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Kaula or Kula describes a type of Hindu tantrism reckoned by Gavin Flood to derive from Kapalika or "cremation ground" asceticism, and to divide into northern, eastern, southern and western schools across the subcontinent. The Kaula tradition is sometimes more simply divided into two main branches, Purva Kaula and Uttara Kaula. The Kaula lineage is closely linked to the Siddha and Nātha traditions. . Additionally, "kaula" means in orthographic Greeklish "καύλα" (in phonetic Greeklish is "kavla" also pronounced as "kavla" in Greek). "Καύλα" in Greek means sexual excitement.
Kaula as South Indian Tantric tradition
Kaula System performed by Moothath Brahmins in Kerala and Nairs High Castes (Kiryathil Nairor Nair Royal Lineage of Kerala). The Text based on 'Kularnava Tantra', 'Maha Nirvahana Tantra', Sakthi Tantra etc.,. The translation of the term Kula in English is considered difficult and has raised some problems for researchers. The basic meaning is "family", "group" or "self-contained unit". This is explained by Flood as referring to the retinues of minor goddesses depicted in the schools' literature. Philosophically the term is said to represent a unifying connectedness, beneath the various objects, processes and living entities of this world, which may be identified with these goddesses as aspects of the supreme deity, in some regions the god Shiva, elsewhere a goddess. Another meaning sometimes given to the term kaula is that of a "group of people" engaged together in the practice of spiritual discipline. Kaula practices are based on tantra, closely related to the siddha tradition and shaktism. Kaula sects are noted for their extreme exponents who recommend the flouting of taboos and social mores as a means of liberation. Such practices were often later toned down to appeal to ordinary householders, as in Kaśmiri Śaivism.
The concepts of purity, sacrifice, freedom, the spiritual master (guru) and the heart are core concepts of the Kaula tradition.
Purity and impurity
"In this sacrifice, the wise man should use the very ingredient which is forbidden in the series of scriptures. It is immersed in the nectar-of-the-left." (Tantrāloka) Actions or objects are not seen impure in themselves, rather the attitude is the determinant factor. Spiritual ignorance is the only impurity and knowledge is pure. As long as one is identified with the supreme consciousness, there is nothing impure. The adept is unaffected by any external impurity and makes use of what is reprehensible to attain transcendence. Here arises the antinomian and asocial character of Kaula and the left-handed forms of Tantra.
Here. At the mental level freedom is attained by the awakening of Kundalini through asana. However. if sacrifice were performed only interiorly. The practices pertaining to consciousness are explained in such texts as Vijñāna Bhairava Tantra. he leads the disciples to the discovery of their own Atman with his own consciousness. and the will to create is considered free and unfettered. Spanda Kārikās and Śiva Sūtras. There are six main types of sacrifice according to the "six supports". Consciousness expands into the so-called pure reality. liberation and freedom. where there is the conception that maya (cosmic illusion) is superimposed upon the brahman (absolute). the couple. the revelation of the self is passed from master to disciple directly. a state described as Atma-vyapti or re-absorption into the true Self (atman) or Shiva-vyapti: re-absorption into the supreme consciousness of Shiva.Kaula 2 Sacrifice Kaula sacrifice (yajna) is defined primarily as an inward act. The disciple learns to recognize Śiva as the ultimate reality. which supports the freedom of the devotee from interior mental and egotistic limitations and from exterior social and cultural preconceptions. not through words or . creation is considered real. Kaula's basic method is the experience of the freedom of consciousness in the heart. a level that is considered to exist beyond time and space. there would be a lack of externality and therefore limitation and dualism. That is why Kaula adepts also perform symbolic external sacrifices making use of a sacred place and various rituals.the freedom to create. the central channel of the subtle breath (susumna). Disciples eminently open towards their guru's spiritual influence are named spiritual sons and held to know the highest state of consciousness by their direct link to their guru's illuminated heart. The culmination of this process is spiritual illumination. It is considered that Śiva. where the disciple's only essential practice is to surrender himself to his guru. Any action performed with the purpose of evoking the supreme reality is said to be sacrifice. the Śiva Sutras. This mudra (attitude) means "the ability of consciousness to freely move (charati) about in the space (kha) of the heart". complete in itself. Absolute freedom is to be found only in the revelation of the unity of the spirit with God. external reality. To be free is to be absolved from the necessity of rebirth conditioned by karmic restraints. the mind and Śakti. Here the kaulas are unlike Advaita and Veda. above any restriction or conditioning. inducing a sort of illusory creation. ultimately reflected in the center of the being as Kechari Mudra. summarizes the school's conception of the guru-disciple relationship. accepting the spiritual impulse bestowed upon him by his master. pranayama. At a social level deconditioning is realized by detaching from traditional restrictions with regard to what is considered pure and impure and through the adoption of the spiritual family of the guru. Kashmiri Shaivism describes freedom as svātantrya . creates the universe of his free will as a playful expression of his spirit (lila). Kaula functions as a form of guru yoga. where the powers of knowledge and action are unfettered. Socially the Kaula may be viewed as an alternative society. Guru "Guru is the path" (gurur upāyaḥ). Like fire kindled from a candle to another candle. Svatantrya is identical to Ananda (bliss) and vimarśa (reflexive consciousness/auto-consciousness). exalted into the supreme state. The guru is considered to form a single Self (atman) with his disciples. mudra or mantras. As such. maintain and destroy the universe pertaining to Śiva himself. the amplification and sublimation of the vital and mental energy and the elevation of consciousness. the body. This statement from the most revered sacred text of Kashmir Shaivism. Freedom Kaula stresses the language of self sufficiency. there are no conditioning desires or needs to be fulfilled and bliss is directly present in consciousness.
the heart or "subjective I". The so called Kechari Mudra is an attitude described as "the ability of consciousness to freely move (charati) about in the space (kha) of the heart". Thus. the body (spiritual alchemy inside one's own body). Reflection (pratibimba) is used here in the sense of "containing an image of the other objects inside". it can greatly accelerate the spiritual evolution of its members. sexuality. place of union of the cosmic couple Shiva and Shakti. The key to the effectiveness of group practice is held to reside in the harmony of minds and hearts of the participants. Group practice Group practices. On the cosmic level. These eight are not disconnected. but none of them can fully describe the Supreme Reality. the heart is the binding force of all conscious experiences . home of consciousness (Cit) and bliss (Ananda). which are restricted to the members of a kaula (family). When a compatible spiritual group is created. a concept similar to that of the hologram. Kaula prescribes practices that reintegrate the eight "rays" of the soul into the supreme consciousness. an effortless overflow of spiritual energy. rather than engaging in complex philosophical debate. The concept of "Spiritual Heart" is so important that even the supreme realization in Kashmir Shaivism is described in relation to it. The purposes of this practice are the initiation of novices. thus there is a . initiations and the secretive tantric sexual union. The principal means employed in the Kaula practice are the spiritual family. The main focus in Kaula is on practical methods for attaining enlightenment. festivities. Each term brings a specific viewpoint. include rituals. interrelated family ("kaula") based on consciousness as the common substrate. The first phase of development is linked to the attainment of a state of non-duality described as an "absorption into the spiritual heart". Whatever is pleasant and positive can be integrated in its practice.the individual being is considered a Kula composed of eight elements: five senses. The relation between a Kaula's parts is realized through mutual reflection. nirvikalpa samadhi or experiencing the "uncreated light" of consciousness (prakāśa) (read a number of subjective accounts of this experience). Akula (beyond the group). the expansion of consciousness and expression of the bliss already attained as participants become more and more advanced. unrelated processes but rather a unified. the practice of initiation rituals. but mediated by the direct transfer of śakti. Shiva (The Lord). Kashmir Saivism declares that each part is in fact Akula (Shiva) in essence. it embraces such actions in a spiritual light. ("kha"+"charati" forming "kechari") Practices Similarly to other tantric schools. The number of possible interactions and reflections between the members of a Kaula is much larger than the number of elements it contains. love. is a central concept in Kaula ideology. ego (ahamkar). conceived of as the most sacred reality. the mind and the intellect. the couple (sexual rituals such as maithuna). the energy (shakti) (controlled especially through the use of mantras and mystical phonemes) and the consciousness (seen as the epitome of one's whole being and of the universe itself). The term Aham refers to the same reality as other terms like anuttara (unsurpassed). a process of unification. On the individual level. Cit (supreme consciousness) as well as "feminine" aspects as Ananda and Shakti.Kaula exterior practices. the "Heart of the Lord" (aham) is the substrate of the family of 36 elements forming all manifestation. Abhinavagupta declares that such a group can enter a state of oneness and universal consciousness without effort. social life and artistic pursuits are considered vectors of spiritual evolution. 3 The Heart Aham. He explains this by the notion of reflection (pratibimba). Kaula chooses a positive (affirmative) approach: instead of prescribing self-limitations and condemning various actions.
Kaula connection between the parts through their common Akula substrate. astral. The power of a ritual lies in its repetition. mind. consciousness. entering the senses and producing extroverted samādhi. oblation into fire and its internalized version . This achievement is made possible by the intensity of their love. recitation (japa). without any effort (formal meditation. It is the supreme secret of Kula. Almost half of the Tantraloka is dedicated to rituals. it is the flowing font of both quiescence and emergence. Starting from the expanded consciousness of the self (atman). A pure disciple will attain the supreme state even by simply staying for a short time in presence of a guru without any instruction. even if they reproduce the ritual to the letter (as perceived from outside). The yogi experiences everything as pure light and ecstasy (cit-ananda) and does not feel any difference between interior and exterior any more. In their exalted state.the tantric couple Abhinavagupta: "The couple (yamala) is consciousness itself. As each part contains Akula. not an obstacle tortured in ascetic practices. the elite who can maintain a state of Bhairava (spiritual illumination) in sexual union. in its essence. is extended to the whole body. The practice of ritual may involve the construction of a mandala.the burning of the objects and means of knowledge into the "fire" of non-dual consciousness (parāmarśa). but less prepared ones need reinforcement and gradual accumulation. postures . any perception of the exterior reality becomes nondual. yogini (initiated woman) and siddha (initiated man)." (Tantraloka) The sexual practices of the Kaula schools. The kaula adept will discover kaulika .the power (siddhi) of identification with the Universal Consciousness experienced in the physical body. the noble cosmic bliss consisting of both Shiva and Shakti. and induce one in the other a state of permanent awakening. physical. visualization of a goddess or group of goddesses (Śakti). Yamala . performed in a state of "rest inside the creative awareness" (camatkāra). the unifying emission and the stable abode. At this point. expanded into the spiritual light of consciousness. Then consciousness manifests as a free force. it automatically contains everything.asana. . This form of extroverted. The role of the sexual Kaula ritual is to unite the couple. concentration Dharana and other forms of exertion in yoga). experienced initially only in consciousness. It is the absolute. generated spontaneously. neither quiescent nor emergent. The Kaula sacrifice is reserved for the few. are merely engaging in a sexual act. if they do not attain Bhairava consciousness. the body (and in the end. usually evoking the union of complementary sets such as man and woman. 4 Physical practices Kaula puts a special emphasis on the physical body in spiritual practice "as a vessel of the Supreme" and. This process is described as the descent of the energy of the non-dual consciousness into the physical. It becomes possible to live submerged in a continuous state of union with Shiva even while performing regular day to day activities. The non-dual. also known as "the secret ritual". Becoming united on all the levels. the exterior reality too) is infused with the experience of non-duality. Repeated submergence into the state of non-duality is supposed to induce secondary effects on the physical body due to the activity of the spiritual energy (śakti) and may be called tantric body alchemy (see internal alchemy). all inclusive samādhi is the pinnacle of spiritual evolution. this is how the mutual reflection is said to be realized. senses and physical body are "dissolved" into oneness. a faculty and its object or inhalation and exhalation. mental and even in their consciousness. are performed with a so-called "external Shakti" (sexual partner) as opposed to the purely meditative practices which involve only one's own spiritual energies (the "interior Shakti"). Other couples. they reconstitute the supreme couple of Shiva and Shakti. jagadananda or bhava samadhi. As a consequence. as such. the two become absorbed into the consciousness of the Self. bhairavi mudra.
atemporal vibration. In another ritual.fundamental energy of the body. spanda .reflection in consciousness. cit . such is also the basis of any Kula. the risen form. The two are always in indissoluble union in a perfect state of bliss. So Kula families are united by a common substrate. the unifying factor.Kaula "Initiation by the mouth of the yogini (yoginī-vaktra)". In the Kaula system. Visarga . the transcendent Akula. This mystical state of culminates in the kaula of the body (perfection of the ensemble of organs. Santodita (beyond udita and śānta) is the uniting form. The group (kula) of Sanskrit phonemes form a complete description of reality. under a similar plethora or names (Vimarsa . introverted or extroverted.a state associated with immanence. focus is absorbed just on one's own Self in an act of transcendence. thus "Akula" is "beyond kula". In Udita. Kauliki . 5 Mantra practice Mantric meditation is the most common form of tantric practice. The energy generated during the tantric sexual act is considered a form of "subtle emission". the phonemes are identified with specific zones of the body through the practice of nyāsa. he comes to recognize the divinities within the body. senses and mind) and such a being is known as a siddha (accomplished one). from the lowest ("earth") to the highest (Śiva consciousness) level. a contracted form of Shiva (Akula) himself. . Kundalini . while the act of ejaculation is considered a form of physical emission. Depending on the orientation of one's consciousness. on various levels of the universe. cause of both śānta and udita emissions. He is to see her as both his lover and guru. the rested form of emission. Shiva. The adept attains a form of bodily enlightenment where. the Deity. under various names (anuttara . Applications of the term While the manifest reality is described as Kula (a variant form of the term Kaula). undivided consciousness. In Śānta. "A" means "beyond". The supreme "family" by definition spans both manifestation and transcendence. is termed Akula. through the power of mantras. This kind of translation from the physical act to the mental and to consciousness itself is a characteristic of the tantric world view.supreme consciousness.absolute. as it does not have efficiency unless the disciple received his initiation from an authentic master.creative energy that emits the Universe. In Kashmir Shaivism. this practice is associated especially with the group of phonemes. As the substrate of all manifestation is Akula. they are different aspects of the same reality. emission can be of two kinds: rested and risen. Ultimately there is no difference between Shiva and Shakti.uncreated light. Often at the highest level of reality Shiva and Shakti form the supreme couple. kaula (the group of two as one) and an "outflow of the pulsation of Shiva and Shakti". the energy of emission (visarga śakti) is considered to be a form of ānanda (bliss). Kula is a contraction (saṃkoca) of totality. Akula beyond the groups of manifestation) and Shakti. The ritual "setting out" of the phonemes imitates the emanation of the cosmos from the supreme I-consciousness of Śiva. or "non". The word or phoneme is not useful in itself. infusing the body with spiritual energy.that which is "sprung" in Kula). Such an affirmation has been popularized under slogans like "Consciousness is Everything" in some recent Kashmir Shaivism related publications for the public. The 50 phonemes (varṇa) of the Sanskrit alphabet are used as "seed" mantras denoting various aspects of consciousness (cit) and energy (śakti). thus in each Kula there is a contracted form of the universe. Initiation into mantric practice is based on a transfer of power and the link (lineage) of the heart. is a method by which the adept unites with a purified yoginī and receives the unique experience of the illuminated consciousness. prakāśa . or the ultimate Kula (family). In every one of its instances. the focus is projected on the Self (atman) of one's lover . Santodita is described as universal bliss (cidānanda).
concretisation of the supreme consciousness. Even if she is the dynamic aspect of the absolute. Kaulika creates the path of evolution for consciousness from ego to spirit. Kaulika is another name for Shakti. or just the link between matter and spirit. Supreme Consciousness (Cit. Thus. Texts Followed in Kaula System of Kerala 1. does a paradoxical thing . Thus. Bridging the two.Shreem . Most of the Temple deities called 'Bhadrakaali'. The manifestation of Kaulika proceeds from the absolute (anuttara) in the process of cosmic creation (mahasristi). but also identical to the absolute. subtle and supreme form.Soum -as its Prim Form (Tantric deities). Muller-Ortega. be it gross (physical). we have presently two types of traditions. Kularnava Tantra 2. Even if Cit is not directly involved in the process of manifestation (as it is said to be unmanifest). A closely related concept is Kaulika. following Pandey. Practicing "Hreem" bija/ Hreem . Namboothiri Brahmins of Kerala are popular in this field.Kreem . Maha Nirvahana Tantra 3. Thus Kaulika should not be seen as mere energy. and 'Durga' from are worshiped in this system. the absolute transcendent. Kaulika is an energy both of spirit and matter. "like pots are made of clay") and also the efficient cause ("like the potter is the efficient cause in the activity of creating pots"). Kula is the totality of manifestation. it is always present in every possible facet of manifestation. summarizes the literature of the Kashmiri school as follows: • • • • • • • • • Siddha-yogeśvarī-mata-tantra Rudra-yāmala-tantra Kulārṇava-tantra Jñānārṇava Nityā-ṣoḍaśika-arṇava Svacchanda-tantra Netra-tantra Tantrarāja-tantra Kālīkula Kerala School of Kaula In Kerala State of India. Consciousness is the ultimate principle. Practicing "Shree" bija / Shree as the form of Kali (Taking Durga form of Devi Kali as Principle Deity and its variations). subtle (mental) or subtlest (relating to the causal body or soul). mind and soul are considered kindred parts of the whole. the monad of the universe. The term literally means "sprung in Kula". with all its diversity and at the same time remains identical to Shiva. Moossad or Mootheth Brahmin of Kerala and Nairs of Kerala follows this System. in gross.she creates the universe. Known as "Samaya" tradition (opposing Kaula System). 1. there are some texts associated with the tradition. Sakthi Tantra .Kloum . 6 Texts Kashmiri School of Kaula While Kaula is primarily an oral tradition and does not place a high value on the creation of texts. From this perspective. 1. Shakti. always present as substrate in every external object. identical to Akula) is considered to be the substrate of manifestation. her divine consort. Thus external world. it is said to be the substantial cause of manifestation (manifestation is made of Cit.Kaula In Kashmir Shaivism. the spiritual energy. the binding force of the Kula. body. she does not rank lower than Shiva. as described in Kashmir Shaivism.
97 . p. Page 521  Tantra: The Supreme Understanding: Discourses on the Tantric Way of Tilopa's. Jaideva Singh. Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche. p. p. 84  Dupuche 2003. Cap II. uk/ content/ view/ 162/ 1/ ) Muller-Ortega 1989. p. The areas of Mithila and Nepal too follow similar Kaula Tradition. 166  Muller-Ortega 1989. Lilian Silburn  Lakshmanjoo 1988. Haridāsa Bhaṭṭācāryya. p. p. Abhinavagupta.s 58. Page 19  Muller-Ortega 1989. śl. Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Pandit Rajmani Tigunait. some other protocols are followed which are handed over by spiritual teacher to the desciple as secret. Rajmani Tigunait. 157  Muller-Ortega 1989. translation by Raniero Gnoli     Tantraloka by Abhinavagupta Cap28. 59 Muller-Ortega 1989. p. Tantra manchiri Texts Followed in Samaya (Shree) system of Kerala 1. The Ongoing Journey Of A Spiritual Seeker. 104  Dupuche 2003. 3. p. 166  Tantrāloka. 5  Touched By Fire. 84  Dupuche 2003.D. p. Verse 32. page 5  Śiva Sutras of Vasugupta. p. 59  Kundalini. p. 61  Muller-Ortega 1989. 55 Muller-Ortega 1989. 62  The Tibetan Yogas of Dream and Sleep. p. Jnanarnava Tantra Texts Followed in Mishra (Adi Sankara Acharya . Osho. 99  Muller-Ortega 1989. p. The area of Assam is renowned for its Kaula traditions similar to Gauda Land. p. p. Verse 5  Dupuche 2003. 60  Khe carati iti kechar[ii]. p.mixture of Kaula and Samaya System. 59  Khe carati iti kechar[ii]. 61 Lakshmanjoo 1988. co.. 7 Notes       Flood 1996. Gaudiya School of Kaula In Gauda desha(Present West Bengal and Bangladesh) the Kali and Shakti worship is done as per Kaula tradition.v373-v380 Muller-Ortega 1989. p. 166 Commentary on Saudarya Lahiri. 127  Luce dei Tantra: Tantrāloka. p. The texts followed are almost same as other two school. p. 87  Dupuche 2003. p. Ph. advaitavedanta. 183  Muller-Ortega 1989. p. 10  Dupuche 2003. p. p. Chapter 29. page 188  Muller-Ortega 1989. 87  Dupuche 2003. p177-178  Muller-Ortega 1989. 61  The Cultural Heritage of India. p. 9  Muller-Ortega 1989. p. 102  Flood 1996. p. p. Parā-trīśikā Vivaraṇa. 182  Dupuche 2003. p. p. Energy of the depths. p. Singh 2005. Many Brahmin families are there who are Kaula themselves and do practises as per Kaulachara. Pandit Rajmani Tigunait. the Energy of the Depths.Kaula 4. 29 Muller-Ortega 1989. p. 100 Flood 1996  Muller-Ortega 1989. 62  Dupuche 2003. 14  Kundalini. 62  Muller-Ortega 1989. 2008-01-17 (http:/ / www.
SUNY Press. p. p. 63 Dupuche 2003. p. p. p. energy of the depths. 137 Muller-Ortega 1989. An Introduction to Hinduism. p. Consciousness is Everything.263 Kundalini. p. 6 Singh 2005. 59 Dupuche 2003. as Elaborated in Chapter 29 of the Tantrāloka. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Lilian Silburn. Trika Saivism of Kashmir. 263 Dupuche 2003. 123 Muller-Ortega 1989. 261. Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme. 82 See Sexual sublimation. p. (1996). p. 59 The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism. p. 160 Singh 2005. 109 Singh 2005. 263 Dupuche 2003. p. p. 59 Muller-Ortega 1989. Ojas and Visarga Dupuche 2003. p. The Triadic Heart of Siva. p. 62 Dupuche 2003. p. ISBN 81-215-1082-1 . 60 Dupuche 2003. 268 Muller-Ortega 1989. pp. p. p. p.Kaula                                              Muller-Ortega 1989. 102 Dupuche 2003. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. p. 31 Singh 2005. Swami Shankarananda Pandit 2003. 60 Singh 2005. 187 Dupuche 2003. 82 Muller-Ortega 1989. p. 60 Muller-Ortega 1989. 34 Singh 2005. p. 5. 120 Dupuche 2003. p. p. p. p. Moti Lal (2003). 119 Dupuche 2003. 116-117a Dupuche 2003. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. 114 Kundalini. p. 45 Dupuche 2003. ISBN 0-88706-787-5 • Pandit. (2003). 60 Tantraloka by Abhinavagupta Cap. Albany: State University of New York Press. energy of the depths. p. p. 57-58 8 References • Dupuche. Swami (1988). p. ISBN 0-521-43878-0 • Lakshmanjoo. Lilian Silburn. Gavin D. Abhinavagupta: The Kula Ritual. 29 Verse. 60 Muller-Ortega 1989. ISBN 81-208-1979-9 • Flood. 80 Muller-Ortega 1989. 119 Dupuche 2003. p. 72 Singh 2005. p. p. 59 Muller-Ortega 1989. Paul (1989). p. ISBN 0-88706-575-9 • Muller-Ortega. 78 Muller-Ortega 1989. p. p. 136 Dupuche 2003. John R. 34 Muller-Ortega 1989. 34 Muller-Ortega 1989. 81 Dupuche 2003. 77 Muller-Ortega (1989). p. 117 Dupuche 2003. p. p. 117 Muller-Ortega 1989. p. p.
Kaula • Singh. Swami Lakshmanjee.universalshaivafellowship. Paratrisika Vivarana by Abhinavagupta: The Secret of Tantric Mysticism. ISBN 81-208-0472-4 9 External links • Kaula (http://www.org/Trika) . Ltd). Jaideva. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Bettina Baumer (2005).
JohnCD. Dakinijones. Nijgoykar. MatthewVanitas. Ulric1313. Synergy. Lukriscamirobgnr. Utcursch. Шантира Шани. Zerokitsune. Sivanath. Jayen466. Visarganath.0 Unported //creativecommons. Yogidude. Yonderboy. Thampuransarath. Tkynerd. Joy. Nayansatya. Khazar.org/licenses/by-sa/3. TheRingess. Redheylin. Fairfax Geographer.org/w/index. Bazonka. LilHelpa.0/ . Mickey83. Themfromspace. Jmm6f488. Editor2020.php?oldid=506676527 Contributors: Arch dude. SchreiberBike. Spideynutskllz. UgraTara. Rjwilmsi. Gonzonoir. Visarga. Belovedfreak. Vritti. Redtigerxyz.Article Sources and Contributors 10 Article Sources and Contributors Kaula Source: http://en. 50 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.wikipedia. J04n. IPSOS. Epbr123. Wiki-uk. Squids and Chips. Hooperbloob. Yogesh Khandke. Pigman.
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