p o ss (t at (properties of air) Confort a on t on n Industrial air conditioin (confortable) Industrial air con t o n


(dry air)



o st a 2-1

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(atmosphere) air-water vapor (dry air)

aqueous vapor

ol ygrometer o st a moist air (water vapor mixture (dry

Psychrometer (instrument) Psychometric

Mo st air)

Mo st

(dry air) conditioning system Chart (chart) s o t s at (properties of air) (line) (table) (properties of air) (treat) (chart) Psychometric air

(properties of air)

Air conditioning process SI chart Psychrometric c a t Industires cooling process Air con (trouble s o t s at constant Wet Bulb (p ssu s o t s at (w at (physical meaning) Constant Enthalpy at (parallel) a on t on n Psychrometric c a t chart IP (chart)

heating process Psychometric air shooting) (line)





Chapter-1 Psychromatics

( )




Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Air-conditioning process equipment

equipment process Ps o t at (line) (straight line) process (process) ? (curve) process air conditioning Process a - on t on n

(air) (water) (indoor) (rain drops) (mist)

(water) (snow) hail

(solid form)

(liquid form) (vapor up at form) Low-Pressure Steam

(properties of air) Ps o t at (condensation 2-4 (properties of air)

apo at on

Chapter-1 Psychromatics

(evaporation) (hot air) (evaporation) evaporation (evaporation) (evaporation) (vaporization wat at a (Condensation) con nsat on (e apo at on at (water vapor content) o al Dry Bulb (water Dry Bulb Wet Bulb (water vapor content) (condensation) t on Vaporization


vapor content)

Dry Bulb

(water vapor) (water vapor) Saturated Air and Unsaturated Air content) (water vapor) (water vapor) . (standard) (

Dry Bulb Wet Bulb

(water Saturated Air Unsatu at ir unsaturated air (Standard Air) o st a




Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(sea p ssu L l

l (70

29.921 tan a


(atmospheric a

on t ons at

Standard atmospheric pressure 1013.25 mbar mass (unit w t of a

101 325 Pa (specific properties)

- . (h at Specific heat (mass) (1 k (1 kilocalorie) (energy) U a K Cp =1.006 kJ/kg K (1C) 68F (20C) (air) (water) sp lo alo f at 1 (Specific Heat of Air) (heat sp f at

(a ount of



at (energy) 1 Spec f at

(1 lb) sp sp f t f at p atu at

1 BTU (British Thermal Unit)

Cp =1.006 kJ/kg

(dry air (heat add) (heat energy)



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Air Specific heat (Btu/ lb F) Density at 68F (lb/ ft ) Heat capacity of fluid at 68F (Btu / ft F) (air) Substance air Water Ice Wood Iron Mercury Alcohol Copper remove) (water) (ice) specific IP
3 3

Water 1.0 62.4 62.4

0.243 0.075 0.018 SI Specific heat

Conventional metric and Yard-pound system kcal/kgC, Btu/lbF 0.24 1.0 0.504 0.327 0.129 0.0333 0.615 0.095

S.l metric system kJ/kg K 1.005 4.187 2.110 1.369 0.540 0.139 2.575 0.398 (heat

- 1 BTU

1 kcal (1 lb) U n 1

- 1 kcal n (1 lb of dry air) U specific heat n 1

Total heat of moist air



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Sensible heat (dry air) (water vapor) Latent Heat Sensible Heat + p as

+ Latent heat (water vapor) =

= Total heat

(water vapor) (dry air)

[Latent Heat is the ENERGY stored in Water Vapour.] [Sensible Heat is the ENERGY stored in dry air.] . (substance) Daltons Law s t total p ssu Daltons Law (mixture) quals t su (total pressure) (partial pressure) of t pa t al p ssu mixture

P = Total pressure Pa = partial pressure of dry air Pw= partial pressure of water vapor 25C Saturated vapour pressure a Partial pressure of dry air(Pa)= Partial pressure of saturated vapour(Pw)= Total(standard) pressure(P)= Humidity ratio (partial pressure of dry air) ratio Daltons Law Pa = P Pw Pa = 14.6-0.2 = 14.4 Psia Humidity ratio = 0.0086 lb w/ lb d.a (water vapor)

(moist air) partial pressure

(total pressure) a 31.66 mbar 971.59 mbar 1013.25 mbar

a (dry air) partial

(partial pressure of water vapor)

(partial pressure of water vapor) barometric pressure(atmospheric pressure) ps

ps a humidity

partial pressure

Humidity ratio 2-8

Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Humidity ratio 0.0086 (1lb) (water vapor content) l

(dry air)

W = 0.0086 lb w/lb da x 7000 gr/ lb = 60. 2 gr w/lb da (dry air) (water vapor) 60.2 grain

Grains 1 lb IP RH Relative Humidity % SI (dry air)

Psychometric (dry air) (lb

7000 grains (kg)

Pw = partial pressure of water vapor at Dry Bulb temperature Pws = situation pressure of water vapor at Dry Bulb temperature . s o t at

- s

at (Temperature)

- s


.. Dry Bulb

Dry (temperature) Bulb (temperature) (temperature temperature (vertical - Dry Bulb


Bulb Dry

Dry Bulb DB Constant Dry Bulb s line) Dry Bulb 2-9 o t s at




Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

- Dry Bulb Point

t ul


- l n

Dry Bulb

Wet Bulb

Psychrometrics c a t (vertical line) Dry lu (temperature line)

- Dry lu .. Wet Bulb t ( o n a ul Wet Bulb

(temperature line) (Temperature)

- Dry lu

Wet Bulb (cooling effect) Wet Bulb Dry ul

Wet Bulb Wet Bulb Wet Bulb Dry Bulb wat t ul apo

WB (evaporation) Dry Bulb (amount of moisture) Wet Bulb Dry Bulb t ul Dry Bulb Wet Bulb



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

(water vapor) (evaporation) ul Dry (humidity) ( t a a at satu at on ul Bulb (temperature (humidity) (humidity) t ul (cooling effect)

( Dry Bulb (temperature) t t ul ul Wet

Dry Bulb

- Dry Bulb (sloping lines) W t lu

- Dry Bulb W t lu

Dry Bulb Wet Bulb depression Dry Bulb

t ul Dry Bulb t ul t

Wet Bulb Depression ul satu at a u t

Dry () (37C) Wet Bulb Wet Bulb Wet Bulb () Dry (33C) Bulb

Bulb () Dry Bulb


(water (low humidity) n vapor)


vapor) (high humidity)

(water 2-11

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

76.5F Ps o t at



- 76.5F Wet Bulb Cooling coil Specific Ent alp (leaving air) D

- D

psychrometric WB humidity at o

- 90F DB (intersection point) WB 71.2F .. Dew Point (liquid Dew Point Humidity(RH) Relative temperature) (current air temperature) 100% RH Humidity(RH) (Temperature) onstant water) ao t

D tu l

humidity ratio 55 a

specific enthalpy

p ssu Dew condensed water Point

(water vapor) p atu Relative (current t Dew Point air Dew

water-to-air saturation temperatu Dew Point

Dew Point

Relative Hu

(water vapor) (pressure) Dew Point



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Relative Humidity(RH) 80F DB 100% Relative Humidity(RH) 100% Relative Humidity(RH) D D - Dew Point Dew Point condensation Dew Point (condensation) Point A Point B 08kg Dew Point Wet Bulb 25C A(point A) Dry Bulb (water vapour content) 50% satu at satu at 25C 0.020 16 kg (water vapour content)0.010 (100% Saturated air (water vapour content) saturated air (water vapor) Dew Point (current air temperature) ul ul 100F Dry Bulb

- Dew Point B

- on C C(point C) Dry Bulb

nsat on (line (water vapour


satu at on l n


Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

atu at on l n vapour content)0.010 08 kg

C (point C) Dry 14.2C 14.2C C(point C) Bulb 14.2C

(water 14.2C (water vapour content)0.010 08kg 0.010 08kg B(point (wat apo






atu at

- Dew Point Dew Point con nsat on


nsat on

- D w po nt on (temperature)

nsat on





Chapter-1 Psychromatics


Dry Bulb D lat u t ul

ul ul 100% D w o nt

D w o nt

D w o nt (water vapor) (water vapor) Dew Point Dew Point Dew Point (temperature) (moisture or water vapour) Dew Point (moisture or water vapour) condensation Dew Point Dew Point Saturated Air 100% RH Dry Bulb Wet Bulb (horizational line) Dew Point (temperature) (temperature) (-

(saturated air)

(water vapor) (fine droplet)

Saturated Air Saturated Air Dew Point T Humidity (RH) : Ps ( ( )


p atu Dry Bulb 80F (condensation) (condensation) 80F Dry Bulb o t s at ( 50 D 50% Relative Humidity(RH) 2-15 50 % Relative Humidity(RH) Dew Point Relative


) Dry Bulb 80F Dry Bulb

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

( ( ) D

) (intersection Point) Dew Point (condensation (condensation Dew Point Wet Bul (Properties) Dry Bulb(given) RH %(given) Wet Bulb Dew Point = = = = 80F 50% 67F 59F (Value) Wet Bul Dew Point

- Dew Point .. on

Dry Bulb nsat on

Web Bulb

Dew (water (condensation) Dew condensation con nsat on Point (t p atu (t p atu vapour) Point

Dew Point



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

- Condensation Dew condensation con Dew Point (fully saturated) Point on nsat on (Single- laz D Humidity (RH) w n ow nsat on Point

- Relative Humidity (t p atu (temperature) Dew Point

(water vapour) Dew Point (condensation) (condensation) Dew

70F DB (condensation)

30F Relative 70F DB D

(condensation) Dew Point s 30F - Dew Point (condensation) RH%


30F Dry Bulb 70F Relative Humidity(RH) Dew Point


% RH 2-17

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

RH (condensation u u t t at o at o

(dry a

(water vapor)

at o (water vapor)

(water vapor)

at o

.. Relative Humidity

- Relative Humidity Relative Humidity(RH) (percentage Dry Bulb saturation lat Dry Bulb Dry Bulb satu at on Dry Bulb

- Relative Humidity saturation (percentage Dry Bulb (percentage satu at on satu at on satu at on 100% saturation

(weight) Relative Humidity(RH) Relative Humidity(RH) wat apo ns t wat apo ns t ass p un t olu

abolute satu at on



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Relative Humidity(RH) a tual apou p ssu saturation vapour pressure

- apa t ont nt D ul Relative Humidity(RH) Dry Bulb D t ul ul t Dry ul Wet Bulb Bulb

ul Dry Bulb


apo (water vapor)

20% Relative Humidity(RH) -

( )

Dry Bulb



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)



- Relative Humidity(RH) 50% Relative Humidity(RH) (water RH(%) vapor) ()

Dry Bulb Dry Bulb

Dry Bulb ( ) Dry Bulb (water vapor)

100% Relative Humidity(RH) -

(water vapor)

(water vapor)

(water vapor) solut temperature

Relative Humidity(RH) (present temperature) Relative Humidity (RH)


Relative Humidity(RH) (present


Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Relative Humidity(RH) Saturated air 100 % Relative Humidity 100 % Relative humidity Dry Bulb 90F Wet Bulb 90F Dew Point 90F

100% RH

Saturation Line Unsaturated air less than 100 % Relative Humidity(RH)

80 % Relative humidity Dry Bulb 80F Wet Bulb 75F Dew Point 73F

50 % Relative humidity Dry Bulb 90F Wet Bulb 75F Dew Point 69F Dry Bulb Wet Bulb Wet Bulb depression

Relative Humidity(RH) Dry Bulb Wet Bul

Relative Humidity(%) Humidity(RH) %

( %

) 80% Relative

100% Saturated Air Dew Point Wet Bulb the air) Bulb (saturated) (water vapour) unsaturated (100 % saturation (a) ) Dry Bulb (Wet Bulb


Humidity Dry Bulb Wet Bulb (dryness of

Dry Bulb (%) Wet Bulb (100% saturation)

) Dry

(water vapour) 25C Dry Bulb 25C 50%RH


25C 25C sensible heat sensible heat stat (transfer)

latent heat -



vapour) 2-21

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(evaporation) (water vapour) latent heat Relative Humidity(percent) depression .. Specific volume (dry air) Specific volume IP (volume) ft3 l (ft

(liquid) latent heat p as Dew Point Dry Bulb Wet Bulb

Wet Bulb

Relative Humidity (percent)

(Specific Volume) (dry Specific volume air) SI (volume) m3 (m3) (dry air) (volume)

- onstant nt alp Specific volume constant enthalpy line specific volume

- Constant specific olu Specific volume

o at

at specific volume

Dry Bulb

specific volume


(furnace) 80F Dry Bulb specific volume 23% RH

(combustion air) (specific volume) (intersection point)

80F Dry



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

- Specific volume .. nt alp ( Enthalpy )

- Specific volume


nt alp (total

t energy)


s st n

(total energy Thermodynamic (control volume) (gas burbine t o na Thermodynamic pot nt al enthalpy nt alp s ns l lat nt at at t o system na

int nal

(gas burbine) s st thermodynamic system Ent alp (dry air) (water vapor) (liquid) nt alp s of Vaporization nt alp s of Vaporization of Water solids) thermodynamic pot nt al s st

(melting nt alp s of usion usion of Ice

nt alp s of st (chemical reaction nt alp H p (heat content) s al p o ss nt alp



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

- Enthalpy onstant nt alp constant Wet Bul scale (Ent alp s al

- Enthalpy

Wet Bul

s al

onstant nt alp (error) Ent alp nt alp (Unit) Ul Wet Bulb Wet Bulb

- Enthalpy Dry Bulb Wet Bul Enthapy

- Relative Humidity (%)

30C Dry Bulb 25C (enthalpy) (Enthalpy) 25C Dry Bulb 65%RH 25C Dry Bulb


30C Dry Bulb (75=

)34F Dry Bulb

70% RH





Chapter-1 Psychromatics



Dry Bulb

(vertical line)

ln 34F Dry Bulb (intersection point)

34F Dry Bulb Relative Humidity(RH) (intersection po nt Wet Bulb Wet Bulb


Dry Bulb Humidity(RH) of Wet Bulb (RH) Psychrometric D w at o nt

Relative Dry Bulb Relative Humidity



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

. Sensible heat ( ( ) at ( ) () Process Enthalpy (heat add) o ) (heat add

(Cooling (heat add)

heating) (heat remove) Dry Bulb

Dry Bulb (water vapour content) constant humidity sensible (heat remove) nt alp Sensible cooling ) (increases) (increases) (increases) (increases) (decreases) (constant) (constant) (constant) (Humidification Dehumidification) (water vapour addition) Humidification (heat loss ) (decreases) (decreases) (decreases) (decreases) (increases) (constant) (constant) (constant) at n po ss

sensible ool n p o ss Parameters Dry Bulb Temperature Enthalpy Humid Volume Wet Bulb Temperature Percentage Saturation Moisture Content Dew Point Temperature Vapour Pressure . Latent Heat Sensible heating (heat ga n

Humidification ( o (dehumidification



- Humidification


- Sensible heating

sensible cooling process

(process) D u f n cooling coil


(process) Cooling u

Cooling f n 2-26

Chapter-1 Psychromatics

air washer (concept) (water vapor) Latent heat (removal humidification


dehumidification Enthalpy (water vapor) Enthalpy dehumidification

humidification ratio humidification ratio

Air conditioning process

- Sensible heat

(process) (process)

- sensible heat

(process) (transfer) moist (dry air) sensible heat a x t water vapour

(dry air) air (water vapor) sensible heat Sensible heat process sensible heat (dry air)

(water vapor)

sensible heat

an IP

w x t

Q= Sensible heat added to or removed from air(BTU/hr) Ma = Mass of dry air = weight of air(lb/hr) Mw=Mass of water vapour = weight of water vapour( lb/hr) t = t2-t1= temperature change in(F) l t lb/hr (moist air)

60F Dry Bulb at (heater) sensible heat sensible heat capacity

90F Dry Bulb (air flow rate) 400

(dry air)

sensible heat 2-27

(water vapor)

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

- Electric resistance heater (water vapor) (water vapor) sensible heat = 2880 Btu/hr (electric heater) Qs = 0.24 x 400 x (90-60)

- Heating process


Capacity = 2880 Btu/hr x 1kw/3410 Btu/hr = 0.84 kW (water vapor) Psychrometric chart sensible heat 60F Dry Bulb 65%RH (heater) (error) humidity ratio l wl a RH

Mw=0.0072 lbw/lb d.a x 400 lb air/hr= 2.9 lbw/hr water vapour nt alp (change) w x t

Qs = 0.24 x 400(90-60)+ 0.45 x 2.9 x(90-60) = 2880 + 39 = 2919 Btu/hr , vapor) vapor) M Psychrometric c a t point) specific volume CFM (gas) (pressure) air) CFM 2-28 13.25 ft/lb specific volume (gas) (entering air) CFM (temperature) (leaving 60F Dry Bulb 65% RH (intersection enthalpy change Q(sensilbe) (heater) (volume flow rate) 400 lb/hr % tu (water (water

CFM = 400 lb/hr x 1hr/ 60 min x 13.25 ft3/lb = 88.3 CFM


Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Leaving air specific volume

14.0 ft3 l

a (entering air) (leaving air)CFM mass flow rate (leaving (entering air) volume matric flow rate

Leaving air flow rate (CFM)= 400 lb/hr x 1hr/60min x 14.0 ft3/lb = 93.3 CFM Law of conservation of mass air) CFM


air con equipment (pressure) (manufacturer) standard air


CFM tan a Condition Specific volume of 13.3 ft3/lb da Dry Bulb n

Density 0.75 lb/ ft3 da Air con

CFM - cooling coil coil (performance) : cooling coil sensible cooling p fo an sensible cooling sensible cooling capacity 50,000 Btu/hr Dry Bulb 2000 CFM Dry Bulb coil cooling coil cooling

tout= tin - t = Cooling coil (leaving air) vaporization (evaporation) sensible performance Dry Bulb (evaporation tu l

latent heat of (vaporization) 1055 Btu/lb



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

QL W2 W1 . Sensible Latent Process Air conditioning system Cooling latent heat (heat) IP QTotal = Q Sensible + Q Latent

= Latent heat Change, Btu/hr or Watt = Humidity Ration Change, grw/ lb da process (process) sensible heat latent heat (cooling) (process) Air side SI QTotal = Q Sensible + Q Latent QS (Watt)= 1.232 x L/s x(t2-t1) QL(Watt)= 3012 x L/s x(W2 W1) QTotal(Watt)= 1.2 x L/s x(h2-h1) = Volume Flow Rate of Air being process. = Enthalpy Change(Btu/lb F) = temperature an = Humidity Ration Change(lbw/lb d.a) Air Handling Unit(AHU) rate) air) air Dry Bulb , M Dry Bulb (kJ/kg K) (kg/kg d.a) (air flow (return supply (supply air)

dehumidification total heat

sensible heat


QS(Btu/hr) = 1.1 x CFM x(t2-t1) QL(Btu/hr) = 0.68 x CFM x(W2 W1) QTotal(Btu/hr) = 4.5 x CFM x(h2-h1) CFM h2-h1 t2-t1 (t w2 w1(w L/s

Q = Sensible heat (Q S) Latent heat (Q L) Total heat (QTotal)

- Cooling process ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Sensible cooling capacity Latent cooling capacity Total cooling capacity The amount of moisture condensed (or) removed.

= 1.1 x 20,000 x 18 = 396,000 Btu/hr Psychrometric Chart W1 W2 w2 w1 =82-75 = 7.0 gr w/lb da = 0.68 x 20,000 x 7.0


Chapter-1 Psychromatics

= 95,000 Btu/hr (total heat Removed) 396,000 Total heat h1 h2 Enthalpy Psychrometric cooling capacity Refrigeration Ton ? + 95,000 = 491,000 Btu/hr

1 Refrigeration Ton = 12,000 Btu/hr = 3.517 kWthermal

cooling coil con nsat on



nsat on

() condensate pipe

condensate water (size) (SI unit) Question 25C Dry Bulb 20 ) (properties) (SI CFM L/s

drain pipe

- ( ( ) () ) 25 C Dry Bulb 25C Dry Bulb 20 C Wet Bulb 20 C Wet Bul 25C Dry Bulb po nt 20C Wet Bulb (intersection point) Dott V t al L n Wet Bulb Dott lopp n (intersection (properties)



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Property Dry Bulb temperature Wet Bulb temperature Relative Humidity(RH) Enthalpy Humidity Ratio by Mass Specific Volume of Air Dew Point temperature (SI unit) = = = = = = =

Value 25C (given) 20C (given) 63% 57.5 kJ/kg of dry air 12.6 g/kg dry air 0.86 meter cube/kg of dry air 17.6C o nt 50C Dry Bulb

o nt

18C Dry Bulb

o nt

Point 2 (properties of air)

- Psychrometric chart (air propertie) D Entering air temperature L Leaving air temperature Blue Line Yellow Line Red Line Green Line Black Line Brown Line Grey Line Purple Line = = = = = = = = Cooling Process EAT Dry Bulb temperature EAT Wet Bulb temperature EAT Enthalpy LAT Dry Bulb temperature LAT Enthalpy EAT Humidity Ratio(Same as LAT on sensible cooling) LAT Humidity Ratio M (outside air) sensible ool n 75F Dry Bulb 70.5F WB Psychrometric chart

90F Dry Bulb (design condition)



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Outside Conditions(EAT): Entering Air CFM = 2000 Dry Bulb = 90F Wet Bulb = 75F ( ( ) () (outside air) (point) ) Dry Bulb Dry Bulb Design Web Bulb ( otto

Final Conditions(LAT):leaving air CFM = 2000(Same) Dry Bulb = 75F Wet Bulb = 70.5F o zontal ax s t ul

90F Dry Bulb 75F Wet Bulb po nt

- ( ) po nt at o ( ) ( ) po nt nt alp ool n p o ss (horizontal line


s n u t at o u t at o nt alp tu l (horizontal line) (right

t axis)


sensible ool n sensible 2-33

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

ool n t ul = L L Air con nt alp u t AHU air s

lat nt ool n (final conditions) LAT Point, leaving air condition Dry Bulb = po nt (brown line at o (purple line (runing) Fan Coil Unit(FCU) (performance U ll wat air side (performance DX (Direct Expansion) Un t (locate 26.41 Btu/lb.

Air Handling Unit(AHU)

chilled water un t ( )

- (return air) (outdoor air) (performance ( ) Return a Bulb


On-Coil condition at Off-coil Condition (data)

(outdoor air Supply air

(propety) RH (propety Dry Bulb

Dry Bulb Wet Bulb sling t o t



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

() ()

Supply a on Minute (CFM U

(propety (formula) (flow rate) Data U 18,000 CMH Temp: 13 / 12.8(C Dry Bulb/WB) data Psychometrics at data Enthalpy(h)= 36.1 kJ/kg = apa t Off-coil h2(Point 1) total cooling capa t = 36.1 kJ/kg Data Liter per Cube Feet per

(air flow rate)

On Coil Condition:= Return Air 18,000 CMH Temp: 26 / 19(C Dry Bulb/WB) Ps s o o t t s at at latent ool n Enthalpy(h)= 53.9 kJ/kg On-coil h1 (Point 1)

Off Coil Condition= Supply Air

before point (point 1) After point(Point 2) Before Point (Point 1) (entering air properties) Point 1 Enthalpy = h1(kJ/kg) Point 1 Dry Bulb Temp = t1(C) Point 1 humidity ratio = w1(kg/kg d.a) , M

After Point (Point 1)

(entering air properties)

(leaving air properties) (leaving air properties)

Point 2 Enthalpy = h1(kJ/kg) Point 2 Dry Bulb Temp = t1(C) Point 2 humidity ratio = w1(kg/kg d.a)

Liter per Sencond =(18,000 CMH x 1,000 )/ 3600 = 5000 L/s = 5,000 X 1.2(53.9 36.1) = 106,800 Watts = 106.8 kW(106.8/3.517 = 30.37RT) = 5,000 X 1.2(26 13) = 80,080 Watts = 80.1 kW(80.1/3.517= 22.77RT) ( Return air Supply air Return Air Flow Rate ata in(kW)


ool n

ol = 26.7C Dry Bulb = 13.4C Dry Bulb

(data) 19.5C Wet Bulb 13.03C Wet Bulb total cooling capacity 2-35

= 6,856 CMH = 1904 L/s latent cooling capa t

sensible cooling capa t

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

at ( ) tu n a

tu n a

o nt DB

(locate) (intersection po nt

RH = 51.26(%), h(enthalpy)= 55.4 kJ/kg W= 0.01122 kg of water/kg of dry air ( ) uppl = a DB h(enthalpy)=36.71 kJ/kg (intersection point)

W= 0.00919 kg of water/kg of dry air at properties) ( ) ( ) pa a t al ulat utton Dry Bulb onl n softwa (lair



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

() () () () () ()

Return air RH W Supply air RH W

= 26.7C Dry Bulb

19.5C WB

= 51.26(%), h(enthalpy)= 55.4 kJ/kg = 0.01122 kg of water / kg of dry air = 13.4C Dry Bulb 13.03C WB = 96.00 (%), h(enthalpy)=36.71 kJ/kg = 0.00919 kg of water / kg of dry air = 1.2 x Liter per Sec x( h1-h2) = 1.2 x 3236 x(55.4 - 36.71) = 72,4577 Watt = 20.63 RT

Total Cooling(Watts)

Sensible Cooling(Watts) Latent Cooling(Watts)

= 1.232 x Liter per Sec x( t1-t2) = 1.232 x 3236 x(26.7-13.4) =51,414 Watt = 51.41 kW / 3.517 = 14.61 RT = 3012 x Liter per Sec x(w1-w2) = 3012 x 3236 x(0.01122-0.00919)= 19,878 Watt Yor an U

technical r po t

U ool n

o l sp

f at on

AHU cooling coil specification



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

. Air Mixing Process Air conditioning process Air mixing process (outdoor air) supply air heat (content) Conservation of energy return air sensible (air mixing process)


- m flow rate CMH

- ass flow at volume flow rate(CFM mass

- . Determining Supply Air Condition


(heat gain)

Cooling load 2-38

Chapter-1 Psychromatics

heat load Heat load

Cooling load


equipment (heat gain) Room Latent Cooling Load(RLCL)

Room Sensible Cooling Load (RSCL)

(low temperature air) supply air (heat extraction) - - Air con , tu Wet Bulb sensible cooling load 78F Dry Bulb (air flow rate) , 50% RH M supply air tu


latent cooling load Dry Bulb

Supply air Supply air

(temperature) tS = 78-25 = 53F humidity ratio



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

) Chart WR = 71 gr w/lb d.a WS = 71-16 = 55 gr w/lb d.a CFM CMH supply air CFM condition Supply Air Condition (F Dry Bulb) 53 58 62.4 78 Point 1 1A at (condition) (sastified) (properties) Point R = 78F Dry Bulb - (points) Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) Psychometric c a t ( ( ) ) Room condition ( %RH RSHR RSHR slop condition Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) heat latent heat ) RSHR slop room con t on Sensible Heat Factor(SHF) RSHR supply air condition Room Sensible Heat Ratio (RSHR) Supply air RSHR sensible RSHR Dry Bulb Wet Bulb 50% RH supply air 1B W( gr w / lb d.a) 55 60 62.6 50% Psychometric (points) Dry Bulb RH(%) CFM uppl Wet Bulb supply air a olu flow at Supply air volume flow rate

Point 1 1A 1B R

Supply Air Flow (CFM) 2000 2500 3200



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

- (condition) Dry Bulb %RH WB) RSHR Line Sensible Heat Ratio Slop(RSHR) cooling load c at () RSHR , RSHR Line RSHR (equation) tu s o t RSHR sensible cooling load 77F Dry Bulb SHR (sastified)

- supply condition (CFM Room tu latent

Room Design Condition , 75%RH


at point

SHR Guide Point SHR 0.75

0.75 slope Guide Point guide line guide point 80F Dry Bulb


SHR Guide


Room condition point RSHR RSHR ( ) ( ) definition RSHR RSHR

room condition point SHR slop RSHR supply air condition RSHR RSHR Equipment 0.75 slop supply air RSHR room condition RSHR air conditioning equipment supply air condition

condition point RSHR

- (sticky temperature setting


(customer) 2-41

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(customer) data RSCL = 150,000 Btu/hr Room design conditions = 78F Dry Bulb Design supply air = 62F Dry Bulb Supply air condition (measured) = 61F Dry Bulb ( ( ) ) RSHR equation supply air condition 59F WB RLCL = 53,000 Btu/hr 50%RH

61F Dry Bulb

( )

Guide Point (locate)



RSHR 78F Dry Bulb RSHR condition

RSHR 50%RH point

(design condition) ( ) Supply air condition point c at air condition unit 62F Dry Bulb adjust

(satisfied thermostat setting Air latent heat RSHR

humidity level condition unit supply air condition point

- ( ( ) ) SHR cooling coil (outdoor air) ps (analysis . Coil Process Cooling Cooling coil (leaving air)

( ) Refrigerant temperature




coil (entering air)

cooling coil cooling coil


Chapter-1 Psychromatics

- s (leaving air) Capacity of cooling coil Coil chilled water

supply air condition o t at coil ool n loa coil curve (direction)

sensible cooling (entering air) ol

latent cooling condition point o ss L n total heat

condition point capacity

sensible heat latent heat configuration air velocity Coil refrigerant

condition Coil u (entering air point)

process line

st a

t ln condition

(leaving air point)

- EST Point Coil coil

- Cooling coil process process (straight line) cooling coil (performance) t ou l coil line) Cooling coil (entering air) 24,000 CFM 86 F DB 2-43 process line s oot n (straight line cooling


Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(leaving air) capacity


59 F Dry Bulb

56F Wet Bulb

cooling coil

Enterign Air Point = Point 2 Leaving Air point = Point 1 Qsensible = 1.1x CFM x(t2-t1) = 1.1 x 24,000 x(68-59) = 734,000 Btu/hr Qlatent = 0.68 x CFM x(w2-w1) = 670,000 Btu/hr Qtotal= 734,000 + 670,000 = 1,404,000 Btu/hr = 117 tons - Total Capacity Qtotal enthalpy(h) = 4.5 x CFM(h1-h2) = 4.5 x 24,000(36.8-23.8)= 1,404,000 Btu/hr IP Qs(Btu/h) Ql(Btu/h) Qtotal(Btu/h) (Unit) . Psychometric Analysis supply air condition capacity ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Room sensible and latent heat gain (heat load calculation Outside and inside design condition ) Ventilation(outside air) requirement ( Supply Air CFM Dry Bulb Supply (size) draft s o fo t ASHRAE SMACNA ANSI AISI data air CFM (application) application duct (size supply air CFM Dry Bulb Duct staleness CFM recommendation ) ( ) Weather data cooling coil = 1.1 x CFM x (t2-t1)F = 0.68 x CFM x (W2-W1) = 4.5 x CFM x (h2-h1) Qs(watt) Ql(watt) Qtotal(watt) SI = 1.232 x L/s x (t2-t1)C = 3012 x L/s x (W2-W1) = 1.2 x L/s x (h2-h1)




Chapter-1 Psychromatics

data RSCL , tu RLCL , tu

air conditioning system

(outside) design condition (inside) design condition ( utside air) difference) ( ( ) () ( ) ) Supply air CFM Supply air conditioning Conditioning entering cooling coil M

94F Dry Bulb 78F Dry Bulb

75F Wet Bulb (temperature

Supply air

Cooling coil sensible latent and total load Psychometric (problem) ( oo a t

schematic diagram (analyze)

- (outside air) exhaust Air ( ) RSCL = 1.1 x CFM3(t4-t3) duct Exhaust Air

( )

Dry Bulb3 = 78-20 =58F

supply air condition slop




RSHR Point 3 WB

58F Dry Bulb

supply air condition

( )

Cooling coil air) Mixed air mx a

(entering air)

return air




Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Mixing line Point 1 o nt air) ( ) Point 2

Point 7 Point 2 (entering air) po nt cooling coil Point 3 coil process WB2 = 67.2F


81.2F Dry Bulb (entering (leaving air) po nt


Point 2 Coil sensible load

Point 3

Qs = 1.1 x CFM 2( Dry Bulb2 Dry Bulb3 ) = 1.1 X 33,640( 81.2-58) = 858,500 Btu /hr Coil latent load QL = 0.68 x CFM2( W2 W3) = 0.68 X 233,640(77.5-65.0) = 286,000 Btu/hr Total cooling load Qt = Qs + QL = 1,145,000 Btu/ hr = 95.4 Refrigeration Ton (RT) QS(Coil sensible load) hx h3 (horizational distance)

QS= 4.5 x CFM( hx h3 ) = 4.5 x 33,640( 29.8-24.1) = 862,900 Btu/hr QL(Coil latent load) h2 hx (vertical distance) QL = 4.5 x CFM(h2 hx) = 4.5 x 33,640(31.7-29.8) = 287,600 Btu/hr Qt(Total cooling load) h2 h3 (distance) Qt = 4.5 x CFM((h2 h3) = 4.5 X 33,640(31.7-24.1) = 1,150,000 Btu/hr = 95.4 tons RSHR mixing air cooling coil room air (outside air) cooling load load coil process room heat load (outside air heat) (heat) (remove) outside air load 2-46 load coil


Chapter-1 Psychromatics


coolig load = 4.5 x 6730(38.6 30.1) = 257,400 Btu/hr

QTotal(Outside Air)= 4.5 x CFMOA x(h1-h5)

Cooling coil (room load) (outside air load) RSCL RLCL QTotal(OA) Coil Load Contact Factor(CF) (surface)

total cooling load

= 740,000 Btu/hr = 150,000 = 257,400 = 1,147,000 Btu/hr Effective Surface Temperature(ETS). (surface) cooling coil Bypass Factor(BF) cooling coil

. Contact Factor(CF) Bypass Factor(BF)

Effective temperature)


Temperature(EST) Cooling coil fin


coil coil


Mixed air Temperature(EST

cooling coil cooling coil EST saturated air Dry Bulb (leaving air)

(surface) mix air Dew Point (moisture ) cooling surface

= Effective Surface cooling

coil ( coil Bypass Factor(BF) Cooling surface tube velocity CF (-) Coil EST Coil process line b pass (size) fin arrangement of rows

CF = 1 (surface)

) cooling coil (leaving air) (leaving air) saturated air cooling coil (fin spacing) air face coil process line ETS

coil process line

saturated line (100% RH

(intersection point) 2-47


Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Contact Factor(CF) process

c at

(graphically) (leaving air temperature) coil

(entering air temperature) Effective Surface Temperature(EST)

- Cooling Process line cooling coil (CF=1) CF (temperature)

- Determining CF for a cooling coil.

Dry Bulb1 = Dry Bulb temperature of air entering to the cooling coil ( ) Dry Bulb2 = Dry Bulb temperature of air leaving to the cooling coil( EST = Effective Surface temperature of Coil(F) - Cooling coil DB ( ( ) ( ) ) 54 at Point 2 Coil process line Contact Factor(CF) l a n ondition Bypass Factor(BF) (entering saturated line equation air) Point 1 (leaving air) coil process line 100% RH Line Contact Factor(CF) DB (entering air) 56 Effective Surface Temperature(EST)

= 0.83 Bypass Factor(BF) Coil Cool n ol (steep) coil process steep coil process r . Reheat Cooling coil )

BF = 1- CF = 1-0.83 = 0.17 CF BF EST ) coil at (supply -(Chapter-3) saturated line(100% RH

coil selection

(leaving air) reheat



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

Hot water coil steam coil ol Reheat Coil(RHC

electric heater



- Reheat coil used to provide satifactory supply air condition supply air condition ( ) Room Latent Cooling Load(RLCL) (steep) RSHR reheat ( ) Cooling coil Humidity l (steep) RSHR (industrial application) cooling coil dehumidification reheat comfort air conditioning . Fan (Heat) at Fan Heat Gain(FHG) l reheat RH(%) capacity ool n ol cooling coil supply air 100% Outside air r at Room Total Cooling Load(RTCL) saturation line

- gain)

Draw-through supply air fan return air fan

Heat Gain effect (point 7

point 1) (heat heat gain

Supply air fan cooling coil


Psychrometric analysis total cooling capacity


Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

an Fan Air Handling Unit (AHU) Draw-through steam) Fan heat gain AHU Blow-through (up steam) cooling heat

(power) fan ga n Draw-through fan cooling coil fan cooling coil FHG

fan fan heat gain

heat gain (1F)

Psychrometric analysis Blow-through cooling coil (down Air Handling Unit

Psychrometric analysis fan cooling coil cooling coil cooling load

Air Handling Unit (AHU) fan coil FHG

16C Dry Bulb ol water mass flow capacity 1.02 hot water coil

34C Dry Bulb 68 k s leaving hot water

ot wat heat input Indoor air entering hot water

at n hot

specific heat

500 kW 19C Dry Bulb (air supply temperature)

(heating) s

Heater coil heater

. Water Spray into Air Steam (Adiabatic Saturation) Saturated (evaporation) latent heat



sp a n

(evaporation) (sensible heat loss 2-50

Chapter-1 Psychromatics

sensible heat

(loss Enthalpy

Dry Bulb (heat adding) (heat removing) psychometric chart 21C Dry Bulb 50% saturation (airstream) (spray) (mixture) ultimate condition (heat (heat enthalpy adding) removal)

- Water Spray into Air Steam ps enthalpy(41.08 kJ/kg) (latent at an saturation enthalpy enthalpy o t at process sensible heat constant (sensible heat loss) latent heat

(mixture) (evaporation)

- (final condition) 14.6C Dew Point


14.6C Dry Bulb 14.6C Wet Bulb 2-51

satu at

Ultimate condition

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

saturation point (point C) AC/AB 0.2K spray system effectiveness AC constant Wet Bulb constant (dry air) Gas mixture . Steam Injection (moisture) (steam injection) form) ) Dry Bulb 100C Steam injection 100C steam 21C Dry Bulb 50% saturation airstream 1 kg steam/150 kg dry air (final condition) moisture content of air before = 0.0079 kg/kg moisture added, 1 kg/150 kg = 0.0067 kg/kg Final moisture content = 0.0148 kg/kg superheated (evaporation) Steam (Dry (water spraying) (water vapour sensible heat Bulb steam Wet Bulb (water vapour) mixture Adiabatic (constant enthalpy) (error)

- Steam injection Dry Bulb 20C 100C steam steam specific heat capacity specific heat capacity



Chapter-1 Psychromatics

(steam) . Chilled Water Air Washer (final air condition) chilled water o stu


Dry Bulb

(entering air) spray ont nt (moisture) (Moisture will condense out of the air.)

Dew Point on nsat on air washer

- Chilled Water Air Washer (leaving air) sn l saturation efficiency spray banks air washer % 23C Dry Bulb 50% saturation single bank air washer (a) (b) Chart satu at on (by proportion) Dry Bulb Dry Bulb 23C 5C % (0.008 9 kg/kg 23C () () (final condition) (final condition) 10.4C Dry Bulb satu at on ff (spray n AC/AB an of sp a % % AC/AB (initial water temperature B) air washer Double %

saturation efficiency

chiller water

(moisture content) 0.005 4 kg/kg ) (i.e. saturated air at 5C)



Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(spray )

= 4.77 kJ = 1.1 K . ( ) Psychometric chart DB (F) a b c d e ( ) 70 40F Dry Bulb DP WB ( ) 75F Dry Bulb (condensation) ( ) 90F Dry Bulb cooling

A E RH(% ) 40% W (gr/ lb d.a) ft3/lb (d.a) Btu /lb

WB (F) 60 65

Dew Pt (F)

80 75

50 50 40% 70% (electric heater) RH (surface) s 52F o t at 80F process (cold water) RH% 70F Dry Bulb dehumidification process 56F DB ps 54F WB o t 2-54

Chapter-1 Psychromatics

() () WB ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Sensible load Latent load Total load Moisture M 70% RH (air flow rate)

( ) Fan Coil Unit(FCU) 80F Dry Bulb 56.5F (entering air) (leaving air) 58F Dry Bulb

Gallon Per 31,000 Btu/hr 50% RH supply


M , tu Room Latent Room Sensible , tu (air flow rate)

Room Sensible Cooling Load(RSRL) Cooling Load(RLCL) 75F Dry Bulb

Room Sensible Heat Ratio(RSHR) Room Latent Cooling load(RLCL) Wet Bulb , tu design condition 58F Dry Bulb 66F Wet Bulb Room Latent 77F Dry Supply air flow 60F

Cooling Load (RSCL) 112,000 Btu/hr , ( ) Bulb () 50 supply air 57F Wet Bulb 67F Dry Bulb M supply air

Dry Bulb

Room Sensible Cooling Load(RSRL) Cooling Load(RLCL) rate (CFM) Cooling coil Dry Bulb factor) 9,000 Btu Supply air Wet Bulb 80F Dry Bulb cooling coil

BF(bypass factor) CF(contact CF 0.91 55F cooling coil Coil

Effective Surface Temperature(EST) 82F Dry Bulb Effective Surface Temperature(EST) Dry Bulb Wet Bulb 55% RH 95F Dry Bulb 74F Wet Bulb M cooling coil arrangement condition 78F Dry Bulb , tu 58F Dry Bulb 56F Dry Bulb condition Wet Bulb Dry Bulb 50% RH 2-55 Load Contact Factor (CF) condition RSCL air



A/C unit

55F Dry Bulb (flow rate)

(outdoor air condition) ( ( ) ( ) () condition ()


RSCL RLCL Outside air load


18,000 Btu/hr


900 CFM supply air air con unit 76F Dry Bulb

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)


, 56F Dry Bulb reheat coil



tu (waste)

A/C unit design condition

54F Dry Bulb supply air (energy)

() RSCL = 812,000 Btu/hr RLCL = 235,000 Btu/hr Ventilation air Supply air = 6,000 CFM = 56F Dry Bulb 50% RH

Space conditions = 77F Dry Bulb ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( () ) at ) Apparatus arrangement Supply air CFM Dry Bulb total load Mixed air conditioning Coil sensible load latent load (outdoor air) coil process 20,000 CFM (leaving air)

(schematic diagram )

sensible load latent load point

total load

Contract Factor(CF)

Bypass Factor(BF)

Air conditioning unit RH

80F Dry Bulb 57F Dry Bulb


( ( ) ( )

A/C unit A/C unit A/C unit Leaving air

cooling capacity( Btu/hr ) on nsat (water removal rate) sensible load Dew Point sensible cooling load , design condition supply air duct arrangement supply air supply air (CFM) (CFM) Wet Bulb (moisture content) (outdoor air) 260 CFM 95F Dry Bulb 76F x t ul gr/lb Enthalpy lb/lb (outdoor air) (outdoor (mixed air) 2-56 tu

( ) ( ) ()

Effective surface temperature(apparatus Dew Point) Latent cooling load , tu

76F Dry Bulb 58F Dry Bulb ( ( ) ( ) Relative Humidity(RH) ( ) air)



Return air

air con unit

Chapter-1 Psychromatics

entering air enthalpy Relative Humidity(RH) and lb/lb) ( ) ( ) A/C unit p () tu condition nta sensible cooling load 76F Dry Bulb (outside air flow rate) 95F Dry Bulb (mix) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) () A/C unit Return air ) Equipment uppl a 76F Wet Bulb mixed air duct arrangement (flow rate) Refrigerating unit (size) (outdoor air) capacity (outside air flow)

Mixed air

Dry Bulb

Wet Bulb

(moisture content) (gr/lb Btu/hr 260 CFM refrigeration ton 130 CFM tu

cooling load

200,000 Btu/hr 64F Wet Bulb M

latent ool n


(outdoor air) Return air air con unit

(outdoor air)

entering air (sketch) Supply air

Room Sensible heat ratio (RSHR) 60F D Btu/hr ul ton

(outdoor air)

sensible cooling load (EST

Effective Surface Temperature(EST) ) Coil contact factor(CF) outdoor air (outdoor air) supply air 52F Dry Bulb total load (Btu/hr reheat (capacity) -Endbypass factor (BF)

apparatus Dew Point

3000 CFM 95F Dry Bulb Air con unit Ton)

76F Mixed air

t ul return air (leaving air)

20,000 CFM 78F Dry Bulb

( ( )

Air con unit ool n Bulb ol

(electric heat) (electric

58.5F Dry heat)