CHAPTER
1
Introduction to Calculus
Velocity and Distance Calculus Without Limits The Velocity at an Instant Circular Motion A Review of Trigonometry A Thousand Points of Light Computing in Calculus
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
CHAPTER
2
Derivatives
The Derivative of a Function Powers and Polynomials The Slope and the Tangent Line Derivative of the Sine and Cosine The Product and Quotient and Power Rules Limits Continuous Functions
CHAPTER
3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8
Applications of the Derivative Linear Approximation Maximum and Minimum Problems Second Derivatives: Minimum vs. Maximum Graphs Ellipses, Parabolas, and Hyperbolas Iterations x,+ = F(x,) Newton's Method and Chaos The Mean Value Theorem and l'H8pital's Rule
,
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Calculus
1.4 Velocity and Distance
The right way to begin a calculus book is with calculus. This chapter will jump directly into the two problems that the subject was invented to solve. You will see what the questions are, and you will see an important part of the answer. There are plenty of good things left for the other chapters, so why not get started? The book begins with an example that is familiar to everybody who drives a car. It is calculus in actionthe driver sees it happening. The example is the relation between the speedometer and the odometer. One measures the speed (or velocity); the other measures the distance traveled. We will write v for the velocity, and f for how far the car has gone. The two instruments sit together on the dashboard:
Fig. 1.1 Velocity v and total distance f (at one instant of time).
Notice that the units of measurement are different for v and f.The distance f is measured in kilometers or miles (it is easier to say miles). The velocity v is measured in km/hr or miles per hour. A unit of time enters the velocity but not the distance. Every formula to compute v from f will have f divided by time.
The central question of calculus is the relation between v and f.
1 Introduction to Calculus
Can you find v if you know f , and vice versa, and how? If we know the velocity over the whole history of the car, we should be able to compute the total distance traveled. In other words, if the speedometer record is complete but the odometer is missing, its information could be recovered. One way to do it (without calculus) is to put in a new odometer and drive the car all over again at the right speeds. That seems like a hard way; calculus may be easier. But the point is that the information is there. If we know everything about v, there must be a method to find f . What happens in the opposite direction, when f is known? If you have a complete record of distance, could you recover the complete velocity? In principle you could drive the car, repeat the history, and read off the speed. Again there must be a better way.
The whole subject of calculus is built on the relation between u and f . The question we are raising here is not some kind of joke, after which the book will get serious and the mathematics will get started. On the contrary, I am serious nowand the mathematics has already started. We need to know how to find the velocity from a record of the distance. (That is called &@erentiation, and it is the central idea of dflerential calculus.) We also want to compute the distance from a history of the velocity. (That is integration, and it is the goal of integral calculus.) Differentiation goes from f to v; integration goes from v to f . We look first at examples in which these pairs can be computed and understood.
CONSTANT VELOCITY
Suppose the velocity is fixed at v = 60 (miles per hour). Then f increases at this constant rate. After two hours the distance is f = 120 (miles). After four hours f = 240 and after t hours f = 60t. We say that f increases linearly with timeits graph is a straight line.
4 velocity v ( t )
4 distance f ( t )
2 4 0 ~ ~ s 1 ~ =4 " = 6 0
v
Area 240
:
time t
I
time t
Fig. 1.2 Constant velocity v = 60 and linearly increasing distance f = 60t.
Notice that this example starts the car at full velocity. No time is spent picking up speed. (The velocity is a "step function.") Notice also that the distance starts at zero; the car is new. Those decisions make the graphs of v and f as neat as possible. One is the horizontal line v = 60. The other is the sloping line f = 60t. This v, f , t relation needs algebra but not calculus:
if v is constant and f starts at zero then f = vt.
The opposite is also true. When f increases linearly, v is constant. The division by time gives the slope. The distance is fl = 120 miles when the time is t 1 = 2 hours. Later f' = 240 at t , = 4. At both points, the ratio f / t is 60 miles/hour. Geometrically, the velocity is the slope o f the distance graph: slope = change in distance vt  v. change in time t
1.1 Velocity and Distance
Fig. 1.3 Straight lines f = 20
+ 60t (slope 60) and f =  30t (slope  30).
The slope of the fgraph gives the vgraph. Figure 1.3 shows two more possibilities:
1. The distance starts at 20 instead of 0. The distance formula changes from 60t to 20 + 60t. The number 20 cancels when we compute change in distanceso the slope is still 60. 2. When v is negative, the graph off goes downward. The car goes backward and the slope o f f =  30t is v =  30. I don't think speedometers go below zero. But driving backwards, it's not that safe to watch. If you go fast enough, Toyota says they measure "absolute valueswthe speedometer reads + 30 when the velocity is  30. For the odometer, as far as I know it just stops. It should go backward.?
VELOCITY vs. DISTANCE: SLOPE vs. AREA
How do you compute f' from v? The point of the question is to see f = ut on the graphs. We want to start with the graph of v and discover the graph off. Amazingly, the opposite of slope is area. The distance f is the area under the vgraph. When v is constant, the region under the graph is a rectangle. Its height is v, its width is t , and its area is v times t. This is integration, to go from v to f by computing the area. We are glimpsing two of the central facts of calculus.
1A The slope of the fgraph gives the velocity v. The area under the vgraph gives the distance f.
That is certainly not obvious, and I hesitated a long time before I wrote it down in this first section. The best way to understand it is to look first at more examples. The whole point of calculus is to deal with velocities that are not constant, and from now on v has several values.
EXAMPLE (Forward and back) There is a motion that you will understand right away. The car goes forward with velocity V, and comes back at the same speed. To say it
more correctly, the velocity in the second part is  V. If the forward part lasts until t = 3, and the backward part continues to t = 6, the car will come back where it started. The total distance after both parts will be f = 0.

+This actually happened in Ferris Bueller's Day 0 8 , when the hero borrowed his father's sports car and ran up the mileage. At home he raised the car and drove in reverse. I forget if it worked.
1 Introduction to Calculus
1
u(r) = slope of f ( t )
Fig. 1.4
Velocities
+ V and  V give motion forward and back, ending at f (6)= 0.
The vgraph shows velocities + V and  V. The distance starts up with slope V and reaches f = 3 V. Then the car starts backward. The distance goes down with slope  V and returns to f = 0 at t = 6 . Notice what that means. The total area "under" the vgraph is zero! A negative velocity makes the distance graph go downward (negative slope). The car is moving backward. Area below the axis in the vgraph is counted as negative.
FUNCTIONS
+
This forwardback example gives practice with a crucially important ideathe cept of a "jiunction." We seize this golden opportunity to explain functions: The number v(t) is the value of the function
t. at
con
the time t.
The time t is the input to the function. The velocity v(t) at that time is the output. Most people say "v oft" when they read v(t). The number "v of 2" is the velocity when t = 2. The forwardback example has v(2) = + V and v(4) =  V. The function contains the whole history, like a memory bank that has a record of v at each t. It is simple to convert forwardback motion into a formula. Here is v(t):
The ,right side contains the instructions for finding v(t). The input t is converted into the output V or  V. The velocity v(t) depends on t. In this case the function is "di~continuo~s,~' because the needle jumps at t = 3. The velocity is not dejined at that instant. There is no v(3). (You might argue that v is zero at the jump, but that leads to trouble.) The graph off' has a corner, and we can't give its slope. The problem also involves a second function, namely the distance. The principle behind f(t) is the same: f (t) is the distance at time t. It is the net distance forward, and again the instructions change at t = 3. In the forward motion, f(t) equals Vt as before. In the backward half, a calculation is built into the formula for f(t):
+
At the switching time the right side gives two instructions (one on each line). This would be bad except that they agree: f (3) = 3 V . v h e distance function is "con?A function is only allowed one ~:alue,f'(r) or ~ ( tat ) each time
r
1.1 Velocity and Distance
tinuous." There is no jump in f, even when there is a jump in v. After t = 3 the distance decreases because of  Vt. At t = 6 the second instruction correctly gives f (6) = 0. Notice something more. The functions were given by graphs before they were given by formulas. The graphs tell you f and v at every time tsometimes more clearly than the formulas. The values f (t) and v(t) can also be given by tables or equations or a set of instructions. (In some way all functions are instructionsthe function tells how to find f at time t.) Part of knowing f is knowing all its inputs and outputsits domain and range:
The domain of a function is the set of inputs. The range is the set of outputs.
The domain of f consists of all times 0 < t < 6. The range consists of all distances 0 <f(t) < 3V. (The range of v contains only the two velocities + V and  V.) We mention now, and repeat later, that every "linear" function has a formula f (t) = vt + C. Its graph is a line and v is the slope. The constant C moves the line up and down. It adjusts the line to go through any desired starting point.
SUMMARY: MORE A B O U T FUNCTIONS
May I collect together the ideas brought out by this example? We had two functions v and f. One was velocity, the other was distance. Each function had a domain, and a range, and most important a graph. For the fgraph we studied the slope (which agreed with v). For the vgraph we studied the area (which agreed with f). Calculus produces functions in pairs, and the best thing a book can do early is to show you more of them.
domain
"{
input t input 2 input 7
+
+
+
function f function u f (t) = 2t + 6
,
+
+
output f (t) output v(2) f (7) = 20
1
the range in
Note about the definition of a function. The idea behind the symbol f (t) is absolutely crucial to mathematics. Words don't do it justice! By definition, a function is a "rule" that assigns one member of the range to each member of the domain. Or, a function is a set of pairs (t, f (t))with no t appearing twice. (These are "ordered pairs" because we write t before f (t).) Both of those definitions are correctbut somehow they are too passive. In practice what matters is the active part. The number f (t) is produced from the number t. We read a graph, plug into a formula, solve an equation, run a computer program. The input t is "mapped" to the output f(t), which changes as t changes. Calculus is about the rate of change. This rate is our other function v.
Fig. 1.5 Subtracting 2 from f affects the range. Subtracting 2 from t affects the domain.
1 Introduction to Calculus
It is quite hard at the beginning, and not automatic, to see the difference between f (t)  2 and f (t  2). Those are both new functions, created out of the original f (t). In f (t)  2, we subtract 2 from all the distances. That moves the whole graph down. In f ( t  2), we subtract 2 from the time. That moves the graph over to the right. Figure 1.5 shows both movements, starting from f (t) = 2t + 1. The formula to find f (t  2) is 2(t  2) + 1, which is 2t  3. A graphing calculator also moves the graph, when you change the viewing window. You can pick any rectangle A < t < B, C <f(t) < D. The screen shows that part of the graph. But on the calculator, the function f ( t )remains the same. It is the axes that get renumbered. In our figures the axes stay the same and the function is changed. There are two more basic ways to change a function. (We are always creating new functionsthat is what mathematics is all about.) Instead of subtracting or adding, we can multiply the distance by 2. Figure 1.6 shows 2f (t). And instead of shifting the time, we can speed it up. The function becomes f(2t). Everything happens twice as fast (and takes half as long). On the calculator those changes correspond to a "zoom"on the f axis or the t axis. We soon come back to zooms.
0
I
t
domain 1
0
I
t
1
0
112
Fig. 1.6 Doubling the distance or speeding up the time doubles the slope.
1.1 EXERCISES
Each section of the book contains readthrough questions. They allow you to outline the section yourselfmore actively than reading a summary. This is probably the best way to remember the important ideas.
Starting from f(0) = 0 at constant velocity v, the distance function is f (t)= a . When f ( t ) = 55t the velocity is v = b . When f(t) = 55t + 1000 the velocity is still c and the starting value is f (0) = d . In each case v is the e of the graph off. When f is negative, the graph of s goes downward. In that case area in the t.graph counts as h . Forward motion from f (0) = 0 to f (2) = 10 has v = i . Then backward motion to f (4) = 0 has v = i . The distance function is f (t)= 5t for 0 < t < 2 and then f (t) = k (not  5t). The slopes are I and m . The distance f(3) = n . The area under the vgraph up to time 1.5 is o . The domain o f f is the time interval P , and the range is the distance interval q . The range of v(t) is only
1 . 
The value off (t) = 3t + 1 at t = 2 is f (2) = s . The value 19 equals f ( t ). The difference f (4)f (1) = u . That is the change in distance, when 4  1 is the change in v . The ratio of those changes equals w , which is the x of the graph. The formula for f (t) + 2 is 3t + 3 whereas f (t + 2) equals Y . Those functions have the same z and f (t 2) is as f : the graph of f (t) + 2 is shifted A shifted B . The formula for f (5t) is C . The formula for 5f ( t )is D . The slope has jumped from 3 to E .
+
1.1 Velocity and Distance
7
The set of inputs to a function is its F . The set of outputs is its G . The functions f (t) = 7 + 3(t  2) and f (t) = vt + C are t~ . Their graphs are I with slopes equal to J and K . They are the same function, if v= L andC= M . Draw the velocity graph that goes with each distance graph.
Draw the distance graph that goes with each velocity graph. Start from f = 0 at t = 0 and mark the distance.
1
If
If
13a
13b
3 Write down threepart formulas for the velocities u(t) in Problem 2, starting from v(t) = 2 for 0 < t < 10. 4 The distance in l b starts with f (t) = 10  lot for 0 < t < 1. Give a formula for the second part. 5 In the middle of graph 2a find f (15) and f (12) and f (t).
15 Write down formulas for v(t) in Problem 14, starting with v =  40 for 0 < t < 1. Find the average velocities to t = 2.5 and t = 3T. 16 Give 3part formulas for the areas f (t) under v(t) in 13. 17 The distance in 14a starts with f (t) = 40t for 0 < t < 1. Find f (t)in the other part, which passes through f = 0 at t = 2. 18 Draw the velocity and distance graphs if v(t) = 8 for O < t < 2 , f ( t ) = 2 0 + t for 2 < t < 3 . 19 Draw rough graphs of y = and y = , / = and y=  4. They are "halfparabolas" with infinite slope at the start.
6 In graph 2b find f(1.4T). If T= 3 what is f(4)?
7 Find the average speed between t = 0 and t = 5 in graph
la. What is the speed at t = 5?
8 What is the average speed between t = 0 and t = 2 in graph 1b? The average speed is zero between t = 3 and t = . 9 (recommended) A car goes at speed u = 20 into a brick
fi
20 What is the breakeven point if x yearbooks cost
wall at distance f 4. Give twopart formulas for v(t) and f (t) (before and after), and draw the graphs.
10 Draw any reasonable graphs of v(t) and f(t) when

$1200 + 30x to produce and the income is 40x? The slope of the cost line is (cost per additional book). If it goes above you can't break even.
21 What are the domains and ranges of the distance functions in 14a and 14ball values of t and f (t) if f (0) = O ? 22 What is the range of u(t) in 14b? Why is t = 1 not in the domain of v(t) in 14a?
(a) (b) (c) (d)
the driver backs up, stops to shift gear, then goes fast; the driver slows to 55 for a police car; in a rough gear change, the car accelerates in jumps; the driver waits for a light that turns green.
11 Your bank account earns simple interest on the opening balance f (0). What are the interest rates per year?
Problems 2328 involve linear functions f (t) = vt + C. Find the constants v and C.
23 What linear function has f (0) = 3 and f (2) = 1 l?
24 Find two linear functions whose domain is 0 < t d 2 and whose range is 1 d f (t) < 9.
25 Find the linear function with f(1) = 4 and slope 6. 26 What functions have f (t
+ 1)=f (t) + 2?
+6
and
27 Find the linear function with f (t + 2) =f (t)
f (1)= lo.
12 The earth's population is growing at v = 100 million a year, starting from f = 5.2 billion in 1990. Graph f (t) and find f (2000). 28 Find the only f = vt that has f (2t) = 4f (t). Show that every f = +at2 has this property. To go times as far in twice the time, you must accelerate.
8
It( < 2 and find its slopes and range.
I Introduction to Calculus 45 (a) Draw the graph of f (t) = t
29 Sketch the graph of f(t) = 15  2tl (absolute value) for 30 Sketch the graph off (t) = 4  t  14  t( for 2 < t 6 5 and find its slope and range. 31 Suppose v = 8 up to time T, and after that v = 2. Starting from zero, when does f return to zero? Give formulas for v(t) and f (t). 32 Suppose v = 3 up to time T= 4. What new velocity will lead to f (7) = 30 if f (0) = O ? Give formulas for u(t) and f (t). 33 What function F(C) converts Celsius temperature C to
+ 1 for 1 Q t 6 1. Find the domain, range, slope, and formula for (d) f (0 (el f k t ) . (b) 2f ( 0 ( 4 f (t  3)
46 If f (t) = t  1 what are 2f (3t) and f (1  t) and f (t  I)? 47 In the forwardback example find f (* T )and f (3T). Verify that those agree with the areas "under" the vgraph in Figure 1.4. 48 Find formulas for the outputs fl(t) and fi(t) which come from the input t: (1) inside = input * 3 (2) inside + input + 6 output = inside + 3 output t inside * 3 Note BASIC and FORTRAN (and calculus itself) use = instead of t. But the symbol t or := is in some ways better. The instruction t + t + 6 produces a new t equal to the old t plus six. The equation t = t + 6 is not intended. 49 Your computer can add and multiply. Starting with the
, whish is Fahrenheit temperature F? The slope is the number of Fahrenheit degrees equivalent to 1°C.
34 What function C(F) converts Fahrenheit to Celsius (or
Centigrade), and what is its slope?
35 What function converts the weight w in grams to the weight f (w) in kilograms? Interpret the slope of f (w). 36 (Newspaper of March 1989) Ten hours after the accident
number 1 and the input called t, give a list of instructions to lead to these outputs: f 1 ( t ) = t 2 + t f2(t)=fdfdt)) f3(t)=f1(t+l)50 In fifty words or less explain what a function is.
the alcohol reading was .061. Blood alcohol is eliminated at .015 per hour. What was the reading at the time of the accident? How much later would it drop to .04 (the maximum set by the Coast Guard)? The usual limit on drivers is .10 percent.
The last questions are challenging but possible. Which points between t = 0 and t = 5 can be in the domain of f (t)? With this domain find the range in 3742.
37 f(t) = 51 If f (t) = 3t  1 for 0 6 t Q 2 give formulas (with domain)
,/=
38 f (t) = I/40 f (t) = l/(t  4).?
39 f (t) = ( t 4 1 (absolute value)
43 (a) Draw the graph off (t) = i t
+ 3 with domain 0 Q t d 2. Then give a formula and graph for (c) f ( t + 1) (b) f ( t ) + 1 (e) f (40. (dl 4f ( 0
(b) U(t) + 2 ( 4 3UW ( 4 U(t + 2) (e) U(3t).
44 (a) Draw the graph of U(t) = step function = (0 for t < 0, 1 for t > 0). Then draw
and find the slopes of these six functions: ( 4 2f ( 0 (b) f ( t ) + 2 (a) f (t + 2) (f) f ( f (t)). (e) f ( t) ( 4 f (2t) 52 For f (t) = ut + C find the formulas and slopes of (c) 2f(4t) (b) f (3t + 1) (a) 3f (0 + 1 (f) f ( f (t)). (el f ( 0 f (0) (dl f ( t) 53 (hardest) The forwardback function is f (t) = 2t for O < t ~ 3f ( ,t ) = 122t for 3 6 t d 6 . Graph f(f(t)) and find its fourpart formula. First try t = 1.5 and 3.
54 (a) Why is the letter X not the graph of a function?
(b) Which capital letters are the graphs of functions? (c) Draw graphs of their slopes.
1.2 Calculus Without Limits
The next page is going to reveal one of the key ideas behind calculus. The discussion is just about numbersfunctions and slopes can wait. The numbers are not even special, they can be any numbers. The crucial point is to look at their differences: Suppose the numbers are f = 0 2 6 7 4 9 Their differences are v = 2 4 1  3 5 The differences are printed in between, to show 2  0 = 2 and 6  2 = 4 and 7  6 = 1.
1.2
Calculus Without Limits
Notice how 4  7 gives a negative answer 3. The numbers in f can go up or down, the differences in v can be positive or negative. The idea behind calculus comes when you add up those differences: 2+4+13+5=9 The sum of differences is 9. This is the last number on the top line (in f). Is this an accident, or is this always true? If we stop earlier, after 2 + 4 + 1, we get the 7 in f. Test any prediction on a second example: Suppose the numbers are f= 1 3 7 8 5 10 Their differences are v = 2 4 1 3 5 The f's are increased by 1. The differences are exactly the sameno change. The sum of differences is still 9. But the last f is now 10. That prediction is not right, we don't always get the last f. The first f is now 1. The answer 9 (the sum of differences) is 10  1, the last f minus the first f. What happens when we change the f's in the middle? Suppose the numbers are f= 1 5 12 7 10 Their differences are v = 4 7 5 3 The differences add to 4 + 7  5 + 3 = 9. This is still 10  1. No matter what f's we choose or how many, the sum of differences is controlled by the first f and last f. If this is always true, there must be a clear reason why the middle f's cancel out. The sum of differences is (5  1)+ (12  5)+ (7  12) + (10  7) = 10  1. The 5's cancel, the 12's cancel, and the 7's cancel. It is only 10  1 that doesn't cancel. This is the key to calculus!
EXAMPLE 1 The numbers grow linearly: f= 2 3 4 5 6 7 Their differences are constant: v = 1 1 1 1 1 The sum of differences is certainly 5. This agrees with 7  2 =fast ffirst. The numbers in v remind us of constant velocity. The numbers in f remind us of a straight line f= vt + C. This example has v = 1 and the f's start at 2. The straight line would come from f= t + 2. EXAMPLE 2 The numbers are squares: f= 0 1 4 9 16 Their differences grow linearly: v = 1 3 5 7 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 agrees with 42 = 16. It is a beautiful fact that the first j odd numbers always add up to j2. The v's are the odd numbers, the f's are perfect squares. Note The letter j is sometimes useful to tell which number in f we are looking at. For this example the zeroth number is fo = 0 and the jth number is fj =j2. This is a part of algebra, to give a formula for the f's instead of a list of numbers. We can also use j to tell which difference we are looking at. The first v is the first odd number v,= 1. The jth difference is the jth odd number vj = 2j 1. (Thus v4 is 8  I = 7.) It is better to start the differences with j = 1, since there is no zeroth odd number vo. With this notation the jth difference is vj =fj f 1. Sooner or later you will get comfortable with subscripts like j and j  1, but it can be later. The important point is that the sum of the v's equals flast first. We now connect the v's to slopes and the f's to areas.
10
0~~~~~~~ 4= 7 v4
v3 = 5
1 Introduction to Calculus 1 nrdcin oCluu
f4= 1
f 3 =9
v2 = 3
f2=4
1
=I t f,
=
1
1 Fig. 1.7
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
t
Linear increase in v = 1, 3, 5, 7. Squares in the distances f= 0, 1,4, 9, 16.
Figure 1.7 shows a natural way to graph Example 2, with the odd numbers in v and the squares in f. Notice an important difference between the vgraph and the fgraph. The graph of f is "piecewise linear." We plotted the numbers in f and connected them by straight lines. The graph of v is "piecewise constant." We plotted the differences as constant over each piece. This reminds us of the distancevelocity graphs, when the distance f(t) is a straight line and the velocity v(t) is a horizontal line. Now make the connection to slopes: The slope of the fgraph is distance distance across
distance up change in f
change in change in t
Over each piece, the change in t (across) is 1. The change in f (upward) is the difference that we are calling v. The ratio is the slope v/1l or just v. The slope makes a sudden change at the breakpoints t = 1, 2, 3, .... At those special points the slope of the fgraph is not definedwe connected the v's by vertical lines but this is very debatable. The main idea is that between the breakpoints, the slope of f(t) is v(t). Now make the connection to areas:
The total area under the vgraph is flast ffirst
This area, underneath the staircase in Figure 1.7, is composed of rectangles. The base of every rectangle is 1. The heights of the rectangles are the v's. So the areas also equal the v's, and the total area is the sum of the v's. This area is flast first. Even more is true. We could start at any time and end at any later time not necessarily at the special times t = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. Suppose we stop at t = 3.5. Only half of the last rectangular area (under v = 7) will be counted. The total area is 1 + 3 + 5 + 2(7) = 12.5. This still agrees with flast first = 12.5  0. At this new ending time t = 3.5, we are only halfway up the last step in the fgraph. Halfway between 9 and 16 is 12.5.
This is nothing less than the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. But we have only used algebra (no curved graphs and no calculations involving limits). For now the Theorem is restricted to piecewise linear f(t) and piecewise constant v(t). In Chapter 5 that restriction will be overcome. Notice that a proof of 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 42 is suggested by Figure 1.7a. The triangle under the dotted line has the same area as the four rectangles under the staircase. The area of the triangle is ½.base . height = 4 8, which is the perfect 9quare 42 When there are j rectangles instead of 4, we get .j. 2j =j2 for the area.
1.2 Calculus Wnhout Limits
The next examples show other patterns, where f and v increase exponentially or oscillate around zero. I hope you like them but I don't think you have to learn them. They are like the special functions 2' and sin t and cos texcept they go in steps. You get a first look at the important functions of calculus, but you only need algebra. Calculus is needed for a steadily changing velocity, when the graph off is curved. The last example will be income taxwhich really does go. in steps. Then Section 1.3 will introduce the slope of a curve. The crucial step for curves is working with limits. That will take us from algebra to calculus.
EXPONENTIAL VELOCITY AND DISTANCE
Start with the numbers f = 1,2,4,8, 16. These are "powers of 2." They start with the zeroth power, which is 2' = 1. The exponential starts at 1 and not 0. After j steps there are j factors of 2, and & equals 2j. Please recognize the diflerence between 2j and j2 and 2j. The numbers 2j grow linearly, the numbers j2grow quadratically, the numbers 2' grow exponentially. At j = 10 these are 20 and 100 and 1024. The exponential 2' quickly becomes much larger than the others. The differences off = 1,2,4,8, 16 are exactly v = 1,2,4,8.. We get the same beautif 2, so are the v's. The formula vj = 2"' is ful numbers. When the f's are powers o slightly different from & = 2j, because the first v is numbered v,. (Then v, = 2' = 1. The zeroth power of every number is 1, except that 0' is meaningless.) The two graphs in Figure 1.8 use the same numbers but they look different, because f is piecewise linear and v is piecewise constant.
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 Fig. 1.8 The velocity and distance grow exponentially (powers of 2).
4
Where will calculus come in? It works with the smooth curve f (t) = 2'. This exponential growth is critically important for population and money in a bank and the national debt. You can spot it by the following test: v(t) is proportional to f (t).
Remark The function 2' is trickier than t2. For f = t2 the slope is v = 2t. It is proportional to t and not t2. For f = 2' the slope is v = c2', and we won't find the constant c = .693 ... until Chapter 6. (The number c is the natural logarithm of 2.) Problem 37 estimates c with a calculatorthe important thing is that it's constant.
OSCILLATING VELOCITY AND DISTANCE
We have seen a forwardback motion, velocity V followed by  V. That is oscillation of the simplest kind. The graph o f f goes linearly up and linearly down. Figure 1.9 shows another oscillation that returns to zero, but the path is more interesting. The numbers in f are now 0, 1, 1,0,  1,  l,O. Since f6 = 0 the motion brings us back to the start. The whole oscillation can be repeated.
1 lnhoductlon to Calculus
Jast
The differences in v are 1,0, 1, 1,0, 1. They add up to zero, which agrees with Airst. It is the same oscillation as in f (and also repeatable), but shifted in time. The fgraph resembles (roughly) a sine curve. The vgraph resembles (even more roughly) a cosine curve. The waveforms in nature are smooth curves, while these are "digitized"the way a digital watch goes forward in jumps. You recognize that the change from analog to digital brought the computer revolution. The same revolution is coming in CD players. Digital signals (off or on, 0 or 1 ) seem to win every time. The piecewise v and f start again at t = 6. The ordinary sine and cosine repeat at t = 2n. A repeating motion is periodichere the "period" is 6 or 2n. (With t in degrees the period is 360a full circle. The period becomes 2n when angles are measured in radians. We virtually always use radianswhich are degrees times 2n/360.) A watch . has a period of 12 hours. If the dial shows AM and PM, the period is
Fig. 1.9 Piecewise constant "cosine" and piecewise linear "sine." They both repeat.
A SHORT BURST O F SPEED
The next example is a car that is driven fast for a short time. The speed is V until the distance reaches f = 1, when the car suddenly stops. The graph of f goes up linearly with slope V , and then across with slope zero: v(t) =
V upto t = T
0
after
t =T
f (0=
Vt up to t = T
1
after
t=T
This is another example of "function notation." Notice the general time t and the particular stopping time T. The distance is f (t). The domain off (the inputs) includes all times t 3 0. The range of f (the outputs) includes all distances 0 f f < 1. Figure 1.10 allows us to compare three carsa Jeep and a Corvette and a Maserati. They have different speeds but they all reach f = 1. So the areas under the vgraphs are all 1. The rectangles have height V and base T = 1/ V.
v~
EQUAL AREAS Maserati
1
EQUAL DISTANCES
II
delta II function
II
vc      7 I Corvette v~ I
I
II
steD
Jeep
T~
I
T~
Fig. 1.10 Bursts of speed with V, TM = Vc Tc = 'V, T,= 1. Step function has infinite slope.
Optional remark It is natural to think about faster and faster speeds, which means steeper slopes. The fgraph reaches 1 in shorter times. The extreme case is a step function, when the graph of f goes straight up. This is the unit step U(t),which is zero up to t = 0 and jumps immediately to U = 1 for t > 0.
1.2 Calculus Without Limits What is the slope of the step function? It is zero except at the jump. At that moment,
13
which is t = 0, the slope is infinite. We don't have an ordinary velocity v(t)instead we have an impulse that makes the car jump. The graph is a spike over the single point t = 0, and it is often denoted by 6so the slope of the step function is called a "delta function." The area under the infinite spike is 1. You are absolutely not responsible for the theory of delta functions! Calculus is about curves, not jumps. Our last example is a realworld application of slopes ands ratesto explain "how taxes work." Note especially the difference between tax rates and tax brackets and total tax. The rates are v, the brackets are on x, the total tax is f.
EXAMPLE 3 Income tax is piecewise linear. The slopes are the tax rates .15,.28,.31.
Suppose you are single with taxable income of x dollars (Form 1040, line 37after all deductions). These are the 1991 instructions from the Internal Revenue Service: If x is not over $20,350, the tax is 15% of x. If $20,350 < x < $49,300, the tax is $3052.50 + 28% of the amount over $20,350. If x is over $49,300, the tax is $11,158.50 + 31% of the amount over $49,300. The first bracket is 0 < x < $20,350. (The IRS never uses this symbol <, but I think it is OK here. We know what it means.) The second bracket is $20,350 < x < $49,300. The top bracket x > $49,300 pays tax at the top rate of 31%. But only the income in that bracket is taxed at that rate. Figure 1.11 shows the rates and the brackets and the tax due. Those are not average rates, they are marginal rates. Total tax divided by total income would be the average rate. The marginal rate of.28 or .31 gives the tax on each additionaldollar of incomeit is the slope at the point x. Tax is like area or distanceit adds up. Tax rate is like slope or velocityit depends where you are. This is often unclear in the news media.
A• 1 on IO '.U
ktax to pay f(x)
11,158
v 2 = 60
across 3
f(2)= 40 2 5
180 sup =slope60
tax rate = slope .28
15%
31%
ov = 20
S• slpe 20 2
3,0525
I
20,350
taxable income
I
Y
49,300
Fig. 1.11
The tax rate is v, the total tax is f. Tax brackets end at breakpoints.
Question What is the equation for the straight line in the top bracket? Answer The bracket begins at x = $49,300 when the tax is f(x) = $11,158.50. The slope of the line is the tax rate .31. When we know a point on the line and the slope, we know the equation. This is important enough to be highlighted.
Section 2.3 presents this "pointslope equation" for any straight line. Here you see it for one specific example. Where does the number $11,158.50 come from? It is the tax at the end of the middle bracket, so it is the tax at the start of the top bracket.
1 Introduction t o Calculus
Figure 1.1 1 also shows a distancevelocity example. The distance at t = 2 is f (2) = 40 miles. After that time the velocity is 60 miles per hour. So the line with slope 60 on the fgraph has the equation f (t) = starting distance + extra distance = 40 + 60(t  2). The starting point is (2'40). The new speed 60 multiplies the extra time t  2. The pointslope equation makes sense. We now review this section, with comments.
Central idea Start with any numbers in f. Their differences go in v. Then the sum of those differences is ha,,ffirst. Subscript notation The numbers are f,, fl, ... and the first difference is v, =fl f,. A typical number is fi and the jth difference is vj =fi fi . When those differences are added, all f's in the middle (like f,) cancel out:
Examples
fi =j or j2 or 2'.
Then vj = 1 (constant) or 2j  1 (odd numbers) or 2'
'.
Functions Connect the f's to be piecewise linear. Then the slope v is piecewise constant. The area under the vgraph from any t,,,,, to any ten, equals f (ten,)f (t,,,,,). Units Distance in miles and velocity in miles per hour. Tax in dollars and tax rate in (dollars paid)/(dollars earned). Tax rate is a percentage like .28, with no units.
1.2 EXERCISES
Readthrough questions
Start with the numbers f = 1,6,2,5. Their differences are v = a .The sum of those differences is b .This is equal to f,,,, minus c . The numbers 6 and 2 have no effect on this answer, because in (6  1) + (2  6) + (5  2) the numbers 6 and 2 d . The slope of the line between f(0) = 1 and f (1) = 6 is e . The equation of that line is f (t) = f . With distances 1, 5, 25 at unit times, the velocities are g . These are the h of the fgraph. The slope of the tax graph is the tax i . If f(t) is the postage cost for t ounces or t grams, the slope is the i per k . For distances 0, 1,4,9 the velocities are I . The sum of the first j odd numbers is fi = m . Then flo is n and the velocity ulo is 0 . The piecewise linear sine has slopes P . Those form a piecewise q cosine. Both functions have r equal to 6, which means that f (t + 6) = s for every t. The velocities v = 1,2,4,8, ... have vj = t . In that case fo = 1 and j j . = u . The sum of 1,2,4,8, 16 is v . The difference 2J  2' ' equals w . After a burst of speed V to time T, the distance is x . If f(T) = 1 and V increases, the burst lasts only to T = Y . When V approaches infinity, f (t) approaches a function. The velocities approach a A function, which is concentrated at t = 0 but has area B under its graph. The slope of a step function is c .
Problems 14 are about numbers f and differences v.
1 From the numbers f = 0,2,7,10 find the differences u and the sum of the three v's. Write down another f that leads to the same v's. For f = 0,3,12,10 the sum of the u's is still .
2 Starting from f = 1,3,2,4 draw the fgraph (linear pieces) and the vgraph. What are the areas "under" the ugraph that add to 4  l? If the next number in f is 11, what is the area under the next v?
3 From v = 1,2, 1'0,  1 find the f's starting at fo = 3. Graph v and f. The maximum value of f occurs when v= . Where is the maximum f when u = 1,2,1, l?
4 For f = 1, b, c, 7 find the differences vl ,u2, v, and add them up. Do the same for f = a, b, c, 7. Do the same for f = a, b, c, d.
Problems 511 are about linear functions and constant slopes. 5 Write down the slopes of these linear functions: (a) f ( t ) = 1.lt (b) f ( t ) = 1 2t (c) f ( t ) = 4 + 5(t 6). Compute f (6) and f (7) for each function and confirm that f (7) f (6) equals the slope.
6 If f (t) = 5 + 3(t  1) and g(t) = 1.5 + 2S(t  1) what is h(t) =f (t)  g(t)? Find the slopes of f, g, and h.
I .2 CalculusWithout Llmits Suppose ~ ( t= ) 2 for t < 5 and v(t) = 3 for t > 5. (a) If f (0) = 0 find a twopart formula for f (t). (b) Check that f (10) equals the area under the graph of v(t) (two rectangles) up to t = 10. Suppose u(t) = 10 for t < 1/10, v(t) = 0 for t > 1/10. Starting from f (0) = 1 find f (t) in two pieces.
9 Suppose g(t) = 2t + 1 and f (t) = 4t. Find g(3) and f (g(3)) and f (g(t)). How is the slope of f (g(t)) related to the slopes of f and g? 10 For the same functions, what are f (3) and g(f (3)) and g(f (t))?When t is changed to 4t, distance increases . times as fast and the velocity is' multiplied by 11 Compute f (6) and f (8) for the functions in Problem 5. Confirm that the slopes v agree with 20 Find f,, f2, f3 and a formula for
fi with fo = 0:
... 21 The areas of these nested squares are 12,22, 32, .... What
(a) v = l , 2 , 4 , 8 ,... (b) u =  l , l ,  l , l , are the areas of the Lshaped bands (the differences between squares)? How does the figure show that I + 3 + 5 + 7 = 42?
f (8) f (6)  change in f slope = 86 change in t '
Problems 1218 are based on Example 3 about income taxes.
12 What are the income taxes on x=$10,000 and x = $30,000 and x = $50,000?
22 From the area under the staircase (by rectangles and then by triangles) show that the first j whole numbers 1 to j add up to G2+ &. Find 1 + 2 + ..+ 100. 23 If v=1,3,5 ,... t h e n & = j 2 . If v = I, 1, 1,... then
by 2 to find the sum of 1,2,3, ...,j. (Compare Problem 22.)
24 True (with reason) or false (with example).
&= . Add those to find the sum of 2,4,6, ...,2j. Divide
are increasing so are the 0's. are increasing so are the f's. are periodic so are the 0's. are periodic so are the f 's.
bracket $20,350 < x < $49,300? How is the number 11,158.50 connected with the other numbers in the tax instructions?
14 Write the tax function F(x) for a married couple if the IRS treats them as two single taxpayers each with taxable income x/2. (This is not done.) 15 In the 15% bracket, with 5% state tax as a deduction, the combined rate is not 20% but . Think about the tax on an extra $100. 16 A piecewise linear function is continuous when f (t) at the end of each interval equals f (t) at the start of the following interval. If f (t) = 5t up to t = 1 and v(t) = 2 for t > 1, define f beyond t = 1 so it is (a) continuous (b) discontinuous. (c) Define a tax function f(x) with rates .15 and .28 so you would lose by earning an extra dollar beyond the breakpoint. 17 The difference between a tax credit and a deduction from income is the difference between f (x)  c and f (x  d). Which is more desirable, a credit of c = $1000 or a deduction of d = $1000, and why? Sketch the tax graphs when f (x) = .15x. 18 The average tax rate on the taxable income x is a(x) = f (x)/x.This is the slope between (0,O) and the point (x, f (x)).
13 What is the equation for income tax f(x) in the second
(a) When the f's (b) When the v's (c) When the f's (d) When the v's
25 If f (t) = t2, compute f (99) and f (101). Between those times, what is the increase in f divided by the increase in t? 26 If f (t) = t2 t, compute f (99) and f (101). Between those times, what is the increase in f divided by the increase in t? 27 If & =j2 j
+
+ + 1 find a formula for vj.
28 Suppose the 0's increase by 4 at every step. Show by example and then by algebra that the "second difference" &+  2& +& equals 4.
,
29 Suppose fo = 0 and the v's are 1, 3, which j does & = 5?
4, $, 4, 4, 4, .... For
30 Show that aj =&+  2fj +fj always equals vj+  vj. If v is velocity then a stands for .
,
,
,
Problems 3134 involve periodic f's and v's (like sin t and cos t).
31 For the discrete sine f=O, 1, 1,0, 1, 1,O find the second differencesal =f2  2f1 +.fo and a2 =f,  2f2 +fl and a3. Compare aj with &. 32 If the sequence v,, v2, ... has period 6 and wl, w2, ... has period 10, what is the period of v, w,, v2 + w2, ...?
Draw a rough graph of a(x). The average rate a is below the marginal rate v because .
Problems 1930 involve numbers fo, f, ,f2, ... and their differences vj =& &, They give practice with subscripts 0, ...,j.
.
+
19 Find the velocities v,, v2, v3 and formulas for vj and &: (a) f = l , 3 , 5 , 7 ... (b) f=0,1,0,1, ... (c) f=O,$,$,i ,...
33 Draw the graph of f (t) starting from fo = 0 when v = 1, 1, 1, 1. If v has period 4 find f(12), f(l3), f(lOO.l).
16
34 Graph f(t) from f o = O
1 lntroductlonto Calculus
44 Graph the square wave U(t)  U(t  1). If this is the velocity v(t), graph the distance f(t). If this is the distance f (t), graph the velocity. 45 Two bursts of speed lead to the same distance f = 10:
to f 4 = 4 when v = 1,2, l,O. If v has period 4, find f (12) and f (14) and f (16). Why doesn't f have period 4?
Problems 3542 are about exponential v's and f 's.
35 Find the v's for f = 1,3,9,27. Predict v, and vj. Algebra gives 3j  3j = (3  1)3j '. 36 Find 1 + 2 + 4 +
v= tot=.001 v=vtot= As V+ c o the limit of the f (t)'s is
.
+32 and also 1 + j + d +
 a 
+&.
37 Estimate the slope of f (t) = 2' at t = 0. Use a calculator
46 Draw the staircase function U(t) + U(t  1) + U(t  2). Its slope is a sum of three functions.
47 Which capital letters like L are the graphs of functions when steps are allowed? The slope of L is minus a delta func
to compute (increase in f )/(increase in t) when t is small:
f (t) f (0) 2  1 2.l  1 2.O'  1 2.0°1  1 and and and t 1 .I .o 1 .001 .
38 Suppose fo = I and vj = 2fi 
tion. Graph the slopes of the others.
48 Write a subroutine FINDV whose input is a sequence fo, f,, ..., f, and whose output is v,, v,, ..., v,. Include graphical output if possible. Test on fi = 2j and j2 and 2j. 49 Write a subroutine FINDF whose input is v,, ..., v, and fo, and whose output is fo, f,, ...,f,. The default value of fo is zero. Include graphical output if possible. Test vj =j. 50 If FINDV is applied to the output of FINDF, what
,. Find f,.
fi
39 (a) From f = 1, j , b , find v,, v,, v, and predict vj. (b) Check f3 fo = v, v2 v3 and A = vj.
+ +
40 Suppose vj = rj. Show that fi = (rj' '  l)/(r  1) starts from fo = 1 and has fj fi, = uj. (Then this is the correct fi = 1 + r + + r j = sum of a geometric series.) 41 From
fi = (
1)' compute vj. What is v,
+ v2 +
+ vj?
42 Estimate the slope of f (t) = et at t = 0. Use a calculator
that knows e (or else take e = 2.78) to compute f(t)f(0) e 1 e.'  1 eO1 1 and and 1 t .I .01 Problems 4347 are about U(t) = step from 0 to 1 at t = 0.
43 Graph the four functions U(t  1) and U(t)  2 and U(3t) and 4U(t). Then graph f (t) = 4U(3t  1)  2.
sequence is returned? If FINDF is applied to the output of FINDV, what sequence is returned? Watch fo.
51 Arrange 2j and j2 and 2' and in increasing order (a) when j is large: j = 9 (b) when j is small: j = &.
52 The average age of your family since 1970 is a piecewise linear function A(t). Is it continuous or does it jump? What is its slope? Graph it the best you can.
4
1.3 The Velocity at an Instant
We have arrived at the central problems that calculus was invented to solve. There are two questions, in opposite directions, and I hope you could see them coming. 1. If the velocity is changing, how can you compute the distance traveled? 2. If the graph of f(t) is not a straight line, what is its slope? Find the distance from the velocity, find the velocity from the distance. Our goal is to do bothbut not in one section. Calculus may be a good course, but it is not magic. The first step is to let the velocity change in the steadiest possible way.
Question 1 Suppose the velocity at each time t is v(t) = 2t. Find f (t).
With zr= 2t, a physicist would say that the acceleration is constant (it equals 2). The driver steps on the gas, the car accelerates, and the speedometer goes steadily up. The distance goes up toofaster and faster. If we measure t in seconds and v in feet per second, the distance f comes out in feet. After 10 seconds the speed is 20 feet per second. After 44 seconds the speed is 88 feetlsecond (which is 60 miles/hour). The acceleration is clear, but how far has the car gone?
If you exit 150 miles away at 3 :00. Velocity is distance divided by time. your average speed is 75 miles per hour. the graph of t 2 gets steeperbecause more distance is covered in each second. what is the average? It is a slope. "When was I doing 75?" The police would have .100 = 21. we pretend the velocity is constantso we go back to the easiest case. The line goes between two points on the curve in Figure 1. You could say to the judge.12. Averages are easy to find: average velocity is f (11)f (10) 11. It only requires a division of distance by time: change in f average velocity = change in t ' Calculus and the Law You enter a highway at 1 : 00. By t = 10.12.1. As the car goes faster. Geometrically. At t = 5 the distance is f = 25.12 The velocity v = 2t is linear. The distance f = t2 is quadratic. when the car is new. Its average speed was 21 feetlsecond. It is a parabola. The average velocity is the slope of a straight line. 1 The car covered 21 feet in that 1 second. 1. Since it was gaining speed. The graph off ( t )= t 2 is on the right of Figure 1.3 The Velocity at an Instant Question 2 The distance traveled by time t is f ( t )= t2. When we compute an average. I hope you see the problem. The average velocity between t = 10 and t = 11 is a good approximationbut only an approximationto the speed at the moment t = 10. The curve starts at zero. f reaches 100.10 121 . the velocity at the beginning of that second was below 21. But how do we find the instantaneous velocitythe reading on the speedometer at the exact instant when t = lo? change in distance ( t + h)2  time t t t+h t Fig. Find the velocity v(t). I'm not sure if the police can give you a ticket. but not the slope of the curve. but what happens when the speed is changing? Dividing f = 100 by t = 10 gives v = 10the average veEocity over the first ten seconds. Dividing f = 121 by t = 11 gives the average speed over 11 seconds.
You are seeing the key computation of calculus. subtract the distance at time t. and the key to differential calculus. It depends on the time step h. Find the slope between points that are closer and closer on the curve." It is represented by the letter t.5. Divide the change in distance by the change in time: f (10. We can also find the average over the halfsecond between t = 10.5. A few ugraphs and fgraphs will confuse the situation (possibly also a delta function). I Note The computation (3) shows how calculus needs algebra.5 is closer to the speed at t = 10. 10. + Conclusion: The velocity at t = 10 is v = 20.0)2 . The average is closer and closer to the speedometer reading of 2t.110. We now show that the two graphs match at all times.1 Introduction to Calculus to admit that they have no ideabut must have been doing 75 sometime.0 and t = 10.? they would have a definite feeling that you We return to the central problemcomputing v(10) at the instant t = 10. The distance increases from lo2 to (10 + h)l.5)2. The "limit" is the slope at a single point. The average between any t and any t + h is 2t + h.5 .5 That average of 20. But we can see what happens as h approaches zero. The change in time is h. we have to let time be a "variable. because the velocity is changing.(10. Compute the distance at time t + h. which also has v(10) = 20. Over a millionth of a second the average will be 20 plus 1/1.5) f (10. +This is our first encounter with the much despised "Mean Value Theorem. The way to find v(10) is to keep reducing the time interval. at the exact moment when the clock shows time t: + I 1E As h approaches zero. Algebra gives the average velocity between t = 10 and any later time t = 10 + h.5 .(10. Now the average is 2t + h. This is the basis for Chapter 2. That is the slope of the curve. That gives the average velocity: This fits the previous calculation.the average was 20 + 4= 20. When the time step was h = i. and the average was 20 h = 21.000which is very near 20. If f (t) = t 2 then v(t) = 2t. So divide: This formula fits our previous calculations. The average velocity over the next second is 21." If the judge can prove the theorem.12.000. Numbers are enough at the specific time t = 10 and the specific step h = 1but algebra gets beyond that. The average was 20 h.100 = 20. The interval from t = 10 to t = 11 had h = 1.10. It agrees with the vgraph on the left side of Figure 1. and divide by h.5. Please don't hesitate to put back numbers for the lettersthat checks the algebra.25 . If we want the whole vgraph. and we can put it into words before equations. where t was 10. It is still not exact.0) .0 . . you are dead. the average velooity 2t + h approaches v(t) = 2t.
(It isn't particularly hard either. If v(t) = 2t increases linearly with time.'' The general theory of limits is not particularly simple.3 The VelocHy at an Instant There is also a step beyond algebra! Calculus requires the limit of the average. As h shrinks to zero. The area agrees with f (t): area = i(base)(height)= f (t)(2t)= t2.13 Delayed velocity and distance.13 shows how it affects the graphs. as h .) In this example the limiting value is easy to identify. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus says that no new work is necessary. but here we don't need it. but notice the factor 3: acceleration a 9 velocity v = at 9 distance f = f at2. The acceleration is the slope ofthe velocity curve! The distance is also proportional to a. then v = gt is the velocity of a falling body. "Average over an interval" becomes "velocity at an instant. 1. Anyway. After the car starts we have v = 2(t .0.1. it is the area of a triangle. The car doesn't start until t = 1. the area under 2t should be t2. If a equals the gravitational constant g. But we have certainly not proved any fundamental theorems. so it is better to be safeby actually computing the area. The velocity changes from v = 2t to v = at. Maybe he saw the distance f = >2 this is the most famous pair in physics. Fig. then the area under that vgraph leads back to the fgraph. Zfthe slope o f f (t) leads to v(t). (4) EXAMPLE 1 The graphs are shifted in time. If a equals 1. EXAMPLE 2 The acceleration changes from 2 to another constant a. Fortunately. The odometer readings f = t2 produced speedometer readings v = 2t. Pisa).1) and f = (t You see how the time delay of 1 enters the formulas. Therefore v = 0 and f = O up to that time. what is the distance? This goes in the opposite direction (it is integration). What remains to do in this section? We answered Question 2to find velocity from distance. the points on the graph come closer. . then v = t and f = f t2. We have not answered Question 1. The base of the triangle is t and the height is v = 2t. That is one of the most famous pairs in calculus. The pairs v = at + b and f = $at2 + bt. The speed doesn't depend on the mass (tested by Galileo at the Leaning Tower of more easily than the speed v = gt. By the Fundamental Theorem. Figure 1. The average 2t + h approaches 2t.
Which is which? . 1 speed Fig. 1. What calculus does is to bring that point B down the curve toward A. This question was created by Steve Monk at the University of Washingtonwhere 57% of the class gave the right answer. do the cars get closer or further apart? Answer This time more than half the class got it wrong. . the starting velocity vo would have added vot to the distance.3t .14b shows the opposite problem. Compare the slopes. Question I What happens to the "change in f "the height of B above A? Answer The change in f decreases to zero. In Chapter 2. Car D has greater acceleration. the distance between them . We know the velocity.1 Introductionto Calculus EXAMPLE 3 Suppose f (t) = 3t Vave + t2. It is too important. You have to look at the speed graph and imagine the distance graph. If Galileo had thrown a weight instead of dropping it. This is a "secant line. Figure 1. Question 4 If the cars start together. Two velocity graphs. slope of curve. When car C is going faster. When 3t is added to the distance. Question 2 As B approaches A. So does the change in t." Its slope is an average velocity. not the distance.14 Slope of line. The average velocity from t to t + h is = f (t + h) f (t) 3(t + h) + (t + h)2 . Divide the change in f by the change in t. The velocity contains an additional 3 (coming from 3h divided by h). Draw another secant line with B closer to A. Probably 97% would have found the right slope from a formula. But calculus answers questions about both functions. You won't but you can see why they did. Figure 1. divide the change in y by the change in x. FUNCTIONS ACROSS TIME The idea of slope is not difficultfor one straight line.l4a shows the line between points A and B on the curve. 3 is added to the velocity. does the slope of the line increase or decrease? Answer I am not going to answer that question. Experience shows that the hard part is to see what happens to the slope as the line moves. is D catching up to C at the end? Between t = $ and t = 1. Question 3 Which car is going faster at time t = 3/4? Answer Car C has higher speed.t2 h h The change in distance has an extra 3h (coming from 3(t + h) minus 3t).
. so is v(t). This depends on t and h. find the average speed between (a) t = l and t = 2 (b) t = 1 and t = 1. find the average speed between (a) t = O a n d l (b) t = O a n d + (c) t = O a n d h .3 The VelocHy at an Instant To repeat: The cars start together.1 the average is 1 ..1. not the same distance..9 and t = 1. On the graph of f(t). They reach the same speed at t = 1. the average velocity between A and B is the slope of m . 5 In the answer to 3(c). t in hours).l) + the base 2h times 13 Find f (t) from u(t) = 20t iff (0) = 12.h to t h is exactly (f) u(t) = 2t ( 4 f ( t )= 6 2 For the same functions compute [f (t + h) f (t)]/h. the distance is P . Also if f (1) = 12. If f ( t ) = t 2 then o.. To find the area under the vgraph up to a particular time t.= h . Otherwise we can only know the increase in mileage.0. 4 For the same f (t) = t2 + t. so is u(t). v(t) is increasing. The problem of slope is localthe speed is completely decided by f (t) near point A. The average velocity in between is d . In contrast.3 EXERCISES Readthrough questions Between the distances f (2) = 100 and f (6) = 200. From geometry find the area under it from 0 to t. Finding the speed (or slope) is entirely different from finding the distance (or area): 1. These problems help to emphasize one more point. for any distance curves.h and t + h? 12 (a) Show that for f (t) = *at2 the average velocity between t .1 (c) t = l a n d t = l + h (d) t = 1 and t = . The instantaneous velocity is the I of u. You really should draw their distance graphs. What does that limit tell us? 6 Set h = 0 in your answer to 4(c). The slope of the ugraph is the 11 Iff (t) = t 2 what is the average velocity between t = . Find the slope of that area function f (t). f (t) is increasing. to see how they bend. Find the limit as h . (a) f (0 = 6t (c) f(t) =+at2 (b) f (t) = 6t 2 (d) f(t)='tt2 + 10 If f(t) = 6t2 find the slope of the fgraph and also the vgraph. 3 If the odometer reads f (t) = t2 + t (f in miles or kilometers. If f(t) = i t 2 then f (6) = b and velocity is f(8) = c .h and t + h ' is exactly the velocity at t. We have to know what the mileage was earlier. a short record of speed is not enough to recover the total distance. If f (t) is positive. 1 Compute the average velocity between t = 5 and t = 8: 7 Draw the graph of v(t) = 1 + 2t. The velocity at A is found by n .. The average velocity is computed from f (t) and f (t + h) by uave= g . 8 Draw the graphs of v(t) = 3 . (a) The slope of the line from A to B is the average velocity between those points. A short record of distance is enough to recover v(t).2t and the area f (t). The instantaneous velocities at t = 6 and t = 8 are e and f . but they don't finish together. If the distance is f (t) = +at2 then the velocity is u(t) = k and the acceleration is 1 . you do have to know the whole history. 14 True or false. (b) The area under v(t) = at from t . not the total. Car C went faster. 1. . Draw the graph of f (t) = t2 + t and show its slope at t = 0. To find the slope of the fgraph at a'particular time t. Point B moves toward point A. From t = l to t = 1. When the velocity is increasing. you don't have to know the whole history. When the velocity is positive. If v(t) is positive.9 (note h = . find the limit as h + 0. the car is q .1? What is the average between t . 2. If the distance f (t) is increasing. 9 True or false (a) (b) (c) (d) If the distance f (t) is positive. the average a .. The velocity at B is found by 0 .
. all from t = 0 to t = 1.5. Basketball players "hang" in the air partly because of (c). I ask myself how much trigonometry it is essential to know. Does the speededup function f(4t) have velocity v(4t) or 4u(t) or 4v(4t)? 26 If f (t) = t . the average velocities are equal.5. with sides cos t and sin t and 1. As I write that last word. 21 Draw the graph of f (t) = (1. what is v(t)? What is the slope of v(t)? When does f (t) equal 41. (a) v(t) = 1 . Nothing else is needed immediately..22 1 lntroductlonto Calculus Find the area under u(t) between t = 0 and t = 1. 24 If f (t) = *at2 + bt + c. t < 3.2.6. (c) Prove: Half the time you are above y = 2.. Draw the graph off (t) out to t = 3. 23 When does f (t) = t2 .2t for t 2 3. v(t) = 12 . . 20 (Recommended) Suppose v(t) is the piecewise linear sine function of Section 1. Find a threepart formula for u(t).f (6) and draw the complete piecewise parabola f (t).t (b) ~ ( t= ) 11 . There will also be the crucial equation (cos t)2+ (sin t)2 = 1. 15 When you jump up and fall back your height is y = 2t .) 1. Check that f (6) = area under the graph of u(t). don't stopan important part can be learned now. (a) Graph this parabola and its slope. 19 Draw f (t) up to t = 4 when u(t) increases linearly from (a) 0 to 2 (b) . Graph vave(t) 17 (Recommended) An up and down velocity is v(t) = 2t for 18 Suppose v(t) = t for t < 2 and v(t) = 2 for t 2 2.t2 in the right units. That can be done without using the formulas for sin(x + y) and cos (x + y)which later give the same slopes in a more algebraic way. Plot those points f (1). how complicated can a triangle be? Remark You might think trigonometry is only for surveyors and navigators (people with triangles).3t reach lo? Find the average velocity up to that time and the instantaneous velocity at that time.4.2 and h(t) =f (2t). You will recognize the wavy graphs of the sine and cosine. 22 Draw the graphs of f (t) for these velocities (to t = 2): (b) Secant lines have smaller slopes than the curve. Find the velocities.t2 find v(t) and f (3t). ?Sines and cosines are so important that I added a review of trigonometry in Section 1. Draw the piecewise parabola f (t). if a = b = c = I? 25 If f (t) = t2 then v(t) = 2t..? And anyway.2. and v(t).t) + 1 1 . (d) If v(t) and V(t) start together and finish together. The squares of two sides add to the square of the hypotenuse (and the 1 is really 12). 28 If you know the average velocity uaVe(t).t 1. Not at all! By far the biggest applications are to rotation and vibration and oscillation. Does the slope of f (3t) equal v(3t) or 3v(t) or 3v(3t)? 27 For f (t) = t Z find vaVe(t) between 0 and t.4 Circular Motion This section introduces completely new distances and velocitiesthe sines and cosines from trigonometry. (b) Find the time in the air and maximum height. But the concepts in this section can be more valuable than formulas. (In Figure 1. how can you find the distance f (t)? Start from f (0) = 0. the increases in distance are equal. If you don't know trigonometry.t2( for 0 < t < 2. There will be the basic picture of a right triangle. W e intend to Jind the slopes of those graphs. It is fantastic that sines and cosines are so perfect for "repeating motionwaround a circle or up and down.3. which is Pythagoras' law a' + b2 = c2. 16 Graph f (t) = t2 and g(t) =f (t) .I t 0 1 (c) 2 to 0.8 it was the distance.tl (c) ~ ( t= ) (1 . (c) If f (t) and F(t) start together and finish together. Here it is only basic things that are needed.
O). upward velocity cos t.1. At time 1 it reaches the point where the angle equals 1. seen every day. The angle is measured in radians rather than degrees. angle t. We specify its position in Figure 1.15 As the angle t changes. in which the position is given and the velocity will be found. y = sin 271 = 0. At time 7112 the sine (the height) increases to one. The sine also oscillates between 1 and . so a full circle is completed at t = 271 instead of t = 360. And we make the ball travel with constant speed. Our underlying goal is to offer one more example in which the velocity can be computed by common sense. and x = cos 27~ vertical velocity vertical distance Fig.1. y = 1. We start with circular motion.1 and the sine is back to zerothe coordinates are (. to keep the ball on the circle. A ball goes around a circle of radius one. This is where trigonometry is useful. At t = 271 the circle = 1. by requiring that the angle is equal to the time t. The center is at x = 0. 1. as the ball goes from far right to far left and back again. where the angle is zero. is complete (the angle is also 271). The ball starts on the x axis. but here that extension is not needed. At time 71 the cosine is . The ball goes counterclockwise. .4 Circular Motion 1 f = sin t sin t COS 1 1 t Fig. starting from sin 0 = 0. The cosine is zero and the ball reaches the top point x = 0. the graphs show the sides of the right triangle. Now find it at time t: + The ball is at the point where x = cos t and y = sin t. y = 0 (the origin).1.16a by giving its angle with the horizontal. The new example also involves realistic motion. We will find the slope of the sine curve.16 Circular motion with speed 1. Calculus is mainly an extension of common sense. The straight line f = v t was easy and the parabola f = +at2 was harder. height sin t. The cosine oscillates between 1 and .1. 1. The x and y coordinates satisfy x 2 y 2 = 12.
3 degrees 1 degree = 2711360 radians = . a mass will move up and down. The upward component of velocity is cos t. It remains to find the velocity. To check degree mode vs. which produces these numbers.) Calculus will find that same tangent direction. That is our common sense calculation. That is because the three angles at the ball add to 180".1. The speed equals 1. The mass is the "shadow of the ball. The height is sin 4 2 = 1 and the upward velocity is cos n/2 = 0. Degrees vs. Instead of a ball going around a circle. reaching t radians at time t. The rest of this section depends on itand we check v = cos t at special points. The hypotenuse is tangent to the circle. when the points at t and t h come close. in the direction the ball is moving. Therefore = 57. He survived. when the upward component of position is sin t. we don't need calculusjust let go.16b.16 are the same size and shape.01745 radians 1 radian = 36012~ degrees Radians were invented to avoid those numbers! The speed is exactly 1. the hammer takes offand it is an art to pick the right moment. the ball goes oflon a tangent. but now it is the angle with the vertical." as we explain in a moment. At that instant the ball is not moving up or down. because the radius is 1. Its length equals 1 (the speed). + Application of plane geometry: The right triangles in Figure 1. The ball would complete the circle at time T = 360.017 and sin 1 = 34. The angle t still appears. When the thrower lets go. which involves not only speed but direction. VELOCITY O FT H EB A L L At time t. radian mode. if the ball only reached t degrees. the force is from the center. . At first the ball travels to the left. The direction of motion is tangent to the circle. They look congruent and they arethe angle t above the ball equals the angle t at the center. At the starting time t = 0. The speed would be . based on a figure rather than a formula. the movement is all upward. We cannot accept the division of the circle into 360 pieces (by whom?). That equation applies to position and velocity. OSCILLATION: UP AND DOWN MOTION We now use circular motion to study straightline motion.sin t. but rotated through 90". radians A full circle is 360 degrees and 271 radians. It oscillates between y = 1 and y = . the force is gravity.01745. That line will be the y axis. The height is sin 0 = 0 and the upward velocity is cos 0 = 1. verify that sin l o z . (I once saw a friend hit by a hammer at MIT. With no force to keep it on the circle. The ball travels a distance 2n in a time 2n. but the speed in the x direction is . For a ball on a string. and you see how sin2 t + cos2 t = 1 is so basic. The value of x is cos t. The horizontal velocity contains a minus sign. If the ball is the moon. It is the same as the position triangle. which direction is the ball going? Calculus watches the motion between t and t + h. The "velocity triangle" is in Figure 1. at every time. If it is a hammer swinging around on a chain. Half of trigonometry is in that figure (the good half). ball reaches the top. but the thrower quit track. At time ~ 1 2the .I Introduction to Calculus Important point: The distance around the circle (its circumference) is 2nr = 2n.
To find the upward velocity of the mass. level with the ball.2. Then v is negative.1. As the ball goes around the bottom. How do we describe this oscillation? The best way is to match it with the ball on the circle. The velocity drops to zero as the spring is fully stretched.17a shows the mass at a typical time t. when the ball and mass and fgraph are going down. THE SLOPE OF THE SINE CURVE At the top and bottom (t = n/2 and t = 3~12) the ball changes direction and v = 0.p=mst. The curve levels off. the slope of the sine curve is v = 1. The speed of the mass is changing although the speed of the ball is always 1 . The mass goes slowest (in fact it stops) when the height reaches a maximum or minimum. the velocity will be the slope o f the sine curve. As the ball passes the top of the circle. The height of the ball will be the height of the mass.4 Circular Motion There is a jumpy oscillation that we do not want. That "bangbang" velocity is like a billiard ball. At a maximum or minimum the slope is zero. the velocity is v = . Figure 1.1. If the distance between the walls is 2. but within that cycle the mass speeds up and slows down. Instead of velocities that jump between 1 and . But the mass does not move with constant speed. with v = 1 and v = . bouncing between two walls without slowing down.1 7 Circular motion of the ball and harmonic motion of the mass (its shadow). and we know v from circular motion: The upward velocity is v = cos t. the speed is 1. The mass goes fastest at the center. the mass stops and turns back up the y axis. The height is y =f (t) = sin t. Since the distance is f = sin t. Simple harmonic motion is the most important back and forth motion. as the mass goes the same distance in the opposite direction. The problem is to find the changing velocity u. The distance graph is a zigzag (or sawtooth) from Section 1.1. The mass is on a spring. when the ball is going straight up. The "shadow of the ball" goes up and down. At t = n. while f = vt and f = f at2 are the most important oneway motions. then at t = 4 the ball is back to the start. which pulls it back. the mass stops at the top and starts down. + (.? At time zero. . This height oscillates between f = 1 and f = . The slope at the top and bottom o f the sine curve is zero. level with the ball.1. ?That looks easy but you will see later that it is extremely important. The time for a full cycle is still 2n.1. look at the upward velocity of the ball.///J fup = sin t ) turn UP down turn Fig. Those velocities are the same! The mass and ball stay level. We prefer a smoother motion. a real oscillation slows down to zero and gradually builds up speed again. The velocity triangle yields v at every time t. 1. Halfway up (or down).
No other method could compute the area under a cosine curve so fast.oes. Please realize the power of calculus. The height and velocity (red lines) are oscillating together. Somehow the ratio in (1) should approach cosmt as h . but we use it anyway. For sin t we could have done the same: change in sin t . coming soon. that in calculus the two most famous functions of trigonometry form a pair: The slope of the sine curve is given by the cosine curve. The upward velocity is not cos 2t but 2 cos 2t. Question 1 What if the ball goes twice as fast. Therefore cos 2t enters the upward velocity and sin 2t enters the horizontal velocity.sin t average velocity = (1) change in t h This is where we need the formula for sin (t + h). the velocity is v(t) = cos t . The time for a full circle is only n.18 shows the result we want. That velocity is the slope of the fcurve. so the area under cos t is the increase in sin t. The slope of sin t is cos t. v = sin t when f = cos t (black).and divided that distance by h.)The sine and cosine fit the same pattern as t2 and 2 t o u r shortcut was to watch the shadow of motion around a circle. . The ball's position is x = cos 2t and y = sin 2t.1 Introduction to Calculus Figure 1. Fig. From sin 0 = 0 to sin n/2 = 1. The difference is that the velocity triangle is twice as big.sin (t + h) . f = sin t gives the height. if you accept the Fundamental Theorem of Calculuscomputing areas is the opposite of computing slopes. On the left is the velocity v = cos t. The velocity is still tangent to the circlebut the tangent is at angle 2t where the ball is. No reason to believe that yet. This average velocity approached the slope 2t as h became small. The horizontal velocity is . to reach angle 2t at time t? Answer The speed is now 2. Notice these 2's! Question 2 What is the area under the cosine curve from t =0 to t = n/2? You can answer that. This is absolutely fantastic. Previously we compared (t + h)' with t2. the increase is 1. 1. but they are out of phasejust as the position triangle and velocity triangle were at right angles.2 sin 2t. When the distance is f (t) = sin t.I 8 v = cos t when f = sin t (red).0. (It d. On the right. Admission of guilt: The slope of sin t was not computed in the standard way.
the spacecraft starts with v = at and f = )at2. and the mass follows it up and down. The sentences are spoken before they are written. What it can do. not an "infinitesimal" limit. the velocity is v(t) = . if you were in this room. The new fgraph is the cosine. .) Modern mathematics is a combination of exact formulas and approximate computations. The exercises are to help you master both parts. may I add a note about the book and the course? The book is more personal than usual. t o n television you know immediately when the words are live. v = cos t and f = sin t . The result is an overwhelming growth in the range of problems that can be solved. and I hope readers will approve. v = at and f = t a t 2. The same with writing. We review the ideas: v is the velocity the slope of the distance curve the limit of average velocity over a short time the derivative of f.sin t.The dotted lines in Figure 1. This time f is the cosine.sin t. One part of our goal is to extend that listfor which we need the tools of calculus. The slope of the cosine curve follows the negative of the sine curve.18 show the new start. But the shadow has exactly the same motionthe ball keeps going around the circle. What I write is very close to what I would say. That is another famous pair. Its distance across is f = cos t. In harmonic motion.? Calculus is alive and moving forwardit needs to be taught that way. The new vgraph is minus the sine. it does quicklyeven if it cannot find exact slopes or areas. One new part of the subject has come with the computer. by watching the ball go left and right (instead of up and down). Only the computer can account for the atmosphere and the sun's gravity and the changing mass of the spacecraft. extra work. Neither part can be ignored. With constant velocity. Integral calculus: Compute f from v. With constant acceleration. both with a time shift of 4 2 .1. You could see that coming.CURVE I cannot resist uncovering another distance and velocity (another fv pair) with no f the circle. The time clock starts at the top o The old time t = n/2 is now t = 0. Differential calculus: Compute v from f . Another and more important part is to put these ideas to use. (The moon's orbit has sines and cosines. The fgraph and vgraph are still correct. Before the chapter ends. That twjn pair completes the calculus in Chapter 1 (trigonometry to come). It works with a finite step h. twins of the first: When the distance is f (t) = cos t. We landed on the moon because f and v were so accurate. and I hope you will see numerically what we derive algebraically. Its velocity across is v = . f equals vt.4 Circular Motion T H ES L O P E OF T H E COSINE. f is the distance the area under the velocity curve the limit of total distance over many short times the integral of v.
By computing f check your estimate. 21 The velocity curve v = cos 4t yields the distance curve f = $ sin 4t. You have seen a distance function f and a limit v of average velocities. The velocity is u(t) = k . 1.6 sin 3t. Its velocity points in the direction of the e . 5 A ball travels around a unit circle (raalus 1) with speed 3. 19 The distance curve f = sin 4t yields the velocity curve v = 4 cos 4t. v is P = q = r .4 EXERCISES Readthrough questions A ball at angle t on the unit circle has coordinates x = a and y = b . its velocity is v = n . 4 O n a circle of radius R find the x and y coordinates at time t (and angle t). 14 A mass falls from the top of the unit circle when the ball of speed 1 passes by. and its vertical velocity at time t. At time t (when it reaches angle t) find (a) its x and y coordinates (b) the speed and the distance traveled (c) the vertical and horizontal velocity. What acceleration a is necessary to meet the ball at the bottom? (a) how long does it take for 5 revolutions? (b) at time t = 3n/2 where is the ball? (c) at t = 22 where is the ball (approximately)? 2 For the same motion find the exact x and y coordinates at t = 2x13. find its angle. Plot x and v up to t = n. starting from angle zero. The upward velocity is g and the horizontal velocity is h .cos (n/2 .I lntroductlon to Calculus The course has made a quick startnot with an abstract discussion of sets or functions or limits. When f is distance = area = integral. Estimate its greatest height (maximum f ) and the time it reaches that height. It completes a full circle at t = c . marking the time axes. 22 The velocity v = 5 sin 5t yields what distance? . but the course has definitely begun. How long until each f repeats? 10 Draw graphs of f = sin(t n) and v = cos (t oscillation stays level with what ball? + + n). which is f to the radius coming out from the center. Draw the velocity triangle and find the x and y velocities. This 11 Draw graphs of f = sin ( 4 2 . 20 The distance curve f = 2 cos 3t yields the velocity curve v = . 8 Does the new mass (under or over the ball) meet the old mass (level with the ball)? What is the distance between the masses at time t? ' f (t) = A mass going up and down level with the ball has height i . Its speed is d . Explain both 4's. 9 Draw graphs of f(t) = cos 3t and cos 2nt and 271 cos t.t) and v = . 7 A mass moves on the x axis under or over the original ball (on the unit circle with speed 1). A shadow traveling under the ball has f = cos t and v = o . Explain the i. There is a lot to do. When t = n/2 the height is f = I and the velocity is v = m . This oscillation stays level with a ball going which way starting where? 12 Draw a graph of f (t) = sin t + cos t. What is the position x =f (t)? Find x and v at t = 4 4 .6. if it goes off on the tangent at t = 2n/3? 3 A ball goes around a circle of radius 4. 6 If another ball stays n/2 radians ahead of the ball with speed 3. (a) what angle does it reach? (b) what are its x and y coordinates? (c) what are its x and y velocities? This part is harder. its x and y coordinates. but with the concrete questions that led to those ideas. Find the area under v = cos t from the change in f = sin t: 15 from t = O to t = n 17 from t = O to t = 2 n j6 from t = 0 to t = n/6 18 from t = n/2 to t = 3x12. If a speededup mass reaches f = sin 2t at time t. At what time would the ball hit the x axis. Explain the .t). We will meet more functions and more limits (and their definitions!) but it is crucial to study important examples early. At time t. 13 How fast should you run across the circle to meet the ball again? It travels at speed 1. This is called simple i motion. 1 For a ball going around a unit circle with speed 1.
a balk is called. y=sin3t 26 x = 3 cos 4t. 39 If a pitcher doesn't pause before starting to throw. Then find an average slope by dividing sin n/2 .= r hypo tenuse y opposite side sin 8 = . but after that they fail. y. The side x becomes zero. . The three on the right come directly from the three on the left. Three sides give six ratios. y = sin kt completes a rotation at t = 1. y = c o s t 36 x=cos2t.2 c o s i t 32 x = 0.01. y = sin 5t 34 x=cost.) Is that true? 30 x = cos (. 24 The slope of f = sin t at t = 0 is cos 0 = 1. 31 x=cost. And the tangent is the sine divided by the cosine: Note that "tangent of an angle" and "tangent to a circle" and "tangent line to a graph" are different uses of the same word. y = 0 (4) at velocity v = cos t.= r hypotenuse y opposite side tan 8 = . (2)with radius 1 (3)starting from x = 1. the tangent of 8 goes to infinity. As the cosine of 8 goes to zero. . . Find ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) for the oscillations 3136. 38 Choose the number k so that x = cos kt. . y = sin (. r. find its position and speed and upward velocity. 1.t) 1. Find the speed and upward velocity. and they are OK up to 180". y=O 33 x=O.= x near side set r= 1 8= x cos 8 =1 csc 8 = r y sin 8 Fig. The size of the triangle is not as important as the angles. Therefore we change now to a circle.sin 4 3 by the time difference 4 2 . The oscillation x = 0. Compute average slopes (sin t)/t for t = 1. and the triangle is infinitely steep. which are the basic functions of trigonometry: R Iy X n x near side cos 8 = . y = 5 cos 2t 37 If the ball on the unit circle reaches t degrees at time t. We cannot put a 240" angle into a triangle.001. 8 approaches 90". We focus on one particular anglecall it 8and on the ratios between the three sides x. y = 0 ( Find ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) for the motions 2530. y = sin t goes (1)up and down (2)between 1 and 1 (3) starting from x = 0. The ratios don't change if the triangle is scaled to another size. y = sin t circles (1) counterclockwise 4 )at speed 1.19 x 1 cot g = . y = 3 sin 4t 27 x = 5 sin 2t.4 3 .5 A Review of Trigonometry Trigonometry begins with a right triangle. even if the time is too short to see it.t).l. y=2sin(t+O) 35 x=O. Triangles have a serious limitation. (Therefore no balk. y = . They are excellent for angles up to 90°.= y tan 8 Of course those six ratios are not independent.23 Find the slope of the sine curve at t = 4 3 from v = cos t. The ball at x = cos t. The American League decided mathematically that there is always a stop between backward and forward motion. y=sin2t 25 x=cos3t. The sine of 90" is y/r = 1.
60" and takes us of the wrong way around the circle.4 4 3 ) . (Then 450" is the same as 90°.n / 3 is . so the angle is n radianswhich is 180".8 is below the axis when + 8 is above. An angle going clockwise is negative. The angle . ..1/2 sec e = .2 sin 8 = y/r = &/2 csc e = 2/& tan 8 = y / x = cot & e = i/d Those numbers illustrate basic facts about the sizes of four functions: The tangent and cotangent can fall anywhere. As the point goes around the circle.1 Introduction to Calculus Fig. 4 This angle is shown in Figure 1. One more change comes with the move to a circle. The sine and tangent are odd (change sign).Similarly for 1": 360" = 2n radians 1" = 27~1360radians 1 radian = 3601271 degrees. n). and 360" is in the same direction as 0". The distance around to angle 8 is r times 8. Angles are measured from the positive x axis (counterclockwise). A diflerence of 2n makes no di$erence to x. tan 8.20a). Therefore 2 of 2n radians (or 300") gives the same direction as . We measure the angle by that multiple 8. The same point is 2 of the right way around.20a (where r = 1). trace out six graphs. For a halfcircle the distance is m. adding 10n or 200n to the angle. The ratios are cos 8 = x/r = .) Each angle yields a point on the circle of radius r.. What is the effect on the six functions? Certainly the radius r is not changed when we go to . When r = 1 this is the ultimate in simplicity: The distance is 8. Also x is not changed (see Figure 1. as long as cot 8 = l/tan 8. The distance around the whole circle is 2nr. This change in y affects y/r and y / x but not xlr: The cosine is even (no change). Degrees are out. 1. because . The coordinates x and y of that point can be negative (but never r). sin 9. the six ratios cos 8. Thus sin 8 and cos 8 and the other four functions have period 27~. Thus 90" is straight up. A 45" angle is Q of a circle and 27118 radiansand the length of the circular arc is 27~18. n.60". EXAMPLE Evaluate the six trigonometric functions at 8 = 2n/3 (or 8 = . y. . The cosine waveform is the same as the sine waveformjust shifted by 90".8. and the six functions repeat themselves. Radians are in. 180" is to the left. We can go five times or a hundred times around the circle.n / 3 radians or .20 Trigonometry on a circle. Compare 2 sin 8 with sin 28 and tan 8 (periods 2n. A quartercircle is 4 2 radians or 90". But y reverses sign. The distance around to other points is Or. r.
x1 I since distances can't be negative). They are known by their x and y coordinates. . 2 1 ~ shows the same circle and triangle (but rotated). and they are the key identities of trigonometry: Everything flows fvom the Pythagoras formula x2 + y2 = r2. The secant . we discover the cosine of s . The same distance squared is d2 = (cos (s . (1) x=coss y = sin s Fig.5 A Review of Ttlgonometry The numbers reveal more. and d is the distance between them.) In Figure 1.2 is l/cos 8.y.+ (sin (s .sin t)2.1. ) ~ + (y2.x . replace it by 1. The distance up the side is ly2 .21b. That is cos2 8 + sin2 8 = 1. The points are in Figure 1. That may not seem remarkable.21 Distance between points and equal distances in two circles. 1. 1. Dividing by x2 gives the second identity. Dividing by r2 gives = 1. Pythagoras immediately gives the distance d: distance between points = d = J(x2 . the distance squared is d2 = (change in x ) + ~ (change in y)* (2) Figure 1 . By applying this distance formula in two identical circles.t) . ( ~ / r ) (y/r)2 ~ )( ~r / ~ )Dividing ~. The tangent is the ratio of sine to cosine.21a. The third point completes a right triangle. 3 + DISTANCES AND ADDITION FORMULAS To compute the distance between points we stay with Pythagoras. The distances are the same. All three will be needed which is 1 + ( y / ~= throughout the bookand the first one has to be unforgettable.2 cos s cos t . but it is.t))2.xl (or Ix2 .cos t)* + (sin s . so (2) = (3): (2) = 1 + 1 . There are three relationships in the squares of those six numbers.t. Whenever ( c o ~ i n e+ )~ (sine)2 appears. by y2 gives the third.y1)'. (Subtracting angles is important. (3) Now multiply out the squares in equations (2) and (3). It is x. . Their squares are 3 and 4 (differing by 1).2 sin s sin t = (COS s . For the x distance along the bottom we don't need help.
The essence o f calculus is in that limit. For that we connect sine to cosine.22 shows d2 = (0 .1 Introduction to Calculus After canceling 1 + 1 and then . y.0) and cos 0 = sin (7112 .cos . Then cos t = 1 and sin t = 0.$)2 + (1 .0).= cos .+ cos . but a "minus" appears with the sine.= 2 sin . rather than (sine)2 to (co~ine)~.+ sin . we have the "additionformula" for cos (s . to switch between sines and cosines. In the special case s = t. (7) The complementary angle is 7 1 1 2 .12)~.sin 6 2 3 2 3 571 71 71 71 71 cos . No change in cos t.sin 6 2 3 2 3 5 7 1 71 71 71 71 sin .2 sin2 t. The connection goes back to the ratio y/r in our original triangle.t equals cos s cos t + sin s sin t. And it is typical of our subject to add something of its owna limit in which an angle approaches zero. formulas (456) move from cosines to sines: sin (s .cos . 71 71 cos .cos 3 3 3 sin . The cosine of s + t equals cos s cos t .= 1 2 6 3 71 (40) tcalculus turns (6) around to cos2 t = i(1 + cos 2t) and sin2 t = i(1 .cos .t They give derivatives in Chapter 2 and integrals in Chapter 5. we have cos(t + t ) = (COS t)(cos t) . This is the sine of the angle 0 and also the cosine of the complementary angle 7 1 1 2 .t. But you have now seen the formulas that are needed by ca1culus.0: sin 0 = cos (7112 .= cos . replace t by .= sin . even if more are possible.sin2 t = 2 cos2 t . r ratios and the equation x2 + y2 = r2 can be rewritten in many ways.sin 6 2 3 2 3 sin 2 . By making this connection in Problem 19.t and s + t and 2t.sin .0 because the two angles add to 7 1 1 2 (a right angle).sin 6 2 3 2 3 71 (s . This is a muchused formula for cos 2t: Double angle: cos 2t = cos2 t . Review of the ten formulas 71 71 Figure 1. The x..2. .= cos .t) = sin s cos t .cos .1 = 1 .t) (s sin . (6) I am constantly using cos2 t + sin2t = 1.= 112 6 3 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 + t) 71 (2t) cos 2 = sin . We also need addition formulas and doubleangle formulas for the sine of s . To go from (4) to (5) in all cases.t): The cosine of s . Trigonometry is full of identities that connect its six functionsbasically because all those functions come from a single right triangle.cos . The equations reduce to cos s = cos s.cos s sin t (8) sin(s + t) = sin s cos t + cos s sin t sin 2t = sin(t + t) = 2 sin t cos t (9) (10) I want to stop with these ten formulas.= sin .cos 2t)..(sin t)(sin t). (4) (5) The easiest is t = 0.sin s sin t.
7114.t) = t . + 6 Prepare a table showing the values of the six basic func. What is the area of the sector that has angle 8? It is a fraction of the whole area. The distance to angle 8 is I .s .t) and apply formula (4) with n/2 . 13 From the formula for cos(2t + t) find cos 3t in terms of cos t. cos (n/2 + 8). 371. 4) is d = s . Two ratios (the secant r/x and the d ) are above 1.= 1 cos 8 sin 8 sec 8 + csc 8 = sin 8 + cos 8 (b) tan e +cot e (c) cos 8 . 2 Convert x.t)) leads to the addition formula cos (s . sin (s . 20 If formula (9) is true. Coming from x2 + y2 = r2 are the three identities sin28 + cos28 = 1 and 0 and P .t) and cos (s + t) in (45) find a formula for cos s cos t. sin (n/2 + 8). Find all points where cos B = sec 8. Choosing s = t gives cos 2t = v or w . 17 Draw cos 8 and sec 8 on the same graph.9) = cos 8. 8 Find the distance from (1. 0) to (cos (s . 90°. cos (n. Two ratios (the cosine x/r and the c ) are below 1. ~ / 2n. the cosine is n . (Divide by r2 and q and r . 1 In a 606060 triangle show why sin 30" = 3. 14 From the formula for sin (2t t) find sin 3t in terms of sin t. Why is 12d close to and below 2n? 11 Decide whether these equations are true or false: sin 8 1 +cos 8 (a) . the six basic functions are the b of the sides. 5) to (3. when the distance around is 2nr. by changing from a triangle to a g . tions at 8 = 0. All six functions have period k . 270" to radians.22 1. 16 Show that (cos t + + i sin t)2= cos 2t + i sin 2t. Going clockwise changes the sign of 8 and I and m . The angle 8 is measured in h . n/3. What angles between 0 and 2n correspond to 8 = 480" and 8 = I0? 9 Find the distance d from (1. 19 Complementary angles have sin 8 = cos (n/2 . 1) along (a) a straight line (b) a quartercircle (c) a semicircle centered at (3. .cot28.8). Changing the sign of t gives cos (s + t) = u .8) = sin 8 12 Simplify sin (n . 15 By averaging cos (s . 18 Find all angles s and t between 0 and 2n where sin (s + t) = sin s + sin t.tan2 8. (4. The distance from (1.22 compute d2 and (with calculator) 12d. In this way derive the addition formula (9). sec20 . 1.t). Find a similar formula for sin s sin t.8). 5 At 8 = 3n/2 compute the six basic functions and check cos28 + sin28. Two ratios (the e and the f ) can take any value. how do you prove (8)? 21 Check the addition formulas (45) and (89) for s = t = n/4. 7 The area of a circle is nr2. &/2) and show on 10 In Figure 1. if i2 = 1.O) to a circle why 6d is less than 2n.O).s instead of s. Write sin@ t) as cos(n/2 . Since cos (.A Review of Ttlgonometry Fig. 7114 to degrees and 60°.i).5 EXERCISES Readthrough questions Starting with a a triangle. 0) to (0. The six functions are defined for all angles 8. 3 Draw graphs of tan 8 and cot 8 from 0 to 2n.) The distance from (2. What is their (shortest) period? 4 Show that cos 28 and cos28 have period n and draw them on the same graph. csc28 . A full circle is 8 = i . a formula needed in calculus. 22 Use (5) and (9) to find a formula for tan (s + t). Therefore i ( l + cos 2t) = x .sec 8 = sin 0 tan 8 (d) sin (2n .
The third corner is at Q = (b cos 8. Tilt the second graph and look from the side at a narrow angle. Square and add to . 33 y = sin 2x 35 y = 3 cos 2xx 34 y = 2 sin xx 36 y=sin x+cos x 30 Match a sin x + b cos x with A sin (x + 4). What our eyes see . By the time it reaches x = 10. (Make the equation correct at 8 = 0. Most people see hexagons. Draw graphs for equations 3336. You see "diamonds. The graph of sin x is one continuous curve. From equation (9) show that a = A cos 4 and b = A sin 4.000.000/27r times. They don't seem to lie on sine curves. Now the first graph appears. 32 Extend the same!riangle to a parallelogram with its fourth + csc28 = 1 29 Rewrite cos 8 +sin 0 as sin(8 + 4) by choosing the correct "phase angle" 4." The narrow angle compresses the x axisback to the scale of the first graph. The graph of sin n has picked 10. 0). The second graph shows the first 1000 points. We understand it for maps.000 points from the curveand for some reason those points seem to lie on more than 40 separate sine curves. b sin 8). But they are the same thousand points! It is hard to believe that the graphs are the same. The effect of scale is something we don't think of. Find the length squared of the other diagonal OR.1 1. Those 1591 oscillations would be so crowded that you couldn't see anything. Computers can zoom in or zoom outthose are changes of scale.34 In 2328 find every 8 that satisfies the equation. This is very different from y = sin x. P = (a. What are the side lengths OP and OQ? From the distance formula . Divide to find tan 4 = bla.2ab cos 8 (law of cosines).6 A Thousand Points of Light 1 The graphs on the back cover of the book show y = sin n.) fi corner at R = (a + b cos 0. and mark three points. the curve has gone up and down 10. but I have learned what to do. 23 sin 8 = 1 25 sin 8 = cos 8 27 sec28 24 sec 8 = 2 26 sin 8 = 8 28 tan 8 = 0 1 Introduction to Calculus (1) show that the side PQ has length d2 = a2 + b2 . b sin 8 ) . Square both sides to check. find A = 31 Draw the base of a triangle from the origin 0 = (0'0) to 37 Which of the six trigonometric functions are infinite at what angles? 38 Draw rough graphs or computer graphs of t sin t and sin 4t sin t from 0 to 2n.
What is this "double point?" Answer 4 times 44 is 176. turned it over. The sine of 11 is near . at the start of the seventh sine curve.14 make us think of n.9999. I was confused at first.. Graph 3 shows y = fractional part of n/2x. sin 1. Where does the middle curve. Question The fourth point on that middle curve looks the same as the fourth point coming down from sin 3. 22 start upward and 22 start downward. when does 44N come very close to a multiple of n? We know that 44 is 14n + . The sine of 3 equals the sine of n . Of these 44 curves. because I could only find 42 curves...99999 and sin 33 equals . you will see it come back to zero above 7810. Which points are near (0. Now we know something. The problem is with your eyes. and they raise several questions: 1.0177 then 44N=(14n+. (The numbers 3 and . On the curve coming down it is (179.02. The points on the middle curve are at n = 0 and 44 and 88 and every number 44N. Halfway between is n = 7810. That is certainly not true of sin 1 (1 is one radian!).0177.. You can follow the sine curve all the way across graph 2. This point (44. come back to zero? A point near (0. The equation for the middle sine curve is y = sin (nx/78lO).620beyond our graph.) Similarly sin 4.5.0. Doug Hardin plotted points on straight lines as well as sine curves. Those are so close to the bottom and top that you can't see their curves.1. Then he made a second copy. sin 179).0177)N3 14nN+n. In fact sin 1 is up the axis at . The sine of 7810 is very near zero. at the center of a hexagon. This is half the period of the sine curve.02. . That is the first point to the right of (0. 44 z 14n + .l4 is near . The reason is that sin 11 equals .3.22) z sin (. whose sine is zero: sin 22 = sin (7n . This is because 44 is just past 14n.01) z . The actual points on that curve have n = 44 177 and n = 44 178. Where does that curve come back to zero? In other words.14. Then 22 is close to 771. Its period is 15.00003.02 so sin 44 z sin . sin 5. Why does graph 2 have hexagons? I don't know. Then sin . The first point to come close is sin 22. At that point 44N = 7810. The second graph spreads out this double point. going upward from (0.84. The sines of 176 and 179 difler only by . So we multiply .02 z .01. sin 21 are not especially close to zero. O)? 2. . Similarly sin 2 is .. More exactly 44 is 14n + .O) really means that sin n is close to zero.. 0).000 point graph. On the curve going up.6 A Thousand Points of Light depends on what is "close. They begin near the heights sin 0. To understand the hexagons. There are 44 curves.1 because sin 22 is near zero. sin 43. . It is almost impossible to follow a single curve past the topcoming back down it is not the curve you think it is. Graphs 3 and 4 are on the next page.14. sin 176). How many sine curves are there? 3. . It begins a curve downward. with sines just above and below zero. sin 44) starts the middle sine curve. . You can see it on graph 1.91 and sin 3 is . If you follow the middle sine curve. Only a little question remains. and more clearly on graph 2. sin 88).O) and slightly below. Next is (88. The next point to come close is sin 44." We think we see sine curves in the 10. Look above 176 and 179. This is because 2217 is near n. the point is (176. That produced graph 4with hexagons. and placed it on top. This gives N = 177.0177 until we reach n: if N=n/.
They come from interference between periodic patternsin our case 4417 and 2514 and 1913 are near 271. you will see fantastic hexagons. The domain and range are not just abstract ideas. except when x is a nice number. You see the function. You choose them. May I give a few examples. Which program to use (if any) depends on cost and convenience and purpose. Do those graphs ever meet again'? At this point we don't know the full meaning of 3". the gveatest advantage of the computev is to o$er graphics. and turn it slowly over the original. operators get dizzy from seeing Moire patterns move. This is computerbased graphics. These pages identify some of the goals. A separate graph shows its derivative. For calculus. the function x 3 is smaller both times: 23 is below 3* and 43 = 64 is below 34 = 81. You get pictures as well as numbersa powerful combination. with examples and information. The computer offers the experience of actually working with a function. The packages keep getting better. How to use it is a much harder question. 1. . because it is adjustable. Our aim is to support. Then we make a beginning (this is still Chapter 1) on the connection of computing to calculus. when color screens don't line up. As you watch. If we don't like the picture we change to a new viewing window. If x3 is always less than 3" we ought to knowthese are among the basic functions of mathematics. This interference is an enemy of printers. and also particular packages and calculators. The discussion will be informal. It combines numerical computation with gvaphical computation. There are good applications in engineering and opticsbut we have to get back to calculus. as everybody learns right awayas soon as a few functions are typed in. Those statements are not 100% true.) Checking at x = 2 and 4. not just the formula.7 Computing in Calculus Software is available for calculus coursesa lot of it. EXAMPLE I Certainly x3 equals 3" when x = 3. If you can get a transparent copy of graph 3. (Neither does the computer. the effort to use computing to help learning. Also in making cloth. It can cause vertical lines on a TV. f ( x ) reaches a maximum or a minimum or zero.36 1 Introduction to Calculus This is called a Moivt pattevn. But the power to see this subject is enormous. It makes no sense to copy the manual.
(Graphics) Plot the function and zoom in. they are tangent. Locate its minimum. to show that we never see whole numbers again. 3. A supercomputer is not necessary. That succeeds for quadratics. At our command. the second solution (4) is above 2. This special point b can be found with computerbased graphics. They have the same slope at the double point.The first tool is algebratry to factor the polynomial. it plots both functionsthis shows more.7 Computing in Calculus The computer will answer numerically or graphically. factoring is seldom the way to go. 2. For that particular band only for that one valuethe curve xb never goes above bx. This particular function is . and identify the most important number in calculus.xe.1.At another command. I asked Mathernatica for a formula. EXAMPLE 2 (mental computer) Compare x2 with 2X. Highlevel programming is not necessary. The screen proves a point of logic (or mathematics) that escaped us. Even if the computer can do algebra better than we can.2 = 0. Eventually we discover the slope of bx. We can do mathematics without completely understanding it. If the graphs cross once. A crossing point near 2.4. When b is 3. When b is 2. it solves x3 = 3X. Solve x4 . For once the machine typed HELP icstead of the user.The functions meet at x = 2. Write it differently: We can learn mathematics while doing it. Calculus was created to work with slopes. (Mathematics) Use the derivative. + Both will be done by the computer.5 is seen by zooming in. Soon comes xb. and we already know the slope of x2. There is a new exercise at the end of Section 6.) Plotting the graph is also fastbut solutions can be outside the viewing window. A few conclusions from such a basic example: 1. Both have potential problems! Newton's method is fast. Well. hoping to discover x as a function of bbut the program just gave back the equation. In many ways it is the "center point of calculus. The computer makes that possible. and then gets extremely hard. EXAMPLE 4 Graph y(x) = ex . the second solution is below 3. but that means it can fail fast. Solve by Newton's method." Since the curves touch but don't cross. there must be a special "double point"where the graphs barely touch but don't cross. In reality we have two good choices: 1. The point is that this number can be discovered first by experiment. If we move b from 2 to 3. EXAMPLE 3 Find the number b for which xb = bx has only one solution(at x = b). I am less interested in the exact number than its positionit comes before x = 3 rather than after. 2.1 l x 3 5x . The next example was proposed by Don Small. The hardest part of teaching calculus is to turn it from a spectator sport into a workout. I am proud of calculus. they must cross againbecause 3" is higher at 2 and 4. Does an accident like Z4 = 42 ever happen again? Can the machine tell us about integers? Perhaps it can plot the solutions of xb = bx. mathematics is not helpless. The third point doesn't sound so good. Where do they meet again? Is it before or after 2? That is mental computing because the answer happens to be a whole number (4). (It is usually terrific. Now we are on a different track.
Clicking on opposite corners of the zoom box is the fastest way." The slope of bx is known to the program. + E X A M P L E 6 Zoom out and in on the graphs of y = cos 40x and y = x sin (llx). in the standard window from 10 to 10. The book and the professor and the computer can join in teaching it. a computer can print the derivative of sin(x2). C) and (B. (Even faster: Use the default factors. They can be the center position (a. We need to think where this fits with learning calculus. The number has 158 digits (not written out here). It may give y = 0. a menudriven system is entirely adequate. or even proofs. There is a list of commands to choose from. They are capable of symbolic computationwhich opens up a third avenue of computing in calculus.sin x)/x3 become at x = O? For small x the machine eventually can't separate tan x from sin x. So we zoom out before we zoom in. This is loo! = (100)(99)(98).1 lntroductlonto Calculus zero only once. Your part is to learn by doing.4 discusses the centering transform and zoom transforma change of picture on the screen and a change of variable within the function. or computations. The computer should be nonthreatening (like this book and your professor)you can work at your own pace. but mathematics again predicts a second crossing point. unless the center is unchanged and we only need to give scale factors. Powerful packages are increasing in convenience and decreasing in cost. The use of the zoom is the best part of graphing. Not only do we choose the domain and range. Maybe too closethere is some danger that symbolic manipulation is all we do. I want to say clearly: Mathematics is not formulas. The computer does more than substitute numbers into formulasit operates directly on the formulas. They can be the coordinates of two opposite corners: (A. A calculus supplement can be very usefulMicroCalc or True BASIC or Exploring Calculus or MPP (in the public domain). we change them. The last 24 . E X A M P L E 8 A computer algebra system quickly finds 100 factorial." We deal with ideas. So why learn the chain rule? Because mathematics goes deeper than "algebra with formulas. In a way. b) and the scale factors c and d. and for most computer exercises in this book. (1). They can be the limits A < x < B and C d y d D. The graph seems to be leaving zero. The symbols and pictures are the language.. U(AMpLE 7 What does y = (tan x .2 = 0. EXAMPLE 5 Find all real solutions to x4 . Specific to graphics are Surface Plotter and Master Grapher and Gyrographics (animated). The best software for linear algebra is MATLAB. Can you get close enough to see the limit of y? For these examples." The derivative of sin t is "cos t. The viewing window is controlled by four numbers. D). Describe what you see. The derivative of y = x2 is seen as "2x.1lx3 5x . SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION In symbolic computation.) Section 3. but ideas. With a higherlevel language and enough power.. answers can be formulas as well as numbers and graphs. symbolic computing is close to what we ourselves do. The user provides a formula for y(x). and many functions are built in.
the zeros in lo! can be explained. explain it. For the Macintosh. In 30. These are menudriven (therefore easier at the start) and not expensive. Its original purpose.7 Computing In Calculus digits are zeros. the problem is to get past symbol manipulation and reach ideas. Without a computer. If you have computerbased graphing.1. but is it true? Does N! always have fewer than 2N digits? For Question 2. The biggest challenges at this moment are threedimensional graphics and calculus workbooks. New packages keep coming (Analyzer and EPIC among them). One comes from 10. Every teacher. the other from 5 times 2. You can't write sentences without being forced to organize ideasand part of yourself goes into it. Calculus TIL is a "sleeper" that deserves to be widely known. In workbooks. follow through on Examples 14 above and report. knows how hard that is and hopes to help. including y = sin n on the back cover. Rewrite it with examples. and beyond. was not to teach calculusbut it can. How many digits (approximately) are in the number N!? 2. including the price. It was used to draw graphs for this book.) Can you explain the 24 zeros in loo!? An idea from the card game blackjack applies here too: Count the$ves. GRAPHING CALCULATORS The most valuable feature for calculuscomputerbased graphingis available on hand calculators. 10000)]]. It builds on MAPLE and is much more accessible for calculus. Between 10 and 100. By creating the graphs you subconsciously learn about functions. An important alternative is Theorist. Writing in Calculus May I emphasize the importance of writing? We totally miss it. A much tighter bound would be 2N. This system has rewards and also drawbacks. A s I write in 1990. and come back to express it differently at the end. Identify the key idea at the start. A onepage report is harder on instructors as well as studentsbut much more valuable. and the following pages aim to support and encourage their use. I strongly recommend that students share terminals and work together. because none of the N terms can have more than N digits. the problem is the position of the eyesince the screen is only 20. Ideas are like surfacesthey can be seen many ways. the computer shows more than N digits when N = 100. Two at a terminal and 35 in a working group seems to be optimal. It will never show more than N2 digits. like MathCAD and MACSYMA and REDUCE. pick a paragraph from this book that should be clearer and make it clearer. The computer algebra system MAPLE is good. Our goal is not to test but to teach and learn. The complete command was List Plot [Table [Sin [n]. including this one. when the answer is just a number. With trace and zoom their graphs are quite readable. For lo! = 3628800 there are seven digits and two zeros. A word processor keeps it neat. DERIVE is becoming well established for the PC. are simple questions that need ideas: 1. . I will propose a writing exercise with options. Every reader will understand that in software there is no last word. (10 is also 5 times 2. (n. Hard question: How many zeros at the end of 200!? The outstanding package for fullscale symbolic computation is Mathematica. These are genuinely personal computers. How many zeros (exactly) are at the end of N!? For Question 1. Mathematics can be learned by talking and writingit is a human activity.
We don't count the zeros in 100 factorial (probably we could).2x just once.l . A valuable supplement is a guide directed especially at calculusmy absolute favorites are Calculus Activitiesfor Graphic Calculators by Dennis Pence (PWSKent. It is impressive. Important tip: for X on the TI81. the key X I T is faster than two steps A L p h a X. Texas Instruments produced a new graphing calculator: the TI81.1 Introduction to Calculus Programs for a handheld machine tend to be simple and short. I multiplies S . For powers use * . using HP's. It also helps you to understand specific functionsespecially when changing the viewing window. To evaluate y = x2 . The range of choices starts with the Casio fx 7000Gthe first and simplest. There is some risk in a choice that is available only At before this textbook is published. so ()3 + 2 x 2 special powers choose x2. I S. press the item number and E N T E R . type 3 S T 0 C E N T E R . For Multiplication has priority. They require extra time and effort. With earlier machines as a starting point. The programs given here are the "greatest common denominator" of computing in calculus. Storage locations are A to Z or Greek 8. Functions A graphing calculator helps you (forces you?) to understand the concept of a function. Most of all it allows you to explore calculus by yourself. Later in the book. More expensive and much more powerful are the HewlettPackard calculatorsthe HP28s and HP48SX. I F . we had to choose. These machines have algebraic entrythe normal order as in y = x + 3. Anyway. use the home screen. You set the viewing window and define the function. A series of Calculator Enhancements. They use reverse Polish notationnumbers first in the stack. There is a choice of calculatorswhich one to buy? For this book there was also a choicewhich one to describe? To provide you with listings for useful programs. our programs are Jbr the TI81. produces 1. . choose F u n c t i o n. move to the function edit screen: Press M 0 D E. . many improvements were added. While this book was being written. no symbolic algebra. A few words to start: To select from a menu. and other books do justice to their amazing capabilities.8000. x . When you press letters. then commands. easy to learn. Then type in the formula. They are inexpensive and good. What follows is an introduction to one part of a calculus laboratory. is being published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. To define y(x) for repeated use. and press Y =. These few pages are no substitute for the manual that comes with a calculator. The Sharp EL5200 (or 9000 in Canada and Europe) is comparable to the Casio 8000. we supply TI81 programs close to the mathematics and the exercises that they are prepared for. with very limited memory but a good screen. &. It is closer to the Casio and Sharp (emphasis on graphing. If a program says 3 + C . Every line ends with E N T E R . and 8500 have increasing memory and extra features. It is estimated that those calculators could get 95 on a typical calculus exam. Edit a command line using D E L(ete) and I N S(ert). For calculus select radians on the M 0 D E screen. 1990 for the Casio and Sharp and HP28S. and we hope that the experts we asked are right. Use keys for S I N . 1991 for the TI81). Fortunately the logic is so clear that you can translate the instructions into any languagefor a computer as well as a calculator. . Then you see it. The Y = edit screen is the same place where the formula is needed for graphing. They have large memories and extensive menus (and symbolic algebra). The Casio 7500. A calculator finds crossing points and maximum points to good accuracy. moderate price)..
Also try X = . See a cubic polynomial." The first column of pixels represents X m i n and the last column is X m a x . In Section 3.1. Z 0 0 M S t a n d a r d gives the default 1O<x<10. and execute by (PRGM) (EXEC12 ENTER. The calculator is like a computer. One digerence: Memory is too precious to store comments with the code. (We should say X domain but we don't.2 n < x < h . The keystroke G R A P H shows the graphing screen with the current functions. Leave the edit screen with Q U I T (not C L E A R that erases the line with the cursor). press (PRGM)(ERASE)G. It leaves Y 1 and Y 2 on the Y = screen. . To execute. Newton's Method. screen. 10<y<10.7 Computing in Calculus X 4 S T 0 X ENTERonthehome Example Y I = X ~ . select 1 :G o t o E r r o r . Practice again by creating P r gw 2 : F U N C . Movetothehomescreen.6 the lines show an iteration by its "cobweb. . An I F statement only affects the following linewhich is executed when T E S T = 1 (meaning true) and skipped when T E S T = 0 (meaning false). You have to see the logic by rereading the program.1. press P R G M programs by namea digit. and shaded regions. :TX Piecewise functions and Input (to a running program). Cobweb Iteration. You will create othersto do calculations or to add features that are not available as single keystrokes. Practice on this one: : " x ~ + x " ST0 (YVARS) Y1 ENTER :"X1" S T 0 (YVARS) Y2 ENTER :(PRGM)(I/Ol DispGraph The menus to call are in parentheses. The definition of a piecewise function includes the domain of each piece. Logical tests like " I F X 2 7 " determine which domain the input value X falls into. Each P R G M submenu lists all To enter the world of programming.3 < y < 3 . which is Y(4). Press GRAPH. or 6 (37 names). The D R A W menu is for points. Press R A N G E to reset. With X r e s = 1 the function is evaluated 96 times as it is graphed.2 8 X ~ + l 5 ~ E much of the graph! Press R A N G E and reset ()I 0 < X < 30. The Z 0 0 M menu is a fast way to set ranges. Press Y = and store +N 3T6 E R . We chose Autoscaling. Type the title G R A P H S and press E N T E R. and Numerical Integration. Secant Method. a letter. lines. The program title has up to eight characters. Y 1 E N T E R on the YVARS screen. I F commands are in the P R G M ( C T L submenu. "Smart Graph" recalls the graph instantly without redrawing it. Set the default window by Z 0 0 M Standard. When it fails to imagine i. To erase the program from the home screen. Example Set the ranges ()2 < X < 3 and () 150 < Y 6 50. . Select the E D I T submenu and press G for the edit screen. The screen shows 8.) The screen is a grid of 96 x 64 little rectangles called "pixels. X s c L and Y s c L give the spaces between ticks on the axes. The formula remains when the calculator is off. press P R G M ( E X E C G E N T E R. Press G R A P H. ()4000 < Y < 2300. You won't see Y1 = X (in ~ A T H ) ~ . The program draws the graphs. Type ST0 Y and : (PRGM) ( I / O ) D i s p Y. if no settings have changed." Programming This book contains programs that you can type in once and save.store X by 4 S T 0 X ENTER. with a fairly small set of instructions.~ ENTERontheY=screen. Z O O M T r i g gives . This is perfect for our piecewise linear functionsjust connect the breakpoints with lines. Graphing You specify the X range and Y range. T E S T calls the menu of inequalities.
The graphs show the same function with a change of scale. Execute with P E N T E R after selecting the P R G M ( E X E C > menu. this is faster than drawing a zoom box. There is also Z 0 0 M 0 U T. To draw the box. create your own viewing window. With a small computer and a zoom feature.1 Introduction to Calculus An input value X = 4 need not be stored in advance. or stretch by X F a c t or Y F a c t (default values 4). zoom in for more accuracy. Press T R A C E to locate a point on the graph. Even faster: a whole formula (14 .4 will discuss the mathematicshere we concentrate on the graphics.Toseealargerpicture. The same keys move a second (blinking) square to the opposite cornerthe box grows as you move. In all these problems.use Z O O M S t a n d a r d or Z O O M T r ig. the calculator evaluates y(x). the function X sin (l/X) approaches . Move left or rightthe cursor stays on the graph. With the center and the factors fixed. To minimize or maximize y(x). As X gets large. The function is y = 14 . Rewrite P using Y 1 = . . to widen the ranges and see more. Now return to Z 0 0 M T r i g . use X F a c t = 10and Y F a c t = 1. But a whole graph can be like a whole booktoo much at once. Zoom again by pressing E N T E R . use Z 0 0 M I Choose the center point and press E N T E R. The new graph appears. To solve y(x) = 0. Z o o m I n with the factors set to 4 (default). Program P stops while running to request input. A blinking cursor appears. Press Z 0 0 M I (O. and the box is the new viewing window. Forapresetrange. The fast way is to use a Z 0 0 M command. Best of all. and zoom in. rerun by pressing E N T E R again. move the cursor to one corner. Our eyes work the same waythey put together information on different scales. To blow up a figure we can choose new ranges. stop at a point. After completion. EXAMPLE9 Place : Y l = X s i n ( 1 / X I intheY=editscreen.PressZOOM T r i g n with center at for a first graph. You want to focus on one part.Then Zoom O u t again. A computer or calculator will trace along the graph. Computestoredisplay Y(X) as above.X)(X < 7) (X)(7 < X) can go on a single line using 1 and 0 from the tests.Toshrink n or Z 0 0 M 0 u t . read off the smallest and largest y.O). read off x at the point when y is nearest to zero. TRACE and ZOOM The best feature is graphing. we can use our eyes to understand functions. Section 3. or define Y 1 on the edit screen.x if x < 7. Change those scaling factors with Z 0 0 M S e t F a c t o r s . Looking around the room uses an amazingly large part of the human brain. + Exercise Define a third piece Y = 8 + X if X < 3. A product of tests ( 3 < X > ( X < 7 1 evaluates to 1 if all true and to 0 if any false. Press Z 0 0 M B o x . Set X F a c t = 1 and Y F a c t = 2. PrgmP: P I E C E S : Di s p " x = " :Input X :14X+Y :If 7<X :X+Y :D i s p Y P G R M (I 1 0 ) Ask for input PGRM ( 1 1 0 ) Screen ? E N T E R X First formula for all X PRGM ( C T L ) T E S T Overwrite if T E S T Display Y(X) = 1 Overwriting is faster than checking both ends A < X < B for each piece. Its coordinates appear at the bottom of the screen.5. Press E N T E R. Press E N T E R and this point is a small square. With a big enough computer we can try to imitate the eyesthis is a key problem in artificial intelligence. y = x if x > 7. Answer ? with 4 and E N T E R. When x changes by a pixel.
which increases K by 1 and skips a line if the new K exceeds L. A formula for y(x) does not easily reveal the range of y's. For this program we also list menu locations and comments. skip G o t o if > L PRGM (CTL) Loop return to L b l 1 Y . The loop ends with the command I S > ( K . Notice the loop with counter K. Y. the program sets the yrange from C = Ymin to D = Ymax and draws the graph. The inputs Xmin. Execute with PRGM (EXEC) A E N T E R. L . Example: Y l =x3+10x27x+42 with range Xrnin=12 and Xrnax=lO. create a box to see this function near X = . After Z 0 0 M T r ig .1. After sampling. Set tick spacing X s c l = 4 and Y s c l = 2 5 0 . PrgmA :AUTOSCL :AllOff :Xmin+A :19+L : (XmaxA) / L + H :A+X :Y1 + C :C+D :I +K :Lbl I :AtKH + X :Y1 + Y : I F Y<C :Y+C :IF DcY :Y+D : I S > (K. when A < x < B is given. For a new function it can be tedious.L) :Goto 1 :YIOn :C+Ymin :D+Ymax :DispGraph Menu (Submenu) Comment Y V A R S ( 0 F F Turn off functions V A R S (RNG) Store X m i n using ST0 Store number of evaluations (19) Spacing between evaluations Start at x = A Y V A R S ( Y ) Evaluate the function Start C and D with this value Initialize counter K = 1 PR G M ( C T L ) Mark loop start Calculate next x Evaluate function at x PGRM (CTL) New minimum? Update C PRGM (CTL) New maximum? Update D PRGM (CTL) Add 1 to K.01.7 Computing in Calculus EXAMPLE 10 Repeat for the more erratic function Y = sin (l/X). The Y range is now Scaling is crucial. The screen shows the short form on the left.V A R S ( O N ) Turnon Y1 ST0 V A R S ( R N G ) Set Y m i n = C ST0 V A R S (RNG) Set Ymax=D PR G M ( I / 0 1 Generate graph  . It samples the function L= 19 times across the xrange (every 5 pixels). are previously stored on other screens. Otherwise the command G o t o 1 restarts the loop. The following program is often more convenient than zooms. Xmax.
edu/terms. but has been provided by the author as an individual learning resource. For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use. .MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw. visit: http://ocw.edu Resource: Calculus Online Textbook Gilbert Strang The following may not correspond to a particular course on MIT OpenCourseWare.mit.mit.
Solution t o Problem 1: The slope is . Model problems with comments and complete solutions. The minus sign is because y decreases as t increases . The equation is y = 2 . 3. Our address is Box 812060. The press also publishes two other basic textbooks by Gilbert Strang: Introduction t o Linear Algebra and Introduction t o Applied Mathematics. + + The first line goes down 2 and across 5. 1. Many exercises in mathematics books are really asking you t o find the pattern by solving a general problem (with letters) instead of a special problem (with numbers). You also need t o be able t o find the formula from the graph. The Guide can be obtained from bookstores or by writing directly t o WellesleyCambridge Press. Extra drill problems included with exercises for chapter review. Sometimes numbers help. But don't forget: You can always substitute 5 and 2 for the letters a and b. Compare with y = 2 . This is typical of mathematics. Check that this gives y = 0 when t = 5.10. t o teach mathematics in an active and purposeful way. Here is an example: Find the equations for these straight lines.2) t o the straight line with slope 7 going through the point (2.O) are given by letters not numbers.at. Solutions t o selected evennumbered problems in each section. You need t o be able to rewrite that formula as y = 7x . The Guide contains four components which experience has shown are most helpful: 1. which is not so much about numbers as most people think .4t. It is correlated section by section with the essential points of the text. 2. Wellesley MA 02181 (prepayment by check). Readthrough questions from the text with the blanks filled in.: . The first graphs to study are straight lines.4). Problem 1: Find the equation for the second line.4. .STUDY GUIDE TO CALCULUS This Student Study Guide accompanies the textbook Calculus by Gilbert Strang. It takes practice t o connect the formula y . The "starting pointn is y = 2 when t = 0.it is really about patterns. The functions can be described by formulas or by graphs.4 = 7(x . The slope is = . other times they get in the way.1 Velocity and Distance The first step in calculus (in my opinion) is t o begin working with junctions. Comment: The points (0. so the formula correctly predicts that second point.the slope of the graph is negative. and the functions that go with them are linear: y = mx b or (using other letters) f = vt C.. b) and (a. The equation is y = b  x. This Study Guide shares the same goal. 4.
This connection is clearest when the velocity is constant. &. maximum height fastest steepest this is / ( I ) I What do you see? The slope of f is sero at the center. Test yourself on the second graph. In writing the book I asked myself: Where do we find two functions? What example can we start with? The example should be familiar and it should be real . The best examples build on what we already know. Then With formulas I could specify these functions exactly. Thus u = 0 where f is a maximum.1 Velocity and Distance (page 6 ) Pairs of functions. then = 120 miles = 60 miles per hour.not just made up. You need to know the rules for computing v(t). Now look a t the connection between f (t) and u(t) in the next graphs. The velocity is certainly connected to the distance traveled. Here are six questions about straight line graphs that change slopes.with a different slope.1. the equation for the line is f (t) = 60t. It takes practice to write down the formulas and draw the graphs. The maximum of u is where the graph of f is steepest (upwards). but it is not right for calculus to turn into pure manipulations. Very often calculus is swept up by formulas. If you go 120 miles in 2 hours at steady speed. The distance might be f (t) = Chapter 2 will find for the velocity u(t). Our goal from the start is to see the ideas. Comment: This example is taken from life. The velocity jumps. not from physics. The distance graph switches from one straight line to another straight line . and exams ask for them. Don't be put off by symbols like f (t) and u(t). Then u is largest (positive). Calculus deals with two functions at once. We have to understand both functions. and how they are related. Answers are given for the first graph. Again comes the question: Where to go after f = 60t and u = 60? The next step is to allow two velocities (two slopes). The first pair of functions is distance f (t) and velocity u (t). Most people see how f = 6Ot leads to v = 60. and the ideas get lost. Starting from f (0) = 0. The figure shows f (t). the questions are about u(t). That example converts to straight line graphs: The distance a hours graph goes up with slope 60. When the graph of f flattens out. u drops back toward zero. 2 4 6 hours 2 4 6 seconds .
The velocity is miles per hour.20. Then the piecewise constant v ( t ) produces a piecewise linear f (t). Each piece is a line segment described by a linear function f (t) = ut C. From t = 2 to t = 3 the car travels miles. The formula for this segment is f ( t ) = 20 20(t . . The velocity during this time is mph.a ) and the slope is denoted by f ' ( a ) . With different letters this form is y = mx b. velocity 5 miles per hour.3 ) . From t = 4 to t = 6.0. 1 5 6 hours 7 Give a 4part formula for f ( t ) . = 20. The slope of this segment of the fgraph is = 5. Answer: 20.3) if you know v and you also know the distance f(3) at the particular time t = 3. From t = 3 to t = 4 the car travels miles. This simplifies to f ( t ) = 20t .3 on tangent lines uses both forms.20). Section 2. Use the form vt + C if you know the slope u and the height C when t = 0. the car travels miles. our slope is 20 and the starting point is (3.1. The slope of the f graph from t = 3 to t = 4 is . The velocity during this time is miles per hour. The change in f is miles. change in f is 10. The first piece is just f ( t ) = vt because it starts from f (0) = 0. slope = ? f = 10. miles per hour. + + + + Fkom t = 3 to t = 4.0. the car travels backwards miles. The velocity during this time is Answer: 0. velocity = 10 miles per hour. The complete solution is: + IMPORTANT If we are given u(t) we can discover f ( t ) . The slope of the distance graph from t = 0 to t = 2 is Answer: Miles traveled = 20.40. Answer: Backwards 10 miles.1 Velocity and Distance 2 (page 6)  During the first two hours. Use f ( t ) = f ( 3 ) v ( t . The slope of this segment is . slope  3 4 5   6 Draw graphs of u(t) from those two graphs o f f ( t ) .3 5 t 5 4 . I I 1 2 3 1 t . The table of f's below was started from f (0) = O. Questions 811 allow you to fill in the missing parts of the table.But we do need to know the distance at one particular time like t = 0. The second form becomes y = f ( a ) f t ( a ) ( x.
I I . the velocity is graph ( a rectangle with no height) is miles per hour. Answer: 0 .. 1 2 Using the information in 811. the velocity is miles.7? Answer: The points (4. * . 40) can be read directly from the graph.40. At the breakpoint t = 4. but the distance f ( 4 ) is defined. the velocity is mph. The desired velocity is v = 6. The area of this rectangular portion is x Answer: 10. The area of this rectangular portion is x Keep in mind that area below the horizontal axis counts as negatave. 30 x 2 = 60. The slope of the second piece of the fgraph should be = 6 .I . Note that the slope of the fgraph from t = 0 t o t = 4 is 3. The symbol in v ( t ) is < while the symbol in f ( t ) is + <. Answer: 30. The distance in each case is 40 miles. The area of this rectangular portion of the graph is . the velocity.1. From t = 2 t o t = 3. What constant velocity will lead t o f ( 7 ) = 30 if f ( 0 ) = O? Give graphs and formulas for v ( t ) and f ( t ) . finish the table and complete the distance graph out to time t = 8. We know that f = 12 when t = 4 because distance = rate x time = 3 x 4 = 12. Since we want f (7) = 30. 13 What is the distance traveled from t = 0 t o t = 4? From t = 0 t o t . 20 x 2 = 40.12 = 18 more miles.Slope v(t) 3dr 2i Area 3 x 4=12 I 1. 9 mph. the velocity v ( 4 ) is not defined. Answer: 20. . f ( t ) ) in the table with straight line segments.4 ) . . Suppose v = 3 up t o time t = 4. I Velocity and Distance (page 6 ) 8 From t = 0 t o t = 2. b t 4 7 4 7 14 This is Problem 1. 60. I . . Connect the points ( t . we must = go 30 . The distance traveled during this time x is miles. The equation of this segment is f ( t ) = 12 6 ( t . During this time the vehicle travels forward 1 1 From t = 5 t o t = 8 the velocity is miles. 40) and ( 7 . The "area" of this portion of the x . 10 x 3 = 30. 30. mph.32 in the text. 1 x 0 = 0 . During this time the vehicle travels backward 10 From t = 3 t o t = 6.
ffirat. + + 10 u(t) is negativezeropositive.1. This is an early pointer to calculus. and the range is the distance interval 0 5 f 5 10. In each case u is the slope of the graph of f . The sum of those differences is 2 4 = 6. Then I tell you the last number minus the first number.015 hours. Their differences are 2 and 4. . The ratio of those changes equals 3. The area under the ugraph up to time 1.1. This was the Exxon Valdez accident in Alaska. Their graphs are straight lines with slopes equal to 3 and v. the distance function is f (t) = vt.. The formula for f (t) 2 is 3t 3 whereas f (t + 2) equals 3t+7. This is like differences. When v(t) is negative. The set of outputs is its range. The distance f (3) = 5 . One idea starts with numbers like f = 3.015) = . The difference f (4) . When f (t) = 55t 1000 the velocity is still 55 and the starting value is f (0) = 1000.021/.5. a l l . + Calculus Without Limits This section was rewritten for the second printing of the book. if u = 3 and C = 1. the graph of f(t) goes downward. which is the slope of the graph. The value of f (t) = 3t 1 at t = 2 is f (2) = 7.) The middle number 5 cancels out: + Taking sums is the 'inverse" of taking diferences.021 would take .t) (not 5t). u(t) is above 55 then equal to 55. The 'integral" of v(t) is the area f (t). f (t) = 2t constant C = f (0). in order to bring out the central ideas. u(t) is zero then positive. + + + + + The set of inputs to a function is its domain. Starting from f (0) = 0 at constant velocity u. The slopes are 5 and 5. u(t) increases in jumps. The value 19 equals f ( 6 ) . When f (t) = 55t the velocity is u = 55.9.1 is the change in time. or fiaat . The distance function is f (t) = 5t for 0 5 t 2 and then f (t) equals 5(4 . + C with 36 At t = 0 the reading was . This equals 9 . The formula for 5f (t) is 15t 5.061 . when 4 . 26 The function increases by 2 in one time unit so the slope (velocity) is 2. + Forward motion from f (0) = 0 to f (2) = 10 has u = 5. That is the change in distance.5 is 7. In that case area in the ugraph counts as negative.04 = .f (1) = 9. The slope has jumped from 3 to 15.5. The formula for f (5t) is 15t+l. A drop of .061 10(. The functions f (t) = 7 3(t .3.2) and f (t) = vt C are linear. Those functions have the same slope as f : the graph of f (t) 2 is shifted up and f (t + 2) is shifted to t h e left. All with corresponding f (t) . They are the same function. The 'derivative" of f (t) is the slope u(t). where you think of numbers and only tell me the differences. Then backward motion to f (4) = 0 has u = 5.2 Calculus Without Limits (page 14) Here are rolutionr t o the readthrough quertiorar and releeted evennumbered ezereires for Section 1. The domain of f is the time interval 0 5 t 5 4. (It is like a card trick. The range of u(t) is only 5 and 5. This is like sums.
but it is understood first for numbers.3 finds the tangent line to a curve. Then you have a piecewise linear function. It was already in some of the problems for Section 1. . 1 Suppose v = 3 for t < T and v = 1 for t > T.17(x . .350). which is $200. Then you have a general function f (t). At first you have specific numbers 3'5'9. us and a formula that fits vj. If the $500 is deducted from income of $10. Here was a case where a few numben give a preview of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. This continues to t = T when f = 3T. then you pay 17% of $9.fjThe equation for a straight line is another idea that unfolds and develops. . The tax in the second income bracket is g.28)(income over $20. because it is the key idea of differential calculus: Lines stay close to curves (at least for a while). Section 2. At x = $25. f2. I believe in seeing an idea several times. . The best way is to see the same idea several times.5.3. va. You win. A teacher is always caught by this dilemma. . Here is my answer: You the student should know where the course is going. Do those letters x and a f (x) = tax on $20. To find the income at which deduction balances the 2% rate increase.3T) starts the second segment and v = 1 is the slope.2 brings it out again. Section 3. Then you have vl = fi .30. They can't even be explained in complete detail. so does the notation.350 is definite where the letter a is vague. . 8. + v j . vs = $(16). The number 20.2. 12. As the idea unfolds and develops. 14 at times t = 0. Then you have general numbers fo. a The equation of the first segment is f (t) = 0 3t. The formula vj = (+)j(16) or vj = 16/2j fits all velocities.000.15x = . f l . At the same time. Section 3. + 2 Suppose fo. Will you see that the underlying idea is the same? I hope so. 3 Using the differences vl. If f (0) = 0. + ( tax rate . Now Section 1.28 is specific where the slope f'(a) will be general.000. Similarly: At first you have differences 5 . This time you lose.000. f l .000 the 2% rate increase balances the $500 credit.17. At x = $10. Graph v(t) and f (t) with constant and linear pieces.33. find formulas for f (t).a). 4 Suppose the tax rates are increased by 2 percentage points to . at least at first. . and v3 = 2. a tax credit of $500 is allowed. f3 are the distances 0.1. This is so typical of what comes later: f (x) = f (a) + (slope) (x . solve . v2.1.500 instead of 15% of $10. Mathematics expresses the pattern by symbols.1.3 and 9 . instead of 'catch it once or lose it forever".1 uses the slope for a linear approximation. vj and the starting value fo.7 explains Newton's method for solving f (x) = 0 . especially the income tax example. .500) to find x = $4.fo and Then you have a piecewise constant function.2 Calculus Without Limits (page 14) Teaching question: W h y mention these ideas so early? They are not proved. Find velocities vl. does your tax f (x) go up or income? down after the changes? What if the $500 is only a deduction f r o ~ n The answer depends on x. If your original income was x. and . Using the fact that (T. v2 = 4. give a formula for fj. fj= fo + vi + ~2 + .250. we find f ( t ) = 3T+ l ( t . The velocities are halved at each step: 1 ul = (16))vz = f (l6).replace the curve by its tangent line. The number . The differences are vl = 8.000 the rate increase costs only 2% of $10. Then you have the derivative v(t) = V j = f.T) for T 5 t.350 make the equation less clear? For many students I believe they do.YOUshould notice this formula. which we do for straight lines. fa. .
When t is changed to 4t.8. from j2 : i2 (j 112= j2 . which means that f (t 6) = f(t) for every t.0. The sum of the first j odd numbers is f j = j 2. This is equal to fiaStminus ffirSt.( f j . the smallest multiple of both 6 and 10. + + 1 For f (t) = t2 .1 0. find the change f (t h) .1. The sum of those The numbers 6 and 2 have no effect on this answer differences is 4. After a burst of speed V to time T.. 1 .2) the numbers 6 and 2 cancel. the burst lasts only to T = 1/V. and then go over these readthrough problems.2. 5. followed by evennumbered solutions. Average speed = 3 =2 =0 .To compute the velocity at a general time t.0 (c) t = 1 and t = 1 h. divide by h for average slope.6.3. If f (t) is the postage cost for t ounces or t grams.Ol = 1. For distances 0.2.vj = 4.4. In that case fo = 1 and f j = d. f (t) approaches a step function. 8.f (1).1 equals (fj+1 .2 = 2 and f (1)= la.g( f (3)) = g(l2) = 25.1)+ (2 . 16 is 31.g( f (t)) = g(4t) = 8t 1.3 The Velocity at an Instant (page 21) Worked examples 14 bring out the key ideas of Section 1. Start with the numbers f = 1. These are the slopes of the fgraph. Please notice the summary at the end of Section 1. .9 = 0. You are computing the slope of a curve . Then flo is 100 and the velocity vlo is 19.1. the velocities are 4 and 20. 25 at unit times.fj1.1 = 0. 5. 32 The period of v + w is 30. the slope is the cost per ounce (or per gram).genuine calculus! To compute this slope at a particular time t = 1. An example for functions is v = sin ? 42 The ratios are = 1.718 and 9 = 1. because in (6 .81 . (d) Use part (c) as h 0 to find the instantaneous speed at t = 1. .5. . In both cases. Their differences are v = 5.9) = 0.052 and . the distance is VT.show that the velocities are vj = 2j Since the difference vj is f. Both functions have period equal to 6.23' equals dl. The slope of the tax graph is the tax rate. The slope of a step function is zero or infinity. The velocities v = 1. The velocities approach a delta function.f j ) .005.4.2.(j2 . Here are the blanks filled in. Those form a piecewise constant cosine. The difference 2' .2 j + 1) = 2 j . 4.2fj + + fj1 . find the change in distance f (1 h) .f (t). 9 the velocities are 1.fj1) = vj+l . 4. 2. and w completes three. (e) What is the average speed from t to t h? (f) What is the formula for v(t)? + + + (a) f (2) = 22 .. The sum of 1. 1. f ( t ) = 2 f o r t 2 10 f (3) = 12.3. Let h + 0 for instantaneous velocity = slope at point. 3. The slope of the line between f (0) = 1 and f (1) = 6 is 5. Average speed is f(:!~~. have uj = dl. 28 The second difference fj+l . The equation of that line is f (t) = 1 5t.9 and t = 1. If f (T) = 1 and V increases.09.5 (Algebra) If the distances are f j = j2. which is concentrated at t = 0 but has area 1 under its graph.6) + (5 . They are approaching 1. you have to subtract ( j . The piecewise linear sine has slopes 1. 1.~iQ1= . Then v completes five cycles f and w = sin y . + With distances 1. 0. When V approaches infinity. 9 (b) f (0. + 8 f ( t ) = 1+10t for 0 < t 5 &.1 . distance increases four times as fast and the velocity is multiplied by 4.t find the average speed between (a) t = 1 and t = 2 (b) t = 0.
a (d) Let h get extremely small. Thus v(t)= 2t . 2 If v(t) = 6 . Check u = 1 at t = 1. The negative height automatically gave negative area.t2. This is the area of the triangle. when some area is negative? Yes it does. + 2t .3 and height (or depth) 6 .2t. a Step 1: The average slope is This simplifies to = 8t + 4h.1. The graph is a parabola that turns down at t = 3.2t)t = (6 .2 t ) = 9 6t . The speed at t = 1is v = 1. we still have 6t . 1 . At t = 3 we reach f (3)= 18 . The triangle beyond t = 3 has base t .9 = 9. a f ( t ) is the area under the vgraph from 0 to t. Then h + 1 is near 1. when new area is negative. Its area is ibh = i ( t . After cancelling this is h2 + 2ht . Start with the average from t to t + h.2t.1 = average speed.2t. find a formula for f ( t ) and graph it. .1 goes to 0 + 2t . this is the area of a trapezoid with heights 6 and 6 . f ( t ) = i(6 6 . + + 3 If f ( t )= 4t2. The base is t.t2 continue to apply after t = 3.3)(6. Since area = average height times base. Does this area formula f ( t ) = 6t .h =h h a (f) Let h go to zero.t2.t)t = 6t .1. For small t .t2. The average h + 2t . After adding the positive ares 9 of the first triangle. find the slope at time t.
The average velocity in between is 3. the car is accelerating.. .3 The Velocity at an Instant a Step 2: Decide what happens to the average slope as (page 21) 8t + 4h approaches the slope a t a point (the instantaneous velocity) which is 8t.throughs and selected solutions t o evennumbered problems. Describe what is happening t o car E a t these times: (a) t = O t o t = . &om t = 1 t o t = 1.5 (b) t = . The instantaneous velocity is the l i m i t of v.ah. If f (t) = i t 2 then f (6) = 9 and f (8) = 16.1. (a) Car E covers more ground than F. True (because A f = A F). (d) A t this instant E has speed zero. Here are the read. M a x i m u m distance. = 0 (limit is 0). h approaches zero. I f f (t) = t2 then vav.7 (d) t = . (f) the limit is u(t) = 2t (and f (t) = t2 gives ( = at + . the slope of the distance graph is negative: E is going backward.1. The velocity at A is found by l e t t i n g B a p p r o a c h A. g). The velocity a t B is found by l e t t i n g A a p p r o a c h B. 2 (4 ia(t2+2th+ha)*ata h (e) The limit at h = 0 is v = a t : = (acceleration) x (time). When the velocity is increasing. Between the distances f (2) = 100 and f (6) = 200.5. (e) Car E loses ground.f (t)).1 the average is 2. Car F travels a t a steady velocity. = 2 t h. a (c) E gains less ground than F. zero speed.7 t o t = 1. It is going faster than F. the average velocity between A and B is the slope of t h e s e c a n t line. the distance is increasing.. = I . .7 (e) t = . The average 4 The graph shows distances for two cars. The instantaneous velocities a t t = 6 and t = 8 are 3 and 4 . + + On the graph of f ( t ) . their speed is the same. 14 True (the slope is False (the curve is partly steeper and partly flatter than the secant line which gives the average slope). The distance graph is level. 1 The average velocity is computed from f (t) and f (t+ h) by v. False (V could be larger in between). E and F start and end at the same place (why?) but their trips are different. the average velocity is = 25. so E is going slower than F. (b) Since the slope of the graph at this instant is the same for E and F. When the velocity is positive.(f (t h) . If the distance is f (t) = ?at2 then the velocity is u(t) = at and the acceleration is a. t+h = .t a = 2t + h).5 t o t = .5 (c) t = .
In the circular case the ball is at x = cost. Its position after that revolution is near the top of the circle where x = 0. This is because ua. The slope of f (3t) is 3 . w h e r e i s t h eball? The ball is halfway around the circle at x = 1. and it also introduces the idea of a "parameter" t. Conclusion: This section introduces sin t and cos t. Then x = cost and y = sin t. 4 Circular Motion This section is important but optional (if that combination is possible).by seeing the circle. 1 How long does it take for 10 revolutions? This means 10 times around the circle. In the upanddown case the shadow is still a t height y = sin t. Every student is going to learn those rules . Don't study them to death.2t and f (3t) = 3t . Just begin to see how they work. which is 27r meters since r = 1. Assume the ball starts at angle zero.y = 1.t2 has v(t) = 1. 26 f (t) = t . but now x = 0 . a The distance around a circle is 27rr. i. More accurately y = sin 14 = . 2 A t t i m e t = ~ . My idea was that this upanddown motion is made easy by its connection to circular motion. q. The speed is 1 (say 1 meter/sec to have units).1. The velocity vector is tangent to the unit circle of radius 1.23. (symmetric)lineparabola to zero. we know the derivatives of sin t and cos t. This is Sv(3t). y = sin t. 28 To find f (t) multiply the time t by the average velocity. The derivative of sin t is cos t. Calculus concentrates so much on a few particular functions (amazingly few). to t = 4 is to t = 5 is area from t = 0 to t = 6 is zero. After that the slope of f stays constant at 2. circular motion is essential. I am not in favor of "late trigonometry. So 10 revolutions take 207r seconds. and sines and cosines are on that short list. When we know the velocity of the ball on the circle. 20 Area to t = 1 is to t = 2 is %. No other example could do this better.4 to compute the derivatives of sin t and cos t from A f/At. you see what they mean. which repeat every time you go around the circle. 2.99.sin t. 2 ! .4 Circular Motion (page 28) 18 The graph is a parabola f ( t ) = i t 2 out to f = 2 at t = 2. = Lkld@l to = m. For any class studying physics. so the ball has made about 2f revolutions." because seeing a function several times is the way to understand it. It is certainly possible to study circular motion and omit upanddown harmonic motion. Questions 14 refer to a ball going counterclockwise around the unit circle. For calculus the section is optional.to t = 3 is 2. y = 0. t 1 . because we return in Section 2.9t2. It is important because it introduces sines and cosines.O) with radius 1. centered a t (0. The standard motion has speed 1. and the derivative of cost is . 3 Where is the ball (approximately) at t = 14 seconds? r. One revolution at speed 1 m/sec takes 27r seconds. These are periodic functions.18t. The graph of f (t) through these points is parabolalineparabola i.
1. 6 What are the components of velocity if a ball travels at 1 radian per second around a circle of radius R feet (starting at angle O)? The ball's position at time t is (Rcost. y) = (cos 4t. (b) What are the ball's x and y coordinates at time t? Answer: (x. Summary: Motion around the unit circle with speed k (counterclockwise) gives x = cos kt and y = sin kt. The sides of the larger triangle are four times longer. sin 4t). Motion around a circle of radius R feet at k radians per second gives x = R cos kt and y = R sin kt. (b.9). The horizontal velocity is Rksin kt. The tangent of the angle POB = is goes from B to P in fi seconds. Since the speed is 4 m/sec the central angle is increasing at 4 radians/sec. which is shown in the figure. The time of arrival is &. When and where would the ball hit the z axis? You need to know some trigonometry. Since the ball travels R feet along the circumference for each radian. the speed is R ft/sec. The speed is kR ft/sec. The horizontal velocity is R sin t and the vertical velocity is R cos t. The velocity is k sin kt (horizontal) and k cos kt (vertical). Rsint). At time t the angle is 4t radians. Thus the vertical velocity is 4 cos 4t and the horizontal velocity is 4 sin 4t. The right triangle has OB2 + BP2 = l 2 + = 4. . the ball travels along BP at one = Therefore the ball meter per second. (a) What angle does it reach at time t? Answer: On the unit circle. . a distance of 1 on the circumference corresponds to a central angle of 1 radian. The ball is at B = (COS ?.sin ?f) = When the string is cut. The triangle inside the circle is similar to the triangle outside the circle. so the hypotenuse is O P = 2. (c) What are the ball's x and y velocities at time t? Answer: The velocity (the tangent vector) is drawn with length 4 because the speed is 4. + 9.4 sin 41 cos 41 5 Another ball travels the unit circle counterclockwise with speed 4 m/sec starting at angle 0.4 Circular Motion 4 (page 28) Suppose that string is cut at t = ?f. The vertical velocity is Rk cos kt.
Its speed is 1. This is called simple harmonic motion. its velocity is v = 2 cos 2t. A mass going up and down level with the ball has height f (t) = sin t. The upward velocity is cos t and the horizontal velocity is . Then distance around the circle is r8 = radius times angle. which is perpendicular to the radius coming out from the center. when angles are in radians. a formula needed in calculus. Otherwise we would have factors which nobody wants. This section is helpful as a quick reference to the laws of trigonometry. Therefore (1 cos 2t) = cos2t.3) is t / m= fi. 14 The ball goes halfway around the circle in time we need 2 = +ax2 so a = 4 / 9 . 16 The area is f(t) = sint. Don't forget: & sin2t =2sintcost and cos2t = 2cos2t.1 = 2.1 = 12sin2t. 1.1.sin s sin t. It completes a full circle at t = 27r. The velocity is v(t) = cos t.sin0 = 18 The area is still f(t) = sint. Three more to remember: sin28 cos20 = 1 and 1 tan2@ = sec28 and 1 Those all come from x2 + y2 = r2.sin t. and sin 7r. .sin2t or 2 cos2t . There is a minus sign because the cosine starts downward (ball moving to left). when you divide by r2 then x2 then y2. For the mass to fall a distance 2 in time 7r 4.The book proves the addition formulas sin s sin t and after sign change cos(s + t) = cos s cos t . When t = 7r/2 the height is f = 1and the velocity is v = 0. The cosecant and secant and cotangent are the same ratios turned upside down.5) to (3. The angle goes all the way to 360' and beyond. A circle shows a better picture of trigonometry. cos(s .5 Review of Tkigonometry (page 33) H e r e are readthrough8 and selected solutions. Of course we change 360' to 2a radians. When f is distance = area = integral. 20 The radius is 2 and time is speeded up by 3 so the speed is 6. . v is velocity = slope = derivative. and sin % . The distance from (2.0) with speed 12.sin q = 1 . Its velocity points in the direction of the tangent.t)= cos s cos t + ? + When s = t you get 2t. + + + cot28 = csc28. If a speededup mass reaches f = sin 2t at time t. The sine and cosine and tangent are ratios of the sides. The derivative of sin t is cos t. A shadow traveling under the ball has f = cost and v = sin t.1. A ball at angle t on the unit circle has coordinates x = cos t and y = sin t.5 Review of Trigonometry (page 33) Right triangles show the usual picture of trigonometry. 26 Counterclockwise with radius 3 starting at (3. the Udoubleangle": cos 2t = cos2t .
Use formula (a).l) along (a) a straight line (b) a quartercircle and (c) a semicircle centered at a (a) Straight distance d m = fi. + + 2s) which is cos 28. . Therefore *= : . Since cos2 8 = $ + cos 28. . a sin 8 cos ?f cos 8 sin P" equals (sin 8) (0) (cos 8) (.cos 8.O) to (0.5. when the distance around is 2sr. 2 Simplify sin(8 + ). All six functions have period 27r. Since the cosine repeats when 8 is increased or decreased by 2s. Two ratios (the cosine x/r and the sine y/r) are below 1.f 5s. a). That expression must match with a sin x+ b cos x.1 (Problem 1. half the length in part (a). Then a2 b2 = A2 cos2 4 + A2 sin2 4 = A2. Two ratios (the tangent and the cotangent) can take any value.) 30 A sin(%+)) equals A sin x cos 4 + A cos x sin 4. this also 14 sin 3t = sin(2t+t) = sin 2t cos t+cos 2t sin t.. . . 4 cos 2(8 s)is the same as cos(28 has period A.. This is ..f37r. the answer is 0 = 7r f n(27r) for n = 0 . A full circle is e = 27r. 26 sin 8 = 0 at 8 = 0 and never again. Fkom the picture you see that + + sin(8 + $) is the y coordinate of Q. the cosine is unchanged (or even).cos 0. The angle 8 is measured in radians. Reason: The right side 8 has slope 1 and the left side has slope cos 8 < 1. by changing from a triangle to a circle.1. Two ratios (the secant r/x and the cosecant r/y) are above 1.This gives the set 6 = f s. a Graphical solution: 0 + 2 is ~ of a rotation ahead of 8.. (a. a We know that cos 7r = 1.8) Find the distance from (1.4 sin3 t. 3 Find every angle 8 that satisfies cos 0 = . 2 . the six basic functions are the r a t i o s of the sides. Going clockwise changes the sign of 8 and sin 8 and tan 8.(b) The central angle is so the distance is r8 = (c) The central angle is 7r and the radius is $. Readt hroughrr and relecfed evennumbered rrolutions : Starting with a right triangle. Distance $T. The six functions are defined for all angles 0. This equals (2 sin t cos t) cos t+(cos2 tsin2 t) sin t or 3 sint . Since cos(8) = cos 8. 5. 1 . (So the graphs of sin 0 and 0 can't meet a second time. Thus a = A cos 4 and b = A sin 4. then use the circle. The distance to angle 8 is Or. 5.1) = . ~=andtan#= + 34 The amplitude and period of 2 sin AX are both 2.
there are many that you could experiment with. DERIVE is one popular choice of software. 1 G r a p h i n g Calculators The TI85 and HP48 have extended the range of the TI81 and HP28.1. At its best. or any other way to draw these pointgraphs.1)/.which should go beyond a translation of old calculus questions into computer programs. An example is already in /.7 Computing in Calculus Every year brings progress in three key directions. The Mathernatica command is ListPlot [Tableisin [cn]. A third strong choice is Mathernatica (at Georgia Tech). it will pay off. on the board and in the class.this is the premier code for matrix calculations (with graphics).1) [f(x Ax) . I f Mathernatica is available. For subjects up to and including calculus. provided subtraction is also allowed . You may be familiar with them before starting calculus. The rate of progress with software needs to extend to laboratory manuals. and they find it increasingly accessible and convenient. and is slightly extended here. The startup effort is considerable. Try y = sin cn for different choices of c and different ranges of n. which can come early to emphasize slopes and graphs. as computer labs and computer assignments become an accepted part of calculus courses. {n. In the long run. Work in groups is demonstrated as very successful . + 2 Caleulua Laboratoriea These are becoming widespread.N)]]." . The more powerful HP's can be computing tools also in advanced courses. The goal is to add a valuable new experience.the problem of equal work for equal grade is not severe in actual practice. At this writing Mathernatica is not offered in an inexpensive student version. activities take 12 days. 3 P r o j e c t a and Activities Projects take 12 weeks.01. 1.f (x)]/Ax and also the function f (x) = 2" can be encountered early and actively. but t o avoid overburdening students or faculty. . I find that quick calculations in class bring out the meaning of symbols. Clemson University is a leader in teaching with HP's. It was created by Peter Taylor.2 . Ithaca College and New Mexico State have been pioneers with projects. Without any claim t o completeness. Teachers and students are invited t o work through it together. 6 A Thousand Points of Light These two pages are t o explain the figures on the back cover. At Duke University it is combined with MathCAD. An essential part of each project is a report. MATLAB has just taken that step .6 A Thousand Points of Light (page 34) 1 .the computation of (2. All three are essential. The graphs are surprising. and calculators will soon be allowed on College Board exams. The expression the exercises for Section 1. They are not for studying. adapted at Ithaca College.all of us are less bound by the syllabus than we think. It is still difficult to identify outstanding sources of problems . Other universities have selected MAPLE (for example RPI). Put in c and N.1and (2. My favorite inclass activity is this Water T a n k Problem. a calculus lab can be a welcome addition.' . the TI81 (least powerful of the four) is still a good choice. here are notes on recent activity. and the advantages are great.
x is 3x2 . minimum. Mark the points where the slope is steepest (going up or down) by S. At t = 6 the tank contains 120 liters. S down on the cosine graph. Mark the point where the water level is a maximum.= 40 V(1 ) WO) d l ! 30 rl1 I(W 20 . Repeat the letters M. What is the instantaneous flow rate from the hose into the tank at this time? E Graph the rater of flow in and out. water begins to flow into an empty tank at the rate of 40 literslminute. It is surprising how much of calculus shows up in these pictures. Now V(t) above represents the total amount of water that has flowed i n . This rate is constant for the final two minutes. Mark all maximum points by M and all minimum points by rn. rn.) If the graphs are lined up. C Starting at time t = 2. then M and m are at points where the slope is zero. G1 Draw f (x) = sinx between x = 0 and x = 47r. and we let W (t) represent the total amount pumped out. When y has a maximum its slope is . 10 . S. B What is the average rate of flow into the tank over the entire sixminute period? Show how this can be interpreted on your graph. Extra question: Can the flow rate into the tank be linear from t = 2 to t = 4? 120  " Flow volumes (liters) 40 Flow rates (liters / minute) 80 . New question: What is different about the M point and the m point? How can you tell a maximum from a minimum. and steepest points by M. m. Under that graph draw v(x) = cos x between x = 0 and x = 47r. Chapter Review Problems Graph Problems These questions are asking for sketches by hand. Show how to interpret the volume of water in the tank at any time. Move the letters M and S down to this slope graph.1 Chapter Review Problems At time t = 0. water is pumped out at the constant rate of 15 literslminute. Plot W(t) on the same axes. its slope crosses from  . Mark the maximum point by M and the steepest points by S. From t = 2 to t = 4. A Draw a graph of the volume V(t) of water in the tank for 0 5 t 5 6. When y is steepest its slope has a . not for works of art. A specific choice would be the graph of y = x3 . Line it up correctly.x from x = 2 to x = 2.. G3 Draw a smooth curve that goes up then down then up again. Under your curve draw a graph of its slope.1. Directly under that graph draw v = 22. Mark the maximum. 62 Draw y = 2 . D (This is calculus) Find on your graph the point at which the water level in the tank is a maximum.x2 between x = 1 and x = 1. (The slope of x3 . for 0 5 t 5 6. the flow rate is gradually reduced to 5 literslminute. looking at the "zero crossing" on the slope graph? to Answer: At a maximum of y(x). This flow rate is held constant for two minutes. Notice that M and rn are at points where and S is at points where the cosine is the cosine is .
To This is larger than 1 when 9 is get the third triangle from the second. which is greater than 1.01).) Fkom the second triangle read off the identity 1 + tan2 9 = .5) and ( z 2 .  compute fioo.5 write down f ( t + h). Now draw a third triangle with sides cot 9. subtract f ( t ) . y = 3 with slope 5.2.7. tan 8. which two triangles are larger than . I f f ( 0 ) = 6 and f (10) = 26 find the average velocity between t = 0 and t = 10.f ( z l ) ? C2 What income 2 would leave you with $1.1. + + C4 Starting from fo = 0 with differences v = 1.l. Find the tax on incomes of zl = $1.000 after paying tax in full? C3 For the function f ( z ) = z2 s3 2 ' compute f ( l .001). As h r For f ( t ) = t3 find the average velocity between t = 0 and t = h.i. sin 8 . and . This is 11 sin 9 and again it is greater than 1. 5.2. Explain how the average velocity = R5 R6 R7 .and divide b y h.000. What is the instantaneous velocity at t = O? For f ( t ) = t3 find the average velocity between t = 1 and t = 1 0 find ~ ( 1 ) .2.000. (You multiplied the sides of the first triangle by sec 9 . and divide by h. Find f3 starting from fo = 10 if the differences v are 2.5 write down f (t + h). a. + h. Question: Is the third triangle always larger than the second triangle? Answer: No.1. Enlarge it to a triangle with sides marked 1.Eze inn :leads to an instantaneous velocity. fiue or false: The actual velocity is above and below that average for equal times (5 above and 5 below). Review Problems Rl R2 R3 Under what condition on y 2 will the line through ( 1 . multiply by The triangles have 0 < 9 < 90'. and f (1. When is the slope infinite? R4 Explain the basic idea of gCalculus without limits" in Section 1. fioo.7). Tax rates for a single person are in Section 1. y2) have a positive slope? Under what condition on z i will the line through (1. the same? + s. The sum of differences is . and 1.001. D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 . and csc 9.01. From this third triangle read off the identity 1 cot2 8 = . y2). 6. Drill Problems 331 D2 D3 D4 Find the equation of the line through z = 0. and sec 9.3) and (2. 5 ) and (4.1 64 Chapter Review Problems The triangles of trigonometry.3 ) have a positive slope? Find the slope of the line through ( x l. subtract f ( t ) . For f ( t ) = 7t . Subtract f ( 1 ) from each of those and divide by . How large is the tax difference f ( 2 2 ) . Find the differences v for f = 1.yl ) and ( 2 2 .000. Draw a right triangle with sides marked cos 9 . l )f. At 9 = 45O. Find the distance function f ( t ) if f ( 0 ) = 3 and f ( 2 ) = 7 and the velocity is constant.000 and 2 2 = $2.f .2. For f ( t ) = 7t2 . (1. froor fsoo.000. Computing Problem8 C1 Use a computer or calculator. .4. Find the equation of the line through (0. Express cos 2t in terms of cos2 t and then in terms of sin2 t . You have multiplied the first triangle by csc 9. You do not need a supercomputer.
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1 1. and Hyperbolas Iterations x.4 3.4 1.8 Applications of the Derivative Linear Approximation Maximum and Minimum Problems Second Derivatives: Minimum vs.3 3.) Newton's Method and Chaos The Mean Value Theorem and l'H8pital's Rule . .6 3.2 1. Parabolas.1 3.Contents CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Calculus Velocity and Distance Calculus Without Limits The Velocity at an Instant Circular Motion A Review of Trigonometry A Thousand Points of Light Computing in Calculus 1.+ = F(x.7 3.5 1.2 3.7 CHAPTER 2 Derivatives The Derivative of a Function Powers and Polynomials The Slope and the Tangent Line Derivative of the Sine and Cosine The Product and Quotient and Power Rules Limits Continuous Functions CHAPTER 3 3.6 1.5 3.3 1. Maximum Graphs Ellipses.
The velocity is now called the derivative o f f (t). They give the slope at the instant t. The left sides of ( 1 ) and (2) are instantaneous speeds dfldt. The distance at time t + At is f (t At). G o slowly and look at each piece. the derivative f ' ( t )or df /dt or v ( t ) is f ' ( t )= lim At+O f Ct t At) f (0 At (1) The ratio on the right is the average velocity over a short time At. When the distance is t 2 . That gives the average slope Af /At. We often write Af for this difference: Af =f (t At) f (t). Two examples were in Chapter 1. It is the time step. the distance up is divided by the distance across. if this limit exists: + + df dt At0 Af lim . is its limit as the step At (delta t ) approaches zero. on the left side. positive or negative and eventually small. we use new symbols f' and dfldt for the derivative. Similarly At is not A times t. Look again . The derivative.CHAPTER 2 Derivatives 2. The limit of the average velocity is the derivative. the velocity is 2t. The distance at time t is f(t). 2A At time t . Note that Af is not A times f ! It is the change in f . On the graph of f ( t ) . Behind the innocent word "limit" is a process that this course will help you understand. When f ( t ) = sin t we found v(t)= cos t. As we move to a more formal definition and new examples. To have a oneletter symbol we replace At by h. between those times.1 The Derivative of a Function This chapter begins with the definition of the derivative. At This is the neat notation that Leibniz invented: Af/At approaches df /dt. This is the derivative dfldt (when At and Af shrink to zero). The right sides of (1) and (2) contain average speeds. The average velocity is the ratio AflAtchange in distance divided by change in time. Subtraction gives the change in distance.
EXAMPLE 1 (Constant velocity V = 2) The distance f is V times t. Some mathematicians work separately with d f and dt. The time step can be negative just as easily as positive. The distance at f is V times At: time t + At is V times t At. The numbers A f and At must approach zero together. + There are several new things in formulas (1) and (2). Then and only then can we approach At = 0. Remark The notation hides one thing we should mention. In that case ft(t) is not defined. To repeat: Success came by writing out (t + At)2 and subtracting t2 and dividing by At. in this exceptional case of a constant velocity. and df/dt is their ratio. The averages AflAt are always V = 2. The notation also hides another thing: The derivative might not exist. the average speed. The derivative of 2t is 2. When that notation dfldt is awkward. . The idea of a function we will come back to. others are more profound. The limit is the derivative 2t. not separately.VAt df = V. This ratio also approaches dfldt. f we set At = 0 too Important point: Those steps are taken before At goes to zero.V so the limit is At At dt The derivative of Vt is V.2. . The symbol At indicates a nonzero (usually short) length of time. We can compute the average Af/At over a time interval before the time t. They are used constantly and you also need to know how to read them aloud: f (t) = "f of t" = the value of the function f at time t At = "delta t" f (t = the time step forward or backward from t + At) = "f of t plus delta t" = the value off at time t + At Af = "delta f" = the change f (t + At) f (t) = "delta Af/At f over delta t" = the average velocity ff(t) = "f prime of t" = the value of the derivative at time t df /dt = "d f d t" = the same as f ' (the instantaneous velocity) At+O lim = "limit as delta t goes to zero" = the process that starts with numbers A f /At and produces the number d f /dt. But the notations can be discussed right away. Some are easy but important. The ratio Af/At becomes 010 (which is meaningless). instead of after. From those last words you see what lies behind the notation dfldt.t2+2tAt+(At)'t2 At At At = 2t + At. and the definition of a limit. At that instant there is no clear reading on the speedometer. we learn nothing. I soon. The averages AflAt might not approach a limit (it has to be the same limit going forward and backward from time t). Here their ratio is 2t At. The diference A + A f . This will happen in Example 2.1 The Derivative of a Function at the calculation for f(t) = t 2: A f. use f ' or v. The derivative dfldt is the limit of AflAt. The symbol dt indicates an infinitesimal (even shorter) length of time. For us dfldt is a single notation (don't cancel d and don't cancel A).f(t+At)f(t) .
Af 1 Divide by At and let At . until we have divided by At. . 0 At In this example the derivative is not defined at the instant when t = 3. The average velocity after time t = 3 is zero. We can't set At = 0 in line 2. So Af = 0 and df /dt = 0.At 1 t . A high price t means a low demand l l t .0: approaches t2 At t(t + At) dt f (t + At). The calculus question is: How quickly does l / t change when t changes? The "marginal demand" is the slope of the demand curve. time u =df/dt=f' distance f'(3) not defined slope undefined slope 2 t 3 3 .= 0. The graph is flat beyond time 3. the distance is fixed at f ( t )= 6 . But after the stopping time. The average is A f / A t = . It is a step function. Fig. 2. For small times we still have f ( t )= 2t. Increasing the price reduces the demand. A f / A t is 2.t t+At . line 2 is calculus. then stop. The difference is l / ( t + At) minus l / t . The common denominator is t times Line 1 is algebra. When the graph o f f has a corner. all t's go to the same f ( t ) = 6 .. This equals t(t + At) ' t t(t + At) ' 1 df . It does not exist at t = 3. The velocity falls suddenly from 2 to zero. After the stop at t = 3. and the idea of a limit has to be made clearer.f (0 = lim At ato . One new part of that example is the notation (dfldt or f' instead of v).l / t 2 . The average velocity before that time is 2. The demand is l / t when the price is t . Section 2.(t + At) . the graph of v has a jump. Now set At = 0.Especially it shows At and A f . The ratio A f / A t depends. 1 1 EXAMPLE3 f ( t ) = . It shows how the function takes t (on the left) to f ( t ) . for the "demand function" f ( t )= lit. At the start. Then f (t + At) =f ( t ) and Af = 0 and the derivative of a constant function is zero: t > 3: f ' ( t )= lim A~+O f ( t + At) . It is . The derivative is .2 Derivatives EXAMPLE 2 Constant velocity 2 up to time t = 3. The big thing is to find the derivative of l / t once and for all.h a s A f = . on whether At is positive or negative. at that special moment.l / t 2 .4 will discuss the first of many cases when substituting At = 0 is not possible. The first step in line 1 subtracts f ( t ) from t + Atthis makes the algebra possible.l / t ( t + At). Please look also at the third figure.1 The derivative is 2 then 0 THE DERIVATIVE OF 111 Here is a completely different slope.
2. what happens to the slope? Answer Nothing. A price increase severely cuts demand. Calculus is about two functions.1/(2)(3)in line 1. and Af is below zero. their ratio approaches . Check the algebra at t = 2 and t + At = 3. The demand llt drops from 112 to 113.3 The derivative of l/t is l/t2. 1 . what happens to the height? Answer The symbols t and x represent independent variablesthey take any value they want to (in the domain).2. Thus f and y represent dependent variablesthey depend on t and x.4. The next figure makes a small but important point. This derivative is negative.116.2 Average slope is . Those are not affected by the passage of time.114. 2. with x across and y upconnected by a function f . The difference is Af = .l/t2 is very negative for small t. This relationship "y of x" is allimportant to mathematics. A quantity can depend on position instead of time. The distance up is a function of the distance across. Other letters can be usedespecially x. The graph is going downward in Figure 2. 2. Similarly. As the steps Af and At get smaller.&. Once they are set.1/(2)(2)= . Question If we add 1 to the slope.1 The Derhrathre of a Function Fig. Not every function is named f! That letter is useful because it stands for the word functionbut we are perfectly entitled to write y(x) or y(t) instead off (x) or f (t). y(x) and dyldx. There is nothing sacred about t. which agrees with . and there is no reason to use t. A change At produces a 2 Fig. A decreasing f (t) has negative slope. You will often see y =f (x). The function llt is decreasing. Question If we add 1 to y(x). The slope of l/x is 1/x2. and its slope is negative: An increasing f (t) has positive slope. The slope . The area of a square changes as the side changes.true slope is . Increase in t produces decrease in f. f (t) and y(x) are determined. The slope is also a function. f is not the only possibility. The height changes as we go west.
b]. lim Ax The notation yl(x)pins down the point x where the slope is computed. This book will try for a reasonable compromise between logical perfection and ordinary simplicity. A change Ax produces Ay. = 4x3.2 Derivatives change Af.b2 into [a + b] times Af = (U(X [a .1 / x 2 ) EXAMPLE 7 (u = sin x. The derivative of a function is its "rate of change. The slope is the rate at which y changes with x.distance up Ax distance across dy = dx AX+O AY = yl(x). It is a little early and optional but terrific. dx (5) This is the square rule: The derivative of (u(x))' is 2u(x) times duldx. In dyldx that extra precision is omitted. You are allowed to say that the function is y = x2 and the derivative is y' = 2xeven if the strict notation requires y(x) = x2 and yl(x)= 2x. Newton and Leibniz invented calculus independently. We factored a ' . The notation dy/dx(x)is not good. but it was Leibniz who thought of . when x is understood it need not be written in parentheses. The time step becomes a space step. From the derivatives of x2 and l / x and sin x (all known) the examples give new derivatives. here it is again with y and x: Ay Ax y(x + Ax) . it is the idea: independent variable t or x dependent variable f or g or y or z or u derivative dfldt or dfldx or dyldx or • The derivative dyldx comes from [change in y] divided by [change in x ] . It is not the letter that matters. duldx = cos x ) The derivative of u2 = sin2x is 2 sin x cos x. what is the slope off ( x )= ( ~ ( x ) ) ~ ? From the derivative of x2 this will give the derivative of x4. To find the "square rule" we start as we have towith Af =f ( x + Ax) f (x): + AX))^ . In that case u = x2 and f = x4. To emphasize the definition of a derivative. First point: The derivative of u2 is not ( d ~ l d x We ) ~ .2/x3. EXAMPLE 6 (u = l / x ) The derivative of 1/x2is 2u duldx = (2/x)(. This algebra puts Af in a convenient form. The independent variable goes inside the parentheses in f ( t )and y(x). the change in u2. You can even say that the function is x2 and its derivative is 2x and its second derivative is 2provided everybody knows what you mean." I mention that physics books use x(t) for distance. E X A M P L E4 If u(x)has slope duldx. E X A M P L E 5 (u = x 2 ) The derivative of x4 is 2u duldx = 2(x2)(2x) = . Mathematics is really about ideas. You get excellent practice with letters and symbols.~ ( x ) ] . The notation is created to express those ideas. and Newton's friends spent a lot of time proving that he was first. Darn it.( u ( x ) = ) ~[u(x + A X )+ u(x)][ U ( X + A X ). Now divide by Ax and take the limit: Af .y(x) . yl(x)is better. and out come new derivatives.U ( X ) I du approaches 2u(x). Notice that we don't have (AM)"We have A f . Here is an example.[u(x Ax) + u(x)][ Ax + X + k~. forward or backward. do not square the derivative 2x. He was.
and x = x2. 11 When f (t) = 4/t. Newton was one of the great scientists of all time. 5 For f (x) = l/x. What is needed is a longer list of functions and derivatives.l/(x . simplify the difference f (t + At) f (t).h). 8 Iff (t) = l/t. The slope is not 010 but dfldx = j . They have the same slope where they touch.1). The slope at x = 0 is (what is possible?). What does this average approach as x2 approaches x. Set At = 0. You now can write and speak about the derivative.? 22 Redraw Figure 2. The slope of y2 (is) (is not) ( d ~ / d x ) ~ . Sketch the graphs of f and gwhy they have the same slope? 18 For f (x) = l/x the centered diflerence f (x + h) f (x . 4 Find three functions with the same slope as f (x) = x2. (c) The derivative of 2f (t) is 2 df /dt. (a) Find df /dt at t = 3 and t = . sketch the graphs off (x) + 1 and f (x + 1). Why divide by 2h to obtain the correct derivative? 19 Suppose y = mx + b for negative x and y = Mx + B for x 3 0. The graphs meet if . (d) The derivative is the limit of A f divided by the limit of At. Smoothly means that y = Y and dyldx = dY/dx at x = 1. At 7 Sketch the curve y(x) = 1 .1 The Derivative of a Function writing dyldxwhich caught on. The slope of of y = 3x2. and set At = 0.h) is l/(x + h) . 10 Find Ay/Ax and dy/dx for y(x) = 1 + 2x + 3x2.At) f At (t) ato (d) lim f (t + At) f (t) t10 At 2 Suppose f (x) = x2. + x2.1 then Af= h . Which one has the derivative 1/x2? 6 Choose c so that the line y = x is tangent to the parabola y = x2 + C. which of these ratios is closest to 16? = 16. Then divide by 2h and set h = 0. The step At can be positive or d .1 when f(t) = 3 . For f (t) = l / t the derivative is m . The P variable is t or x and the a (b) Why doesn't f (t) have a derivative at t = l? q variable is f or y. and calculus was one of the great inventions of all timebut the notation must help. Subtract by using the common denominator (x + h)(x . 3 For f (x) = 3x and g(x) = 1 + 3x. slope of y = 4/x is dyldx = n . It is the perfect way to suggest the limit of AylAx. 1 Which of the following numbers (as is) gives df /dt at time t? If in doubt test on f (t) = t2.x2 and compute its slope at x=3. 9 Find Ay/Ax for y(x) = x divide by At. The result is f '(t). A decreasing function has . (b) The derivative of (f (t))2is 2 df /dt.2t for t < 2 and f (t) = . The 13 Suppose f (t) = 7t to t = 1. o derivative. Iff (x) = 2x + 3 and A x = 4 then Af= g . 20 The slope of y = l / x at x = 114 is y' = 1/x2 h = 1/12. What is the third derivative? (2x + 3)2 is s . Afterwards f (t) = 7 + 9(t . 17 True (with reason) or false (with example): f (t + 2h) f 2h (t) 0 (c) lim f (t .1 for t > 2. 12 Find the derivative of 1/t2 from Af (t) = l/(t + At)2 . The derivative is written v or e or 1 . what is the average velocity between t = 3 and t = 2? What is the average between t = 3 and t = l? What is the average (to one decimal place) between t = 3 and t = 101/200? ~(x+h)y(x) y(x)y(xh) y(x+h)y(xh) h h 2h 21 Find the average slope of y = x2 between x = x. The two slopes are . Readthrough questions The derivative is the a of A f /At as At approaches b . Here A f equals c . Include df /dt. Divide the numerator by At to find Af/At.h). If A x = . 14 Find the derivative of the derivative (the second derivative) The slope of ( ~ ( x )is ) ~ r by the square rule. If Ax = 0 then Af= 1 . Compute each ratio and set h = 0: (a) If f(t) < 0 then df /dt < 0. (b) )m + 15 Find numbers A and B so that the straight line y = x fits smoothly with the curve Y = A + Bx + x2 at x = 1. Write A f as a fraction with the denominator t2(t At)2. + The derivative does not exist where f(t) has a k and v(t) has a I . 16 Find numbers A and B so that the horizontal line y = 4 fits smoothly with the curve y = A + Bx + x2 at the point x = 2.2. find f (4 + h) and g(4 + h) do and f1(4) and g1(4).1/t2. . Then find dyldx.
Set At and . Our examples come from economics and biology. Together those give g = u4 and dgldx = 36 True or false. Find Af /Ax and f '(2). f ( 3 ) if it exists? What if x + l? Problems 2831 use the square rule: d(u2)/dx = 2 u (duldx). Give an example other than f ( x )= 7x. Draw lines that have slope Af /At and f '(t).2 Powers and Polynomials This section has two main goals. 24 The limit of O/At as At + 33 The right figure shows f ( x )and Ax. (b) If df /dx 6 1 for all x. Indicate distances f (t + At) and At and Af. In using calculus. then f ( x )6 x. 34 Draw f ( x )and Ax so that Af /Ax = 0 but f ' ( x )# 0. 0 is not 010. If g =f then dg/dx = 2f df /dx. 27 What is lim x0 (3+X . draw in the new graphs.( l / x ) . 38 Draw the corresponding graphs for f ( x )= jx.3 for the function y(x)= 1 . 28 Take u = x and find the derivative of x2 (a new way). the derivative of &? 32 The left figure shows f ( t )= t2. One is to find the derivatives of f (x) = x3 and x4 and x5 (and more generally f (x) = xn).1 25 Guess the limits by an informal working rule.50 2 Derivatives 23 Redraw Figure 2. While computing these derivatives. How is this possible? 31 Take u = The derivative of u2 = x is 1 = 2u(du/dx). Then d l / d x is 2 times d lldx. The other goal is different. show on computer graphs that dyldx = y.  . 29 Take u = x 4 and find the derivative of x8 (using du/dx = 4x3).So what is duldx. 30 If u = 1 then u2 = 1.0. But it is not too early to see the purpose of what we are doing. + + 37 The graphs show Af and Af /h for f ( x )= x2. Later we allow x" and x2s2 and every xn. = 0. The power or exponent n is at first a positive integer. 39 Draw l l x and l / ( x+ h) and Aflheither h = 5 or by computer to show h + 0. Why is 2x + h the equation for Aflh? If h is cut in half. Explain. we meet equations with derivatives in them"diflerentialequations. by hand with &." It is too early to solve those equations. we look ahead to their applications. assuming f (0)= 0: (a) If f ( x )6 x for all x. 35 If f = u2 then df/dx = 2u duldx. 41 Explain the derivative in your own words. 2.1 and imagine At becoming smaller: *26 Suppose f ( x ) / x 7 as x 0. 40 For y = ex. Include dyldx. then df /dx 6 1. Deduce that f (0)= 0 and f '(0)= 7.
the slope of x' is . EXAMPLE 1 If f (x) = x3 then A f = (x + h)3 . The power (x + h)3 yields four separate terms x3 3x2h 3xh2 h3.x3.h: ' ' Subtract xnfrom (2).x4 will remove x4. and four ways to produce x3h. let h + 0. We begin with x3 and its derivative 3x2. Those are two pieces in a beautiful pattern. With n = . 2. there are n places it can come from. and you see the crucial step. The key term is nxn'.1xp2. dx The terms replaced by the dots involve h2 and h3 and higher powers. The binomial coefficient "n choose j" is the number of ways to choose j h's out of n parentheses. they still have at least one factor h. This is n = 4 in detail. . we can divide by h. (Division by h leaves 4x3. and if you have forgotten the binomial formula we can recapture its main point. (Notice 1. All those terms vanish as h approaches zero. divide by h.0 will wipe out h4 (even after division by h). Subtract x4. The subtraction (x + h)4 .) After x3 is subtracted. before jumping to xn.+ hn h h SO df =nxnl. An x or an h comes from each parenthesis. Divide by h.. approaches dx Step 1: Cancel x3. 1 are in Pascal's triangle below. For (x + h)5 the next row is 1. Multiplying the four h's gives h4. 3. It involves n factorial. 1. (1).= 3x2 Step 2: Divide by h. which it will be a pleasure to discover. this key term was 3x2h. These are the easy terms. EXAMPLE 2 (x + h)4 = x4 + 4x3h + 6x2h2 + 4xh3 + h4. The derivative is 4x3.2 Powers and Polynomials 51 With n = 2. df = 3x2. A step of size h leads to f(x + h) = (x + h)". 10.1) .. Therefore the key term is 4x3h. so the binomial formula contains nxn.h.2. Remark The missing terms in the binomial formula (replaced by the dots) contain all the products xnjhj. One reason for algebra is to calculate powers like (x + h)". After dividing by h. the derivative of x2 is 2x. With only one h. Division by h left 3x2.4. 3. 6.(X Ax + h)" .x3 = (x3 + 3x2h + 3xh2 + h3) .xn .1.. At the limit (h = 0) we have 3x2. Af h + 3xh + h2 That is straightforward. The products that matter limiting step h are those with exactly one h. Equation (1) has four h's in parentheses.) In general there are n parentheses and n ways to produce xn. The coefficients 1. + + + For f(x) = xn the plan is the same. but not the crucial ones.. In Example 1 with (x + h)3. 4. Step 3: h goes to zero. and the . . 5.nxn' h + . Start with n = 4: Multiplying the four x's gives x4. Thus 5! = 5 4 3 2 1 = 120. which is n(n . The rest disappears as h + 0:  A f .
In the last row. Do the same to the derivatices: 2C 20 The derivative of c times f (x) is c times f '(x).x 3x2 4x3 5x4 .7g(x) is 9f '(x) .Y .) = n! j!(n .978 tickets. which is z4. See Section 8. It is the coefficient of ~~~h~ in (x + h)49. The number c can be any constant.2comes 2 . The derivative of xn is n times the next lower power xnl.163. Maybe (x h)2. complete binomial formula is in Section 10. + That list is a good start. Negative powers lead to decreasing functions. 5 to all powers: f = 1/x has f ' = .5. Question What are the derivatives of x10 and x ~and . We can add (or subtract) any functions. but the formula stays firm: Afier . DERIVATIVES OF POLYNOMIALS Now we have an infinite list of functions and their derivatives: x x2 x3 x4 x5 .j)! 1 Pascal's triangle 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 n=3 1 4 6 4 1 n=4 For .i x P 3 l 2 . the expected number of winners is A . Notice that 1 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1 equals 16.2) true but not yet checked (n = i) f = l/x2 has f ' = .. The rules allow any combination of f and g : The derivative of 9f (x) . 4.1 2.2 is a little unusual.2/x3: f= & has f ' = + x L i 2 : Remember that . with j = 2. That number is N = "49 choose 6" = 13. the odds are 49 48 47 46 45 44 /6! to 1.2 Derivatives These are numbers that gamblers know and love: bLn c/zoose j*'= (.. The chance of no winner is e'.816. 2.~ means l/x2 and x112 means l/&. . Each row of Pascal's triangle adds to a power of 2. approaching zero as x gets large. the coefficient of x3h is 4 ! / 1 ! 3 ! = 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 / 1 * 3 * 2 . Answer lox9 and 2 . 3.1) Example 6 of Section 2. Choosing 6 numbers out of 49 in a lottery. The chance of one winner is Ae'.1 = 4 the x2h2 term. What comes next is really simple.1/x2 : Example 3 of Section 2. and we want to multiply by 6 or divide by 2 or add or subtract. 2 ~ ' .7g1(x). .983. A tremendous number of new functions are "linear combinations" like What are their derivatives? The answers are known for x3 and x2. 2 ~ ' . ~ The h .u2.and Pascal's triangle can't deal with this fractional power.. there are 4 3 2 112 1 2 1 = 6 ways to choose two h's. The derivative of f (x) + g(x) is f '(x) + gf(x). That rule extends beyond these integers 1. Their slopes have minus signs. Florida's lottery in September 1990 (these rules) had six winners out of 109.4. If i times N tickets are bought.1 (n = .1 (n = .Ii2? ~ ~ . but plenty of functions are left.
Amazingly. The difference A f is also multiplied by c. Economics has dyldx = 3ylx. That particular polynomial has slope 2 . 1989): 4: The number of cases fits a cubic within 2%: y = 174. without changing its slope. Given dyldx we find y(x). In the limit as h + 0 we reach f ' + g'because a limit of sums is a sum of limits. Here are two crucial points: 1. . In most epi emics the number of cases grows exponentially. These equations involve y as well as dyldx. Function and slope are mixed together! This is typical of differential equations. Calculus moves from derivatives to integrals to diferential equations. After going from distance f to velocity v.1981. In reverse.6(t . Note that the derivative of 9 is zero! A constant just raises or lowers the graph. but we have no system to go backward. The function y = x2 + x has the slope dyldx = 2x + 1. The constant C is the starting value of y (when x = 0). The reappearance of those constants is one of the headaches in integral calculus. A LOOK A T DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (FIND y FROM dyldx) We know that y = x3 has the derivative dyldx = 3x2. you can go backward to solve a differential equation. The disappearance of constants is one of the nice things in differential calculus. (Af is measured by a trip meter. Begin with dyldx = 3x2. function mixed with slope. Then Chapter 6 solves the differential equation dyldt = y. so their limit is cf '. You are only entitled to say that y = x3 + C. we found its slope. The constant in f has no effect on v. Integral calculus discovers the function from its slope. the starting mileage doesn't matter. the function y is not given. x2. Chapter 5 goes in reverse. Start with the slope andfind the function.2. We reach dyldx by way of AylAx. .. When f (x) is multiplied by c. When you find v from f . x. But there is a lot more to differential equations. Any example is easy and so is the proofit is the definition of limit that needs care (Section 2.x5. Adding f + g means adding A f + Ag. What function has this derivative? 2. Geometry has dyldx = 3y213.5x4. All averages A f /h contain c. Question Can you go backward to reach y = x3? Answer Almost but not quite. This discussion of the purpose of calculus should mention a sp~cificexample. The peak is quickly reached by e .2)3+ 340. You can now find the derivative of every polynomial. Now reverse that process.2 Powers and Polynomials 53 The reasoning is direct. With dyldx = (sin x)/x we are lost. we return to f + C. The slope is given. At comes from a stopwatch. This is what science does all the timeand it seems only reasonable to say so. exponential growth is not happening witb AIDSthe best fit to the data through 1988 is a cubic polynomial (Los Alamos Sciehce. you need to know the mileage at the start. The only incomplete step is the last one (the limit).) To find distance from velocity. . Many equations have the same solution y = x3. Now divide by h. Starting with the function.. A "polynomial" is a combination of 1. Then the dzrerential equation dyldx = 3x2 is solved. Differential equations are applied to an epidemic (like AIDS). To summarize: Chapters 24 compute and use derivatives. xnfor example 9 + 2x .6). shifted up and down. It alters the mileage before starting the car. and the epidemic dies down. so is f (x + h). Rule 2D is similar. Every time you find a derivative. We still have to say what "limit" means. the slope 2x + 1 produces x2 + xand all the other functions x2 + x + C.
Then the word "marginal" says one thing: Take the derivative." For bank deposits or work hours or wheat." I I fixed supply I I any price E = O any supply E=. Figure 2. the same in tons/tons or dollars/dollars or yen/yen. Before this book is printed. You do not have to be an economist to understand them. the average cost is x2/x = x.4 has increasing slopean example of "diminishing returns to scale. Divide by Ax. fixed price price x quantity equilibrium price Fig. Let y(x) be the cost of producing x tons of steel.4 Marginal exceeds average. the marginal predicts thefuture. which come in smaller units. The average cost of making automobiles may be $10. we are near the marginal cost dyldx. Certainly the author is not. Eventually the curve will turn away from a cubicI hope that mathematical models will lead to knowledge that saves lives. A third example is the demand y at price x. we may know what has been preventing d (fortunately). the price is in dollars or pesos. The units are arbitrary. We wouldn't work another hour for that! This average is rising.000. But again the units are arbitrary. . The extra cost is the difference Ay. ?These paragraphs show how calculus applies to economics. Now dyldx is negative. When $10/hour increases to $15/hour after a 40hour week. In yen per kilogram the numbers look different. Those are dimensionless. We can all use dyldx. Instead of dyldt = y we have dyldt = 3y/t. The marginal income is $15/hourthe overtime rate. Concentrate next on cost. Perfectly elastic to perfectly inelastic (rcurve). When Ax is an ounce instead of a ton. An increase of Ax tons is a relative increase of Axlx. The demand is in liters or gallons. But it is the $8000 cost of the next car that decides whether Ford makes it. The way to correct for arbitrary units is to work with percentage change or relative change. Example: When the cost is x2. The cost of x + Ax tons is y(x + Ax). probably the instructor is not. MARGINAL COST AND ELASTICITY IN ECONOMICS First point about economics: The marginal cost and marginal income are crucially important. "The average describes the past. a 50hour week pays $550. A cost increase Ay is a relative increase of Ayly. the number of extra tons. The marginal cost is 2x. This raises another point about economics. but the pay for each additional hour rises fasterpossibly it jumps.. possibly the student is not.S. The ratio Ay/Ax is the average cost per extra ton. the amounts are continuous variables. Added in proofi In 1989 the curve for the U. The average income is $ll/hour. Constant elasticity E = +I.2 Derivatives This is dramatically different from other epidemics.? The average pay over all the hours we ever worked may be low. dropped from t to t '. 2.
. Sometimes E(x) is the same at all pricesthis important case is discussed below. When the price goes up by lo%.The price rose. DEFINITION The elasticity of the demand function y(x) is E(x) = AXo Axlx AY/Y dyldx lim .l/(cxn/x) = n..c/x2 comes from calculus.In conversation between economists the minus sign is left out (I hope not forgotten). A constant supply is "perfectly inelastic. Important note on supply = demand This is the basic equation of microeconomics. The ratio is E = . With many suppliers. All demand curves are compared with this one.3). A necessity has E < 1 (inelastic). In our definition.i ~ s elastic (E = . Y/X Elasticity is "marginal" divided by "average. Once this seemed true of water and timber. The demand is inelastic when 1El < 1 ." The power n is zero and the slope is zero: y = c . is the function with constant elasticity n: if y = cxn then dyldx = cnxn. luxury has E > 1 (elastic)." The supply is unlimited at a fixed price x. The income elasticity is E(I) = ( d y / d I ) / ( y / I ) A Doubling your income more than doubles the demand for caviar. It is because y = cxn sets the standard that we could come so early to economics.f. demand.c / x 2 ) / ( c / x 2= ) 1 .f). No more is available when the harvest is over. Where the supply curve meets the demand curve. and the supply of water follows a "gamma curve" shaped like T. whose derivative we know.' and E = cnxn. Lack of elasticity makes farm economics difficult. Please recognize how the central ideas of calculus provide a language for the central ideas of economics. The slope is c and the average is y / x = c. no one can raise the price. The power y = cxn.1 : For the demand y = c / x . Supply = demand assumes perfect competition. The derivative dy/dx = . In the special case when y = clx. the economy finds the equilibrium price. while x . more .4. the demand may drop by 5%. Now the baseline case is y = cx. The other extreme E = a~is "perfectly elastic." E(x) is also relative change in y divided by relative change in x . Actually this number should be . the demand dropped. Compare E = 1 with E = 0 and E = CQ. If that ratio stays the same for small increases. The elasticity is E = c / c = 1. In reality the steep curve x = constant is leveling off to a flat curve y = constant. The demand for bread does not double. The demand 20/& is inelastic ( E = . Whatever the price. If someone tries. EXAMPLE 3 Demand is an increasing function of incomemore income.2. Price x times quantity y remains constant at xy = c . It is elastic when IEl > 1. EXAMPLE 2 The supply curve has E > 0supply increases with price. The division y/x = c / x 2 is only algebra. the elasticity will be . the elasticity of demand is f. the farmer cannot suddenly grow more wheat. the customers go elsewhere. E = CQ is becoming E = 0. the elasticity is (. consumers spend the same at all prices.2 Powen and Polynomials Relative changes are better. Fixed price is changing to fixed supply. EXAMPLE 1 Suppose the demand is y = c / x when the price is x.
The income elasticity of savings is E = 2.is ~ n . 2. what are the units of f ' and its derivative f "? In f = 16t . 0 .un+ i + . JThJ. That comes from expanding (x + h)4 into the five terms b . The derivative o f f = xn is f ' = e . write down f ' and then f ". The coefficient of . What 15 Draw a graph of y = x3 . If dy1d. 19 Graph y = x3 + x2 . The derivative of x1I2 is o . what is special about the "f double prime.' ? 14 The slope of .u6. from the containing only one g . This is the marginal savings.16t2 at time t. Out of the next dollar what fraction do you save? Answer The savings is y = cx2 because E = 2. An airport is a monopolist (and maybe the National Football League). The derivative of f = x4 is f ' = a . After subtracting i and dividing by h. The derivative of x . The terms to look for are x n . The derivative of 3. is f (x) always negative? Is f (x) negative for large x? If you think otherwise.. The price is not set by supply = demand.000)~. Now (x + h)" comes f theorem. The number c must give 500 = ~(10. Section 3.u = . there is one producer of electricity. so (x + h)" = . . 22 Imitate Problem 21 to find the slope of y . Average savings is 5%.2 Readthrough questions EXERCISES 12 Find the mistake: x2 is x + x + + x (with x terms).u. so c is 5 Then the slope dyldx is 2cx = 10 lo4 = &. This is A and its limit is d . some demand remains. is " n choose j" = I . What constant? 2 Find a function that has . marginal savings is lo%.16t2. Even if n is negative or a fraction.2 locates the maximum where the marginal profit (the slope!) is zero. (This is 13 What are the derivatives of 3x'I3 and 3x'I3 (3x'I3). where n! means m . ten cents on the dollar. deriva Find the derivatives of the functions in 310. 11 Name two functions with df/dx = 1/x2. the derivative of xn is nxn. (a) Find its average speed A f /At from t = 0 to t = $.u4 then y(.unJhJ.000 you save $500.'. Integral calculus recovers s from dy/d. Check the transition points by solving dyldx = 0. + 1 (also x terms).. I/&. 20 At a point where dyldx = 0. Price fixing occurs when several producers act like a monopolywhich antitrust laws try to prevent. So the derivative of x2 seems to be x. the limit of Aflh is k . and dividing by h leaves the four terms c .2 Derivatives The opposite case is a monopolyno competition. 17 A rock thrown upward with velocity 16ft/sec reaches height f = 16t .u6 as its derivative. u + ( 1 1 ~is ) zero when x = does the graph do at that point? and .x.) After tives of x6 you reach a constant. Instead of many small producers of wheat. Where is the slope zero? 16 If df /dx is negative.2 to x = 2 and estimate where it is decreasing. h h =  Jzi+J .not needed here.u)is CI and the derivative off (.x from x = . There are h of those terms.' h. A h & by algebra (then h 0): JFGJ. Question on income elasticity From an income of $10. (b) Find its average speed A f /At from t = 4 to t = 1. graph of y(x)? Test case: y = x2. Its derivative is 1 + 1 + . give examples. 21 Find the slope of y = .u) + g(x) is r . (c) What is df /dt at t = i? 18 When f is in feet and t is in seconds. The calculus problem is differentto maximize profit. which uses the following rules: The derivative of 3f (. If the price is raised.u) = t . J z i + J . u + (llx) is P . Subtracting x4 f /h. the first 16 is ft/sec but the second 16 is ." the derivative off '. and E = 2. 1 Starting with f = .
(Use numbers or algebra.what fraction of your next dollar will be .x and df/dx = xn? Why 3. Find f (x).(x) = 7x .1. (a) 4+) (c) v(x + 1) 30 If df /dx is v(x). from Section 2.7x2 + 3 = 0 and where dy/dx = 0. what numbers multiply x4 and x5 if df /dx equals f ? 36 Write down a differential equation dy/dx = that is solved by y = x2. + (a) Check the algebra. 44 From an income I we save S(I). Why do the numbers across each row add to 2"? 24 Complete (x + h)5 = x5 + mial coefficients and spent on the car? Compare dy/dx (marginal) with y/x (average). (e) The slope of y = (x is y' = 3(x + 48 The slope of y = x3 comes from this identity: =(x + h)2 + ( x + h)x + x 2 .(x . 42 The demand y = xn has E = (price times demand) has elasticity E = . 34 Suppose df /dx = x.y/x. 39 From an income of x = $10.2 Powers and Polynomials 57 23 Complete Pascal's triangle for n = 5 and n = 6. what functions have these derivatives? +1 (b) (d) v(x) v'(x). (b) The derivative of axn/bxnis a/b.y/x. find E(x) = (dy/dx)/(y/x). It approaches for large x. Applied to the whole economy this is (microeconomics) (macroeconomics). t3 is doubled when t increases to t. The doubling time for AIDS is proportional to t. 0.2. Find f (x). In the infinite polynomial f = 1 + x + 5x2 + &x3+ . write out f (x + Ax) and A f /Ax. The marginal propensity to save is . What is the limit at Ax = 0 and what rule about sums is confirmed? 28 The derivative of ( ~ ( x )is) ~ this rule on u = xn. (:) (:) (i)? and . Elasticity is not needed because S and I have the same . 45 2' is doubled when t increases by . (c) If df /dx = x4 and dgldx = x4 then f (x) = g(x). + 31 What function f(x) has fourth derivative equal to l? 32 What function f (x) has nth derivative equal to l? 33 Suppose df /dx = 1 + x + x2 + x3. Test Shift the . Make the right side involve y (not just 2x). If E = 3. What does the graph of y(x) do at a point where y = y' = O ? 51 In the Massachusetts lottery you choose 6 numbers out of 36. (d) (f (x) f (a))/(x. 37 True or false: (a) The derivative of x" is nx". so one of the tickets would win? Problems 3844 are about calculus in economics.x3 h = x9 29 What are the derivatives of x7 + 1 and (x + graph of x7. Find dyldx as h (b) Write a similar identity for y = x4. 50 The graphs of y. Plot y3(x) to see what is special. for the relative growth of the head (dyly) and the body (dxlx).(x) = x4 + x3 and y. divide by 2h. What is your chance to win? 52 In what circumstances would it pay to buy a lottery ticket for every possible combination. 35 f (x) can be its own derivative.1 give trouble? (x + h)3 . and set h = 0. Is n > 1 or n < 1 for a child? 47 What functions have df/dx does n = . What are the bino 40 Name a product whose price elasticity is (a) high (b) low (c) negative (?) 41 The demand y = c/x has dyldx = .000 you spend y = $1200 on your car. 49 (Computer graphing) Find all the points where y = x4 + 2x3 . The revenue xy 25 Compute (x + h)3 . Why divide by 2h to Jind this slope? 26 Solve the differential equation y" = x to find y(x).5 touch at the point where y3(x)= = 0. 38 When the cost is y = yo + cx.a) approaches f '(a) as x a. 27 For f (x) = x2 + x3. Show that Ay/Ax is not .) Finite steps miss the special feature of infinitesimal steps.h)3. 43 y = 2x + 3 grows with marginal cost 2 from the fixed cost 3. 46 Biology also leads to dyly = n dxlx. Draw the graph of E(x).
which has a known slope at a known point: 1.58 Fig. We need the equation of the line. The equation of the tangent line is y . Now we are facing polynomials like x3 . At that point x equals a and y equals f (a) and the slope equals f '(a). because dyldx = m 3.2 = 2. dyldx = 2 determine the tangent line.3 The Slope and the Tangent Line Chapter 1 started with straight line graphs. How do we know? For the specific example y = 2x 1. The distance function was linear.5 2 Derivatives 2. y = 1 and x = 4 . The graph of y = mx + b is not curved. I will take those one at a timefirst y = mx + b. y satisfy the equation: + x=O. Figure 2.  EXAMPLE 1 Suppose y = x4 . The graph of distance versus time becomes nearly linear. and there is no doubt. That is what we will do.2x. The equation of a line has the form y = mx + b 2. the line is set. The slope is dyldx = 4x3 . The tangent line is easy to describe. (We still have to write down the equation. but we have to turn the geometry into algebra. Most functions are not close to linearexcept if you focus all your attention near a single point. 1. At x = 1 the slope is 4 . if we know one point and the slope. The tangent line goes through that point x = a. At the point x = a = 1. y = 9 both satisfy y = 2 x + 1. That is fl(a): The numbers x = 1.x2 + 3. Their graphs are definitely curved. and this section explains why.l). Over a very short range a curve looks straight.3 = 2(x . We want to find the line that the graph stays closest tothe "tangent linewbefore it curves away. then m.2 or x4 . The velocity was constant (at least piecewise).5 shows the line more clearly than any equation.) Also. The number m is the slope of the line. with other functions to come soon. then b. take two points whose coordinates x. The tangent line has the same slope 2 as the curve (especially after zoom). THE EQUATION OF A LINE A straight line is determined by two conditions. We are at a particular point on the graph of y =f (x). or zoom in with a computer. Look through a microscope.x2 + 3. 2. The number b adjusts the line to go through the required point. y = 3. We know the line if we know two of its points. Its slope is the velocity at that moment. y =f (a) with that slope m = fl(a). . the height is y =f (a) = 3. That is the situation for the tangent line.
1 distance across EXAMPLE 2 The curve y = x3 . Finally we decide on b. Leaving a rollerm coaster and catching up to a car. So we know b: 2E The equation of the tangent line has b =f (a). The graph has gone one unit across (0 to 1) and m units up (b to m + b). This is the pointslope form of the equation. y = mx + b leads to f (a)= ma + b. The graph contains all halfway points and must be straight. The factor x .x. (2) I That last form is the best.3 The Slope and the Tangent Line Those points (0. This is the normal line in Figure 2. (Rule: Slopes of tangent line: distance track A :a' / +4 . What is the correct slope m for the tangent line? In our example it is m =f '(a)= 2. y = 3.2.llm. the normal line has slope . When the tangent line has slope m..6 = 12(x2). At x = 0 its height is y = b. The curve and its tangent line have the same slope at the crucial point: dyldx = 2. 1) and (2. 1) and (4. and we use it constantly: y .ma: y=mx+f(a)ma or yf(a)=m(xa).x.). Its new feature is its slope.a is zero. y3=2(x1) or x .18.x2 + 3 equals 2 only at x = 1. The tangent line y = 2x + b must go through x = 1 . At x = 1 its height is y = m + b. The pointslope equation of the tangent line uses 2 and 6 and 12: y . With letters instead of numbers.*' your speed is V 4 T Fig. The halfway point is on the graph.6.yo = . This also has y = 2x + 1. The whole idea is slope = m distance up distance across 1 ' Each unit across means m units up. The point halfway between has x = 2 and y = 5. There is another important line. the midpoint between (0.9) lie on the graph.3 . If we subdivide again. A straight line keeps a constant slope.distance up = sbpe 2. Therefore b = 1. It is perpendicular to the tangent line and perpendicular to the curve. to 2m + b or 3m + b. whereas the slope of y = x4 .2 goes through y = 6 when x = 2.). which is also y = 12x. Normal line y . 3). 2. That point also satisfies y = 2x + 1.(x .yo = m(x . 2. At that point dyldx = 3x2 = 12. 5) is (1.6 Tangent line y . 1 . 3. Allow me to say in another way why the line y = mx + b has slope m. You see immediately what happens at x = a. Therefore y =f (a)as required.
Now spread them apart. and then accelerate.2). It is smarter to slow down early. the timing needs calculus: EXAMPLE 4 How much must you slow down when a red light is 72 meters away? In 4 seconds it will be green.(a2 + 4 ) = . the cars have the same speed and same distance. y = 0.(a2+ 4) = 2a(x . When you step off at x = a. The other car's distance is 72 + $at2: becomes 72+53(~4)~=VT + 72+ffv2=V(3V+4).4).O) if . EXAMPLE 3 You are on a rollercoaster whose track follows y = x 2 + 4.1 / 12: Example 2 has m = 12. and we want its equation. Speeds are equal when 3 ( T . the normal is not y = . y =f (a). so the distance functions in Figure 2. The other point is at x = c. The pointslope form of a linear equation is replaced by the twopoint form. y =f (c).4 ) = V or T = V 4. This is 43 km/hr or 27 miles per hour.& ( x . Quarterbacks with a moving target should read Chapter 4 on related rates. When a car is waiting in front of you. The solution is V = 12 meters/second. so the normal line normal line: y  tangent line: y . Strategy Slow down immediately to the speed V at which you will just catch that car. Where do you step off? Solution Your path will be the tangent line (at high speed). The equation of the curve is still y =f ( x ) . You cannot pass the car.2 Derivatives . That shows the delay of 4 seconds. Light rays travel in the normal direction. This time we don't start with the slopebut rn is easy to find. Solution At time T.6 = 12(x . you go through at 65 km/hr or 40 miles per hour. Releasing a ball at the right time to hit a target 60 feet away is an amazing display of calculus. Your distance is V times T . The problem is to choose x = a so the tangent line passes through x = 0. consider the secant line through two points. you only slow down to V = 7214 = 18 meters/second. Stopping at a red light wastes gas. Try it.&x .) At the catchup time T .O) and want to get there quickly. You see a friend at (0. For the tangent line the points came together.The first point remains at x = a. THE SECANT LINE CONNECTING T W O POINTS O N A CURVE Instead of the tangent line through one point. (If you wait and brake later. The secant line goes between them. Two conditions. Here is a better example than a rollercoaster.18. Use the pointslope form! The tangent is y = 12x . .2a2 or a = + 2. The same problem is solved by spacecraft controllers and baseball pitchers. So do brush firesthey move perpendicular to the fire line. As the light turns green.2) 6 = .1. Without the other car. The waiting car will accelerate at 3 meters/sec2. Now require equal dis tances.6d are tangent. your speed will have to go below V.) perpendicular lines multiply to give has slope .a) this line goes through (0.18. the other car's speed is 3 ( T . the height is y = a2 + 4 and the slope is 2a the equation of the tangent line is y .
2). (1) The slope is m =   The t f~var uses the slope between the f4d f@ ca (3) At x = a the right side is zero. With equation (2) for the tangent line and equation (3) for the secant line.a.19.2 goes through x = 2.2). It is the average slope AylAx. Soon you will be fast at derivatives. It also goes through x = 3. A look ahead The second point is going to approach the first point.25).009. The secant tine turns into the tangent line as c approaches a: slope of secant line: Af .3 The Slope and the Tangent Line EXAMPLE 5 The curve y = x3 . Af slope of tangent line: dx Ax .0019 . To find Ay = l. So y =f (a) on the left side.f (t + At) f (t) A time At The limit is d f /dt. It matches what we did with velocities: average velocity = A distance . The secant has the right slope 19 to reach the second point. the distance up is about 9 times the distance across. We discover the derivative (in the limit).f (c) f (a) distance across ca (2) The height is y =f (a) at x = a (3) The height is y =f (c) at x = c (automatic with correct slope). and ideas ahead of reasoning: distance up . This line automatically goes through the second point (3.19. change in x 3 . Near x = 1.6 = 19(x . the calculator gives Ay = . The exact dyldx will be much easier than AylAx. The quick approximation is . and change numbers to letters. We now do exactly the same thing with slopes. The secant slope AylAx will approach the tangent slope dyldx.f ( 4 f@) Ax ca df = limit of .2 The pointslope form (at the first point) is y . They cancel to leave y =f (c). and reasoning ahead of formulas.6 . That is the main point nowbut not forever. The slope between those points is m= change in y . y =f (c)? A mathematician puts formulas ahead of numbers. we are ready for the moment of truth.001 by 9. The situation is turned around as soon as you know that x9 has slope 9x8.6 equals 19(3. At x = c the right side has two factors c . T H E SECANT LlNE APPROACHES T H E TANGENT LlNE What comes now is pretty basic.25 . y = 25.just multiply Ax = . Come back to the secant line. It is easier to follow the tangent line than the curve. What line connects x = a. Check: 25 .009036. y = 6. y =f (a) to x = c.2.
) Mathematically this limit can be trickyit takes us from algebra to calculus. (It could touch again at faraway points. The two points come together. Algebra stays away from 010. All lines go through x = a.O). but calculus gets as close as it can. The new limit for df /dx looks different. The slope of the tangent line equals the slope a of the c isyf(a)= . as c comes close to a. Its The tangent line to y = x3 + x at x = 1 has slope . The starting point is x = 0. The ratio of distance up to distance across is (sin c)/c: sin c secant equation y = x C tangent equation y = lx. When does the rate of increase drop to 10% of the current value. Everybody recognizes c . leave the curve.7. Intuitively. The limit of (sin c)/c is not 010. . but it is the same as before: f '(a) = lim f ( 4 f (a) c+a C 9 EXAMPLE 6 Find the secant lines and tangent line for y =f (x) = sin x at x = 0. how far does that put you ahead of = 5? & & Solution The rate of increase is the derivative of which is 1/2&. With straight interest on the bond. This is the origin (0. so you should sell the gold and buy a bond? At t = 25. the secant line becomes the tangent line. As c approaches zero. you have reached y = 3 f i = 6. At that time you sell the gold. EXAMPLE 7 The gold you own will be worth million dollars in t years. Do you recognize f (c) f (a) as f (x + Ax) f (x)? It is Af. or one point . y =f (a). y = sin 0. and the tangent line touches the curve at one point. The pointslope form of the tangent equation d . yfi=$(t5) becomes y . not compounded. which is dyldx. Therefore 2t = 10 or t = 5.f i = 2 f i at t=25.There stands the fundamental idea of differential calculus! You have to imagine more secant lines than I can draw in Figure 2. That is 10% of the current value when 1/2& = &/lo.a as Ax. secant secant tangent a c c c secant y f (a) = ca a) tangent y .7 million dollars. 2.f(a)= f'(a)(x Fig. the change in height.7 Secants approach tangent as their slopes Af /Ax approach df /dx. Their limit is the tangent line. but 1. the limit is pretty clear. which is meaningless. and go onto the tangent line: & &. The gold is worth a measly five million. 2.3 EXERCISES Readthrough questions A straight line is determined by and the b points.
2). llc) has the . Do the division by c . (b) the secant line to x = 1 h. (a) Find the tangent line at P. The secant line from (1.3x2 x at the origin is Y=. a ray down one special line x = a is reflected horizontally. c . equation of the tangent line at (2. Then find two points where y = x4 . 2) to (2. 22 Construct a function y =f (x) whose tangent line at x = 1 is the same as the secant that meets the curve again at x = 3. 6).a to find the tangent line as c approaches a. (c) Show from (b) that the figure has equal angles. 20 Choose b. c2) has the equation . (b) Check that P and Q are the same distance from the focus at F = (0. (d) What law of physics makes every ray reflect off the parabola to the focus at F? vertical ray 11 What are the equations of the tangent line and normal line to y = sin x at x = n/2? 12 If c and a both approach an inbetween value x = b.3 The Slope and the Tangent Line equation is f .2. 17 For y = x3 + 4x2 . . The tangent lines to f and g at x = 4 are . 7 For y = x2 the secant line from (a. the tangent lines are and the normal lines are . At those points. Mark the points P and Q where the curves are closest. 10 For y = llx the secant line from (a. True or false: The distance between those lines is 7. It is also the secant line to the point . Write its equation in pointslope form. d so that the two parabolas y = x2 + bx and y = dx . 2 For y = x2 x find equations for (a) the tangent line and normal line at (1. set up two equations for a and c. 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) 63 15 Choose c so that y = 4x is tangent to y = x2 c. The triangle between the tangent line and the axes always has area . Locate the point Q where that line crosses the y axis.a) provided m = n . The point (c. Does it cross the curve again? 5 The tangent line to y = x3 . Its equation is y .3 at x = 5. a2).2) is tangent to the curve y = c/(x + 1). 14 Suppose g(x) =f (x) + 7. then the secant slope (f(c) f (a))/(c. 25 A light ray comes down the line x = a. Match heights as well as slopes. + 8 Construct a function that has the same slope at x = 1 and x = 2. As c approaches a. 3). (c) The slope of the secant is m = (d) As h goes to zero. the slope m approaches 0 . Find the normal line to that curve at (5. The normal line at this point (1. compute (a) the equation of the tangent line (b) the points where that line crosses the axes. 16 Choose c so that y = 5x . '24 If the parabolas y = x2 + 1 and y = x . Simplify its slope and find the limit as c equation approaches a. f (c)) is on the line y f (a) = m(x . lla) to (c.3x + 1. or draw the curves.2x2 has the same tangent line (draw the graph). 26 In a bad reflector y = 2/x.x2 come closest at (a. y = 0. y = 2.a) approaches . y =f (c) = (b) The change in f is Af = . c. Then write it as y = mx + b. 1) and (4.c2). 23 Draw two curves bending away from each other. It hits the parabolic reflector y = x2 at P = (a. 13 At x = a on the graph of y = l/x. equation of the secant line to (4. (a) Another point is x = c = 1 + h. Try to match heights and slopes. 2) has x axis at slope i . 21 The graph o f f (x) = x3 goes through (1. 18 y = 4x can't be tangent to y = cx2.7 is tangent to y = x2 + + cx. 7). It crosses the y axis at g and the h . 19 Determine c so that the straight line joining (0.x2 are tangent to each other at x = 1. +c . equation of the normal line at (2. a 2 ) to (c. 8). find all points where the tangent is horizontal. + 6 Find the tangent line to x = y2 at x = 4. Its equation is y2= m . 9 Find a curve that is tangent to y = 2x . 3) and (5. The secant line approaches the p line. m approaches Find Find Find Find the the the the slope of y = 12/x. 4 The tangent line to y = x3 + 6x at the origin is Y=. y = (1 h)2 (1 + + + + + h). k ) has slope I . $). 1). 3 A line goes through (1. a 2 1) and (c.2 = j . What is a? . 6).
3) with slope 4 is y . They describe oscillation. when should you stop? 34 Suppose (c)f (a)l< Ic . Chapter 1 followed a ball around a circle. . (c) The line through (2. f (a).a) requires three. 29 A ball goes around a circle: x = cos t. how far is the curve y = l/x above its tangent line? 39 At a distance Ax from x = 2.a). 42 (Puzzle) The equation y = mx At the touching point (a. The other is to explain why these functions are so important. Choose a = 1 and . f (c).a).y. the shadow went up and down. 27 For the parabola 4py = x2.$t2). a2). 44 If the waiting car only accelerates at 2 meters/sec2. If the chance of success is 1 . where is the slope equal to l? At that point a vertical ray will reflect horizontally. The derivative of y = sin x is y' = cos x. 37 Find f(c) = l. 30 If the tangent line to y =f(x) at x = a is the same as the tangent line to y = g(x) at x = b. y = sin t. you slow down badly (f= . 1. 2) then y = .8 + 6t . what speed V must you slow down to? 45 A thief 40 meters away runs toward you at 8 meters explain where the circle rests.i x is the normal line.2 = 4(x . Prove that Idf /dxl< 1. the secant slope (f (c) f (a))& . 32 Follow Problem 31 for the flatter parabola y = 3x2 and + b requires two numbers. a2) equals the radius 1 when a = locates the touching point. (b) As c approaches a. How fast should the next runner start (choose u in f = vt) so you can just pass the baton? This section does two things. The differential equation will say that the second derivativethe derivative o f the derivativeis equal and opposite to y.(l/x) from x hours of writing." It involves the derivative of an unknown function y(x). c. but I still find it beautiful.3). Find the equation of that line and the point where the ball hits the ground (y = 0). That line has x = 0 when y = . which are the beginning of Newton's method to solve f (x) = 0.(a) xf'(a)(c . . (a) If y = 2x is the tangent line at (1. You will see a "di~erential equation. . What is the smallest acceleration so that v = at keeps you in front? 35 From which point x = a does the tangent line to y = 1/x2 hit the x axis at x = 3? 46 With 8 meters to go in a relay race. .. 33 You are applying for a $1000 scholarship and your time is worth $10 a hour.OO110 in two waysby calculator and by .a1 for every pair of points a and c. the distance between curve and tangent line grows like what power (Ax)P? 41 The tangent line to f (x) = x2 . Draw the curve and the two lines. Also find (u(x)/v(x))'. This tance to (a.64 2 Derivatives 36 If u(x)/v(x)= 7 find u'(x)/v'(x). The solutions to y" = . crosses the the ball flies off on the tangent line. x axis at x2 = .y are sin x and cos x and all their combinations. the equation of the normal line is . If per second. find two equations that must be satisfied by a and b. That makes y and y' and y" all oscillate. the pointslope form y f (a) =f '(a)(x . One is to compute the derivatives of sin x and cos x. how far is the curve y = x3 above its tangent line? 40 Based on Problem 38 or 39. . which will be expressed in words and equations. In symbols this is y" = . . . . .1 at x. when you catch the car in front. So the focus is at (0. Its height was sin t and its velocity was cos t . Distance in one direction leads to acceleration in the other direction. How can this be? 43 Find the time T at the tangent point in Example 4. and the twopoint form requires four: a. At t = 3 4 4 38 At a distance Ax from x = 1. The tangent line at x. = 2 crosses the x axis at xl = . The dis.a) approaches (f (a) f (a))/(a. 31 Draw a circle of radius 1 resting in the parabola y = x2. 28 Why are these statements wrong? Make them right.f(c) f f(x) . We begin with the slope. = xlO. There is no reason for that to be a mystery.
Fig.1. Figure 2. 2. we now have sin(x h). before combining them into equation (4). Where we had (x + h)2 or (x + h)3.1 Lh sin h . Neverthelessfollowing the principle of ideas now.sin x sin h. When two functions approach zero. Figure 2. The height difference is A f when the shift distance is Ax. The edge of length sin h is close to zero.995 995 r We cannot pass over the crucial stepthe two limits in (5). This calls for one of the basic "addition formulas" from trigonometry.. sin h (41 The ratio splits into two simpler pieces on the right.5: + sin (x + h) = sin x cos h + cos x sin h (2) + h) = cos x cos h . Equation (2) puts Ay = sin (x + h) .8a shows a small angle h (as near to zero as we could reasonably draw).loo.sin x cos h + cos x sin h . when y(x) = sin x: . Both ratios become 010 i f we just substitute h = 0. No clue comes from 010.sin x in a new form: Ay .4 The Derhrutii of the Sine and Cosine We now find that derivative by the standard method o f limits. . (I will not even mention the unspeakable crime of writing (sin h)/h = sin. Time out The graph of sin x is in Figure 2. lim h0 h h0 h The careful reader will object that limits have not been defined! You may further object to computing these limits separately. and the sine of a zero angle is 0.1 + cos x h Ax cos(x (3) ( ) (T).) There are two critically important limitsthe first is zero and the second is one: sin h cos h .2. rigor laterI would like to proceed. + (6) The secant slope Ay/Ax has approached the tangent slope dyldx. and now comes the calculus problem. Algebra and trigonometry got ? It is no us this far. we want to show that (cos h .= limit dy dx AY = lim sin (x + h) .(sin dx x)(first limit) (cos x)(second limit) = 0 + cos x.sin x of h Ax h + o The sine is harder to work with than x2 or x3. They contain the real ideas. Roughly speaking.1 =0 and lim .8b shows how the ratio of sin h to h (both headed for zero) gives the slope of the sine curve at the start.8 . and the edge of length cos h is near 1. It is entirely true that the limit of (4) comes from the two limits in (5): dy. What happens as h + O longer easy to divide by h.sin x = sin x cos h . We might have cOs . reviewed in Section 1. Remember that the cosine of a zero angle is 1.9 (in black). What matters is whether the top or bottom goes to zero more quickly. their ratio might do anything. The graph of sin(x + Ax) sits just beside it (in red). .l)/h is like h2/h and (sin h)/h is like hlh.
The sine curve starts with slope 1. Figure 2. but still only graphically. The direct approach is to let a computer draw a graph. 2.10a is very convincing. In Figure 2. the reasoning concentrates that the limit is cos x exactly.40 (sin h)/h squeezed between cos x and 1.9a. this answer at one point will lead to the slope cos x at all points. Af/Ax is close to cos x. So does (tan h)/h. + Now divide by that small number Ax (or h). the red graph is shifted left from the black graph. Question Why does the graph of f (x Ax) shift left from f (x) when Ax > O ? Answer When x = 0. sin h n/2 h=O n/2 Fig. THE LIMIT O F (sin h ) / h I S4 + There are several ways to find this limit. The second figure shows Af /Ax. (Look how it startsit is not quite cos x. It is close to cos x. Dividing by the cosine is enough to push the tangent above h.) We also see that tan h stays above h. Remember that the tangent is the ratio of sine to cosine.) Because of the importance of this limit.9 sin ( x h) with h = 10" = 11/18 radians. The red graph shows sin h when the black graph shows sin 0. (sin h)/h is below 1. The slope at that point is cos 0 = 1. Figure 2.sin h sin (x + h) Fig. In practice. We now prove this: sin Ax divided by Ax goes to 1. (tan h)/h decreases to 1. Thefunction (sin h)/h approaches 1 at the key point h = 0.) Mathematics will prove . Probably you can get around that. Curiously. By the addition formula for sin (x + h). (The machine may refuse to divide by zero at h = 0. 2. when Ax on only one point (x = 0). The crucial inequalities (to be proved when h is small and positive) are sinh<h and tanh>h. (The first graph shows that too. I want to give a mathematical proof that it equals 1. that sin h stays below h. the shifted graph is already showing f (Ax).10b indicates. the only danger is that you might get a message like "undefined function" and no graph. (7) .0.
1 1b shows why h < tan h.D. This is proved at the end of Section 2. To the left of zero. Cosines are connected to sines by (sin h)2 + (cos h)2 = 1. Q. The proof depends on sin h < h < tan h. so multiplication by h/2n gives f h for the area of the sector. which are absolutely allowed. 2.10 shows that "squeeze play. (Important: When the radius is 1. The circular arc must be longer. The straight line PQ has length 2 sin h. Comparing with the triangle around it. But cos h is approaching I! The squeeze as h + 0 leaves only one possibility for (sin h)/h. The inequalities sin h < h < tan h are now proved. . We start from the +If we try to prove that. f tan h > f h. Problem 13 shows how to prove sin h < h from areas.1 ) / h I S0 This second limit is different. so sin h < h. which is displayed by the graph but not explained. T H E LIMIT O F (COS h . Inside that triangle is the shaded sector of the circle. We will show that 1 . The triangular area is f (base)(height)= i(l)(tan h).1 1 Line shorter than arc: 2 sin h < 2h. The circle has area nr2 = n. because the shortest distance between two points is a straight line. This time we look at areas. those are the same as sin h <1 h and sin h > cos h. (The sine is an odd function: sin (. the arc length equals the angle. symmetric around zero and approaching 1 from both sides. h What happens as h goes to zero? The ratio (sin h)/h is squeezed between cos h and 1. 1. The full circumference is 2n and the full angle is also 2n. Its area is h/2n times the area of the whole circle (because the angle is that fraction of the whole angle). Figure 2. Accept it as true. In degrees. Figure 2.sin h. We go back to right triangles. Fig.11a shows why sin h < h. A degree is much less than a radian. the result is the same. we will be here all night.4 The Derlvcrthre of the Sine and Cosine Since tan h = (sin h)/(cos h).? The arc PQ has length 2h." lf two functions approach the same limit.) The straight distance 2 sin h is less than the circular distance 2h.2. h reverses sign and sin h reverses sign. The squeeze in equation (8) produces (sin h)/h .) The ratio is an even function.cos h shrinks to zero more quickly than h.6. which is caught in between: The ratio (sin h)/h approaches 1. so does any function caught in between. The ratio (sin h)/h is unchanged.E. cos x is not the derivative of sin x. For negative values of h. Areas give h < tan h. and dyldx is reduced by the factor 2~1360. Figure 2.h) = . Note All angles x and h are being measured in radians.
/ Y = sin . Remark Equation (10) also shows that 1 . It gives the rate of change. This is another "squeezewthere is no escape.sin u.2 Derivatives known fact sin h < h and work it into a form involving cosines: (1 .cos h)(l + cos h) = 1 .cos h h < h 1 + cos h ' (9) Our ratio is caught in the middle. That is important.12b).(cos h)2 = (sin h)2 < h2. Notice how the dotted line (the slope) goes below zero when the solid line turns downward. the signs change but minus zero is still zero.12 y(s) increases where y' is positive. not how fast y itself is . For cos h . This confirms equation (6).\. and we return to it. 2. v' = . Decreasing functions have negative slopes. Our ratio goes to zero.\. Divide through by h and also by 1 + cos h: o< 1 . THE SECOND DERIVATIVES OF THE SINE AND COSINE We now introduce the derivative of the derivative.cos h is approximately i h 2 .cos x h =cos Ax dy .sin r bends down = cos t decrease. THE DERIVATIVE OF THE COSINE This will be easy." The slope tells how quickly the function goes up or down.The derivative also shifts by 4 2 (dotted line).(COS .u x)(O). as the limit of AylAx:  Ay . The derivative of cos x is .is increasing p> v =.1 )sinx(y) (11) d.( cos h .$h2 is close to the top of the cosine curve. The slope equals zero when the solid line is level. Note that everything is positive. The 2 comes from 1 + cos h. A "tangent parabola" 1 . The slope of y = cos x can be computed in the normal way. That is the second derivative of the original function.cos(x + h) .sin x. This is a basic purpose of calculusto find simple approximations like $h2.That yields the cosine curve (solid line in Figure 2. Increasing functions have positive slopes. The quick way to differentiate cos x is to shift the sine curve by xl2.sin t is negative Fig. . The first line came from formula (3) for cos(x + h). The slope of sin x is cos x.is negative 1' y" = . reaching 0 and 1 as before. The right side goes to zero because h + 0.(sin \)(I)= . y(s) bends up where jl"is positive. The second line took limits. There is more information in dyldx than "function rising" or "function falling.. It tells how fast the slope is changing. This confirms the graphical proof that the slope of cos x is .sin .sin x.1 or for negative h.
Sines and cosines give simple harmonic motionup and down.y. At the start of the sine curve. f " is acceleration. Its derivative cos t is positive. The greater the distance.sin t is negative. The remarkable fact about the sine and cosine is that y" = .." y" > 0 means that y' increases so y bends upward (concave up) y" < 0 means that y' decreases so y bends down (concave down). Your heart fills and empties. y = cos t has dy/dt = .8 m/sec2. Example: The second derivative of y = x3 is y" = 6x. which means that v increases by 32 ftlsec in one second. The curve is bending down while going up. . so its second derivative is zero: f (t) = 5t has df /dt = 5 and d2 f /dt2 = 0.sin t and d y/dt2 = . The lower arch is "concave up. Similarly f ( t ) = r a t 2 has df/dt=at and d2f/dt2=a.low prices . Absolutely not! It means that dy/dt is decreasing. Push a swing up. There stands the notation d2f/dt2 (or d2y/dx2)for the second derivative. while v tells how fast f is changing. It tells how fast v is changing. + . the second derivative is di~tance/(time)~. (This is pronounced f double prime or y double prime). and the restoring force pulls it back. The arch is "concave down" because y" = . high prices + high production We can't live without oscillations (or differential equations). Chapter 3 studies these things properlyhere we get an advance look for sin t. tension and compression. It models events by equations. The second derivative is the "rate of change of the velocity. At t = n the curve reaches zero and goes negative. The second derivative becomes positive.y. These motions are controlled by a diyerential equation: All solutions are combinations of the sine and cosine: y = A sin t B cos t. Now the curve bends upward. This is not a course on differential equations. not necessarily y. The economy goes up and down: . However the second derivative is . It models oscillation by equation (12). The acceleration due to gravity is about 32 ft/sec2 or 9.2. y is still increasing but y" < 0. Stretch a spring. A short form is f " or y".y.cos t = . Where df/dt was distanceltime. In the distancevelocity problem. forward and back. Balls bounce. Current alternates. Question Does d2y/dt2< 0 mean that the distance y(t) is decreasing? Answer No. That is unusual and special: acceleration = distance.sin t.sin t = . the greater the force pulling back: y = sin t has dy/dt = + cos t and d2y/dt2= . out and in." A straight line has constant slope (constant velocity). The parabola y = x2 has slope 2x (linear) which has slope 2 (constant). and gravity brings it down. It does not mean that the distance increases by 32 feet! The graph of y = sin t increases at the start. But you have to see the purpose of calculus.4 The Derivative of the Sine and Cosine changing.
and the correction term 8 (Calculator) Compare cos 0 with 1 . Repeat Problem 16 to find the slope of cos x.O1 is to not . because 1 . The square root is cos 0 x 1 . The approximation sin 30 x leads directly to cos 0 x 1 . Eventually y goes below zero and y" becomes q .h) f (x + h) f (x . Therefore y' is P . Where does (sin h)/h go above . Let Ax go to zero.h) . find a combination that starts at x = 0 from y = 2 with slope 1. Mark the height difference Ay.i h 2 and cos .2 sin2$0.sin 2z)lh is 1 because .cos 2h (b) r+o lim 1cos h ' 12 Compute the slope at x = 0 directly from limits: (a) y = tan x (b) y = sin (.3x2. So is the i of . This combination also solves y" = . 1 Which of these ratios approach 1 as h . Use formula to simplify cos (x h) .9.sin (x + 1) by Ax. Then take its derivative to get back to sin x. which means that sin x = .cos h is much k than h. State its slope at x = 0. So does y = cos x.sin20.70 Readthrough questions 2 ~erhrcrthres 2.1 (b) 0 = 0. 15 Chapter 10 gives an infinite series for sin x: From the derivative find the series for cos x. When y is positive. 14 The slopes of cos x and 1 . 1 1 .O1 radians is very close i .99.O ? 2 a sin 3h 1 . and 2 1 1 . The cosine of . whose second derivative is g . The limit of (sin (211 + h) . The ratio (1 . The fourth derivative is y"" = d . Then draw AylAx as in Figure 2.30'. Explain why the limit dyldx is 2 cos 2x.h). 10 Find the limits as h . We can replace h by x.)02. The differential equation y" = . Does 3 sin x have the same slopes? 24 Draw the graph of y = sin x + at x = value is y = is . 22 For y = sin 2x. As h. Then let h * 0.0 the limit is . (b) Divide Ay = sin (x + 1 + Ax) . 9 Trigonometry gives cos 0 = 1 . Its maximum . 16 A centered diference for f (x) = sin x is (a) zi h (b) sin2h zzi sin h (a 7 sin (. All these derivatives come from one basic limit: (sin h)/h approaches h . y" is o .1 and . Thus y = sin x satisfies the differential equations y" = e and y"" = f . Then y' is r .sin 2x sin 2x(cos 2h .Ol x m .02.01.0: f i cos x.01h? Where does tan h = h? Where does y = sin x + cos x have zero slope? Find the derivative of sin (x + 1) in two ways: (a) Expand to sin x cos 1 + cos x sin 1.cos h)/h2 approaches I .y leads to n . 1112. Find the height PS and the area of triangle OPR. the ratio Aylh is 5 y = sin x has period 211. The second derivative (the b of the derivative) is y" = c . Reason: Squaring gives cos20 x is very small near 0 = 0. 7 The key to trigonometry is cos20 = 1 . Compute dyldx.1) + cos 2x sin 2h (a) 0 = 0. Prove by areas that sin h < h.11 are P and S.0 of + (a) sin2h (b) sin 5h (c) sin 5h (dl sin h Find the tangent line to y = sin x at (b) x = 1 1 (a) x = 0 (c) x = 1 1 1 4 4 Where does tan h = 1. Write X instead of x + 1. Set sin 0 x 0 to find cos20 x 1 .x) 13 The unmarked points in Figure 2.h) = ? 2h 2h Use the addition formula (2). 23 Draw the graph of y = sin ix.cos (x . . Therefore cos h is close to 1 . .sin (x + h) . Examples of oscillation in real life are s and t .5 (c) 0 = 30" (d) 0 = 3".5 and 0.i x 2 are sin x and The slopes of sin x and are cos x and 1.01. 2 (Calculator) Find (sin h)/h at h = 0. The sine of . The slope at that point 25 By combining sin x and cos x.sin (x . Show that (tan h)/h is squeezed between 1 and l/cos h.4 EXERCISES 11 Find by calculator or calculus: The derivative of y = sin x is y' = a . This gives dyldx at x = 6 Draw cos (x Ax) next to cos x.99? 3 Find the limits as h .302 for + sin 2(x + h) .
Take the derivative of each term in sin2x + cos2x = 1.2. (d) If y' is increasing then y" is positive.25 sin 5x. Fortunately they are rules that apply to every function. Sum Rule d du dv The derivative of the sum u(x) + v(x) is (u + v) = . set your calculator in degree mode. He is running like mad. Then the total distance from his starting point is t + sin t. then the derivatives of u + v and uu and llv and u/u and un are immediately available. 32 Give an example of oscillation that does not come from physics. You could (a) The derivative of sin2x is cos2x (b) The derivative of cos (. That is tremendously simple. the derivative of ( ~ ( x )is )~ 2u duldx. When we add functions. For y = sin x and Ax = . but we need new rules. with those five rules to learn.5 The Product and Quotient and Power Rules 26 True or false. Then AylAx is . This is a straightforward section. Is it simple harmonic motion (one frequency only)? 33 Explain the second derivative in your own words. The interpretation for distances may be more confusing (and more interesting) than the rule itself: Suppose a train moves with velocity 1.. we add their derivatives. dx dx dx EXAMPLE 1 The derivative of x + sin x is 1 + cos x. It is also an important section. If you add distances. 30 Write down a ratio that approaches dyldx at x = z. where a and b are any real numbers. The distance at time t is t.4 sin x. so they can be established once and for all. Actually that example is ridiculous. The sum rule is a special case of a bigger rule called "linearity.+ . On the train a professor paces back and forth (in simple harmonic motion). not pacing. because the professor's maximum speed equals the train speed (= 1). His distance from his seat is sin t. but it is fundamental. By linearity the derivative is 3 . and his velocity (train speed plus walking speed) is 1 + cos t. A linear combination is y(x) = au(x) + bv(x). Occasionally he is standing still with respect to the ground.. containing most of the working tools of differential calculus. If we know the separate derivatives of two functions u and v. find lim. 31 By the square rule. you add velocities.O1 compute that ratio. 29 If h is measured in degrees. So this function satisfies the differential equation y" = What are the derivatives of x + sin x and x sin x and l/sin x and xlsin x and sinnx? Those are made up from the familiar pieces x and sin x. 27 Find solutions to dyldx = sin 3x and dyldx = cos 3x. At least the easiest rule comes first.x) is sin x (c) A positive function has a negative second derivative. The rule works for all functions u(x) and v(x). But I am afraid that five rules and thirteen examples (which we needthe eyes glaze over with formulas alone) make a long list. with reason: 71 (sin h)/h. 28 If y = sin 5x then y' = 5 cos 5x and y" = ." It applies when we add or subtract functions and multiply them by constantsas in 3x .4 cos x.
so the derivative of sin2x + cos2x is zero (sum rule). when u is the same as v. It can't be so simpleproducts are not linear. Example: The derivative of x5 is 5x4. dx dx This confirms the "square rule" 2u duldx. The krivative of u times v is not duldx times dvldx. How do you see that more quickly? EXAMPLE 5 The derivative of uvw is uvw' The derivative of xxx is xx + xx + xx.2 Derivatives The limit on the left is dyldx. Question Those answers for sin2x and cos2x have opposite signs. the derivative has two terms. Product Rule (the key to this section) The derivative of u(x)v(x) is (uu) = u  d dx dv du + v . The limit on the right is a duJdx + b dvldx. Don't multiply the derivatives of x3 and x2.+ b . but products give something new.13 Change in length = Au + Av. Similarly the slope of cos2x is . The sum rule is what you would have done anyway. . I don't write dxldx = 1 but it's there: (x sin x) = x d dx cos x + sin x. Fig. (3x2 times 2x is not 5x4.(au + bu) = a . We get two equal terms: d d sin x (sin x) + sin x (sin x) = 2 sin x cos x.2 cos x sin x (minus sign from the slope of the cosine). Change in area = u Av + v Au + Au Av.) For a product of two functions. EXAMPLE 4 If u = sin x and v = sin x then uv = sin2x. 2. We are allowed to take limits separately and add. The result is what we hope for: Rule of Linearity d du dv The derivative of au(x) + bv(x) is . + uv'w + u'vwone derivative at a time. The product rule leads to 5x4: EXAMPLE 3 In the slope of x sin x. dx dx dx The prorluct rule comes next. dx dx EXAMPLE 2 u = x3 times v = x2 is uv = x5.
dvldx dollars/hour and also w v dollar^)^ From this test. but it prevents bad errors. Figure 2. EXAMPLE6 The derivatives ofx'. Then dimensions agree: hour . That proves the product ruledefinitely useful. The important changes in area are the two strips u Av and v Au. which approaches zero. dv/dx is in dollars per hour. Notice how the sum rule is in one dimension and the product rule is in two dimensions. Apply the product rule: ( dx .13 explains it best. This increase is u(x + h)Av + v(x)Autop plus side. are 1xP2. If v is in dollars and x is in hours.~ x" Those come from the reciprocal rule with v = x and x2 and any xn: The beautiful thing is that this answer nx"' Multiply by the exponent and reduce it by one.2. By algebra. The test ignores constants and plus or minus signs. A similar test shows that Einstein's formula e = mc2 is dimensionally possible. x .nx"I. The extra area comes from the whole top strip plus the side strip. The corner area Au A v is much smaller. We could go immediately to the quotient rule for u(x)/v(x). and a good idea in mathematics. the derivative of l/v cannot be l/(dv/dx).Z X . is converted to energy. A test of dimensions is automatic in science and engineering.5 The Product and Quotient and Power Rules After those examples we prove the product rule. The corner gives Au AvlAx. Now divide by h (or Ax) and let h + 0.1/x2 (known). The derivative of 1 is 0.? . . What is the derivative of l/v(x)? Reciprocal Rule The derivative of  1 44 is  . The area of the big rectangle is uv. The rule for uvw would be in three dimensions.~ . The derivative of l/x is . (7) For negative and positive exponents the derivative of xn is nxnl.dvldx u2 dvldx v2 ' The proof starts with (v)(l/v)= 1. . The right side becomes u(x) times dvldxwe can multiply the two limitsplus v(x) times duldx. fits into the same pattern as xn. When we divide by Ax. The theory of relativity might when mass be correct! Both sides have the dimension of (mas~)(distance)~/(time)~. the strips give u Av/Ax and v AulAx. +But only Einstein knew that the constant is 1.)v + d 1 v = dx O 1dv sothat dx " ( A ) =  v  It is worth checking the unitsin the reciprocal rule and others. But start with u = 1. The left side of equation (4) becomes the derivative of u(x)v(x).
and l/sin x is the cosecant of x. For u = 1 we have the reciprocal rule.sin x x2 .14b shows the difference (u + Au)/(v Av) . I have to check them every time before using them (maybe once a year).u u(x) vdx v2 v2 You must memorize that last formula. We divide by cos x.That is u times llv. At x = n/2 the sine curve is flat (cos x = 0) and the tangent curve is vertical (sec2x = co).l/x2.A1 Av Reciprocal 1 1 Av .v duldx . In trigonometry.u dvldx is . The next rule applies to the quotient u(x)/v(x). Combining the product rule and reciprocal rule gives something new and important: Quotient Rule u(x) 1 du dvldx . not the formulas. the quotient is sin xlcos x = tan x.sin x(. but not very new. 1 cos x 1 sin x +sinx cos2x cosx sin2x Those come directly from the reciprocal rule.sec x tan x. 2.Av)/v2.14 Reciprocal rule from (.. The derivative o f tan x is sec2x. E X A M P L E 10 d sin x dx(x) x cos x . because of the square in the denominator.sin x) 1 .vAuuAv v+Av v v(v+ Av) AD v Fig. dx sin2x sin x sin x Those formulas are often seen in calculus.Quotient rule from (v Au . The graphs of sin x and x and tan x all start with this slope (then they separate). The v2 is familiar. Use the quotient rule and cos2x + sin2x = 1: cos x(cos x) .(ulv). once for the tangent and twice for its slope. Like most mathematicians. Quotient E X A M P L E 7 The derivatives of and are and . dx cos2x cos x cos x d cos x 1 cos x (CSCX)===csc x cot x.u Av)/v2.. this slope is 1.= v +A u v v(v + Av) u+Au u . The slope is more sensitive than the function. The slope of l/x is . The rest is new. The denominator V(V Av) is responsible for v2. Figure 2. The derivative of  + + E X A M P L E 8 (only practice) If u/v = x5/x3 (which is x2) the quotient rule gives 2x: E X A M P L E 9 (important) For u = sin x and v = cos x. Now we have their derivatives: 1 sin x d sin x (set x)= .sec2x. l/cos x is the secant of the angle x. The slope generally blows up faster than the function. c0s2X c0s2X (11) Again to memorize: (tan x)' = sec2x. It is really the rules that are basic. At x = 0.. If you have a good memory they are worth storing. If v = 1 the result is duldx (of course).
which goes from each n to the next power n + 1 by the product rule: That is exactly equation (12) for the power n + 1. Therefore (&)' is 1/2& which fits the formula when n = f.10 showed graphically that (sin x)/x is flat at the center point. Watch that factor in 6(sin x)' cos x and 7(tan x ) sec2 ~ x and 8(x2+ l)'(2x): Power Rule du i .15 Length change = Au. For n = 2 we get the square rule 2u duldx.3.'). For n = 1 this reduces to du/dx = duldx. This is the binomial formula in a picture. We want to allow fractional powers n = p/q.cos x. Next comes u3.and the true derivative is zero.2. The three thin slabs are u by u by Au. The cube makes the point best. Its derivative is 2&(&)' = 1. It goes beyond xn to (u(x)r. The best approach is to use mathematical induction. going up from n = 1then the negative powers come from the reciprocal rule. Figure 2. Formally it becomes 010. Now try n = p/q: ' . EXAMPLE 11 d (sin x)" = n(sin x)". dx ' Our last step finally escapes from a very undesirable restrictionthat n must be a whole number. We get all positive powers this way.4Au. A power of x changes to a power of u(x)as in (sin x ) ~ or (tan x)' or (x2 + I)*. From multiplying out ( ~ + A u ) ~ the . and I hope you will allow one more. The function is even (symmetric across the y axis) so its derivative can only be zero. but there is an extra factor duldx.15 shows the power rule for n = 1. area change x 21. The derivative of [u(x)In is n[~(x)]~' . In reality it is more like 03/02. The derivative of xn is still nxnTo deal with square roots I can write (&)' = x. 2. The change in volume is essentially 3u2Au. volume change x 3u2Au.5 The Product and dent and Power Rules That one I hesitate to touch at x = 0. and keep the same formula. The extra factor cos x is duldx. exact change in volume is 3u2Au + ~ u ( A u+ )~ (A~)~whichalso accounts for three narrow boxes and a midget cube in the corner. Figure 2.2. This section is full of rules. The derivative contains nun' (copying nxn. U(AU)* 3 bricks u2 AU 3 slabs u Au u Au u Au Fig.
But the curve in Figure 2.according to Chapter 6.s 1 1 1 8 I Fig. The slope is zero at x = 0 and infinite at x = co. slope is infinite at x = 0 and zero at x = a.= nxn du dx 1 (replace plq by n and u by xn) EXAMPLE 12 The slope of x'I3 is ~ x . 2. Together with the chain rule that dominates Chapter 4. It doesn't stay below an "asymptote. Rule of Linearity Product Rule Reciprocal Rule Quotient Rule Power Rule (au + bv)' = au' + bv' (uv)' = ud + VU' (Ilv)' = .16 keeps climbing. We list them in one place for convenience. The graph climbs faster than a line and slower than a parabola (4 is between 1 and 2).uv')/v2 (un)'= nu'''u' The power rule applies when n is negative. A computer can memorize them all. WE STOP NOW! I am sorry there were so many rules. or any real number. Its slope follows the cube root curve (times j).'. Take derivatives.v'/v2 (ulv)' = (vu' . but it doesn't know what they mean and you do. or a fraction. derivative of x" is zx". assuming they exist: qU41 du = pxpdx ' (power rule on both sides) (cancel xP with uq) du .~ I The ~ ." 1. they achieve virtually all the derivatives ever computed by mankind. .16 Infinite slope of xn versus zero slope: the difference between 0 < n < 1 and n > 1. The .px' dx qu' .csc2 x (csc x)' = .csc x cot x . EXAMPLE 13 The slope of x4I3is 4x'I3.sin x = . The derivative of (sin x)" is And the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions are now established: (sin x)' (COS x)' = cos x (tan x)' (cot x)' = sec2x (sec x)' = sec x tan x = .2 Derivatives Fractional powers Write u = xPIqas uq = xP.
and d rule. and height t. Aw. 35 Find the distances f (t). b. c rule. When a box with sides u. v. The derivative of u/v is 1 . With dx/dt = V = constant. (a) What is the rate of change of the volume? (b) What is the rate of change of the surface area? 28 With two applications of the product rule show that the derivative of uvw is uvw' + uv'w + u'uw. what are the degrees for its derivative? 42 For y = 5x + 3. (X. so the slope of sec x is h .2)(x .5 The Product and Quotient and Pwer Rules 77 2. 37 Draw a figure like 2. find dyldt and d2y/dt2 at x = 0 and x = L. a coasttocoast plane starts down L > 100 miles from the airport. (e) (uv)' = u'u' is true when u(x) = 1.) A growing box has length t. with a good reason: (a) The derivative of x2" is 2nx2"'. three slabs are added with volume uu A w and and . d so its landing path y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d is smooth. 40 The cost of u shares of stock at v dollars per share is uv dollars. 33 Find the second derivative of the product u(x)v(x). The derivative of s is 4 sin3x cos x./= for t 2 10. starting from f (0) = 0. width 1/(1+ t).+ b(x) dvldx. (c) The derivative of 1xI3 is 31xI2.1)(x. The slope of xn is I and the slope of (~(x))" is m . (a) What is the velocity v(t)? (b) What is the acceleration duldt? 32 Apply the product rule to u(x)u2(x)to find the power rule for u3(x). I . + Find the derivatives of the functions in 126. which applies to au(x) + bv(x).13 to explain the square rule. The latter gives the second derivative of . Av. . 44 Explain in your own words why the derivative of u(x)v(x) has two terms. 34 Find functions y(x) whose derivatives are (a) x3 (b) l/x3 (c) (1 .cot2 x sin x . which agrees with the rule for sec x. w grows by Au. (d) tan2 x and sec2x have the same derivative.1 sinx COS X x1I2 sin2x + (sin x)'I2 x4 cos x + x C O Sx ~ 12 x3I2 sin3x + (sin x ) ~ / ~ 14 &(& l)(& + 2) 16 ( ~ . to match these velocities: (a) v(t) = cos t sin t (b) v(t) = tan t sec2t (c) v(t) = Jl+t 36 Apply the quotient rule to ( ~ ( x ) ) ~ / ( u ( x and ) ) ~ u'/v2.cos x 20 sin x + cos x + 3x2sinxxcosx+sinx sec2x . (To keep d2y/dt2 small. With n = 1 the derivative of (cos x)' is n . 312 t and height h = 30 A cylinder has radius r = 1 +t3I2 1+ t ' (a) What is the rate of change of its volume? (b) What is the rate of change of its surface area (including top and base)? 31 The height of a model rocket is f (t) = t3/(l + t). The derivative of (3 sin x 4 cos x ) ~ is 4 cos x is r . 29 Find the velocity if the distance is f (t) = 5t2 for t < 10. 500 + loo. Even simpler is the rule of 0 . The derivative of l / v is g . 38 Give an example where u(x)/u(x)is increasing but du/dx = dvldx = 1. b rule. Check dimensions of d(uv)/dt and u dv/dt and v duldt. Choose a.3) x2 cos x + 2x sin x x3 + 1 x+1 + 6 (X. The derivative is P .2. 45 A plane starts its descent from height y = h at x = . Test your formulas on u = u = x. find the twopart function df /dt. The derivative of tan3 x is so the slope of tan x is k .L to land at (0. c. 39 True or false.6 ) ' ~ + s i n ' ~ x 18 csc2x .x ) ~ (d) ~ cos2 ~ x sin x. (b) By linearity the derivative of a(x)u(x) + b(x)u(x) is a(x)du/dx. is ( d y / d ~the ) ~ same as d 2 y / d ~ 2 ? 43 If you change from f (t) = t cos t to its tangent line at t = 7112.tan2x 1 1 tan x cot x COS 26 x sin x + cos x 41 If u(x)/v(x)is a ratio of polynomials of degree n. Find the third derivative.1 ) 2 (~ 2)2 8 x'I2(x + sin x) cos x sin x lo+ x2+1 x2 .5 EXERCISES Readthrough questions The derivatives of sin x cos x and l/cos x and sin x/cos x and tan3x come from the a rule. The product of sin x times cos x has (uv)' = uv' + e = 1 . The slope of 3 sin x + q .O).
. ignore the 3's and find a. The condition would be satisfied by 1. For any small number you think of. Ax + 0: 1. but eventually all terms must go below lo''. The an's must go below that number. but not likely. 1.. Neither do the next billion. 10~.lo. f. Question 1 Doesthesequence lo. 3. is smaller than the preceding a.. + 8) an = probability of living to year n (unfortunately an + 0) a.. ). + 1) a. a. . and I hope the right one will be clear. They may come back up and go below againthe first million terms make absolutely no difference. It is true that we have survived this far without one. a. 2. This is the correct definition. and we could continue. Possibly a.. After waiting longer (possibly a lot longer). and always a.. start with a small numbersay 10lo. < E if n > 6 nonconvergence Fig. all terms drop below The tail end of the sequence decides everything. . = ...4. That pushes something toward zero. 1.. the a's converge to a limit. + 4 (start with any a.. but it certainly doesn't make the a. We will propose four definitions of convergence to zero.You have seen enough limits to be ready for a definition. . . That may be enough for practical purposes....001. They involve n + a.1. 1. A good starting point is to ask about convergence to zero.. a." but that is too vague. i . When does a sequence ? The numbers of positive numbers approach zero? What does it mean to write an+ O a.. This test is met by 1. These up and down numbers eventually stay below any E . But this seems a reasonable time to define limits more carefully.. First you should know that limits of Ay/Ax are by no means the only limits in not mathematics. 4.493.. 4. 2.. at least one o f the an's is smaller. = )a. approacho? Answer Yes.17 Convergence means: Only a finite number of a's are outside any strip around L. are below 10. 2. the an's eventually go below that number and stay below. For any small number you think of. must become "small.. a. 1.<~ifn>3 a. 1.10~..01. approach zero.which does not approach zero. The problem is to say what the limit symbol + really means. which converges to 1 instead of 0. The goal is to achieve rigor without rigor mortis. = .49... 5. I want to repeat that. a2 = ..3)/(n + 3) (for large n.. a. No matter what the remaining decimals are. Here are five completely different examples. 3. . To test for convergence to zero. but not necessarily the whole sequence. = (n . + .. All the numbers a. The sequence is getting closer to zeroeach a.493000 . = fraction of zeros among the first n digits of n (an+ h?) a.
. .0 means lanl+ 0. 8. This sequence goes below There is a recognized symbol for "an arbitrarily small positive number. . f .9. 10lo.0 ) . . approach zero? but does not stay below. f .  4.. Eventually 2" grows faster than n2. .18 a.convergesto zero because 1.. rn in Example 5 (but a.4. We write a. Convergence to zero means that the sequence eventually goes below E and stays there. Think of E as the tolerance. starts upward but goes to zero..a.. Whatever E he proposes. the a's must eventually be smaller.. to be negative as well as positive.0.f .. 0..f . The distancefrom zero is the absolute value la. . . and keep reducing it. . Here is the exact statement: for any E there is an N such that a. . . They can converge upward toward zero. To emphasize that E comes from outside.l < E if n > N. But now the strip starts at . the rest is easy. Next we allow the numbers a.. is much slowerbut it also converges to zero.L converge to Zero. f . all the a's are below the tolerance E...a. EXAMPLE 3 1.. it is the Greek letter E (epsilon). f ...f .0 i n Example 3." By worldwide agreement. The sequence 1. f . Answer No.. a. Figure 2.6 Limits Question 2 Does lo'. This is the definition of convergence! Only a finite number of a's are outside any strip around L (Figure 2. . The test still requires the a..convergesto zero. The limit is L if the numbers a. Once you see that idea. The previous test can be applied to lanl: for any E there is an N such that la.. or they can come in from both sides. as in alo = 100/1024.. approaches zero.17 has N = 3 and then N = 6.the tougher the test and the longer we wait. are powers of 2. 1024. < E if n > N.. The smaller the E.l..4. .18).$. 100.LI: for any E there is an N such that (a. . After some a.$.. Fig. are squares.f . . . to go inside any strip near zero (and stay there). It is a short step to limits other than zero.L( < E i f n > N.... . . Notice that 1. 8.f .. The ratio goes below any E. 2.. .f . So N = 2001 for that E.. . lo*. a . = L or limn. Therefore a. EXAMPLE I The sequence EXAMPLE 2 1. The choice E = 1 / 1 0 produces the right response: Beyond azoolall terms are below 1/1000. These a's do not decrease steadily (the mathematical word for steadily is monotonica ally") but still their limit is zero..4. lo'. = L.2. . * 1 i n Example 4.0.L or lim a. Socrates can choose it. Our final test applies to the absolute value la. and 2..E.
The fourth term adds on 3 + so a.a. ." Or we might say "I will come only if you call. But those numbers a. . .L value cannot exceed E + E = 2s. converge. THE LOGIC O F "IF" AND "ONLY IF" The following page is inserted to help with the language of mathematics. converge to zero. But this juggling is not necessary. To stay below 2s is just as convincing as to stay below s.. is past L = 9)...a. . . . The sum is infinite.. +. we start with s = 1/20.a. Statement A is a... 1 8 ~ stopping at any L. because the "partial sums" a. exceeds 23. .a. a3." We discuss this logic below. but this example makes a subtle . . can go to zero while still a.E X A M P L E 4 The numbers 3. point: The steps between the a. After subtracting 1 the differences 3. . The distance between terms is getting smaller. is beyond 3. Eight more terms will add more are infinitely long. We will come back to infinite series." That is different! A mathematician might even say "I will come if and only if you call. In the language of Chapter 10.. + .a.. emphasizing the difference between "sufficient" and "necessary." Our goal is to think through the logic.LI.0 is not suficient for convergence. That is a good exercise in the logic of convergence..  + 4. totaling more than $ + $ + $ + & = 3.L and L .L. +.a. f . . there is a number N beyond which (a. because it is important and not so fami1iar. after proving that [statement A] implies [statement B]: If [a.a... is the sum of a. so a. converges to L] then [a. a. go past any proposed limit L. . + . Thus the condition a. However this condition is necessary. Then 2s = 1/10. then a. . Since a. the harmonic series 1 + 3 + 3 + does not converge. statement B is a. The lines in Figure 2 ..+. If we do have convergence.+ . . (1) Proof Because the a.. converge to L = 1. . . It seems excessive to have so many expressions for the same idea. 1 < 1/10. converges to zero].. In ordinary language we might say "I will come if you call.. Here are the five ways that come to mind: A implies B if A then B A is a suflcient condition for B B is true if A is true ?Logical thinking is much more important than E and 6.a. .a. a.+. approaches zero. not than 8 times &. Therefore a. ..+ . goes past 2. Those difference are la.t Statement A above implies statement B.0.0. and I though you might like to see them together. k. Therefore a. Objection by Socrates: We only got below 2s and he asked for s.. 2. Mathematics has at least five ways of writing down A => B. The eighth term has four new fractions 4 + &+f $. The second term is 15. Our reply: If he particularly wants la. .L( < s and I < E. g. but authors get desperate for a little variety. go beyond every limit L (a. its absolute also la.
L) + L(b. + LIM (provided M # 0) We check the multiplication rule. or it might not. and now we start on the rules.M) + M(a. to prove the sum rule and product rule for derivatives. converges]. and b. That means two separate proofs. An important special case is can. c. c./b. . We started on the definition.." not the inverse.L . + LM.cL. Of course stating the converse does not make it true! B might imply A. c. If [sequences a. . . which uses a convenient identity: (2) Suppose Jan . . + M. .L+ 01.2L] [a.b. . .) We exchange A and B..M Subtraction: a. Calculus also needs rules for limits.L)(b. Given two convergent sequences. B is the conclusion. converge] then [the sequence a..LM Division: a. That derivative contains two limits: Ax + 0 and AylAx + dyldx. + Those are all true.LJ< E beyond some point N. a. But they can be stated together for convenience (when both are true): AB A implies B and B implies A A is equivalent to B A is a necessary and suficient condition for B E X A M P L E S [a.M). + L and b.  + 1 + L + 11  [a. + b.b. Now we go in the other direction. The same is true of the deceptively short phrase "if and only if. (It is called the "converse. I t is less than E E + ME+ LE. to define dyldx. but not proved. . to give lim can= c lim a. and 1 b.of N and N'. and a. + L]  A is true if and only i f B is true [2an . . This proves that (2) gives a..b.E X A M P L E S If [positive numbers are decreasing] then [they converge to a limit].MI < E beyond some other point N'. A is the hypothesis. b. . the right side of (2) is small.LM = (a.b. (The sequence of b's is c. can converge when the separate sequences do not. can converge without decreasing. The converse of the third statement is trueand there are five more ways to state it: A* B A is implied by B i f B then A A is a necessary condition for B B is true only i f A is true Those words "necessary" and "sufficient" are not always easy to master." The two statements A* B and A e B are completely different and they both require proof. a. Then beyond the larger. In the first two examples the converse was falsethe a.) Thus a constant can be brought "outside" the limit. + b. If [f (x) is the integral of v(x)] then [v(x) is the derivative of f (x)].  Multiplication: a. + L + M . other sequences also converge: Addition: a. . RULES FOR LIMITS Calculus needs a definition o f limits.
" The difference f(x) . Socrates concedes that the limit is L.101< E. He has to be shown that f (x) is within E of L.. The limit x + a is forcing f (x) + L.L as x ..19. Socrates chooses the height of the box. The limit is taken as x approaches a specified point a . . We do not and cannot require that Jx.Ll< E. Remark 1 In Figure 2. When Plato can find a 6 for every E. x+2 Socrates asks for 15x .x2 (instead of n approaches L = 4.a The final step is to replace sequences by functions. + L.LI < E.LI < E. f (x) = L. lim. What 6 should he choose? In this case 15x . Example: As x approaches a = 0. In that case .2 15x .a1 < E produces ) f (x) . the output tolerance is E. EXAMPLE Prove that lim 5x = 10.101 < E. for every x near a.T H E LIMIT OF f ( x ) AS x . then f (x) ." or "below any E. co). If x . multiplication by 5 shows that (a smaller 6 is always OK). As x approaches a = 2. Then If (x) . the function f (x) = 4 .19 S chooses height 2. So Plato picks 6 below ~ / 5 1 < 45. the word small does not say everything. Second. .5. by the small number E.. by keeping x within 6 of a: if 0 < lx . (3) The input tolerance is 6 (delta). Plato responds by requiring Ix .21.a. but we have to say what they mean. 2.. Plato chooses the width." Plato's goal is to get f(x) within E of L.2 1 < 6. He must make the box narrow enough for the graph to go out the sides. Instead of a. a2. We really mean "arbitrarily small..L should be small. (Previously n + co forced a.LI < E . It extends above and below L. then P chooses width 26. Those statements are fairly obvious.) But it is wrong to expect the same E in both limits. 1 limit L is not f ( o ) f ( x ) = step function I I Fig. We have come to the "epsilondelta definition" of limits. Somehow it must be this: i f x is close to a then f (x) is close to L. Or we write f (x) The statement is awkward because it involves two limits. Socrates chooses E. It may be necessary to push x extremely close to a (closer than E). That gives the meaning of "near a. then If (x) .a is small. As before.L must become as small as anyone wants. First. the function 5x approaches L = 10. Whenever J x.a1 < S then (f(x) .101 is exactly 5 times Jx.We must guarantee that if x is close enough to a. there is a continuum of values f(x). Graph must go out the sides. when x gets near a. In this case a = 2 and L = 10. Then somebody else (maybe Plato) replies with a number 6.
a is distance up over distance across.1= 0 (a onesided limit).L and h(x) .LJ< E . Then the response could be 6 = 1/100. We soon come back to continuous functions. The ratio off (x) . After subtracting L. (We double the slope for safety. A reasonable choice is to divide E by 2 1ff(a)l. It is L = 0. because the square root starts with infinite slope.L( < E and Ih(x). not Socrates in Greece. Mathematicians do not go around proposing 8's and replying with 8's.f is continuous. Those examples show the point of the 66 definition. but not that strange.a). This choice solves most exercises. we prove the Squeeze Theorem using E and 6. ' Proof g(x) is squeezed between f (x) and h(x). We may live a strange life. the number 5 was the slope. (Given E. The same is true for other familiar functions: xn+ an and sin x + sin a and (1 . This came from Cauchy in France. with no effect on L.t (1 . Remark 3 In the example with f = 5x and 6 = 45. A step function has no limit as x approaches the jump. because the graph goes through the top or bottomno matter how thin the box. The correct limit L comes by substituting x = a into the function. That equals ~ / for 2 our "reasonable choice" of 6so we are safely below E. That choice barely kept the graph in the boxit goes out the corners. Since negative numbers are not allowed by the square root. Suppose E is 1/10. because in taking limits we ignore the Jinalpoint x = a. The number x approaches a = 1 only from above.L. An ordinary limit x + 1 requires us to accept x on both sides of 1 (the exact value x = 1 is not considered).x). It is easier to establish once and for all that 5x approaches its obvious limit 5a.L to x .'except at a = 1. When the distance across is 6. This is Af/Ax. say 6 = ~110. 6 much smaller than E.When f(x) has a jump. Then a special name applies./x . Therefore Ig(x) . the distance up or down is near 6 1ff(a)l. . look for 6.) I want to say why this 6 workseven if the E6 test is seldom used in practice. Notice the plus sign in the symbol x + 1+ . So the first one also holds. In this case the box must be made extremely narrow. the last two inequalities hold in some region 0 < Jx. The left figure shows a continuous function. A number below 1/100 has a square root below 1/10. Remark 2 The second figure has f (x) + L.LI < E if If(x) . This is exactly the property of a "continuousfunction. EXAMPLE 7 x+1+ lim .and the graph goes safely out the sides. Values at x = a are not involveduntil we get to continuous functions.L is between f (x) . The first figure has more: f (a) equals L. close to the slope f'(a).a1 < 6. the other figures do not. we have a onesided limit. This proves that g(x) + L." Before the section on continuous functions. For any E. g(x) . But Example 7 shows that a limit might exist even when the slope is infinite. the box can't hold it. A little narrower. The value f (a) can be anything.) We also see its bad feature: The test is not convenient.
a.. The limit of a.LI < E whenever P . < n] B = [a.. An E6 test is not required. . + The limit of a. Then B is true x A is true. .isnot i because eventually those sums go past k . i. Give an example in which f (x) 3 4 as x rrc ...a l < G (3) If(x). 01 (c) A = [a..O1 find a point X beyond which I f(x)l < E. + 0 is: Only d of the numbers la. + 1 (a) If a. Then B is true z A is true. .(onesided) X IxI A * B means that A is a w condition for B. ..L + M as x . 19 lim x+o JI+x1 Y (test x = . n (g) 1 1. are t . For t: = ..I)" is c .. + 11 lirn h+O 1x1 13 lim+ .a.21 < E . f ( s )= sin s as s + why not. when f(x) + L and g(x) + M as x +a.O1 30 The limit of f (x)= 2x/(l + x) as x + rx is L = 2.(onesided) x+o x 15 lirn x+l . t+3 7 lirn t+2 t22 9 lim X .2 i s m . + 11 B = [a. la. prove that we can put those numbers in any order and the new sequence still approaches zero.6 Readthrough questions EXERCISES "5 If the sequence a. (1 +4I2.. Explain . The limit of a.11 (b) A =[a./n converges] 28 Give a correct definition of ''f(. The limit of f ( x ) = x / l x l a s x . The corresponding rules for functions.11.n (e) a. approaches zero.++$. = n4/2" is b .   sin x x 17 lirn x+5  x2 + 25 x5 $+a+&.tan x) x+42 + 2 Show by example that these statements are false: . . . For find a point X beyond which If ( x ) .L l < ~ = O < I x .LI or I f (x) . + h..LI must s and eventually go below and u any positive v . A B means that A is a Y condition for B. + L then a.a. ./b. + + Find the limits 724 if they exist. + f .1) xtl x21 25 Choose 6 so that I f(.1. a. .. 1.LI < E 0 ~ I . The meaning of a. r (f) ~ . are u.x'.a ( < 6 (2) I f ( x ) . and what is the limit L? After which N is la. + r .LI < &?(Calculator allowed) (b) 4. = . (b) u. 1 What is u.. 4 Decide whether A 26 Which does the definition of a limit require? (1) I f ( x . + . B = [lla. *6 Suppose f (x) L and g(x) ..M as x t a. L and b. x . Prove from the definitions that f (x) g(x) .b. (c) i. The meaning of a. + 0) . The limit of f ( x ) = sin x as x a is I .. + L then L < 0 (d) If infinitely many an's are inside every strip around zero then a.a 1< 6  27 The definition of "f(x) + L as x + x" is this: For any there is an X such that < E if x > X. = (sin n)/n is a .x) + 0 as x .l+$+~. / ' ~ .x)l < Aif 0 < x < 6.. + L if and only if a: L~ (c) If u." E 29 The limit of f(x) =(sin x)/x as x + x is = .111. +0] B = [a.01) 20 lim x42  J4x 21 lim [f(x)f(a)](?) x+a 22 lim (sec x .) . a n = n / 2 " (d) 1. does not exist.... 3 Which of these statements are equivalent to B = A? (a) If A is true so is B (b) A is true if and only if B is true (c) B is a sufficient condition for A (d) A is a necessary condition for B. + 0. This function only has o sided limits. f (x) = L is: For every E there is a 6 such that I f (x).. $. fails to converge] (e) A = [a. b u t thelimitasx+Odoes not n .f .. E + B or B * A or neither or both: (a) A = [a. 1. =/ . The meaning of lirn. + q and a. = (. < 0 and a.. (1 + f ) 3 .L and h..84 2 Derivatives 2. r_ 31 The limit of . .O] (d) A = [a.Thesequencel.L l < ~ = O r l x . + M.. + 01 (f) A = [a. + sin x 23 lirn X+O sin x/2 24 lim sin (x .l+$.+ .~ O f (X+ h) f (4 h sin2h cos2 h h2 2x tan x 12 lirn X+O sin x 14 lirn x0 Two rules for limits. + L is: For every f there is an g such that h ifn> i . In all limits. when a./ can be e . (a) 1. . = n] B = [sin a. < n] B = [a.
is Cauchy's erty: If n > N and m > N then (a." That test is twisted around. . which does not converge to zero. Find a2 and a. a l = . 9. That number is f (a)." Important rule As x + co the ratio of polynomials f(x)/g(x) has the same limit as the ratio of their leading terms. then b. f (x) is continuous at x = a. x 36 If a particular 6 achieves choose a smaller 6? If (x) .l < 40 Choose decimals in Problem 39 so the limit is L = . May I summarize the usual (good) situation as x approaches a? 1. . 45 Prove the Squeeze Theorem for sequences. 33 For the polynomial f (x) = 2x .. (a) From a. the value off at x = a.a. . Choose decimals so that your professor can't find L. The limit of f (x) exists (it was called L) 3. = (1 . 46 Explain in 110 words the difference between "we will get there if you hurry" and "we will get there only if you hurry" and "we will get there if and only if you hurry. (f ( x ) ) ~ / ~ (behaves x) like x6/5x6 115." this final number f (a) must be right. = $an.4 and start from al = 10. = . g(x)/f (x) behaves like 5x6/x3+ a. what is the "average" limit L? 42 If every decimal is 0 or 1(at random)..49.7 Continuous Functions 85 + as x + a. what is the average limit L? 43 Suppose a. f (x) = x3 .5x2 + 7x3 find 32 (Calculator) Estimate the limit of 1  ( :r 38 If a...a.1 This will be a brief section. The number f (a) exists (f is defined at a) 2.. 35 Find the limit as x + co if it exists: + 3x2 + 2 x + 1 3+2x+x2 x4 x3+x2 x2 + 1000 x31000 1 x sin .494. These requirements are often written in a . . start with four functions that are single line: f (x) +f (a) as x not continuous at x = 0... but a new number was too long. Therefore f (x)/g(x)behaves like x3/5x6 + 0.7 Continuous Functions . .a. a. By way of contrast. .+ L and a n 6 b n d c n for n > N.2. For a "limit. 44 "For every 6 there is an E such that If (x)]< e if 1x1 < 6.4. onwards we have la." x approached a but never reached itso f(a) was ignored. For a "continuous function.+ L. . Deduce that a. + L prove that there is a number N with this prop.abcde.493.aml< (b) After which a. is lam. why is it OK to 37 The sum of 1 + r + r2 + . We are still concerned with the limit off (x) as x is involved. How do we know (when we can't know L)? Cauchy's test is passed: the a's get closer to each other.a.. Find e when f (x) = cos x. co? For which r does the limit What is the limit of a.x + 2 has leading term x3 and g(x) = 5x6 + x + 1 has leading term 5x6.LI < e. is picked at random from 0. . .8 and a. but the combination .( < 2 ~This test for convergence.+ r"' is a.8.8.r). 39 No matter what decimals come later. The limit L equals f (a) (f (a) is the right value) In such a case. a2 = .. using e: If a n + L and c. approaches a limit L. and a connection between a. (4 (c) lirn f xim x3 f( 4 (d) lirn x400 x3 34 For f (x) = 6x3 + l00Ox find f (x) (a) lirn x+m X f( 4 (c) lirn xrm x4 f( 4 (d) lirn x4m x3 + 1 41 If every decimal in . It was originally included with limits. 1. as n exist? 1 2.r")/(l .
In the graph of l/x2. l/x2 has a double pole. After changing f (0) to the right value. At x = 4 and $ and & it equals sin 3 and sin 4 and sin 1000. lim = 1 x+o+ X + oo. The limit from the left (x + 0) is 0. The step function has a jump discontinuity. I cannot go on record as saying that this limit exists. Examples 2. it is a continuousfunction. (1) Remark l/x has a "pole" at x = 0. But it has f (0) = 1. This function does not blow up. 2.= . It does not have an ordinary (twosided) limit. A ratio of polynomials P(x)/Q(x) has poles where Q = 0. the first function would be continuous if it had f (0) = 0.Fig. which jumps from . f (x) = step function (jump from 0 to 1 at x = 0) 3. the only reasonable limit is L= + co. the sine oscillates faster and faster. The fourth graph shows that sin(l/x) has no limit as x + 0.X) has poles at x = 0 and x = 1. 4 are more important and more serious. In Figure 2. Those numbers are positive and negative and (?). In each case the denominator goes to zero and the function goes to + oo or . no matter how narrow the box. the sine never exceeds 1. So has l/x2 (a double pole). 1 x From the right. Iff is continuous at every point where it is defined. The function l/(x2 . lim x+o . Except for l/x2 these poles are "simplewthe functions are completely smooth at x = 0 when we multiply them by x: (x)(!) =1 and (x) 1 and ( ) (A) are continuous at x = 0. since it needs multiplication by x2 (not just x). f (x) = sin (1/x) (infinite oscillation as x + 0). Officially. it doesn'tbut we often write it anyway: l/x2 + m as x + 0.co. but others can occur. + CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS DEFINITION f is "continuous at x = a" if f (a) is defined and f (x) 4f (a) as x . As x gets small and l/x gets large. a.1 to 1. from the left and right. The graphs show how the limit fails to exist. The limit from the right (x + 0') is 1.oo. The discontinuity is removable. Another step function is x/lxl. It has onesided limits.20. There is no "correct" value for f (0): 2. In the same unofficial way we write onesided limits for f (x) = l/x: From the left. 3. Jumps and poles are the most basic discontinuities. f (x) = 1/x2 (infinite limit as x + 0) 4. Its graph won't stay in a small box of height E . the problem is gone. . Similarly llsin x has a pole at every multiple of n (where sin x is zero). This means that l/x2 goes (and stays) above every L as x + 0.20 Four types of discontinuity (others are possible) at x = 0. provided any common factors like (X 1)/(x + 1) are removed first.
Certainly there is no f(0) that would make 1lx continuous at x = 0. but usually the situation is clear. There is a fraction between every pair of nonfractions and vice versa. EXAMPLE sin x and cos x and all polynomials P(x) are continuous functions. and at the same time call it a continuous function. May 1989)." At a jump. The functions l/x and tan x are not continuable. 2 Since (sin x)/x approaches 1. except that 00 is not defined. dividing by another x gives a function like 1lx. We could fill the book with proofs of continuity. Its slope jumps (not continuable). . EXAMPLE 3 Any rational function P(x)/Q(x) is continuous except where Q = 0.2. except that 00 is not defined. are continuable. but we don't have to like it. in which the zero from x 2 is reached more quickly than the zero from sin x. So define it as zero and this function is continuous. The logic requires us to accept this.) EXAMPLE 5 The function 02 is zero for every x. but I hope it is helpful. EXAMPLE 4 The function that jumps between 1 at fractions and 0 at nonfractions is discontinuous everywhere. It is an example of 0/0. (Somehow there are many more nonfractions. Those were crucial for the slope of sin x. or an infinite limit. Thus (sin x)/x and \/. EXAMPLE 2 The absolute value Ixl is continuous. or an infinite oscillation. there is no way across the discontinuity except to start again on the other side. This suggestion may not end the debate. The "race to zero" produces almost all interesting problems about limits. The function x" is continuous for n > 0. It is not continuable for n < 0. The first approaches 1 and the second approaches 0. But see the next paragraph where 00 has to be 1. "A function is continuous if you can draw its graph without lifting up your pen. You see the reasonwe speak about a discontinuity of l/x. EXAMPLE 7 sin x blows up but 1 cos x X2 has the limit 1 at x = 0. so its continuity can't fail. We call a function "continuable'iif its definition can be extended to all x in a way that makes it continuous. It is amazing but true that the definition of "continuous function" is still debated (Mathematics Teacher. The interesting examples are the close oneswe have seen two of them: EXAMPLE 6 sin x and x 1 cos x x are both continuable at x = 0. The function x0 equals 1 for every x. The function f(x) = (sin x)/x can be made continuousat all x. Strictly speaking we must give these functions the correct values (1 and 0) at the limiting point x = Owhich of course we do.7 Continuous FuncHons 87 Objection The definition makes f(x)= 1/x a continuous function! It is not defined at x = 0. It is important to know what happens when the denominators change to x2. The definition misses the difference between 1/x and (sin x)/x. This time continuity requires 00 = 1. There is a simple pole. Just set f(0) = 1.
cos x and x2 the race is almost even. To most people. The speed of approach is exactly the information in the derivative. A f goes to zero (maybe slowly). The remarkable is continuous at all points and has a derivative at function 4cos 3x + cos 9x + no points. You can draw its graph without lifting your pen (but not easilyit turns at every point). Fractals used to go into the same box! They are beautiful shapes. blows up.xor s +a) 2 Continuity (at x = a) 3 Derivative (at x = a). with boundaries that have no tangents.cos x . Proof The limit of Af = (Ax)(Af/Ax) is (O)(df/dx) = 0. Their ratio is 1 to 2: 1 . A f goes to zero as fast as Ax (because AflAx has a limit). The same is true for x113. because +xw2I3 The absolute value 1x1 has no derivative because its slope jumps. Asking for a derivative is more than asking for continuity. like market crashes or wars or discontinuities. The race is controlled by the slopebecause f (x) f (0) is nearly f '(0) times x: derivative of sin x is 1 derivative of sin2x is 0 derivative of xli3 is C Q  sin x decreases like x sin2x decreases faster than x x1I3decreases more slowly than x. The continuous function x113has no derivative at x = 0.7. it belongs with spacefilling curves and unmeasurable areasin a box of curiosities.1 . DIFFERENTIABLE FUNCTIONS The absolute value 1x1 is continuous at x = 0 but has no derivative. a function comes from many values f (x). But f (x) can be continuous with no derivative. At other points dfldx is the best guide to the function. 1+1 This answer will be found again (more easily) by "1'HBpital's rule. the function must be continuous. The reason is fundamental. I hope you have a clear idea of these basic definitions of calculus: 1 Limit ( n + . Those go back to E and 6. These three examples are all continuous at x = 0. . Ax In the first case.cos2x . . and carries us back to the key definitions: Continuous at x: f (x + Ax) f(x) + 0 as Ax Derivative at x: + 0 f (x + A. So f (x + Ax) f (x) + 0. for good mathematical reasons. The theory of fractals is very alive.sin2x x2 x2(1+c0sx) x2 1 + ~ + C O S X 1 as x + 0. and we touch on it in Section 3.u) f ( x ) +f"(x) as Ax + 0. That requirement is stronger: 21 At a point where f(x) has a derivative. A few points may be special.2 Derivatives For 1 ." Here I emphasize not the answer but the problem. In the second case. or history describes many events. A central question of differential calculus is to know how fast the limit is approached. In the same way that economics describes many transactions. but it is seldom necessary to follow them so far.
On a closed interval [a. Intermediate Value Property If the number F is between f(a) and f(b). The derivative controls the speed at which f(x) . there is a point c between a and b where f (c) = F. in [a. where f (c) = F. It has no derivative at x = 0 when n is k . the intermediate value F = 2 is also not reached. The interval is a 6 x < b. Examples show why we require closed intervals and continuous functions. .7 Readthrough questions EXERCISES Continuity requires the a of f (x) to exist as x . Because of the jump. find the numbers c that make f(x) into (A) a continuous function and (B) a differentiable function. 2. b) is open (a and b left out). If we close the interval by defining f (0) = 3 (discontinuous)the minimum is still not reached. b]. The idea of continuity was inescapable. f (a) at every point. written simply as [a.a and to agree with b . and x . after Cauchy defined the idea of a limit. in the other case Af /Ax has a limit at every point. b1.2. Iff has a derivative at x = a then f is necessarily approaches f has the s It reaches its value w . f (x) = sin (x)/x approaches I as x . Extreme Value Property A continuous function on the finite interval [a.7 Continuous Functions This chapter ends with two essential facts about a continuousfunction on a closed interval.. A '. The interval (a. There are points x.'continuable function" can be extended to every point x so that P . b] is closed (endpoints included). there is a point c between xmin and x.t At the endpoints a and b we require f (x) to approach f (a) and f (b). The power xn is continuous at all x provided n is i . t~ M and its v m. and it takes on every (tan x)/x x # 0 c x=o x2 x d c 2x x > c In Problems 120.. The reason that cos(l/x) is discontinuous at x = 0 is g . The reason that l/cos x is discontinuous at e is f . In one case f (x) .0. r q 9 f( 4= (sin x)/x2 x # 0 x+c x d c lo f(x)= c x#4 1 c x>c xQO at 11 f(x)= 112 ~ = 4 12 f(x)= sec x x 2 0 x = a. Thus if F is between the minimum m and the maximum M. The reason that x/lxl is not continuous at x = 0 is c . so this is a m function provided we define f (0) = n . The infinite interval [0. b]. The function f (x) = h has a simple pole at x = 3. b] has a maximum value M and a minimum value m. For 0 < x < 1 the function f (x) = x never reaches its minimum (zero). 1 f (4= 15 f(x)= { 16 f(x)= i sin x x < 1 c x2l 2 f (x) = i cos3x C X#7r x=n +The interval [a. b] where it reaches those values: f(xmax)= M 3 f(x) 3 f(xmin)=m for all x in [a. A "continuous function" must be continuous at all 0 . This function does have d limits. a continuous value property and the t value property. ao) contains all x 3 0. where f has a i pole.
f ". Choose an E for which no 6 can be found. then somewhere f (x) = 0.. (d) If f (1) = 1 and f (2) = . The statement "3x * 3 as x . . Mark where f (x) =f (x + 4). 36 The functions cos x and 2x are continuous. Decide whether f is continuous at (b) x = 0 (c) x=1.a1 c 6.19 f(x) = i (sin x . Explain with a graph and prove with the intermediate value theorem. and why? The statement "3x + 7 as x + 1" is false. change 0 c Ix . 33 If f(0) = 0 and f'(0) = 3. A double pole x+1 (b) Iff (x) < 7 for all x.x)/xc x # 0 O x=O 20 f(x)=Ix2+c21 Construct your own f (x) with these discontinuities at x = 1.. (b) If f(x) reaches its maximum and minimum and all values between f (0) and f (1). then f reaches its maximum. (c) (mostly for instructors) If f(x) has the intermediate value property between all points a and b. then there is a point where f (x*) = x*. Show from the property that cos x = 2x at some point between 0 and 1. are continuable (c) f = (sin x)'I2 functions? (a) f = x3I2 sin x x c 0 f l ( ~= ) cos x x > 1 X sin llx x < O f2(4 = cos l/x x > 1 (b) f = x3I2sin x 30 Find onesided limits at points where there is no two sided limit. Give a 3part formula for function (c). .1) otherwise. it is continuous at x = 0. with an example to illustrate: Ix . Are continuous functions always continuable? "41 f (x) is any continuous function with f (0) =f (1). (b) Explain why g(x) =f (x + 3) f (x) has g(4) = . (a) Draw a typical f (x). 44 In the E8 definition of a limit.1)f (x) = 5 (a) If a function reaches its maximum and minimum then the function is continuous. then somewhere on that interval f (x) = 0. 29 How many derivatives f '. For E = 4 choose a suitable 6. (a) x = 1 '32 Let f (x) = x2sin l/x for x # 0 and f (0) = 0. exist. rank these functions from smallest to largest as x decreases to zero: 42 Create an f (x) that is continuous only at x = 0. 37 Show by example that these statements are false: lirn f (x) = 4 + lim+ f(x) x+ 1 x+ 1 lim f (x) = GO but lim (x . (c) If f (1) = 1 and f (2) = 2. 35 True or false. (b) sin 1x1 31 Let f (1) = 1 and f (. Why is f (x) now continuous at x = a? 45 A function has a (a) If f(x) is continuous at all x. (c) Deduce from (b) that (a)is always possible: There must be a point where g(x) = 0 and f (x) =f (x + 4).x)/(x2. 39 Which of these functions are continuable. If the limits f3(x) = sin x when sin x # 0 f4(x) = x0 + 0"' 40 Explain the difference between a continuous function and a continuable function. it must be continuous. 38 Explain with words and a graph why f(x) = x sin (llx) is continuous but has no derivative at x = 0. find (a) f( 4 (b) d f /dx at x = 0 (c) X lim + O f '(x). ( f(x) f (0))lx is at x = 0 if and only if at x = 0.2 and f is continuous on [I. 43 If f (x) is continuous and 0 <f (x) < 1 for all x. 1" is true.g(0). it has a maximum value M. Set flO)= 0. 21.a1 c 6 to 34 Create a discontinuous function f(x) for which f 2(x) is continuous.1) = 1 and f (x) = (x2.1)f (x) = 0 xr 1 xr 1 lim (X. Removable discontinuity Infinite oscillation no limit for x + 1Limit for x + 1+.
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6. is undefined a t x = 10 because the tangent line is vertical. If the slope of the tangent line at (1. and also the notation. fl() = z. f (9) = 3 is positive. V. Vt.1 DERIVATIVES (page 49) The Derivative of a Function In this section you are mainly concerned with learning the meaning of the derivative. +. If f1(3) = $. . +at2. The list of functions with known derivatives includes f (t) = constant. f (10. and l / t . and l/t2. that the derivative of (f (t))2 is 2f (t)ft(t). We also establish the 'square rule".2) is It means that f t ( l ) = 2. When the function is the distance f (t). The graph has a corner. its derivative is (instantaneous) velocity. 4.2) goes into fl() ) is 5 ." Questions 17 refer t o this figure: 1. The function is decreasing (left t o right).. 3. The slope is different on the left side and right side of the corner. The derivative is the rate of change. The first coordinate of (1.3) while f ' (x) is (positive or negative?). 1 . The derivative 2 is not defined when z = and  . In this interval the function is  The slope is negative when 6 1 < x < 10. Mathematicians often say the 'slope" of a function when they mean the 'derivative. 7. this means that (_.2. The tangent is horizontal a t x = 6.1 The Derivative of a Function (page 49) CHAPTER 2 2. 5. The derivative is the slope of the tangent line. its derivative is (instantaneous) acceleration. But learn the basics first. f (x) is negative and f '(x) is positive. maximum or minimum." Also there is no derivative at x = 13.5) is (positive or negative?) while f'(10. The graph indicates that f l ( )= 0. Later we learn: This happens a t a 2 is negative when  < x <  . At (10. You might say "infinite slope.4). Those functions have f t ( t ) = 0. at.5. When the function is the velocity v ( t ) .1) the graph is below the y axis and rising. f (x) is (positive or negative?) at (9. then the slope of the tangent line through The point is (3. This zero derivative means The graph has f 1 ( 6 i ) = 0. . The graph is above the y axis.5) is  . The slope f'(9) is negative. Soon you will see other quick techniques for finding derivatives.
100 2h h 6 The line and parabola have slopes 1 and 22. slope of ( U ( X ) ) i + + 10h:125h3 = 22 + 5h becomes 2x a t h = 0 oo as h + O 4 x2 + 1. $ . So the touching point must have x = i. then g'(z) = f ' ( x ) . This produces The division removed A t from the denominator. The limit is f l ( t ) = 6t .1) .1: 6At Av .x 3   + 22 The graph of f ( t ) has slope 2 until it reaches t = 2 where f ( 2 ) equals 1. There y = a for 1. Then create a formula like y = x2 . I f A x = 1 then A f = 2. the average stays at 6.1) . Take the derivative of v ( t ) = 6t . . after that it has slope zero. Another way to say this is that if g ( x ) = f ( x ) c.3(t2 + 2t A t At At + ( A t ) ' ) .1 = 23. 2 : 2 = 6. The graph of v ( t ) = 6t .( t + A t ) . The slope of f ( x ) 1 is f ' ( x ) . the line. For f ( t ) = l / t the derivative is l/tz. Find its velocity at time t = 4. At At At At As A t 4 0 .1 The Derivative of a Function (page 49) 8. (You don't want f ( t ) = 44. I f A x = 0 then A f = 0. you cannot substitute t = 4 until the end. y = (4)' + c for the parabola so c = 2 2 (a) = (c) (x+h)'(zh)' 7.x2 . Note what is true: If 5 1 and f ( x ) 5 x at some point then f ( x ) 5 x everywhere beyond that point.3t2 + t At Notice that 3t2 cancels with 3t2 and also t cancels t. but the slope of f ( x + 1) is f ' ( x 1). No other possibilities! Readt hrouphs and selected evennumbered solutions : The derivative is the limit of A f /At as At approaches zero.10. The slope of 3 (is not) (dy/dx)'. The slope is not 0 / 0 but d f / d x = 2.f ( t + A t ) . Here A f equals f (t + A t) . The independent variable is t or x and the dependent variable is f or y.f ( t ) . 56 (a) False First draw a curve that stays below y = x but comes upward steeply for negative x.1 = v ( t ) . for example f (z)= 10. So the acceleration is line with constant slope 6. Find functions that have the same derivative as f ( x ) = g(x) = 4.(6t .2.f(t). Even though you have in mind a special time t = 4 . At t = 4. The slope of y = 4 / x is d y / d x = 4/x2." = 2x always becomes Z x at h = 0 ( b ) 1x+5h)'x2 5h (d) ( x + 1 ' 3 .v ( t + A t ) . A constant function has velocity zero! What you will use is f ( 4 ) = 44.x2 + 10.[6(t+ A t ) . Suppose a vehicle travels according to the rule f ( t ) = 3t3 .) First using A t or h : find the average velocity A f.If f ( x ) = 2 s + 3 and A x = 4 then Af = 8. Now let At go to 0. The step At can be positive or negative. its slope does not change.t . The slope of (22 3)2 is 2(2x+S)2 = 8x 12. + 2 and any 4 + C. + + + 9. The derivative is written v or df/dt or f'(t)..1 is a A simple but important point is that if the graph is shifted up or down. The derivative does not exist where f ( t ) has a corner and v ( t ) has a jump. To find acceleration.v ( t ) . go back to the formula for velocity (before you plugged in t = 4). where c is a constant number. The slope graph shifts too. Question: Does f t ( x ) change i f the graph is shifted right or left? Yes it does. (b) False f ( 3 ) could be any constant.5 and h ( x ) = . The ~s 2u(x) du/dx by the square rule. A decreasing function has a negative derivative. the velocity is v(4) = 6 x 4 .= 6.
The coefficient of xnjhj.Then ~ .l . y = + 2. we have solved the differential equation. . y = 4 & = 5. Match the powers n . . F i n d + 2 1. This is A f l h . y = 4 s 2. 5. We can guess y = cxn and work backward. The answer is = y2.1 / x 2 . The terms to look for are xn'h. Use 2 B (for x) and 2 D (for 42) and 2 C (for 42 + 2). . the second derivative is 242 The first derivative is $ = 12x2 .5)! Use the square rule to get 2(3x 5)(3) = 182 . Now (z + h)n comes from the binomial theorem. Find the second derivative of y = 4x3 . y = 524 4.2.1 = 2n to get n = 1. with y on both sides. y = 4x&.2 Powers and Polynomials (page 56) The derivatives of x5 and x5 x . Then * d~ = 4(&)x: 2 = +y = (3%.where n! means n ( n . Practice until 5x4 and 5x4 .22 + . f . + 1 0 z t .~ .6 8. It's not the end of the world if the binomial formula escapes you. but you have to find derivatives of powers and polynomials.5)2 and take the derivative of each term:  6.(1). Then 2 = cnxn' and y2 = c2x2". Solving means finding y(x) from information about 2. The eztra 3 c o m e s from the derivative of 3x .30.2 Powers and Polynomials (page 56) 2.2 ~ . Here n = 2= = G..).f i x . + + + + + The derivative of f = xn is f' = n x n . This line has slope 2 = 4(1) + 0 = 4. containing only one h. so c = 1. If we can choose c and n so that cnxn' = c2x2". is "n choose jn = n!/j! (nj) !. +0+ 7.4 and 3x5 come from 2 B .~ which uses the following rules: the derivative of 3 f (x) is 3 f t ( x ) and the derivative of f (x) + g(x) is f'(x)+ g 1 ( x ) . Find a function that has 2 = y2. Why g? i. and its limit is 4x3. . After subtracting xn and dividing by h. The answer is n o t 2 = 2(3x . Both sides equal . + + + is . 2C. 2 D . Note that the derivative of xn is nxn' for all numbers n (fractions.f i .~ . . That comes from expanding (x h)4 into the five terms x4 4x3h + 6x2h2+ 4 x h 3 h4. Check that 2 Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered solutions : The derivative of f = x4 is f ' = 4x3. the limit of A f l h is nxnl. There are n of those terms. Now we want cn to equal c2. =2~5 3. so 5 = x . So far this has only been proved when n is a positive integer.2 . ~ . 4x3 6x2h 4xh2+h3.l and 15x4 are automatic. . in Problems 16: negative numbers.5. so (x h)" = xn nxn'h .5)2. y = x'. This has n = 2 42:. You can expand (32 . Fractional powers give 2 = 5(5)x5 + 10($)x: + 2x$. The derivative of x . Don't let fi throw you! Just forge ahead to find 2 = 4fixfi'. The derivative of 3 x + ( l / x ) is 3 . This is a differential equation. Subtracting x4 and dividing by h leaves the four terms.x . At this point we don't know the derivatives of too many functions. not needed here.~ The ..1 ) . derivative of x1I2 is *'I2.
2 2.12 = 15.3).3 which is zero at z = 1. Find the secant line from (0. Applied to the whole economy this is macroeconomics.3 The Slope and the Tangent Line (page 63) Questions 15 refer to the curve y = x3 . 1 . 2. ! (a) y = z' hasslope y .0 = 3(z .+ z . At that point the graph of z reaches its minimum. (This is Problem 2. You can rewrite this as y = 15z .= +(x . (i.. 38 If y = yo cz then E ( z ) = = which approaches 1 as z + 00. The slope of the secant is = 3. Use the pointslope form to get the equation of the tangent line: y . the combination z = + x.. A secant connects two points on the curve. Where does the curve y = z3 . Then lines are found at (0.O) and $ = 0. If dy/dz = z4 then y(z) = x5/5 f(z) = )x7 (or f z7 C) xnl 8 = J(nznl) =n 1 (nI)! Note the n! n(nl). Find the equation of the normal line at z = 3. For any other positive z.(l) .~ / ' (which is nxnI).~= .9 = &(z .9). + 42 y = zn has E = ?$$ " I = n .3 The Slope and the Tangent Line (page 63) Integral calculus recovers y from dy/dz.(1) 2 ~ ~ 1 1+ 2 )z p X 3 / 2 ) = Z112 + z312. We know that the slope of the curve at (3. 44 Marginal propensity to save is dS Elasticity is not needed because S and I have the same units. Find the slope at z = 3. The tangent line has equation . &om question 1. 3. which is 2.9 = 15(z . 10 3(2 + C.At (a. the second slope is 4. two lanes are perpendicular.a). (The function + $ is larger than 2.4). Horisontal (flat) tangent 6. This line is perpendicular to the curve.z ..( x + h ) . 3.36.. The slope is 27 . a + 2 1 (nl)! + 2 levels off. he revenuezy=zn+' has E = n + l . The function itself is y = 27 .2.2). always has area ) this slope is = . &.2%'. The secant line is y .z in the numerator and divide by h : d a a ( a + G ) Now let h + 0 to find $ = = . (c) The triangle between the tangent line and the axes . 2 = 0 when x = 0 or z = $. Cancel z .42 = z(3z .42. Substitute z = 3 in $ = 3z2 . 2. Therefore the slope of the normal is When The normal line is y .) 1 22 If y = then Ay = = (multiply top and bottom by fi+ dz+h)= fi m + m J G 14 The slope of z is 1.22' have a horizontal tangent line? This means The slope is $ = 32' .(n1). The derivative is 1. or y = 32. 5.9) is 15. Find the equation of the tangent line at z = 3.3. a. + 9 i s mfi(++m) .0). the slope at x = 3 is 15.13) At z = a compute (a) the equation of the tangent line to the curve y = f and (b) the points where that line crosses the axes.18 = 9. $ (not in y!)..O) to (3.3).
2 = 3(x .2.~ / and ~ f'(64) = (64)2/3 = ~ ( 4 . and the slopes a t x = 1 and 2 are still equal. This area is always 2. + 2 + . If x = 66 then y = 4 approximately to 66'13 w 4&.4 = &(x .$(0 .48 ' The tangent line is y .3 2 2x. f (e)) is on the line y . It crosses the y axis The tangent line t o y = x3 x at x = 1 has slope 4. & + &(2) = 4&.1)(x . Use this tangent line t o approximate the cube root function: 1 1 1 1 1 x'I3 has derivative .2) is zero a t x = 1 and x = 2.) The plan is to find the tangent line through the point x = 64. zx + 2 + 3 + + . y = x4 . 4..$ = . Its equation is y .2) to (2. The secant line approaches the t a n g e n t line.32 2) then the function can be hx3 .t ) t = 8 6t .t).f (a) = f l ( a )(b . M u l t i p l y b y . Turn off your calculator and use the methods of this section to estimate a Let f ( x ) = x'I3.2 = 4 ( x . This goes through y = g ( b ) a t x = b if g(b) .a). + i.~ = . The slope of the tangent line equals the slope of the c u r v e .i t 2 ) and with the same speed (v = 6 . We can add any C x D to this answer.3 The Slope and the Tangent Line a (page 63) (b) T h i s l i n e c r o s s e s t h e x a x i s w h e n y = O s o O . Then t = 4 and v = 2.a ) which gives y = ?. If this is the slope (it is x2 .i t 2 and i t 2 . 10) has slope 8.2 = a t y = 2 and the x axis at x = $. the runners reach the same point a t the same time (vt = 8 6t . 30 The tangent line is y . Its equation is y .42.3 3 3 3(16) . a (c) The area of the triangle is $(base x height) = $(2a)(!).(x .2 = 8(x1). The slopes are the same if g l ( b ) = f l ( a ) .a 2 t o f i n d a = x . or one point and the slope.1).5 + The secant line is y . l+h)'+(l+h)2 m = ( (l+h)1 8 (x . w.64).= ~ ) . The line crosses the y axis when x = 0 : y . 18 Tangency requires 42 = ex2 and also (slopes) 4 = 2cx at the same x. The point (c. The second equation gives x = and then the first is = which has no solution.~ ( x . We know that 64'13 = 4.f (a) = f' (a) (x . The secant line from (1.1)or y = 32 .f (a) = m(x .1. The tangent line (horizontal) is the same. the slope 2 y = x2 x has = 22 1 = 3 at x = 1. (64 is chosen because it is the closest perfect cube t o 66. + As c approaches a.a ) provided m = m approaches f l ( a ) .2 = m(x .x . The normal line is y .f (a) = f l ( a )(x .2 = . Its equation is y . Then (6 .a ) .a ) .2x2 has = 4x3 .a ) . y = 4. 5.2) has slope f (x1). = 66'13.8 = 0.1)with = 3 + h. The pointslope form of the tangent equation is y . The normal line a t this point (1.y = 2. At x = 1and x = 1 the slopes are sero and the y's are equal. The cube root curve goes up Readthrough8 and eeleeted euennumbered eolutione : A straight line is determined by 2 points. 4 6 To j u s t pass the baton.1)or y = . The tangent line is y .a and x = 2a.
algebraic substitution lets us conclude that l i ~ ~ . $ = n sin(nx). Similarly y = cos(nx) has These are important. Find lim. 5. (Maybe I should say lim + . The slope at x = 0 is lim y.o (Check this to satisfy yourself that we have just multiplied by 1 in a 1and + 1. Divide to find 4 1. 2 = 2. to get 2.~ ( ? ) (COS The same methods show that y = sin(nx) has $ = n cos(nx). Equation (9) on page h 32 gives the addition formula sin 22 cos 2h cos 22 sin 2h. The separate limits of sin h This section proves that and h lead to % which is undefined. Find limh. Thus y = sin x satisfies the differential equations y l l = y 1111 . The second derivative (the derivative of the derivative) is y'l = sin x. Find 2 for y = sin2x. We know that The ratio is 1and cos z + 1as z + 0. Now take limits of those two parts: h + i h d~ = (sin 22) limh." = 1. The key to differential calculus is that the ratio approaches a definite limit. Once that limit is established. Write the equation of the tangent line to f (x) = cos x at x = q. Set x = 0 to find the yintercept $ + 9 rr 1. You can factor out 4 or any constant from inside the limit.O ( (sin 2s)(0) = + (cos22) (2) = 2 cos 22.2. Readthrouphe and selected evennumbered eolutions : The derivative of y = sin x is y' = cos x. A. 1.4 The Derivative of the Sine and Cosine (page 70) 2. A + y. However (2%) s i : 4 h approaches 4.4 The Derivative of the Sine and Cosine (page 70) + 1 as h 4 0 .2.) This is 2 1im = 2. Notice the extra factor n .later i t comes from the chain rule. In other words limb.) As h 3. Find lime0 8 m.. + Write slll2h as good way.2 ) . Multiply and divide by 6. first at x = 0 and then at every x. We need a formula for sin 2(x h). 1 . The slope at any x is lim sin 2(a+h)sin . Its limit is the exact slope $ = 1. The limit is 4 times the limit of 9. z COB z What does this mean about the graph of y = tanz? It means that the slope of t a n z at z = 0 is $ = 1. = 2hL.& . Group the sin 22 terms separately from the 22 sin 2h cos 22 term to get sin 2x(cos 2hl)+cos . or 4x1=4. The limit of is 1 as long as both boxes are the same and approach zero.26. Questions 13 use this trick. = ~ 1.the same. Similarly sin ~1 sin( 2%) approaches 1. As 0 +0 the limit is x 1= 1 6' . we have + .d2( x . The limit of is 1 . v) + 22) l i ~ n ~ .o . The fourth derivative is y = sin x. 0.The tangent line 9 = . 4. Where does this line cross the y axis? At x = is y  2 (which is 45") the cosine is y = 9and the slope is y' = sin 2 = 9. Reason: is the average slope. We show this by multiplying by !to get .
99.2.01hat h = 0 and h = f. All these derivatives come from one basic limit: (sin h)/h approaches 1 . Therefore cos h is close to 1.17. Use the product rule for y = uv.cos h)/h2 approaches 2 by x. The 1 .5 The Product and Quotient and Power Rules and (page 77) y"" = y.01. The slope a t that point is cosx .7)2(4) and v' = 9(2x 3)'(2).&sin% = $ . + r This has the form u5 where u = 4x3 .cos h is much smaller than h. Eventually y goes below zero and becomes positive. because 1 . So does y = cos x. y = (42 . O l radians is very close to . '.01.7)3(2x r + 3)'.99995. Many people memorize the product rule uv' vu' this way: The derivative of a product is the first times the derivative of the second plus the second times the derivative of the first. 26 (a) False (use the square rule) (b) True (because cos(x) = cos x) (c) False for y = x2 (happens to be true for y = sin x) (d) True (y" = slope of y' = positive when y' increases) 2. Professor Strang just mumbles them. Therefore y' is decreasing. Note that y is the same as ~COSX shifted to the right by t. 24 The maximum of y = sin x + Aces x is at x = 5 (or 30') where y = 4+ = 2. But we need the power rule to find u' = 3(4x .sin x + cos z. Use the power rule with n = 3: ~ d u 1 A Y' = 3. Use the power rule 5u4$ noting that $ = 12x2 .O1 is not . i' 4 t a n h = 1. all divided by the bottom squared. The sine of . The cosine of .2. Then y' is increasing. is negative. r Here y = u112 where u = cos x + sin x and u' = . whose second derivative is cos x. (cosx + sinx)2 (zuldx = 2 1 sinx + cosx).' I chant these to myself as I use them. with u = (42 . When y is positive. The derivative of a quotient is : 'The bottom times the derivative of the top minus the top times the derivative of the bottom.22 Then y' = 5(4x3 .$ = 0. Examples of oscillation in real life are springs and heartbeats. The differential equation y" = y leads to oscillation.22 7)'(12x2 . We can replace h ratio (1 . Where did the 4 and 2 come from? + + .i h 2 and cos . (This is from Jennifer Carmody. + + 7. t a n h = h at h = 0 . So is the tangent of . O l m .2).7)3 and v = (22 3)'.) Questions 16 ask for $ from the rules for derivatives.5 The Product and Quotient and Power Rules (page 77) You have to learn the rules that are boxed on page 76.
l ( c o s x ) .(sin + + Even simpler is the rule of linearity.2)(2 . & C = *.4 s i n x.(top)(bottom)' . reciprocal rule. which agrees with the rule for sec z. With n = 1 the derivative of (cos z)' is ~ x). The derivative of u/v is (vu' . r The three factors are u = cos z with u' = sin z.sin z ( 1 + tan z)(1+ sin2 z) . Use the quotient rule with u = sin z and u = 1 s2. Verify that (sec z)' = sec z tan z. w = 1+ sin2 z with w' = 2 sin x cos z (by the power rule). The derivative of (3sin z 4 cos x ) i ~ s 2 ( 3 s i n x 4 cos x) (3 cos x . The derivative of sin4x is 4 sin3 z cos z.1)22(z.2) = 2 ( x . The derivative of tan3 z is 3 tan2x sec2x. q u o t i e n t rule..sec z tan z.sin z(22) (bottom) (1 z2)2 + + 6.(sin xcos x) (cos xsin x ) .. 18 csc2z . I6 1O(z .6)' 10sing x cos z . The product of sin z times cos z has (uu)' = u d u'v = cos2x .uu'  (bottom)(top)' . y' is 4. which applies to au(z) bu(z). The derivative of l / u is v'/v2.cot2z = 20 Isin X+COS x)(cos x+sin x) . u = 1+ tan x with u' = sec2z.l d u / d x . Since sec z = &. + + + + + 6 ( 2 . so the slope of sec x is s i n x/cos2x.2) ( 2 .1) = 2 ( z .3). Y = sin x =.sin z) 1 sin z .' / ~ = (32 6 f i 2) $2'I2 (or other form). we can use the reciprocal rule.uv')/v2 so the slope of tan z is (cos2x sin2x)/cos2x = sec2x.s i n2x. Readthrough8 and relected evennumbered rolutionr : The derivatives of sin z cos z and 1/ cos z and sin z / cos z and tan3 z come from the p r o d u c t rule.rx2 cos2x' 1 2 x3I2(3sin2 z cos z) $ x ' / ~sin3 z ij(sin z)'I2 cos z 1 4 &(&+ 1)$2'I2 &(& 2) $z'l2 (&+ I)(&+ 2)$ x . The derivative is au' (x) bv' (x). Use the triple product rule from Example 5 on page 72. = 1 so the derivative is zero. . The slope of zn is nxn' and the slope of (u(z))" is n u n . The bottom is u = cos z.(1 z2)cos z . 8 x1I2(1+ cos z) ( z sin ~ ) ? z . and power rule.2 sina x 2 cos2 x = 2 (sin x+cos x ) ~ (SinX+COsX)2 + + + + + + + + + + + + + o ' . The slope of 3 sin z 4 cos z is S cos x .Find u' = cos z and u' = 2s: y' = + uu' v2 .l /or ~ %z1I2 z112 cos z ?zlI2 sin z {x'1[2~(~~+1)2z I COSX(COSX)sinx(sinx) 1 211 ' cosl x .1 + 2 . The triple product rule is uuw' + uu' w + u'u w : (uuw)' = cos z (1+ tan z)(2 sin x cos z) + cos x(sec2 z)(1 + sin2z) .1)(2. (sec z)' = ()I = cos2 z cosz cos 5 cos 5 5.4 s i n x).2 ) ( 2 x .2)22(z .Putting it all together. We want 3: 1 (. y = cos z ( 1 + tan z ) ( l + sin2 z).l)(x. This i s the quotient rule with u = 1 on top.
Our margin of error on f (x) is & if our margin of error on x is A. Choose 6 so that lf(x) . But it converges.sin x = x cos x (we now have a function with derivative x cos x).1I < 6 (6 depends on c).x sin x+cos 5 ) .(1. Invent the function y = x sin $.o x2 = 0. So choose 6 t o be 5s. Since 3'9 . substituting x = 3 now tells us that the limit is 6.Substituting x = 3 gives g which is meaningless. This will be true if lx . + 0.s 8. The idea that 3 s 2 approaches 5 as x approaches 1 is pretty clear.5 is small (as small as we want) when x . or any a Here If(x) . 2 i 2. and The limit of y = x sin is L = 0 as x then moves away from zero. At x = 2 this is s.2)(x + 2).31 < c.Js3)(x+3)  (x3) = x + 3.6 Limits (page 84) 22 x $08 x sin x has derivative sin x ( .LI = IxZ01 = (x21.51 < E. (This is extra confusing because we can choose 6 = c. SO we need 1x1 < &. Since the sine stays below 1. limx. We want 1x21 < e = root is a satisfactory 6. which involves epsilon (c) and delta (6).ix' (c) y = . We pin this down (and make it look difficult) by following through on the epsilondelta definition 32 2 is near 5 (as near as we want) when x is near 1 (32 2) .) (d) y = .cos3 x + 2) x+sinx cos x sin3 x (or other form). &. because + + + + + + ! y never gets larger than x. but not for all limits. If direct substitution leads to 3.LI < & if 1x1 < 6. The number E can be as small as we like.1is small I(3x 2) . as the number x gets small. But that final gasp of "taking the limitn needs a definition. This example does not get steadily closer t o L = 0. We want 12x1 < c = &. This square Find the limits in 36 if they exist. But note x2 .2 . In other words x2 + 0 as x If(x) . 54 (a) y = a x 4 (b) y = . 0). we have lyl < E if 1x1 < E.LI = 12x1. It doesn't move far. Are we saying that "f (x) comes closer t o L as x comes closer t o I n ? No! T h a t is true in this example. It oscillates around its limit. This is guaranteed if 1x1 < d&. + 2.6 Limits (page 84) Limits are not seen in algebra.you need t o do more work! %.5 1 < E (for any fixed e > 0) when 0 < lx . It gives the idea but it is not exactly right. Take c = 1. Therefore L = 5 is the correct limit. limx. The point is that this function actually hits zero many times. .1 that particular choice of 6 we can say: If lx . Choose 6 = smaller number like 6 = A. Show that f (x) = 2 s + 3 approaches L = 3 as x 0. You do use algebra t o simplify a n expression beforehand.4 = (x .1 1 < 6 then I(3x 2) . By making This example wants t o achieve 132 . Don't say obvious.x cos x(cos x ) sin3 x  24 lu(x)12(2v(x)$1 + [v(x)12(2u(x) 26 xcos x sin x . They are special to calculus. Show that limx. & in Questions 1 and 2. It hits zero when sin = 0. 4. 1 < kc. A small point.2.x)'I2 (This one is more difficult.
+ + + + + + . The limit of a. @$$.L I<s 1 $ $." Combine the two fractions into one: =lim 1 . the leading t e r n would be 4'x18. The meaning of lirn. Two rules for limits. The other factor x 2 goes to 4. (The limit at x = 0 was zero!) . is not convergent because eventually those sums go past a n y .3)'.. The corresponding rules for functions. The limit of r. The meaning of a. + + is zero. + i. a r b i t r a r y positive number).5. (This is Problem 2..L I < E whenever 0 < I xa 1 < 6. lim.b.Substitution gives 'undefined 4 .2) + 0 as x 2. In all limits. 5 . are a. This is the top has lower degree than the bottom. the limit as x &. but the limit as x + 0 does not exist.o + a ++ 5. 4 B oth top and bottom go to zero at x = 1. The trick is to write Since $ + 0 as x + oo. Find lirn. + L M and a. = (1)" is n o t 0 is: Only finitely m a n y of the numbers la. la. In other words. e When x is large. = n4/zn is zero. The sequence 1 . 8. Use it for 78.2. lim. This is the limit of the original problem.. (x+8)9 ( d s + 3).1. This gives (x1)(Jje+8+3) ' Here is a trick from algebra: Multiply top and bottom by The numerator is x . when a. . the expression is very like $.1 242(x+2) 4 + . + b. + L is: For every E there is an N such that lan .l e. The overall limit is (1)(4) = 4. LM. So cancel that above and below. are f ( x ) g ( x ) L M and f ( x ) ~ ( x +) LM. Whenever oo is 0.sin x sin .35~)Prove that lim.'.(x + 2) lim = lim x2(x2)(x+2) minus undefined.LI must eventually go below and s t a y below any positive n u m b e r E . 9.x + ~ x+2(x2)(x+2) Buried under exercise 34 on page 85 is a handy 'important rule" for limits as x oo.. The limit of f (x) = x/lx/ as x + 2 is 1. Since (x . + L and b. is oo.l can be g r e a t e r than s ( a n The meaning of a. + M . The limit of f (x) = sin x as x + a is s i n a..2  when z + 1. when f (x) + L and g(z) + M as x a . As x + + oo. This function only has onesided limits. lime.6 Limits (page 84) Write the function as (x 2). Infinity times zero is meaningless. I 1 Z x sin = 1. . = r You just have t o know that if you did. move x into the denominator as . 1 + n u m b e r L. r It is useless to say that xsin .. = ( s i n n ) / n defined.. $ + oo 0. The fraction approaches 6. f (x) = L is: For every E there is a 6 such that (f (x) .this limit is 0. if n > N.LI or I f (x) .. the fraction behaves like = 1. You don't have to multiply out (4x3 .the limit Readthrough8 and eelected evennumbered eolutione : The limit of a.. The limit of a.
. Since you did not lift your pencil. The sign function is continuous except at x = 0. The Extreme Value Property states that rn and M are reached at least once. Then B is true if A is true. and connect them with any function you like. 1. your function is continuous on [a. 1 4 1x1 = s when x is negative.7 Continuous Functions (page 89) A =+ B means that A is a sufficient condition for B. L.. c o u l d a p p r o a c h L or a..m). If not.(c) a. Note that f (x) = 1x3'(x+3' (x+3) = x . Is this function Ucontinuable"? Yes.. . Now take a ruler and draw a horizontal line anywhere you like between rn and M. / G 1 . The Intermediate Value Property says that. It is false that: If a : LZ then a.. At x = 3 it gives a. .1 to 1. f (x) = x+3 This is a standard type of example. your line and graph cross at least. 1 2 (a) is false when L = O : an = 5 4 0 but =n oo (b) I t i s true that: If a. E. M ) and (xmin. + 4 + + has infinitely many a.2 18 25 = x 5 approaches 10 as z + 5 20 . The "sign function" is 1 for positive x and 1 for negative x (and f (0) = 0 at the jump). To understand the Extreme Value Property. 1 24 (A) approaches 1 .. . A H B means that A is a necessary and sufficient condition for B. does not approach zero.4 is 1. 2. + 0 and bn = 4 5 b. ! . At x = 0 the limit L = 3 does not equal f (0) = 0. . = ! has no limit. This f (x) is not "continuable.is negative but the limit L = 0 is n o t negative (d) 1." 3.. Do not lift your pencil from the paper. the limit of '. 1. It is quite possible that the min or max is reached more than once. . = L. Then B is true if and o n l y if A is true. The left dot is (a. 7 1 8 .cosx 22secxtanx==TZT(l+sinx) cosx(l+sinx)2 which approaches = 0 at x = z. in every strip around zero but a. L : a. We can remove the difficulty (undefined value) by f (3) = 6. f (a)). 32 The limit is e = 2 .7 Continuous Functions (page 89) Notes on the text: 'blows up" means "approaches infinity. Change to f (0) = 3." Even mathematicians use slang.b ] .2. 16 Ca approaches = = as x . The function reaches a maximum (high point) and minimum (low point) somewhere on this closed interval. which requirement is not met? Can f (x) be "fixed" to be continuous? 1. L. f (b)).s i n s l+sinx = 1sin'x . There is no way t o redefine f (0) to make this continuous. because f (x) is continuous. L. __) + 3 3 # ? % + 2. the right dot is (b.= 2 as x 1 28 Given any e > 0 there is an X such that If (x)l < E if x < X. place two dots on your paper. where it jumps from . $. Suppose f (x) = 3 + 1x1 except f (0) = 0. . L then a a : La.3. once. In 13. decide if f (z)is continuous for all x. 12 2 s t a n x 1 4 f l ( a ) if the derivative exists.cosx Zx Q =O 8 No limit 10 Limits equals f l ( l ) if the derivative exists. These extreme points are called (x.
For c > 1 this is continuous and differentiable where it is defined (x 2 0 for noninteger c). x+l. This function cannot be made differentiable a t x = 0.12 has f (x) = { + secx x x > 0. The value a t x = 1agrees with If we choose c = . It reaches its maximum M and its minimum m. The derivative controls the speed at which f (x) approaches f (a). y = 22 meets y = x 1 a t x = 1. A "continuable functionn can be extended t o every point x so that it is continuous. . Then f (x) is both continuous and differentiable if c = . Problem 2. the line y = c x must be made to meet the parabola y = c2 x2 a t x = 0.7. The lines don't meet. 0 and 1. If c # 1 then f (x) is not even continuous. This is good. On a closed interval [ a . Find a number c (if possible) t o make the function continuous and differentiable. x x + + 5. 5. the fraction f (1) = 2. So if c = 1. 7.7 Continuous Functions (page 89) Exercises 118 are excellent for underst anding continuity and differentiability. where f 2 has a double at x = 0 is infinite oscillation.7. so this is a continuous function provided we define f (0) = 1.5 has f (x) = { C2 x2 + f o r x < O for The graph is a straight line then a parabola. The expression % is undefined at x = 1. 22.2. 6. Remember that f (x) must be continuous if it is differentiable. c+x 4..7 has f ( x ) = { > < c c. The reason that l/ cos x is discontinuous a t x = 7r/2 is that it approaches infinity. It is not differentiable because the lines have different slopes 2 and 1. The reason that x / ( x l is not continuous a t x = 0 is : it jumps from 1 to 1. which is 0 at x = 0. A "continuous functionn must be continuous at all points in its domain. m For continuity. Not vice versa! Readthrough8 and relected evennumbered solutions : Continuity requires the limit of f ( z ) to exist as x t a and to agree with f(a). This means c = c2. Problem 2. The s o r At x = 0 the limit of sec x = & is # x = slope of f (x) = sec x is sec x tan x. The slope is 1from the left and 0 from the right. A few solutions are worked out here. A constant (horizontal line) and a curve. This function does have onesided limits.1.. . = 1. The power xn is continuous a t all x provided n is positive. the function is continuous a t x = 0. Problem 2.13 has f (x) = { r z2+c 2 X1 ' 1. f ( x ) = sin(x)/x If f has a derivative at x = a then f is necessarily continuous at x = a. A line then another line. If c = 1then f (x) is continuous. Problem 2. reduces to x + 1. sec x is undefined at x = %f. SO c = 0 or 1.7. a continuous f has the extreme value property and the intermediate value property.61. . and it takes on every value in between. It has no derivative at x = 0 when n is between approaches 1 as x + 0. However. The function f (x) = 3 pole.1. Therefore the function is differentiable a t 0 if c = 1. 8 c > 0 gives f (x) = xC : For 0 < c < 1 this is not differentiable at x = 0 but is continuous for (x 2 0).7. The reason that cos(l/x) is discontinuous 1 has a simple pole a t x = 3.
how much does uv increase by? Divide that increase by Ax and let A x + 0 t o find $(uv) = .1 lim x+ 1 (1 xn sin x lim .21 < 6. and this applies at x = a (since that point is not excluded any more). By the intermediate value theorem there is a point where cos x . 16 At x = c continuity requires c2 = 2c. R 6 What is the power rule for the derivative of l/ f (x) and specifically of l/ (xZ + I)? R8 Find the slope and the equation of the normal line perpendicular to the graph of y = d w a t x = 3. Find a number 6 so that 1 f (x) . R9 f (x) = 0 for x 5 1 and f (x) = (x .42 + 10 is 6. 36 cos x is greater than 22 a t x = 0. There is no derivative because = sin = sin has no limit (infinite oscillation). R10 The limit as x + 2 of f (x) = xZ . To prove continuity we have t o show that f (a) = L.1)2for x > 1.22 = 0. 40 A continuous function is continuous at each point x in its domain (where f (x) is defined).61 < .L I < c..1 ~ + .2 Chapter Review Problems 1. . At x = c the derivative jumps from 22 t o 2. R 5 When u increases by A u and v increases by Av. For any c we can obtain 1 f (x) . The continuous function cos x . Subtract x5.(d) xr x+t lim cos x . 38 zsin approaches aero as x + 0 (so it is continuous) because I sin ! I < 1. 10 Need x + c = 1 a t x = c which gives 2c = 1or c = 2 Then x matches 1 a t x = (continuous but not differentiable). Find the derivatives f l ( l ) and f"(1) if they exist. A continuable function can be defined a t all other points x in such a way that it is continuous there too. Identify these limits as derivatives at specific points and compute them: (a) x1 R3 x6 . Then c = 0 or 2. + i k k 2 Chapter Review Problems Review Problems R 1 The average slope of the graph of y(x) between two points x and x The slope at the point x is .1 lim . R2 + A x is . 42 f(x) = x if x is a fraction.. Divide by h. f (x) = $ is continuous away from x = 0 but not continuable. f (x) = 0 otherwise 44 Suppose L is the limit of f (x) as x + a. Since c is arbitrarily small we reach f (a) = L : the function has the right value a t x = a. O 1 if lx . Set h = 0 to find ..(b) z. cos x is less than 2 2 a t x = 1.2x changes from positive t o negative.1 x8 . the average velocity be tween times t and t The instantaneous velocity a t time t is . For a distance function f (t). + A t is .cos t 5t R4 Write down the six terms of (x + h)5.
Then aligned below it sketch the derivative of f (x). Drill Problem.a %.2 Chapter Review Problems Find the derivative in D l . and f (x) = For what values of x is f (x) continuous? f (x) = dfi and f (x) = fi. Dl D3 D5 D8 D9 Dl0 y=3x6+8x2f+7 y=sin3(x3) y = d r & Compute limx. D l 1 Draw any curve y = f (x) that goes up and down and up again between x = 0 and x = 4. Evaluate the limits as x + oo of % and 9and 9.D7. .o D2 D4 D 6 y=xtanxsinx y=(cos2x)(tant) y=(x3+2)/(3x2) D7 y= sig + % ' and l i m x sin . Then aligned below that sketch the second derivative. 2 o ~ and limz.
edu Resource: Calculus Online Textbook Gilbert Strang The following may not correspond to a particular course on MIT OpenCourseWare. For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use.edu/terms.mit. visit: http://ocw.mit.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw. but has been provided by the author as an individual learning resource. .
3 3.5 3. and Hyperbolas Iterations x. .4 1.5 1.Contents CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Calculus Velocity and Distance Calculus Without Limits The Velocity at an Instant Circular Motion A Review of Trigonometry A Thousand Points of Light Computing in Calculus 1.8 Applications of the Derivative Linear Approximation Maximum and Minimum Problems Second Derivatives: Minimum vs.4 3.) Newton's Method and Chaos The Mean Value Theorem and l'H8pital's Rule .+ = F(x.2 1.3 1.6 3. Parabolas.1 1.7 3. Maximum Graphs Ellipses.6 1.7 CHAPTER 2 Derivatives The Derivative of a Function Powers and Polynomials The Slope and the Tangent Line Derivative of the Sine and Cosine The Product and Quotient and Power Rules Limits Continuous Functions CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.
The local information explains the larger picture. Knowing the slope. 3. It may seem surprising that we learn about y from dyldx. Our computations produced dyldx for functions built from xn and sin x and cos x. and occasionally they are equal. Those slopes are close. How can you tell a maximum from a minimum.CHAPTER Applications of the Derivative Chapter 2 concentrated on computing derivatives. f = v t falls apart. The problem is to connect the finite to the infinitesimalthe average slope to the instantaneous slope. we can answer the questions about y =f(x) that this subject was created for: 1. Now we use dyldx to study y. using derivatives? The information in dyldx is entirely local. when v ( t ) is not constant? The solution is to take very short time intervals. But we cannot predict where dyldx equals AylAx. All our work has been going the other way! We struggled with y to squeeze out dyldx. As soon as v begins to change. because Ay is approximately dyldx times Ax. Therefore we now find other ways to recover a function from its derivativesor to estimate distance from velocity and acceleration. and if necessary also the second derivative. How does y change when x changes? 2. It tells what is happening close to the point and nowhere else. The distance is linear when the velocity is constant. 91 . Points of equality are assured by the Mean Value Theoremwhich is the localglobal connection at the center of differential calculus. In Chapter 2. Perhaps it really is life. to understand one generation from later generations. Now we want to get them back. This chapter concentrates on using them. What is the maximum value of y? Or the minimum? 3. Which velocity do we choose.1 Linear Approximation The book started with a straight line f = v t . That's life. Ax and Ay went to zero.
In Section 2." and its tangent lines are above it.3 we found the tangent line to y =f(x). Now we are experts at dyldx. What we don't know is J102: JZ w J5 + (slope)(102 . The table beside the figure compares y(x) with Y(x). For points on the line. The arrow points to a good approximation at 102. At x = a. 3. At the point y = @= the slope is 1/2& = 1/20.a). and we use (4). we started with Ay/Ax: slope z JiEm 102. Such a curve will soon be called "concave downward. (1) We write a capital Y for the line and a small y for the curve. and the slope of the curve is decreasing. Figure 3.3 Applications o f the Derivative in which v is nearly constant: f Af = vt is completely false is nearly true is exactly true. The tangent line leaves the curve. Look again at x = 102. where the approximation is good.1 Y ( x )is the linear approximation to f i near x = a = 100.1 shows the square root lo. The whole point of tangents is that they are close (provided we don't move too far from a): That is the all.a: Y =f(a) +f '(a)(x . In Chapter 2. The accuracy gets worse as x departs from 100. The slope of the line stays constant. the slope of the curve and the slope of the line are f'(a).urpose linear approximation. function y = A n d its tangent line at x = a = 100. Fig. = vAt df = vdt For a brief moment the functionf(t) is linearand stays near its tangent line. In this example Y is larger than ythe straight line is above the curve. so we used (3). Add the slope times the "increment" x . when we were approaching dyldx. and at 101 it would be even better. After computing y' = 1/20 once and for . (4) You work with what you have.100). start at y =f(a).100 ' Now that is turned around! The slope is 1/20. Earlier we didn't know dyldx.
The basepoint in equation (6)is now 1 or x: (1 +Ax)" x 1 + nAx ( x + Ax)" z xn + nxn'Ax. The whole point of linear approximation is to ignore every term after Ax. except that it has a nice square root. we start from x and go a distance Ax to x Ax.0) = 1 + nx. The 100th power is too much. + 1 3A I At any point x. ( 1 + x)" z 1 + (slope at zero) times ( x .1 and Better than that. but a calculator gives (l. here are numbers. Linear approximation.. It is too big to overlook. and for any smooth betion y =fo.8 places c between x and x + Ax. The exact error is f"(c). Discussion Those are really the same. For Ax = 1/100 that error is nearly 3.O1)'OO e. The letters are different but the mathematics is identical. DIFFERENTIALS There is one more notation for this linear approximation. By changing n to . This is close to mation gives 1 100Ax = 2. . and we are off by the last term involving AX)^. For n = 3 and 100. the allimportant number in Chapter 6.. When that nearby number is 100 + Ax. You already see the point: y . There is nothing magic about x = 100. Linear approxi= 2. Other points and other functions allow y x Y I would like to express this same idea in different symbols. because it is often used. notice the error as the approximation is squared: & The desired answer is 100 + Ax. These are linear approximations using the slopes n and . A second important approximation: 1/(1 + x)" x 1 . it becomes Example 2. . It has to be presented. Ax (5) EXAMPLE 1 An important linear approximation: (1 EXAMPLE 2 + x)" x 1 + nx for x near zero. slope at x x f& + h) Ax).7.n in Example 1. Instead of starting from a and going to x.n at x = 0: Here is the same thing with f ( x )= xn. take Ax = .01: Actually that last number is no good.3. the tangent line stays near for every number near 100. The notation is suggestive and confusing at the same time . The binomial formula shows why the approximation failed: + Linear approximation forgets the AX)^ term. where the Mean Value Theorem in Section 3.Y is of order AX)^. quadratic error.nx for x near zero.1 Linear Approximation all.
dx and dy have had no independent meaning. but this is not as obvious as it seems! It looks like cancellationit is really a definition. Entirely new symbols could be used. They do for the approximation Y(x) exactly what Ax and Ay did for y(x).2 has Ax = dx. Now they become separate variables. The table has basepoint x = 2. The prediction dy differs from the true Ay by exactly (Ax)2= .2 The linear approximation to Ay is dy =f '(x)dx. We finally have dy = (dy/dx)dx.0l and . . Where Ay is the true change.3 Applications o f the Derivative it keeps the same symbols dx and dy that appear in the derivative.04 and . Earlier we took great pains to emphasize that dyldx is not an ordinary fraction. +Fraction or not.09. Figure 3. One is Ay (exact for the function). You often see dy written as f'(x)dx. dy is its linear approximation (dy/dx)dx. 3. The differential dy is equal to AY. the change along the tangent line. These quantities dx and dy are called dzrerentials. The symbols dx and dy measure changes along the tangent line. But the change in y does not equal the change in Y. like x and y but with their own names. The other is dy (exact for the tangent line). Thus dx and Ax both measure distance across. Ay = change in y (along curve) Y Axx=a x+dx=x+Ax dy = change in Y (along tangent) Fig."using its slope v: Increasing the time by At increases the distance by x vAt Increasing the force by Af increases the deflection by x vAf Increasing the production by Ap increases its value by z vAp.7 Until this paragraph. Here are three examples and three rules: d(sin x) = cos x dx d(cf) = c d f Science and engineering and virtually all applications of mathematics depend on linear approximation. The differential dy =f'(x)dx is consistent with the derivative dyldx =f'(x). it is absolutely forbidden to cancel the d's. but dx and dy have two advantages: They suggest small steps and they satisfy dy =f'(x)dx. The true function is "linearized. EmMPLE 3 y = x2 has dyldx = 2x so dy = 2x dx.
that is more impressive than knowing our own height within one inch. After dV/dr = 4nr2. then to estimate sin(x + Ax) we add h . The shell is added when the radius grows by dr. PERCENTAGE CHANGE The change Ay or A f can be measured in three ways.1 Linear Approximation The goal of dynamics or statics or economics is to predict this multiplier vthe derivative that equals the slope of the tangent line. The variation in volume is dV = 4n(4000)'(80) cubic miles. A 2% relative variation in r gives a 6% relative variation in V : Without calculus we need the exact volume at r = 4000 + 80 (also at r = 3920): One comment on dV = 4nr2dr. This is (area of sphere) times (change in radius).  Find the linear approximation Y to y =f(x) near x = a: 1 f(x) =x + x4.a)P with p = i . but calculus just calls it 6%. ABSOLUTE CHANGE. The exact AV/V is 3917312/640000%. Near x = a = 10. linear approximation is f(x + Ax) x f ( x ) + i . At x = 11 the exact value is ( 1 1)3 = ' d . It is the volume of a thin shell around the sphere. The differential d y equals k times the differential r . On the graph. The error is of order (Ax)P or ( x . Absolutely. The exact law is nonlinearbut Ohm's law and Hooke's law and Newton's law are linear approximations. using linear approximation. RELATIVE CHANGE. If we know sin x. So can Ax: Absolute change Relative change Percentage change f ! Ax df f(4 Relative change is often more realistic than absolute change.000 miles 70 inches EXAMPLE 4 The radius of the Earth is within 80 miles of r = 4000 miles.3.4 Readthrough questions EXERCISES In terms of x and Ax. a =2 . At x = a. The approximation is Y = e . Relatively. (b) Compute the relative variations dr/r and dV/V and AV/K Solution The job of calculus is to produce the derivative. the linear approximation to y = x3 is Y = 1000 + c .4%. Those movements are along the m line. 300. The multiplier gives a local prediction of the change in the function. a linear approximation is given by the a line. In this case Ay = f and dy = g . the equation for that line is Y =f(a) + b . a = 0 2 Ax) = l/x. one inch is closer than three miles. 3.001%< 1. where Ay is along the n . (a) Find the variation dV in the volume V = jnr3. If we know the distance to the moon within three miles. three miles is much closer: 3 miles 1 inch < or . its work is done.
1 on your calculator. How many decimals agree with 1 . This may be the most important application of calculus. Predict what will appear the fifth time and press again.Ol) Confirm the approximations 1921 by computingf'(0): 19 J K z 1 . and evaluating f(a) +f'(a)(x . a = 0 In 2327 find the linear change dV in the volume or d A in the surface area. is so the 1. EXAMPLE 1 f(x) = x2 . If dfldx is positive. 0 1 ) . the decimal point? This is because JGz 30 In Problem 29 the numbers you see are less than 1. The function f(x) is increasing a s x goes from n to b."u'c+ zI + +x2 (use f = I 1JIu.01)2z 0 + 0(.05 (recall V = nr2h). The function itself can be positive or negative.01) 14 cos(. to reach df1d. 31 Enter 0.01) 16 ( 1 . Suppose dfldx is positive for every x between a and b.h ( 0 .x = 0.O1 by deciding on f(x). The second derivative of Jlfr linear approximation is higher than the curve. a = n/2 6 f(x) = sin2x. "Decreasing" requires j(x) >f ( X ) .~ z 1 . 25 d A if the radius of a sphere changes by dr.98 Calculate the numerical error in these linear approximations and compare with +(Ax)2 f "(x): 13 (1.f x 20 I IJ= 21 J. 29 Enter 1. All tangent lines slope upward.1) and (.x2+ I)'.2.001)(j 23 d V if the sides of a cube change from 10 to 10. . how is that reflected in the function? Then the third question is the critical one: How do you identify a maximum or minimum? Normal answer: The slope is zero.99)'14 12 sin(3. 26 d V if a circular cylinder with r = 2 changes height from 3 to 3. We begin with two quick questions.2x has slope 2x . Press the square root key 5 times (slowly). The function increases after x = 1 and decreases before x = 1. . .14) 9 cos(.O3) 11 11.9. A calculator shows the error.02) 10 ( 1 5. Show that the kinetic energy fmv2 and the change in mass satisfy Einstein's equation e = (Am)c2. Our goal is to learn about f(x) from dfldx. 7 (2. a = n/4 5 f(x) = x sin x. What happens each time to the number after . a = 2n 3 Applications of the Derivative 4 f(x) = sin x. If dfldx < 0 then f(x) is decreasing.I)? 8 sin(. By Problem 20 this is near mo + for small v.96 3 f(x) = tan x. 27 dV if a cylinder of height 3 changes from r = 2 to r = 1.3(. choosing the basepoint a. then put u = x2) . look at any two points x < X . You now have the root of 0. To define increasing and decreasing.025.Ol) z 1 + 0(.$ (usef ( u ) = j = . . A positive slope does not mean a positive function.01)3z 1 + 3(. "Increasing" requires f(x) <f ( X ) .9.01) 15 (sin .9 on your calculator and press the square root key 4 times.. then put u = r 2 ) 22 Write down the differentials d f for f(x) = cos x and (x + l)/(x . Compute 712 within . Extra credit: What is d V i f r and h both change (dr and dh)? 28 In relativity the mass is m . This slope is positive when x > 1 and negative when x < 1.a).1 24 d A if the sides of a cube change from x to x + dx. Take the easy questions first. 3B If dfldx > 0 then f(x) is increasing. / J w at velocity u. what does that say about f ? If the slope is negative. .05.
3 goes down to its minimum at x = 1 and up again. it must be zero. 2. MAXIMA AND MINIMA Which x makes f ( x ) as large as possible? Where is the smallest f(x)? Without calculus we are reduced to computing values of f ( x ) and comparing. That is a "local to global" question.4).2x + 5 = 0 are complex numbers and we don't see them. At this crucial point the slope is zero. But ifdfldx exists. Some parabolas cross the x axis (those crossings are solutions to f ( x ) = 0). The parabolas in Figure 3. It could also wait for the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus: The diflerence f ( X ) f ( x ) equals the area under the graph of dfldx.2 Maximum and Minimum Problems Fig. a number that disappears in dfldx. It is possible that the graph has a cornerand no derivative. But there is still something delicate. All functions with slope 2x . You may feel that "positive slope implies increasing function" is obviousperhaps it is. shifted up or down according to C. At x = 1. 3. Here f ( x ) is a fifthdegree polynomial. Other parabolas stay above the axis. the information is in dfldx.+ . The tangent line is level. to be handled by the Mean Value Theorem.3)(x . This slope is positive beyond x = 4 and up to x = 1 (dfldx = 24 at x = 0).2 are parabolas x 2 . every fifthdegree polynomial has five roots. The slope changes from negative to positive. It has a "double zero. Slope is + . EXAMPLE 3 Suppose dfldx = (x.3 Slopes are  +. That area is positive.2x + C. this slope is zero and f ( x ) changes direction. because f ' ( x ) is fourthdegree.3. 3.l ) ( x .4. It might cross the x axis five times. We say that without computing f ( x ) at any point! The parabola in Figure 3. With calculus. It must cross at least once (like this one).2x + 1 = ( x . Starting from dfldx > 0 at every single point.+ so f is updownupdownup.2x + 5 has the same slope. The graph of f goes updownupdownup. The special parabola x2 ." where f ( x ) = dfldx = 0.1)2 grazes the axis at x = 1. Suppose the maximum or minimum is at a particular point x. EXAMPLE 2 x2 . And dfldx is positive again between 2 and 3. The solutions to x2 . so f ( X ) exceeds f(x). When complex numbers are allowed.3 change from decreasing to increasing.2)(x . Its graph is shifted up by 5. we have to deduce f ( X ) >f ( x ) at pairs of points. .
We only look near x.negative 2 0 and in the limit Ax negative dx Both arguments apply.co and ends at + co. For large x. Thus Maybe Richard Feynman said it best."no matter how you turn it. The word "local" allows the possibility that in other intervals.3x4 dominates 4x3. < 0 and dfldx 2 0 are correct. (You can mentally substitute x = 1000 and x = . .3b. Feynman! is a good book (but rough on mathematicians). that a curve (or a car) can pause for an instant (f' = 0) and continue in the same direction. this difference is negative or zero. f(x) goes higher or lower. Now look at large x. . Both conclusions dfldx dfldx = 0.1000). Conclusion f = 1 is an absolute maximum.12x3. Check rough points and endpoints. That derivative is zero when x2 equals x3. from its double factor x2. EXAMPLE 4 f(x) = 4x3 . Start with f(x + Ax) f(x). EXAMPLE 3 (continued) Look back at Figure 3. We find f(0) = 0 and f(1) = 1. Surely You're Joking. The reason is the "double zero" in 12x2 . absolute max Y ! h local max  3 rough point 2 Fig. The function goes down to . because f(x) starts at ." They checked it out. None of them are absolute maxima or minima. The step Ax can be forward or backward: if Ax > 0: if Ax < 0: f(x + AX)f(x) negative <0 Ax positive df 6 0. We have to recognize this exceptional possibility. at the two points x = 0 and x = 1. The points that stand out are not the "ups" or "downs" but the "turns. and we use the definition of dfldx. It was true.co in both directions. He showed his friends a plastic curve that was made in a special way .4 The graphs of 4x3 .3x4 and x + x'. We see two maxima and two minima. the tangent at the lowest point is horizontal.3x4 has slope 12x2 .3 Applications o f the Derivative 3C Local Maximum or Minimum Suppose the maximum or minimum occurs at a point x inside an interval where f(x) and df[dx are defined. the first step is to evaluate f(x) at these stationary points." Those are stationary points. Then f '(x) = 0. 3. f = 0 is not a maximum or minimum (local or absolute).12x3. If f(x) is the maximum. Mr. where dfldx = 0. . To decide between minimum and maximum (local or absolute). and in the limit dx f(x+Ax)f(x) df 3 0.
Question Could the minimum be zero when the function never reaches f(x) = O? Answer Yes. to focus on the key idea.5). The example x + x. Take the maximum and minimum of those critical values of f(x). Most models are simplified. At that point f(1) = 2 is the minimum value. not at the beginning.2 Maximum and Minimum Problems E X A M P L E 5 Define f(x) = x xI for x > 0. Figure 3.1/x2 is zero at x = 1. solve f'(x) = 0. But I still say "the maximum is XI. It is we ourselves who decide on x and f(x). The equation dfldx = 0 comes in the middle of the problem. I used to take the second one.oo and f(x) + oo are too important to rule out.2]. The derivative of y = 1 x 1 is never zero. Then f(x) reaches its maximum and its minimum (Extreme Value Theorem). You test x + c a by considering large x.had the minimum point x = 1 and the minimum value f(1) = 2. Every combination like f + 3 or 4 + is larger than fmin = 2. Instead of two entrances (a discrete problem) ?A good word is approach when f (x) + a.4 shows that the maximum of x + x. rough point. We will allow the expressway to be entered at any point x (Figure 3. Here is the procedure: 1. But to be honest. Remark 1 x + f oo and f(x) . The maximum is at an endpoint. E X A M P L E 7 Where should you get onto an expressway for minimum driving time. Infinity is not reached. There is an entrance near Route 128 and another entrance further in. The Mass Pike goes to MIT and I have to join it somewhere. oo are avoided when f is continuous on a closed interval a < x < b. E X A M P L E 6 (Absolute value f(x) = 1x1) The minimum is zero at a rough point. if the expressway speed is 60 mph and ordinary driving speed is 30 mph? I know this problem wellit comes up every morning. MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM IN APPLICATIONS + To find a maximum or minimum. endpoint. I will start on a new example. 2. The slope is zero at the top and bottom of the graph. In a real 'application. Its derivative 1 . There are no stationary points. Remark 2 Note the difference between critical points (specified by x) and critical values (specified by f(x)).4 shows the maximum and minimum on the interval [. f(x) = 1/(1+ x ) approaches ~ but never reaches zero as x + oo. The idea is clearand then check rough points and endpoints. with a question instead of a function.3.? + ' Important The maximum always occurs at a stationarypoint (where dfldx = 0) or a rough point (no derivative) or an endpoint of the domain. This is typical of piecewise linear functions. All maxima and minima occur at critical points! At every other point df/dx > 0 or df/dx < 0. Compute f(x) at every critical pointstationary point. But x . These are the three types of critical points. Solve df/dx = 0 to find the stationary points f(x). the first step (often the hardest) is to choose the unknown and find the function.is + oo." .3. Figure 3. You recognizef(x) + oo by going above every finite value. that is not where the problem starts. 3. now I take the first. Mathematics should decide which is fastersome mornings I think they are maxima.
But a negative x would mean useless driving on the expressway. I notice something surprising. which disappeared in dfldx. driving time f ( s ) when h > u / f i h . The first term uses the power rule: The derivative of u1I2is ~ ~ ' ~ ~ d Here u / d ux=. This yields two candidates. Certainly we expect x 6 b. in 4 7 T 3 3 0 hours a distance b . /  up to the expressway. Compute the driving time f(.'I2(2x) =1 gives 2x = (a2+ x2)'I2 and 4x2 = a2 + x2. Somehow b must enter the answer. That false root entered when we squared 2x. .\ driving time f(. multiply by 60 and square both sides: (a2+ x 2 ) .r) when h < u / f i (L t** / f *** f * * (\/ enter freeway \ f*** P * h h '1 /o * y Fig. or we are entering the expressway beyond MIT.1/60 = 3/60 and divided by Is this stationary value f * a minimum? You must look also at endpoints: $. enter at s = 0 : travel time is ni30 enter at x = h: travel time is J o L + hi60 =f ' * * + h2/30= f * * * .x on the expressway. The stationary point x = a/& does not depend on b. (2) Thus 3x2 = a2. C o n t i n ~ ewith calculus. Those are the other critical points off.5 Join the freeway at xminimize the driving time f (x).a/&. We have the function f(x).a/&. The total time includes the constant b/60.(a2+ x 2 ). in (b .a2 + x2 has duldx = 2x: 1 1 1 f ' ( x )= .3 Applications of the Derivative we have a continuous choice (a calculus problem). and our drawing may not be realistic. The minimum might occur at a rough point or an endpoint. The trip has two parts. In fact f' is not zero at x = . and this is a warning to go carefully. Now comes calculus.. at speeds 30 and 60: a distance . We combined 2/30 . 3.u) for an entrance at The s uare root of 4a2/3 is 2a/&.x)/60 hours Problem Minimize f(x) = total time = 1 1 Jm+ (b 30 60  x).lI2(2x) 30 2 60 To solve f '(x) = 0 . x = a/& and x = .
A picture of the problem (and the graph of f(x)) makes all the difference. (b) Energies of spring and mass. divide by a. The derivative is not zero at x = 0. (c) Profit = income cost.sec2x. The reason is that distance on the expressway is the absolute value Ib . EXAMPLE 7 (continued) Choose x as an angle instead of a distance. Figure 3. Entering at x = 0 was a candidate and calculus didn't choose it. The angle x is 30°! That optimal angle (n/6 radians) has sin x = i. This choice x = b can arise mathematically in two ways. The optimal x is the smaller of a/& and b. solve f '(x) = 0.XInever negative.The triangle with side a and hy otenuse a/& is a 306090 right triangle. if a/& < b: stationary point wins. check critical points for fmin and fmax. The variable x has to be selected.6 shows the triangle with angle x and side a. If all entrances are between 0 and b.a tan x. then b is a rough point. I don't know whether you prefer or trigonometry. Express the quantity to be minimized or maximized as a function f(x). 2.t i b energy energy . J T h . Step 1 usually does: 1. total time f * if a / f i 2 b: no stationary point. The distance on the expressway is b . Compute f '(x). The driving distance to the expressway is a sec x. Dividing by the speeds 30 and 60. 5 ~ has a corner at x = b." All the calculus is in a few lines. We drive directly to MIT at speed 30.6 (a) Driving at angle x.ci tan . computing f ' and solving f '(x) = 0. then b is an endpoint. If we can enter beyond MIT.3. the driving time has a nice form: a sec x b . The second comparison has x = b.ntl Fig. The formulation took longer. and multiply by 30 cos2x: (5) This answer is beautiful. enter at x = a l f i . drive directly to MIT.2 Maximum and Minimum Problems The comparison f * <f ** should be automatic.a tan x f(x) = total time = (3) 30 60 + The derivatives of sec x and tan x go into dfldx: a df  dx 30 a sec x tan x . time f *** The heart of this subject is in "word problems. This option has to be taken seriously. where the derivative jumps. Either way x = b is a critical point. It is not smart to go perpendicular to the expressway. The minimum is exactly as beforeeither at 30" or going directly to MIT. 60 sin x = +. The graph in Figure 3 . . In fact it is optimal when b is small or a is large.. Now set dfldx = 0. 3.
Total cost is in dollars. we overlook the restriction to whole numbers. The potential energy of the mass is taken as . Physically. The balance is at the minimum of f(x) = 4 kx2 . I apologize for that. and dfldx = 0 gives equilibrium. the cost C increases by $3. the energy is f(x). The spring energy is +kx2positive in stretching (x > 0 is downward) and also positive in compression (x < 0). but it makes a crucial point. x = m/k is at the bottom of the parabola. EXAMPLE 9 Derivative of cost = marginal cost (our first management example). +Maybe dx is a differential calculus book. The marginal cost is like the velocity and the total cost is like the distance.3 Applications of the Derivative EXAMPLE 8 In mechanics. . If we skip all other costs. and we give an example: C(x) = cost of x advertisements = 900 + 400x . A spring is pulled down by a mass.6x2 sales 600 per advertisement.cost C(x). The energy has two termsfor the spring and the mass. Marginal cost is in dollars per book.mxdecreasing as the mass goes down. The paper to print x copies of this book might cost C = 1000 + 3x dollars. The derivative is dCldx = 3. I apologize for giving you such a small problem. the income is I(x) and the marginal income is dlldx. then profit P(x) = income I(x) . At the high point on the profit curve. subtract 6x2 for diminishing returns optimal decision dCldx = dI/dx or 400 .? The cost goes up by (dCldx) dx. The income goes up by (dlldx) dx. The next section shows how to verify that this profit is a maximum not a minimum. When f(x) is quadratic. the marginal profit is zero: Profit is maximized when marginal income I' equals marginal cost C ' . Hooke's law for the spring force is elastic constant k times displacement x. the equilibrium equation dfldx = 0 is linear. On the plus side. To apply calculus. Later exercises also look for f(x). Graphically.mx.8500 = 1 100. volume savings x2 I(x) = income due to x advertisements = 600x . Suppose the number of books increases by dx.12x or x = 20 profit = income  cost = 9600 . print cost 400x. It is a philosophical question why so many laws of physics involve minimum energy or minimum timewhich makes the mathematics easy. The first exercises ask you to solve dfldx = 0. kx = m is a balance of forcesthe spring force against the weight. nature chooses minimum energy.2x = 600 . This basic rule of economics comes directly from calculus. In most cases P increases to a maximum and falls back. If x increases by one book. This is the marginal cost of paper for each additional book.x2 setup cost 900.
2 gives the flight path. 0 < x < 2n 20 f(8) = cos28 sin 8. O<x < 100 29 Find the shortest Y connecting P. . (c) Estimate the best angle for a free throw. 1< x < 9 10 f(x) = x + sin x. The functionflx) = 3x2 . 0 < 8 < 2 7 1 22 f(x)=(x2+1 for x < 1 .2v)/5 miles per gallon. what least squares value minimizes (x . 1 f(x)=x2+4x+5.x2). when does the forward motion end? How far have you traveled? Extra credit: Graph At) and dfldt.x3I2. a truck uses av + (blu) gallons of fuel per mile. and B in the figure. Avoid line drives and rainbows.120)~.x ) ~ . then 80.a/b. (b) Reduce df/d8 = 0 to tan 28 = . (b) Find the cheapest driving speed. 00 12 f(x)=x/(l +x).O) with the basket at (a. / G . + width + height = 1 + w + h < 62" or 158 cm. Section 12.4 x + 5 f o r x > l ) . Originally B was a birdfeeder. The minimum of +ax2. Maximize the number of miles per gallon. (a) If b = O you are level with the basket. Choose h to maximize K The box with greatest volume is a 23 The airlines accept a box if length 24 If a patient's pulse measures 70. Solve when a = b.x has a (minimum)(maximum)at x = d . Q. Points where f '(x) = 0 are called c points.3 < x < 2 16 f(x)=x Jm.70)2 (x + &c . x* is an absolute I whenflx*) aflx) k minimum occurs when f(x*) <fix) for for all x.2 EXERCISES Readthrough questions If dfldx > 0 in an interval then f(x) is a . The same angle allows the largest margin of error (Sports Science by Peter Brancazio).m < x < m 3 f(x)=x2+3. why does the length of day change the least? Find the stationary points and rough points and endpoints. assign 120 a lower weight and minimize (x . m < x < m 8 f(x)= {x24x for O < x < 1. x 2 .2 Maximum and Mlnimum Problems 103 3. O<X< 1 hs 17 f(x)=x1I2. Show that 8 = 45" is best (Jabbar sky hook). If a maximum or minimum occurs at x then fl(x) = b . minimize A@)= l/(a sin 8 cos 8 . 1 < x < 4 5f(x)=(x~~) 1 ~ .7 < 8 < 71 21 f(8) = 4 sin 8 . The minima of 1 2<x<?areatx= h andx= 1 . .eventhough dfldx is not zero. Extreme values can also occur where f is not defined x 1 and 5x for or at the g of the domain. (b)Show that the center of the Y has 120" angles. (a) Find the cost per mile at speed v.< x < 1 6 f(x) = l/(x . 30 If the distance function is f(t) = (1 + 3t)/(l + 3t2). at x = m . The length of Y is L(x) = (b . then 120.x) 2 J Z i 7 . A all x near x*. choose metric units if you prefer. . b).1 < x < 4 4 f(x) = x2 (2/x).ih)2. 27 You should shoot a basketball at the angle 8 requiring minimum speed. If h is fixed show that the maximum volume (62wh)wh is V= h(31.70)2 + (x (x . (c) The best Y becomes a V when a/b = + 13 f(x) = distance from x 3 0 to nearest whole number 14 f(x) = distance from x 3 0 to nearest prime number 15 f(x)=Ix+lI+I~11. A stationary point that is not a maximum or minimum occurs forflx) = e . 26 A limousine gets (120 . o < x < 271 cx<m 11 f(x) = x71 .bx is I In applied problems. + + 25 At speed v.the fuel consumption. (a) Choose x to minimize L (not allowing x > b). m < x < m 2 f(x)=x312x. The chauffeur costs $10/hour. 28 On the longest and shortest days.O<x < 4 18 f(x) = sin x + cos x. in June and December.b cos28). x2 4 for 1 < x < 2) 9 f ( x ) = m + .3. the gas costs $l/gallon. Shooting from (0. Decide whether each point is a local or absolute minimum or maximum. How many miles per gallon at speed v? Minimize .120)2? If the patient got nervous. . .3 cos 8. 0 < x < 1 + 7 f(x)=3x4+8x318x2.
104
3 Applications of the Derivative
In 3134, we make and sell x pizzas. The income is R(x) = ax bx2 and the cost is C(x) = c + dx + ex2.
+
31 The profit is n ( x ) = . The average profit per . The marginal profit per additional pizza pizza is = . We should maximize the is d n l d x = (profit) (average profit) (marginal profit). 32 We receive R(x) = ax + bx2 when the price per pizza is P(X)= . In reverse: When the price is p we sell x = pizzas (a function of p). We expect b < 0 because 33 Find x to maximize the profit n(x). At that x the marginal profit is d n/dx = 34 Figure B shows R(x) = 3x  x2 and C,(x) = 1 + x2 and C2(x)= 2 + x2. With cost C , , which sales x makes a profit? Which x makes the most profit? With higher fixed cost in C2, the best plan is .
The cookie box and popcorn box were created by Kay Dundas from a 12" x 12" square. A box with no top is a calculus classic.
40 A fixed wall makes one side of a rectangle. We have 200 feet of fence for the other three sides. Maximize the area A in 4 steps: 1 Draw a picture of the situation. 2 Select one unknown quantity as x (but not A!). 3 Find all other quantities in terms of x. 4 Solve dA/dx = 0 and check endpoints. 41 With no fixed wall, the sides of the rectangle satisfy 2x + 2y = 200. Maximize the area. Compare with the area of a circle using the same fencing. 42 Add 200 meters of fence to an existing straight 100meter fence, to make a rectangle of maximum area (invented by Professor Klee). 43 How large a rectangle fits into the triangle with sides x = 0, y = 0, and x/4 + y/6 = I? Find the point on this third side that maximizes the area xy. 44 The largest rectangle in Problem 43 may not sit straight up. Put one side along x/4 + y/6 = 1 and maximize the area. 45 The distance around the rectangle in Problem 43 is P = 2x + 2y. Substitute for y to find P(x). Which rectangle has Pma,= 12? 46 Find the right circular cylinder of largest volume that fits in a sphere of radius 1. 47 How large a cylinder fits in a cone that has base radius R and height H? For the cylinder, choose r and h on the sloping surface r/R + h/H = 1 to maximize the volume V = nr2h. 48 The cylinder in Problem 47 has side area A Maximize A instead of V . 49 Including top and bottom, the cylinder has area
= 2nrh.
Maximize A when H > R. Maximize A when R > H. 35 Choose x to find the maximum volume of the cookie box. 36 Choose x to maximize the volume of the popcorn box. 37 A highclass chocolate box adds a strip of width x down across the front of the cookie box. Find the new volume V(x) and the x that maximizes it. Extra credit: Show that Vma,is reduced by more than 20%. 38 For a box with no top, cut four squares of side x from the corners of the 12" square. Fold up the sides so the height is x. Maximize the volume.
Geometry provides many problems, more applied than they seem.
*50 A wall 8 feet high is 1 foot from a house. Find the length L of the shortest ladder over the wall to the house. Draw a triangle with height y, base 1 + x, and hypotenuse L. 51 Find the closed cylinder of volume V = nr2h = 16n that has the least surface area. 52 Draw a kite that has a triangle with sides 1, 1, 2x next to a triangle with sides 2x, 2, 2. Find the area A and the x that maximizes it. Hint: In dA/dx simplify x 2 / , / m
Jm
In 5356, x and y are nonnegative numbers with x + y = 10. Maximize and minimize:
39 A wire four feet long is cut in two pieces. One piece forms a circle of radius r, the other forms a square of side x. Choose r to minimize the sum of their areas. Then choose r to maximize.
53 xy
54 x2 + y2
55 y(llx)
56 sin x sin y
57 Find the total distance f(x) from A to X to C. Show that dfldx = 0 leads to sin a = sin c. Light reflects at an equal angle to minimize travel time.
3.3 Second Derivatives: Bending and Acceleration
105
64 A triangle has corners (1, l), (x, x2), and (3, 9) on the parabola y = x2. Find its maximum area for x between 1 and 3. Hint: The distance from (X, Y) to the line y = mx b is IY  mX  bl/JW.
+
X
x
reflection
SX
65 Submarines are located at (2,O) and (1, 1). Choose the slope m so the line y = mx goes between the submarines but stays as far as possible from the nearest one.
Problems 6672 go back to the theory.
66 To find where the graph of fix) has greatest slope, solve
. For y = 1/(1+ x2) this point is
.
58 Fermat's principle says that light travels from A to B on the quickest path. Its velocity above the x axis is v and below the x axis is w. (a) Find the time T(x) from A to X to B. On AX, time = distancelvelocity = J ~ / v . (b) Find the equation for the minimizing x. (c) Deduce Jnell's law (sin a)/v = (sin b)/w.
67 When the difference between f(x) and g(x) is smallest, their . Show this point on the graphs of slopes are f = 2 + x 2 andg=2xx2. 68 Suppose y is fixed. The minimum of x2 + xy  y2 (a func. Find the maximum of m(y). tion of x) is m(y) = Now x is fixed. The maximum of x2 + xy  y2 (a function of y) is M(x) = . Find the minimum of M(x). 69 For each m the minimum value of f(x)  mx occurs at x = m. What is f(x)? 70 y = x + 2x2 sin(l/x) has slope 1 at x = 0. But show that y is not increasing on an interval around x = 0, by finding points where dyldx = 1  2 cos(l/x) + 4x sin(1lx) is negative. 71 True or false, with a reason: Between two local minima of a smooth function f(x) there is a local maximum. 72 Create a function y(x) that has its maximum at a rough point and its minimum at an endpoint.
"Closest point problems" are models for many applications.
59 Where is the parabola y = x2 closest to x = 0, y = 2? 60 Where is the line y = 5  2x closest to (0, O)? 61 What point on y = x2 is closest to what point on y = 5  2x? At the nearest points, the graphs have the same slope. Sketch $he graphs. 62 Where is y = x2 closest to (0, f)? Minimizing x2 + (y  f)2 y + (y  $)2gives y < 0. What went wrong?
+
63 Draw the l b y = mx passing near (2, 3), (1, I), and ( 1, 1). For a least squares fit, minimize
73 Draw a circular pool with a lifeguard on one side and a drowner on the opposite side. The lifeguard swims with velocity v and runs around the rest of the pool with velocity w = lOv. If the swim direction is at angle 8 with the direct line, choose 8 to minimize and maximize the arrival time.
1 3.3 Second Derivatives: Bending and Acceleration
When f '(x) is positive, f(x) is increasing. When dyldx is negative, y(x) is decreasing. That is clear, but what about the second derivative? From looking at the curve, can you decide the sign off "(x) or d2y/dx2?The answer is yes and the key is in the bending. A straight line doesn't bend. The slope of y = mx + b is m (a constant). The second derivative is zero. We have to go to curves, to see a changing slope. Changes in the herivative show up in fv(x):
f = x2 has f' = 2x and f " = 2 (this parabola bends up)
y = sin x has dyldx = cos x and d 'y/dx2 =  sin x (the sine bends down)
3 Applications of the Derivative
The slope 2x gets larger even when the parabola is falling. The sign off or f ' is not revealed by f ". The second derivative tells about change in slope. A function with f "(x) > 0 is concave up. It bends upward as the slope increases. It is also called convex. A function with decreasing slopethis means f "(x) < 0is concave down. Note how cos x and 1 + cos x and even 1 + $x + cos x change from concave down to concave up at x = 7~12.At that point f " =  cos x changes from negative to positive. The extra 1 + $x tilts the graph but the bending is the same.
tangent below
Fig. 3.7
Increasing slope = concave up (f" > 0). Concave down is f" < 0. Inflection point f" = 0.
Here is another way to see the sign off ". Watch the tangent lines. When the curve is concave up, the tangent stays below it. A linear approximation is too low. This section computes a quadratic approximationwhich includes the term with f " > 0. When the curve bends down (f" < O), the opposite happensthe tangent lines are above the curve. The linear approximation is too high, and f " lowers it. AcceleraIn physical motion, f "(t) is the accelerationin units of di~tance/(time)~. tion is rate of change of velocity. The oscillation sin 2t has v = 2 cos 2t (maximum speed 2) and a =  4 sin 2t (maximum acceleration 4). An increasing population means f ' > 0. An increasing growth rate means f " > 0. Those are different. The rate can slow down while the growth continues.
MAXIMUM VS. MINIMUM
Remember that f '(x) = 0 locates a stationary point. That may be a minimum or a maximum. The second derivative decides! Instead of computing f(x) at many points, we compute f "(x) at one pointthe stationary point. It is a minimum iff "(x) > 0.
3D When f '(x) = 0 and f "(x) > 0, there is a local minimum at x. When f '(x) = 0 and f "(x) < 0,there is a local maximrcm at x.
To the left of a minimum, the curve is falling. After the minimum, the curve rises. The slope has changed from negative to positive. The graph bends upward and f "(x) > 0. At a maximum the slope drops from positive to negative. In the exceptional case, when f '(x) = 0 and also f "(x) = 0, anything can happen. An example is x3, which pauses at x = 0 and continues up (its slope is 3x2 2 0). However x4 pauses and goes down (with a very flat graph). We emphasize that the information from fr(x) and f "(x) is only "local ." To be certain of an absolute minimum or maximum, we need information over the whole domain.
3.3 Second Derhmthres: Bending and Acceleration
E X A M P L E I f(x) = x3  x2 has f '(x) = 3x2  2x and f "(x) = 6x  2.
To find the maximum and/or minimum, solve 3x2  2x = 0. The stationary points are x = 0 and x = f . At those points we need the second derivative. It is f "(0) =  2 (local maximum) and f "(4)= + 2 (local minimum). Between the maximum and minimum is the inflection point. That is where f "(x) = 0. The curve changes from concave down to concave up. This example has f "(x) = 6x  2, so the inflection point is at x = 4.
INFLECTION POINTS
In mathematics it is a special event when a function passes through zero. When the function isf, its graph crosses the axis. When the function is f', the tangent line is horizontal. When f " goes through zero, we have an injection point. The direction of bending changes at an inflection point. Your eye picks that out in a graph. For an instant the graph is straight (straight lines have f " = 0). It is easy to see crossing points and stationary points and inflection points. Very few people can recognize where f "'= 0 or f '" = 0. I am not sure if those points have names. There is a genuine maximum or minimum when f '(x) changes sign. Similarly, there is a genuine inflection point when f "(x) changes sign. The graph is concave down on one side of an inflection point and concave up on the other side.? The tangents are above the curve on one side and below it on the other side. At an inflection point, the tangent line crosses the curve (Figure 3.7b). Notice that a parabola y = ax2 + bx + c has no inflection points: y" is constant. A cubic curve has one inflection point, becausef " is linear. A fourthdegree curve might or might not have inflection pointsthe quadratic fM(x) might or might not cross the axis.
E X A M P L E 2 x4  2x2 is Wshaped, 4x3  4x has two bumps, 12x2 4 is Ushaped. The table shows the signs at the important values of x:
x
Jz
1
lid
o
I
/
1
fi
Between zeros of f(x) come zeros off '(x) (stationary points). Between zeros off '(x) come zeros off "(x) (inflection points). In this examplef(x) has a double zero at the origin, so a single zero off' is caught there. It is a local maximum, since f "(0) < 0. Inflection points are importantnot just for mathematics. We know the world population will keep rising. We don't know if the rate of growth will slow down. Remember: The rate of growth stops growing at the inflection point. Here is the 1990 report of the UN Population Fund. The next ten years will decide whether the world population trebles or merely doubles before it finally stops growing. This may decide the future of the earth as a habitation for humans. The population, now 5.3 billion, is increasing by a quarter of a million every day. Between 90 and 100 million people will be added every year
?That rules out f (x) = x4, which has f" = 12x2 > 0 on both sides of zero. Its tangent line is the x axis. The line stays below the graphso no inflection point.
3 Applications of the Derivative
during the 1990s; a billion peoplea whole Chinaover the decade. The fastest growth will come in the poorest countries. A few years ago it seemed as if the rate of population growth was slowing? everywhere except in Africa and parts of South Asia. The world's population seemed set to stabilize around 10.2 billion towards the end of the next century. Today, the situation looks less promising. The world has overshot the marker points of the 1984 "most likely" medium projection. It is now on course for an eventual total that will be closer to 11 billion than to 10 billion. If fertility reductions continue to be slower than projected, the mark could be missed again. In that case the world could be headed towards a total of up to 14 billion people. Starting with a census, the UN follows each age group in each country. They estimate the death rate and fertility ratethe medium estimates are published. This report is saying that we are not on track with the estimate. Section 6.5 will come back to population, with an equation that predicts 10 billion. It assumes we are now at the inflection point. But China's second census just started on July 1 , 1990. When it's finished we will know if the inflection point is still ahead. You now understand the meaning off "(x).Its sign gives the direction of bendingthe change in the slope. The rest of this section computes how much the curve bendsusing the size off" and not just its sign. We find quadratic approximations based on fl'(x). In some courses they are optionalthe main points are highlighted.
CENTERED DIFFERENCES AND SECOND DIFFERENCES
Calculus begins with average velocities, computed on either side of x:
We never mentioned it, but a better approximation to J"(x) comes from averaging those two averages. This produces a centered difference, which is based on x + A x and x  A x . It divides by 2 A x : f f ( x )z

1 .f(s + A x ) f ( x ) + Y 2 Ax
[
) f

A )
'
Ax
1
=
f(Y + A X )f'(x  A x ) . 2Ax
(2)
We claim this is better. The test is to try it on powers of x. For f ( x ) = x these ratios all give f' = 1 (exactly). For f ( x ) = x 2 , only the centered difference correctly gives f' = 2x. The onesided ratio gave 2.x + Ax (in Chapter 1 it was 2t + h). It is only "firstorder accurate." But centering leaves no error. We are averaging 2x + Ax with 2x  A x . Thus the centered difference is "secondorder accurate." I ask now: What ratio converges to the second derivative? One answer is to take differences of the first derivative. Certainly Af'lAx approaches f ". But we want a ratio involving f itself. A natural idea is to take diflerences of diferences, which brings us to "second differences": f(x+Ax)f(x) Ax (4f(xAx) Ax f(x  + Ax)  2j'(x)+.f(x  A.Y) d 2 f . Ax ds2
f
(3)
tThe United Nations watches the second derivative!
3.3 Second Derivatives: Bending and Acceleration
109
On the top, the difference of the difference is A(Af)= A2 f. It corresponds to d 2f. On the bottom, (Ax)2 corresponds to dx 2 . This explains the way we place the 2's in d 2f/dx 2. To say it differently: dx is squared, dfis not squaredas in distance/(time) 2. Note that (Ax)2 becomes much smaller than Ax. If we divide Af by (Ax) 2, the ratio blows up. It is the extra cancellation in the second difference A2fthat allows the limit to exist. That limit is f"(x). Application The great majority of differential equations can't be solved exactly. A typical case is f"(x) =  sinf(x) (the pendulum equation). To compute a solution, I would replace f"(x) by the second difference in equation (3). Approximations at points spaced by Ax are a very large part of scientific computing. To test the accuracy of these differences, here is an experiment on f(x)= sin x + cos x. The table shows the errors at x = 0 from formulas (1), (2), (3): step length Ax 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 onesided errors .1347 .0650 .0319 .0158 centered errors .0104 .0026 .0007 .0002 second difference errors  .0052  .0013  .0003  .0001
The onesided errors are cut in half when Ax is cut in half. The other columns decrease like (Ax) 2 . Each reduction divides those errors by 4. The errorsfrom onesided differences are O(Ax) and the errorsfrom centered differences are O(Ax) 2. The "big 0" notation When the errors are of order Ax, we write E = O(Ax). This means that E < CAx for some constant C. We don't compute Cin fact we don't want to deal with it. The statement "onesided errors are Oh of delta x" captures what is important. The main point of the other columns is E = O(Ax) 2 . LINEAR APPROXIMATION VS. QUADRATIC APPROXIMATION The second derivative gives a tremendous improvement over linear approximation f(a) +f'(a)(x  a). A tangent line starts out close to the curve, but the line has no way to bend. After a while it overshoots or undershoots the true function (see Figure 3.8). That is especially clear for the model f(x) = x 2, when the tangent is the x axis and the parabola curves upward. You can almost guess the term with bending. It should involve f", and also (Ax) 2. It might be exactly f"(x) times (Ax) 2 but it is not. The model function x 2 hasf" = 2. There must be a factor 1 to cancel that 2:
At the basepoint this is f(a) =f(a). The derivatives also agree at x = a. Furthermore the second derivatives agree. On both sides of (4), the second derivative at x = a is f"(a). The quadratic approximation bends with the function. It is not the absolutely final word, because there is a cubic term f"'(a)(x  a)3 and a fourthdegree term 4 N f""(a)(x  a) and so on. The whole infinite sum is a "Taylor series." Equation (4) carries that series through the quadratic termwhich for practical purposes gives a terrific approximation. You will see that in numerical experiments.
3 Applications of the Derivative
Two things to mention. First, equation (4)shows whyf" > 0 brings the curve above the tangent line. The linear part gives the line, while the quadratic part is positive and bends upward. Second, equation (4) comes from (2) and (3). Where onesided differences give f(x A x ) x f(x) +f '(x)Ax,centered differences give the quadratic:
+
from (2): f(x
+ Ax)
a f(x  A x ) + 2 f f ( x )Ax
from (3): f ( x + A x ) a 2f(x)f(xA~)+f"(x)(Ax)~.
Add and divide by 2. The result is f(x + A x ) xf(x) + r ( x ) A x + 4 f correct through (Ax)2 and misses by (Ax)', as examples show:
AX)^. This is
EXAMPLE4 ( 1
+ x)"
x 1
+nx+fn(n
l)x2.
1 +.Y
The first derivative at x = 0 is n. The second derivative is n(n  1). The cubic term would be $n(n  l)(n  2)x3. We are just producing the binomial expansion!
EXAMPLE 5  a 1
can't bend
I .5 .5 I + r + x2 1
1 1x
+ x + x2 = start of a geometric series.
near I
.Y
1 / ( 1  x ) has derivative 1 / ( 1  x ) ~Its . second derivative is 2/(1  x)'. At x = 0 those equal 1,1,2. The factor f cancels the 2, which leaves 1,1,1. This explains 1 + x + x2. The next terms are x3 and x4. The whole series is 1 / ( 1  x) = 1 + x x2 + x3 + ...
+
Fig. 3.8
Numerical experiment i/Ji% a 1  i x ax2 is tested for accuracy. Dividing x by 2 almost divides the error by 8. If we only keep the linear part 1  f x, the error is only divided by 4. Here are the errors at x = &, and
+
linear approximation error
(
3
x2 :
a,
A:
.0194
.0053
.0014
 .OOOO?
5 quadratic approximation error = K ~ 3)00401 :
 .OOOSS
3.3 EXERCISES
Readthrough  questions The direction of bending is given by the sign of a . If the second derivative is b in an interval, the function is concave up (or convex). The graph bends c . The tangent lines are d the graph. Iff "(x) c 0 then the graph is concave e , and the slope is f . At a point where f '(x) = 0 and f "(x) > 0, the function has a s . At a point where h , the function has a maximum. i point, provided f " A point where f "(x) = 0 is an changes sign. The tangent line i the graph. The centered approximation to fl(x) is 6 k ]/2Ax. The 3point approximation to f "(x) is 6 1 ]/(Ax)*. The secondorder approximation to f(x + Ax) is f(x) +f '(x)Ax + m . without that extra term this is just the n approximation. With that term the error is O( 0 ).
1 A graph that is concave upward is inaccurately said to "hold water." Sketch a graph with f "(x) > 0 that would not hold water.
2 Find a function that is concave down for x < 0 and concave up for 0 < x < 1 and concave down for x > 1.
3 Can a function be always concave down and never cross zero? Can it be always concave down and positive? Explain.
4 Find a function with f"(2) = 0 and no other inflection point. True or false, when f(x) is a 9th degree polynomial with f '(1) = 0 and f '(3) = 0. Give (or draw) a reason. 5 f(x) = 0 somewhere between x = 1 and x = 3.
6 f "(x) = 0 somewhere between x = 1 and x = 3.
3.3 Second DerhKlthres: Bending and Acceleration
7 There is no absolute maximum at x = 3. 8 There are seven points of inflection. 9 If Ax) has nine zeros, it has seven inflection points. 10 If Ax) has seven inflection points, it has nine zeros. 35 f(x) = x2 sin x
111
Construct a table as in the text, showing the actual errors at x = 0 in onesided differences, centered differences, second differences, and quadratic approximations. By hand take two values of Ax, by calculator take three, by computer take four.
+
In 1116 decide which stationary points are maxima or minima.
11 f(x)=x26x 13 f(x) = x4  6x3 15 f(x) = sin x  cos x 12 f(x)=x3 6x2 14 f(x) = xl'  6xl0 16 Ax) = x
36 Example 5 was 1/(1 x) x 1 + x
+ x2. What is the error
to
at x = 0.1? What is the error at x = 2? 1/(1 x) = 1 + x + x2 +  to find 11.99 and 111.1first four decimals and then to all decimals. on a calculator. Also compute cos 1. Why so far off!
37 Substitute x = .Ol and x =  0.1 in the geometric series
+ sin 2x
38 Compute cos l o by equation (4) with a = 0. OK to check 39 Why is sin x = x not only a linear approximation but also point. a quadratic approximation? x = 0 is an 40 Ifflx) is an even function, find its quadratic approximation
Locate the inflection points and the regions where f(x) is concave up or down.
17 f(x)=x+x2x3 19 f(x) = (X 2 ) 2 (~ 4)2
+ tan x 20 f(x) = sin x + (sin x ) ~
18 f(x) = sin x
at x = 0. What is the equation of the tangent line?
41 For f(x) = x
21 If f(x) is an even function, the centered difference [f(Ax) f(Ax)]l2Ax exactly equals f '(0) = 0. Why? 22 If f(x) is an odd function, the second difference
+ x2 + x3, what is the centered difference [f(3) f(1)]/2, and what is the true slope f '(2)?
x2 + x3, what is the second difference [f(3)  2f(2) +f(1)]/12, and what is the exact f "(2)? in f(a) +f '(a)(x  a) is approximately is positive when the function is the curve. . Then the tangent line is error
42 For f(x) = x 43 The
+
AX)  2f(0) f( Ax)~l(Ax)~ exactly equalsf "(0)= 0. Why?
+
4f"(a)(x  a)2. This error
Write down the quadraticf(0)+f '(0)x + 4f "(0)x2in 2326.
23 f(x) = cos x
+ sin x
24 f(x) = tan x 26 f(x) = 1 + x + x2
44 Draw a piecewise linear y(x) that is concave up. Define
25 f(x) = (sin x)/x
"concave up" without using the test d 2 y / d ~2 2 0. If derivatives don't exist, a new definition is needed.
45 What do these sentences say about f or f ' or f " or f "'?
In 26, find f(1) +f '(l)(x  1) + 4f "(l)(x 1)2around a = 1.
27 Find A and B in
JG' x 1 + Ax + BX'.
28 Find A and B in 1/(1 x ) x ~ 1 Ax 29 Substitute
+ +B X ~ .
the quadratic approximation into [fix + Ax) f(x)]/Ax, to estimate the error in this onesided approximation to f '(x).
30 What is the quadratic approximation at x = 0 to f(Ax)? 31 Substitute for f (x Ax) and f (x  Ax) in the centered approximation [f (x Ax) f (x  Ax)]/2Ax, to get
1. The population is growing more slowly. 2. The plane is landing smoothly. 3. The economy is picking up speed. 4. The tax rate is constant. 5. A bike accelerates faster but a car goes faster. 6. Stock prices have peaked. 7. The rate of acceleration is slowing down. 8. This course is going downhill.
46 (Recommended) Draw a curve that goes updownup.
f'(x) error. Find the Ax and (Ax)2terms in this error. Test on f(x)=x3 at x = 0 .
+
+ +
Below it draw its derivative. Then draw its second derivative. Mark the same points on all curvesthe maximum, minimum, and inflection points of the first curve.
47 Repeat Problem 46 on a printout showing y(x) =
f '(0)Ax + 4~"(O)(AX)~ +
32 Guess a thirdorder approximation f(Ax) x f(0) +
. Test it on f(x) = x3.
x3  4x2 + x + 2 and dyldx and d2yldx2on the same graph.
112
3 Applicutions of the Derivative
1 3.4 Graphs 1
Reading a graph is like appreciating a painting. Everything is there, but you have to know what to look for. One way to learn is by sketching graphs yourself, and in the past that was almost the only way. Now it is obsolete to spend weeks drawing curvesa computer or graphing calculator does it faster and better. That doesn't remove the need to appreciate a graph (or a painting), since a curve displays a tremendous amount of information. This section combines two approaches. One is to study actual machineproduced graphs (especially electrocardiograms). The other is to understand the mathematics of graphsslope, concavity, asymptotes, shifts, and scaling. We introduce the centering transform and zoom transform. These two approaches are like the rest of calculus, where special derivatives and integrals are done by hand and daytoday applications are by computer. Both are essentialthe machine can do experiments that we could never do. But without the mathematics our instructions miss the point. To create good graphs you have to know a few of them personally.
REFERENCE
500400300
READING A N ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG or E K G )
175v
Y
fi
200 
140130ro 120N 110
8 150
The graphs of an ECG show the electrical potential during a heartbeat. There are twelve graphssix from leads attached to the chest, and six from leads to the arms and left leg. (It doesn't hurt, but everybody is nervous. You have to lie still, because contraction of other muscles will mask the reading from the heart.) The graphs record electrical impulses, as the cells depolarize and the heart contracts. What can I explain in two pages? The graph shows the fundamental pattern of the ECG. Note the P wave, the Q R S complex, and the T wave. Those patterns, seen differently in the twelve graphs, tell whether the heart is normal or out of rhythmor suffering an infarction (a heart attack).
$ )
10095850070
a 90
2
& 75a
3
s 2
Lf W
I
65605550
y W
W
f second apart. The light lines are & second apart. If the heart beats every f second
First of all the graphs show the heart rate. The dark vertical lines are by convention
k a
I
E
UV)
0
45
9
Y 0
k Lf
W
@
40
a l
4
=
35
(one dark line) the rate is 5 beats per second or 300 per minute. That is extreme tachycardianot compatible with life. The normal rate is between three dark lines per beat (2 second, or 100 beats per minute) and five dark lines (one second between beats, 60 per minute). A baby has a faster rate, over 100 per minute. In this figure . A rate below 60 is bradycardia, not in itself dangerous. For a resting the rate is athlete that is normal. Doctors memorize the six rates 300, 150, 100, 75, 60, 50. Those correspond to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 dark lines between heartbeats. The distance is easiest to measure between spikes (the peaks of the R wave). Many doctors put a printed scale next to the chart. One textbook emphasizes that "Where the next wave falls determines the rate. No mathematical computation is necessary." But you see where those numbers come from.
3.4 Graphs
The next thing to look for is heart rhythm. The regular rhythm is set by the pacemaker, which produces the P wave. A constant distance between waves is goodand then each beat is examined. When there is a block in the pathway, it shows as a delay in the graph. Sometimes the pacemaker fires irregularly. Figure 3.10 shows sinus arrythmia (fairly normal). The time between peaks is changing. In disease or emergency, there are potential pacemakers in all parts of the heart. I should have pointed out the main parts. We have four chambers, an atriumventricle pair on the left and right. The SA node should be the pacemaker. The stimulus spreads from the atria to the ventricles from the small chambers that "prime the pump" to the powerful chambers that drive blood through the body. The P wave comes with contraction of the atria. There is a pause of & second at the AV node. Then the big QRS wave starts contraction of the ventricles, and the T wave is when the ventricles relax. The cells switch back to negative charge and the heart cycle is complete.
ectrodes
D

ground
Fig. 3.9 Happy person with a heart and a normal electrocardiogram.
The ECG shows when the pacemaker goes wrong. Other pacemakers take overthe A V node will pace at 60/minute. An early firing in the ventricle can give a wide spike in the QRS complex, followed by a long pause. The impulses travel by a slow path. Also the pacemaker can suddenly speed up (paroxysmal tachycardia is 150250/minute). But the most critical danger is fibrillation. Figure 3.10b shows a dying heart. The ECG indicates irregular contractionsno normal PQRST sequence at all. What kind of heart would generate such a rhythm? The muscles are quivering or "fibrillating" independently. The pumping action is nearly gone, which means emergency care. The patient needs immediate CPRsomeone to do the pumping that the heart can't do. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a combination of chest pressure and air pressure (hand and mouth) to restart the rhythm. CPR can be done on the street. A hospital applies a defibrillator, which shocks the heart back to life. It depolarizes all the heart cells, so the timing can be reset. Then the charge spreads normally from SA node to atria to AV node to ventricles. This discussion has not used all twelve graphs to locate the problem. That needs uectors. Look ahead at Section 11.1for the heart vector, and especially at Section 11.2 for its twelve projections. Those readings distinguish between atrium and ventricle, left and right, forward and back. This information is of vital importance in the event of a heart attack. A "heart attack" is a myocardial infarction (MI). An MI occurs when part of an artery to the heart is blocked (a coronary occlusion).
3 Applications o f the Derivative
Infarction
Rg. 3.10 Doubtful rhythm. Serious fibrillation. Signals of a heart attack.
An area is without blood supplytherefore without oxygen or glucose. Often the attack is in the thick left ventricle, which needs the most blood. The cells are first ischemic, then injured, and finally infarcted (dead). The classical ECG signals involve those three 1's: Ischemia: Reduced blood supply, upsidedown T wave in the chest leads. Injury: An elevated segment between S and T means a recent attack. Infarction: The Q wave, normally a tiny dip or absent, is as wide as a small square (& second). It may occupy a third of the entire QRS complex. The Q wave gives the diagnosis. You can find all three I's in Figure 3.10~. It is absolutely amazing how much a good graph can do.
THE MECHANICS O F GRAPHS
From the meaning of graphs we descend to the mechanics. A formula is now given forf(x). The problem is to create the graph. It would be too oldfashioned to evaluate Ax) by hand and draw a curve through a dozen points. A computer has a much better idea of a parabola than an artist (who tends to make it asymptotic to a straight line). There are some things a computer knows, and other things an artist knows, and still others that you and I knowbecause we understand derivatives. Our job is to apply calculus. We extract information from f ' and f " as well asf. Small movements in the graph may go unnoticed, but the important properties come through. Here are the main tests: (above or below axis: f = 0 at crossing point) 1. The sign off (x) (increasing or decreasing:f ' = 0 at stationary point) 2. The sign of f(x) 3. The sign of f"(x) (concave up or down: f" = 0 at injection point) 4. The behavior of f(x) as x + oo and x ,  oo 5. The points at which f(x) + oo or f(x) ,  oo 6. Even or odd? Periodic? Jumps in f o r f '? Endpoints?
f(O)?
The sign of f(x) depends on 1  x2. Thus f(x) > 0 in the inner interval where x2 < 1. The graph bends upwards (f"(x) > 0) in that same interval. There are no inflection points, since f " is never zero. The stationary point where f' vanishes is x = 0. We have a local minimum at x = 0. The guidelines (or asymptotes) meet the graph at infinity. For large x the important , or, terms are x2 and  x2. Their ratio is x2/ x2 =  1which is the limit as x and x ,  oo . The horizontal asymptote is the line y =  1. The other infinities, where f blows up, occur when 1  x2 is zero. That happens at x = 1 and x =  1. The vertical asymptotes are the lines x = 1 and x =  1. The graph
+
3.4 Graphs
in Figure 3.1 l a approaches those lines. if f(x) + b as x , + oo or  oo, the line y = b is a horizontal asymptote if f(x) + GO or  GO as x ,a, the line x = a is a vertical asymptote ifflx)  (mx + b) + 0 as x + oo or  a , the line y = mx b is a sloping asymptote.
+
+
+
Finally comes the vital fact that this function is even:f(x) =f( x) because squaring x obliterates the sign. The graph is symmetric across the y axis. To summarize the eflect of dividing by 1  x2: No effect near x = 0. Blowup at 1 and  1 from zero in the denominator. The function approaches  1 as 1 x 1 + oo.
E U P L E2
f(x) =
._,
x2
x2  2x f '(x)= ( x  I)2
2 f "(x)= ( X  113
This example divides by x  1. Therefore x = 1 is a vertical asymptote, where f(x) becomes infinite. Vertical asymptotes come mostly from zero denominators. Look beyond x = 1. Both f(x) and f"(x) are positive for x > 1. The slope is zero at x = 2. That must be a local minimum. What happens as x + oo? Dividing x2 by x  1, the leading term is x. The function becomes large. It grows linearlywe expect a sloping asymptote. To find it, do the division properly:
The last term goes to zero. The function approaches y = x + 1 as the asymptote. This function is not odd or even. Its graph is in Figure 3.11b. With zoom out you see the asymptotes. Zoom in for f = 0 or f' = 0 or f" = 0.
Fig. 3.11 The graphs of x2/(1  x2) and x2/(x  1) and sin x + 3 sin 3x.
EXAMPLE 3 f(x) = sin x + sin 3x has the slope f '(x) = cos x + cos 3x.
Above all these functions are periodic. If x increases by 2n, nothing changes. The graphs from 2n to 47c are repetitions of the graphs from 0 to 271. Thus f(x + 2 4 =f(x) and the period is 2n. Any interval of length 2 7 c will show a complete picture, and Figure 3.1 1c picks the interval from  n to n. The second outstanding property is that f is odd. The sine functions satisfy f( x) = f(x). The graph is symmetric through the origin. By reflecting the right half through the origin, you get the left half. In contrast, the cosines in f f ( x ) are even. To find the zeros of f(x) and f'(x) and f "(x),rewrite those functions as
f(x) = 2 sin x  $ sin3x f'(x) =  2 cos x + 4 cos3x f"(x) =  10 sin x + 12 sin3x.
3 Applications of the Derivative We changed sin 3x to 3 sin x  4 sin3x. For the derivatives use sin2x = 1  cos2x. Now find the zerosthe crossing points, stationary points, and inflection points:
f=O f"=O
2 sin x = $ sin3x
*
sin x = O or sin2x=$ sin x = O or sin2x=2
* x=O,
fn
5 sin x = 6 sin3x
x=O, +66", +114", f n
That is more than enough information to sketch the gra h. The stationary points n/4, n/2, 3 4 4 are evenly spaced. At those points f(x) 3 I ! is / , (maximum), 213 (local minimum), d l 3 (maximum). Figure 3.11c shows the graph. I would like to mention a beautiful continuation of this same pattern: f(x) = sin x + 3 sin 3x + sin 5x + ..
:
f'(x)
= cos
x + cos 3x + cos 5x + ..
If we stop after ten terms, f(x) is extremely close to a step function. If we don't stop, the exact step function contains infinitely many sines. It jumps from  4 4 to + 4 4 as x goes past zero. More precisely it is a "square wave," because the graph jumps back down at n and repeats. The slope cos x + cos 3x + .. also has period 2n. Infinitely many cosines add up to a delta function! (The slope at the jump is an infinite spike.) These sums of sines and cosines are Fourier series.
GRAPHS BY COMPUTERS AND CALCULATORS
We have come to a topic of prime importance. If you have graphing software for a computer, or if you have a graphing calculator, you can bring calculus to life. A graph presents y(x) in a new waydifferent from the formula. Information that is buried in the formula is clear on the graph. But don't throw away y(x) and dyldx. The derivative is far from obsolete. These pages discuss how calculus and graphs go together. We work on a crucial problem of applied mathematicsto find where y(x) reaches its minimum. There is no need to tell you a hundred applications. Begin with the formula. How do you find the point x* where y(x) is smallest? First, draw the graph. That shows the main features. We should see (roughly) where x* lies. There may be several minima, or possibly none. But what we see depends on a decision that is ours to makethe range o f x and y in the viewing window. If nothing is known about y(x), the range is hard to choose. We can accept a default range, and zoom in or out. We can use the autoscaling program in Section 1.7. Somehow x* can be observed on the screen. Then the problem is to compute it. I would like to work with a specific example. We solved it by calculusto find the best point x* to enter an expressway. The speeds in Section 3.2 were 30 and 60. The length of the fast road will be b = 6. The range o f reasonable valuesfor the entering point is 0 < x < 6. The distance to the road in Figure 3.12 is a = 3. We drive a distance , / = at speed 30 and the remaining distance 6  x at speed 60: 1 driving time y(x) =  , / 30
1 + (6 60
 x).
(2)
This is the function to be minimized. Its graph is extremely flat. It may seem unusual for the graph to be so level. On the contrary, it is common. AJat graph is the whole point o f dyldx = 0. The graph near the minimum looks like y = cx2. It is a parabola sitting on a = .0001 C. horizontal tangent. At a distance of Ax = .01, we only go up by C(AX)~ Unless C is a large number, this Ay can hardly be seen.
Graphs
driving time y (x)
* 3 0 E ! 3
OO
6
Fig. 3.12 Enter at x. The graph of driving time y(x). Zoom boxes locate x*.
The solution is to change scale. Zoom in on x*. The tangent line stays flat, since dyldx is still zero. But the bending from C is increased. Figure 3.12 shows the zoom box blown up into a new graph of y(x).
A calculator has one or more ways to find x*. With a TRACE mode, you direct a cursor along the graph. From the display of y values, read y,, and x* to the nearest pixel. A zoom gives better accuracy, because it stretches the axeseach pixel represents a smaller Ax and Ay. The TI81 stretches by 4 as default. Even better, let the whole process be graphicaldraw the actual ZOOM BOX on the screen. Pick two opposite corners, press ENTER, and the box becomes the new viewing window (Figure 3.12).
The first zoom narrows the search for x*. It lies between x = 1 and x = 3. We build a new ZOOM BOX and zoom in again. Now 1.5 < x* < 2. Reasonable accuracy comes quickly. High accuracy does not come quickly. It takes time to create the box and execute the zoom.
Question 1 What happens as we zoom in, if all boxes are square (equal scaling)? Answer The picture gets flatter and flatter. We are zooming in to the tangent line. Changing x to X/4 and y to Y/4, the parabola y = x2 flattens to Y = X2/4. To see any bending, we must use a long thin zoom box.
I want to change to a totally different approach. Suppose we have a formula for dyldx. That derivative was produced by an infinite zoom! The limit of Ay/Ax came by brainpower alone: dy = dx
X
I
Call this f(x).
3 o J m
60'
This function is zero at x*. The computing problem is completely changed: Solve f f(x) than a minimum o f y(x). The graph of f(x) Ax) = 0. It is easier to find a root o crosses the x axis. The graph of y(x) goes flatthis is harder to pinpoint. Take the model function y = x2 for 1x1 c .0 1. The slope f = 2x changes from  .02 to .02. The value of x2 moves only by .0001its minimum point is hard to see. To repeat: Minimization is easier with dyldx. The screen shows an order of magnitude improvement, when we trace or zoom on f(x) = 0. In calculus, we have been taking the derivative for granted. It is natural to get blask about dyldx = 0. We forget how intelligent it is, to work with the slope instead of the function.
+
zero slope at minimum
Fig. 3.13
Question 2 How do you get another order of magnitude improvement? Answer Use the next derivative! With a formula for dfldx, which is dZy/dx2,the convergence is even faster. In two steps the error goes from .O1 to .0001 to .00000001. Another infinite zoom went into the formula for dfldx, and Newton's method takes account of it. Sections 3.6 and 3.7 study f(x) = 0.
3 Applications of the Derhmtive
The expressway example allows perfect accuracy. We can solve dyjdx = 0 by alge. /, Dividing by 30 and squaring yields bra. The equation simplifies to 60x = 30= 1.73205.. . 4x2 = 32 + x2. Then 3x2 = 3'. The exact solution is x* = A model like this is a benchmark, to test competing methods. It also displays what we never appreciatedthe extreme flatness of the graph. The difference in driving and x = 2 is one second. time between entering at x* =
&
&
T H E CENTERING TRANSFORM AND ZOOM TRANSFORM
For a photograph we do two thingspoint the right way and stand at the right distance. Then take the picture. Those steps are the same for a graph. First we pick the new center point. The graph is shifted, to move that point from (a, b) to (0,O). Then we decide how far the graph should reach. It fits in a rectangle, just like the photograph. Rescaling to x/c and y/d puts the desired section of the curve into the rectangle. A good photographer does more (like an artist). The subjects are placed and the camera is focused. For good graphs those are necessary too. But an everyday calculator or computer or camera is built to operate without an artistjust aim and shoot. I want to explain how to aim at y =f(x). We are doing exactly what a calculator does, with one big difference. It doesn't change coordinates. We do. When x = 1, y =  2 moves to the center of the viewing window, the calculator still shows that point as (1,  2). When the centering transform acts on y 2 = m(x  I), those numbers disappear. This will be confusing unless x and y also change. The new coordinates are X = x  1 and Y = y + 2. Then the new equation is Y = mX. The main point (for humans) is to make the algebra simpler. The computer has no preference for Y = mX over y  yo = m(x  x,). It accepts 2x2  4x as easily as x2. But we do prefer Y = mX and y = x2, partly because their graphs go through (0,O). Ever since zero was invented, mathematicians have liked that number best.
+
EXAMPLE 4 The parabola y = 2x2  4x has its minimum when dyldx = 4x  4 = 0. Thus x = 1 and y =  2. Move this bottom point to the center: y = 2x2  44 is
The new parabola Y = 2X2 has its bottom at (0,O). It is the same curve, shifted across and up. The only simpler parabola is y = x2. This final step is the job of the zoom. Next comes scaling. We may want more detail (zoom in to see the tangent line). We may want a big picture (zoom out to check asymptotes). We might stretch one axis more than the other, if the picture looks like a pancake or a skyscraper.
3 6 A z m m tram@rna scdes the X and Y axes by c and d :
X=
EX and y = HY change Y= F ( X ) to y = dF(x/c).
Often c = d.
The new x and y are boldface letten, and the graph is re&.
3.4 Graphs
EXAMPLE 5 Start with Y = 2X2. Apply a square zoom with c = d. In the new xy ~ . number 2 disappears if c = d = 2. With coordinates, the equation is y/c = ~ ( x / c )The the right centering and the right zoom, every parabola that opens upward is y = x2. Question 3 What happens to the derivatives (slope and bending) after a zoom? Answer The slope (first derivative) is multiplied by d/c. Apply the chain rule to y =
dF(x/c). A square zoom has d/c = 1lines keep their slope. The second derivative is multiplied by d/c2, which changes the bending. A zoom out divides by small numbers c = d, so the big picture is more, curved. Combining the centering and zoom transforms, as we do in practice, gives y in terms of x: y =f(x) becomes Y=f(X+a)b andthen y = d f  + a
[ (: )  bl.
Fig. 3.14 Change of coordinates by centering and zoom. Calculators still show (x, y).
Question 4 Find x and y ranges after two transforms. Start between  1 and 1. Answer The window after centering is  1 < x  a < 1 and  1 < y  b < 1. The window after zoom is  1 < c(x  a) < 1 and  1 < d(y  b) < 1. The point (1, 1) was originally in the corner. The point (c'
+ a, d + b) is now in the corner.
The numbers a, b, c, d are chosen to produce a simpler function (like y = x2). Or elsethis is important in applied mathematicsthey are chosen to make x and y "dimensionless." An example is y = f cos 8t. The frequency 8 has dimension l/time. The amplitude f is a distance. With d = 2 cm and c = 8 sec, the units are removed and y = cos t. May I mention one transform that does change the slope? It is a rotation. The whole plane is turned. A photographer might use itbut normally people are supposed to be upright. You use rotation when you turn a map or straighten a picture. In the next section, an unrecognizable hyperbola is turned into Y = 1/X.
3.4 EXERCISES
Readthrough questions
9
The position, slope, and bending of y =f(x) are decided by a b and c .IfIf(x)l+ooasx+a,thelinex= b for large x, then y = b is a a is a vertical d . If f(x) +. e . If f(x)  m x + b for large x, then y = m x + b is a f . The asymptotes of y = x2/(x2 4) are $ I . This function is even because y(x) = h . The function sin kx has period i . Near a point where dy/dx = 0, the graph is extremely I . For the model y = cx2,x = .1 gives y = k . A box
around the graph looks long and I . We m in to that box for another digit of x*. But solving dyldx = 0 is more accurate, because its graph n the x axis. The slope of dyldx is 0 . Each derivative is like an p zoom. To move (a, b) to (0, 0), shift the variables to X = and Y = r . This s transform changes y =Ax) to Y = t . The original slope at (a, b) equals the new slope at u . To stretch the axes by c and d, set x = cX and v . The w transformchanges Y = F ( X )to y = x . Y . Second derivatives are Slopes are multiplied by multiplied by .
120
1 Find the pulse rate when heartbeats are dark lines or x seconds apart.
3 Applications of the Derivative
second or two
30 True (with reason) or false (with example). (a) Every ratio of polynomials has asymptotes (b) If f(x) is even so is f "(x) (c) Iff "(x) is even so is f(x) (d) Between vertical asymptotes, f '(x) touches zero. 31 Construct an f(x) that is "even around x = 3." 32 Construct g(x) to be "odd around x = n . "
2 Another way to compute the heart rate uses marks for 6second intervals. Doctors count the cycles in an interval. (a) How many dark lines in 6 seconds? (b) With 8 beats per interval, find the rate. (c) Rule: Heart rate = cycles per interval times .
Which functions in 318 are even or odd or periodic? Find all asymptotes: y = b or x = a or y = mx + b. Draw roughly by hand or smoothly by computer.
3 f(x) = x  (9/x) 4 f (x) = xn (any integer n) 6 f(x)= 4  x2
Create graphs of 3338 on a computer or calculator.
35 y(x) = sin(x/3) sin(x/5) 36 y(x)=(2x)/(~+x),  3 ~ ~ 6 3 37 y(x) = 2x3 + 3x2  12x + 5 on [3, 31 and C2.9, 3.11 38 100[sin(x
+
1 5 f(x)= 1 x2
x
+ .l)  2 sin x + sin(x  .I)]
x4 6x3 + 1 (b) Y = 2X4+ X 2 x2x+2 (b) y = X 2  zx + 1
9 f (x) = (sin x)(sin 2x) 10 f (x) = cos x
+ cos 3x + cos 5x
In 3940 show the asymptotes on largescale computer graphs.
39 (a) y = 40 (a) y =
x sin x 11 f(x)= x2 1
12 f(x) = sin x
X
x3+8x15 x22 x22 x3 8x 15
16 f(x)=
sin x + cos x sin x  cos x
+
41 Rescale y = sin x so X is in degrees, not radians, and Y changes from meters to centimeters.
Problems 4246 minimize the driving time y(x) in the text. Some questions may not fit your software. In 1924 constructf(x) with exactly these asymptotes.
19 x = 1 and y = 2 21 y = x a n d x = 4 20 x = l , x = 2 , y = O 22 y = 2 x + 3 and x = O 42 Trace along the graph of y(x) to estimate x*. Choose an xy range or use the default. 43 Zoom in by c = d = 4. How many zooms until you reach x* = 1.73205 or 1.7320508? 44 Ask your program for the minimum of y(x) and the solution of dyldx = 0. Same answer? 45 What are the scaling factors c and d for the two zooms in Figure 3.12? They give the stretching of the x and y axes. 46 Show that dy/dx =  1/60 and d 2 y / d ~= 2 1/90 at x = 0. Linear approximation gives dyldx z  1/60 + x/90. So the slope is zero near x = . This is Newton's method, using the next derivative.
23 y = x ( x + m ) , y = x(x+ a) 24 x = l , x = 3 , y = x 25 For P(x)/Q(x)to have y = 2 as asymptote, the polynomials P and Q must be 26 For P(x)/Q(x)to have a sloping asymptote, the degrees of . P and Q must be 27 For P(x)/Q(x) to have the asymptote y = 0, the degrees of . The graph of x4/(l x2) has what P and Q must asymptotes?
+
Change the function to y(x) = d l 5 + x2/30 + (10  x)/60.
47 Find x* using only the graph of y(x). 48 Find x* using also the graph of dyldx.
28 Both l/(x  1) and l/(x have x = 1 and y = 0 as asymptotes. The most obvious difference in the graphs is
29 If f '(x) has asymptotes x = 1 and y = 3 then f (x) has asymptotes
49 What are the xy and X Y and xy equations for the line in Figure 3.14?
37x2 21x 52 y = x 5 . Analytic geometry has become central to mathematicswe now look at one part of it. 50 Define f. the Greeks would have written first. What errors don't show in 10 digits of y? 58 Which is harder to compute accurately: Maximum point 53 y = x(x . the mathematics gets complicated. parabolas.1 + error).3. xy. It is so natural to go from linear equations to quadratic equations.O1 (x . from . exponentials (growth and decay) 4. sines and cosines (oscillation) 3. It is not easy to rank the top four: 1.O1 at x* = 1.<x<5 56 y = x sin (llx). We now study equations of second degree. We speak about "the point (5. y. y2).~ 4 .x to 71.2)(x . and Hyperbolas (n terms). Even more basic: Numbers correspond to points. Where Euclid drew a 45" line through the origin. The curves that I wrote last. This root should be correct to about (8 digits) (10 digits) (12 digits). ellipses.l)(x . Hint: Suppose y = .(x) = sin x + 4 sin 3x + f sin 5x + Graph f5 and f. y. y2. It is quite important to see both the equations and the curves. Together they produce "analytic geometry." You already know about functions and graphs. . Second degree curves include x2. and the curves they produce. 54 y = 7 sin 2x + 5 cos 3x 55 y=(x32x+1)/(x43x215). x2.1 . Ellipses.16x4 5x3 . Fig. xy. Straight lines use 1. straight lines 2. 3.2 + + + 683 57 A 10digit computer shows y = 0 and dy/dx = .4) or inflection point? First derivative or second derivative? Here is a list of the most important curves in mathematics.5 Parabolas.. zoom in to all maxima and minima (3 significant digits).J W . and hyperbolas (using 1. Zoom in and describe the Gibbs phenomenon at x = 0. 3. Descartes wrote down y = x." Euclid might not have understood. This section connects two great parts of mathematicsanalysis of the equation and geometry of the curve.15 The cutting plane gets steeper: circle to ellipse to parabola to hyperbola.2).< x Q 1 On the graphs of 5156. 51 y = 2x5 . 0. so you can tell what is coming. If we go on to x3 and y3. Estimate inflection points.x. x.
The crossing points x = 1 and x = f come from algebra. hen x = f and y = . T H E PARABOLA y = m2 + bx +c You knew this function long before calculus. The x coordinate is 8 = f .4 = 0. + To zoom in on the vertex Rescale X and Y by the zoom factor a: Y = 3 x 2 becomes y/a = 3 ( ~ / a ) ~ .16 Parabola with minimum at V. parabolas are on the border between ellipses and hyperbolas.16aat the bottom of the The height is ymin parabola. The second graph shows the centered parabola Y = 3X2. we see an ellipse on the wall. = . aiming for an equation like y = x2. With a = 3 we find y = x2the graph is magnified by 3. The graph crosses the x axis when y = 0. (The wall cuts into the light cone. we will work to make it simpler. For a cone of light. A steep cut gives the two pieces of a hyperbola (Figure 3. This is the vertex V in Figure 3. Y = 3X2 is the same as y f = 3(x . but it opens to infinity like a hyperbola. That simplifies to the original equation y = 3x2 . halfway between the crossing points. and a moderate angle produces an ellipse. . 3. The Greeks discovered that all these curves come from slicing a cone by a plane.4x + 1 = 0. The final equation has x and y in boldface." A level cut gives a circle.3 Appllcatlonr of the Derhrathre CONIC SECTIONS The parabola and ellipse and hyperbola have absolutely remarkable properties. when the slicing angle matches the cone angle. The graph will be centered and rescaled (and rotated if necessary). The slope 6x . The quadratic formula solves y = 3x2 . and so does factoring into (x .1)(3x . So introduce the new variables and Y = y + f . I directrix at y = . The other important point is found by calculus. It has one branch like an ellipse. A parabola has no asymptotes.3 correspond to X = Y=Owhich is the new vertex: y = 3x2.15d). Eccentricity and polar coordinates are left for Chapter 9.3)2. Rays reflect to focus.1). (1) Check the algebra. Throughout mathematics. It is the minimum point.i. In two steps we have reached the model parabola opening upward. The curves are "conic sections.4 Fig. with the vertex moved to the origin. At the borderline. x=x$ To center the vertex Shift left by 3 and up by f . rescaled in (c).4x + 1.4 doesn't approach a constant. the plane carves out a parabola.) For an equation AX^ + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0. where dyldx = 6x . Centered in (b). To repeat: We can slice through cones or we can look for equations.4x + 1 becomes Y = 3X 2.
other circles are ." The directrix is the line y = . our plan of attack is the same: 1. where we bump into the enclosing rectangle. Y = y . Thus 2ax + b = 0 and x = . Ellipses. Shifting across to that point is "completing the square": ax2 + bx + e equals a x + :l)i ( + C.p below the vertex (so the vertex is halfway between focus and directrix). Here C = c . A circle is a special case o f an ellipse. Problem 2. (They add to one and can't be negative. y) is y + 4. They concentrate sun rays and TV signals onto a pointa heat cell or a receiver collects them at the focus. The special parabola y = x2 has p = 114. Here is a classical fact about parabolas.(b2/4a)is the height of the vertex. The equation also shows that x2/a2 and y2/b2 cannot exceed one. By solving for y we get a function (or two functions!) of x: The graphs are the top half (+) and bottom half () of the ellipse. This circle is centered at (0.a and a. The centering transform X = x + (b/2a). Center the curve to remove any linear terms Dx and Ey.and x stays between . Its distance from the vertex is called p. rescale it to y = x2.O).this is the square root below.b are at the top and bottom of the ellipse. and Hyperbolas A parabola has another important pointthe focus. Changing x to x or y to y leaves the same equation.3.5 Parabolas. From each point on the curve. and send the light outward. at x = a on the far right of Figure 3. The ellipse is inside a rectangle. the distance to the focus equals the distance to the "directrix. To draw the ellipse.b/2a. With p = 4. You magnify by a factor a to get y = x2. Rotate to remove Bxy if the equation contains it. The beautiful property of a parabola is that every ray coming straight down is reflected to the focus. 3. plot them together. The 1982 UMAP Journal explains how radar and sonar use the same idea. The circle equation x2 + y2 = r2 is the ellipse equation with a = b = r.25 located the focus Fhere we mention two applications.+ . Locate each focus and discover the reflection property.b. The maximum y = b and minimum y = .C produces Y = a x 2 . 0)the center. No extra centering or rotation is needed. Out comes the special parabola y = x2: y +4 =  (square both sides)  y = x2. They meet when y = 0. It moves the vertex to (0.) Therefore x2 < a2. and other parabolas Y = a x 2 have p = 1/4a.a). Similarly y stays between b and . Summary for other parabolas y = ax2 + bx + c has its vertex where dy/dx is zero.a on the far left. Match that with the distance to the focus at (0. the distance down from any (x. For the ellipse and hyperbola. (2) The exercises give practice with all the steps we have takencenter the parabola to Y = a x 2 .= 1 (CIRCLES HAVE a= b ) a 2 b2 This equation makes the ellipse symmetric about (0. 2. when a = b. 0). x2 y2 ELLIPSES . locate the vertex and focus and directrix. where it belongs. A solar collector and a TV dish are parabolic. Car headlights turn the idea around.17 and at x = .3.
k = 7.3)2 by adding 9.3)2+ (y . k): (4) In words. plus the distance to F2 is constant (always 2a).17 has sides a.3 Applications of the Derivative centered at x = h.14y = . The equation has linear terms .6x + y2 . the distance to F . Solution The center is halfway at (3. All rays from F 2 reflect to F . the distance to each focus is a. 7). The distance around an ellipse does not rescaleit has no simple formula. This is equally true for an ellipse: x2 y 2 1. EXAMPLE 1 Equation o f circle: (x . both foci are at the center.7)2 by adding 49. For a parabola.54 must agree with x2 . one focus on each side of the center: ~ .c.O). += a2 b2 When we rescale by x = Xja and y = Ylb. From the endpoint at x = a. So r = 2 and (x .h)' + (y . From the top of the ellipse. The change to X = x .k moves the center of the circle from (h.14y to (y .14y = . c. For a circle.6x + y2 .7) to (5.2hx + h2 + y2 . Fig.O).3)2 (y .1 becomes a b2 The unit circle has area n. + Quicker Solution Match the given equation with (4). Adding (a + c) + (a . Find the circle that has a diameter from (1. 3.2ky + k2 = r2.17 Uncentered circle.2kythey disappear when the center is (0. The circle is determined by its radius r and its center (h. The ellipse has area nab (proved later in the book). and r = 2: x2 .c) gives 2a.7). y = k. The foci of an ellipse are on its longer axis (its major axis). we get the unit circle x2 + y2 = 1. . The distance around the circle is 2n. the second focus is at infinity. As you go around the ellipse. Solution Complete x2 . Now we leave circles and concentrate on ellipses.h and Y= y .7)2= 4the same circle as in Example 1. .k)2 = r2. the distance from (x. They have two foci (pronounced fosigh). the distances to the foci are a + c and a . k) to (0. y) on the circle to (h.2hx and .6x to the square (x . EXAMPLE2 Find the center and radius of the circle x2 . Then h = 3. Centered ellipse ~ ~ + y1 2/22 3= 1 ~ . The distance from center to far right is also a = 3. (~h)~ The ellipse + (yk)l . i s a t x = e = J a ~ . Adding 9 and 49 to both sides of the equation leaves (x .b ~ and F2isatx=c. The right triangle in Figure 3. Complete y2 .54.7)2= 22. b. k) at the center is r.
when x is large. you can be heard at the other focus (and nowhere else). A hospital uses this reflection property to split up kidney stones.5 Parabolas. since x can change to . The equation becomes (x . 4 Question 3 Shift the center of that ellipse across and down to x = 1. The center is at (0. Question 2 Locate the ellipse with equation 4x 2 + 9y 2 = 36. on England's last pound note. The patient sits inside an ellipse with the kidney stone at one focus. That makes all the difference. Change y to y + 5.=1000 then b 2 1001.x and y to .= I1 Notice the minus sign for a hyperbola. See Section 12. It is still symmetric. You get a spinal anesthetic (I mean the patient) and the stones break into tiny pieces. They put the Sun at the center. The ellipse is the orbit of the Earth. Unlike an ellipse. If you stand at one focus and speak quietly. At the other focus a lithotripter sends out hundreds of small shocks. Now identify a and b: + 9 2  2 1 so a= and b= /. HYPERBOLAS y2 a2 X 2 b2 . The curve goes out to infinity. So  a is close to b or  b .y): (X )2 +y 2 + /(x 2= 2a. Solving for y again yields two functions (+ and ): a =1 gives =+ or y= 2 . Keep the string taut and your moving pencil will create the ellipse. the sum of distances from the foci is2a. y = athe lowest point on the branch.4 for a terrible printing mistake by the Royal Mint. This is another equation for the ellipse: from F1 and F 2 to (X. Much further out. . The most important focus is the Sun. has y > a. The vertex V 1 is at x = 0.y. tie a string of length 2a to the foci. (6) The hyperbola has two branches that never meet.5. For a parabola the rays come in to the focus from infinitywhere the second focus is. Ellipses. In practice we start with this uncentered ellipse and go the other way to center it.1)2/9 + (y + 5)2/4 = 1. y = . Question 1 Why do the whispers (and shock waves) arrive together at the second focus? Answer Whichever way they go. Your voice is reflected off the walls to the other focusfollowing the path of the string. the hyperbola climbs up beside its sloping asymptotes: x2 2 if . the distance is 2a. and Hyperbolas 3H At all points on the ellipse. Foci at 94 = + . 0). Answer Change x to x . This description uses a and cthe other form uses a and b (remember b2 + c 2 = a2 ). The "whispering gallery" of the United States Senate is an ellipse. Exception: straight path is 2c. Answer Divide by 36 to change the constant to 1. x and y can both be large. Problem 24 asks you to simplify equation (5) until you reach x 2/a2 + y 2/b 2 = 1. The upper branch. (5) To draw an ellipse.1. with a plus sign.3.
The distances to F 1 and The asymptotes are the lines yla = x/b and yla = . The vertex is a distance c .18y . This determines the curve..(c . Complete 4x2 + 4x to 4(x $)2 by adding 4(3)2= 1. / = which .$. . But now c = . far from the center? Answer Hyperbolas have asymptotes.y 2 = lthe hyperbola opens to the sides. Their slopes are a/b and . A ship receives the signals a millisecond apart. and we have a standard hyperbola: y2/a2. For a hyperbola.3 Applications of the Derivative 7 reach curve fixed time apart light waves reflect to F2 Fig.18. The appearance of x/b is a signal to change to X .4x = 28. Similarly yla becomes Y. Then the ship is located exactly. In Long Range Navigation (LORAN) a third transmitter gives another hyperbola. c = / . A 90" turn gives X 2 . Question 4 How do hyperbolas differ from parabolas. + + . 3.1. Complete 9~~. This is the hyperbola in Question 5 .18y to 9(y . Radio signals leave two fixed transmitters at the same time. (They are not circles because of the xy term.4x2 .) When the xy coefficient increases past 2. b = 3.4x2 = 36.x/b. F . Parabolas don't. We show below how to recognize x2 + x y + y2 = 1 as an ellipse and x2 3xy + y2 = 1 as a hyperbola.except its center is (. Answer Question 6 Locate the uncentered hyperbola 9y2 .1)2 by adding 9. and the inside of the ellipse. All points on the hyperbola have this property: The diflerence between distances to the foci is constantly 2a.I). Recognize a = and b = & fi. is larger than a and b. The reflection is on the outside of the hyperbola. + Answer Question 5 Locate the hyperbola with equation 9y2 . Their distance from the center is still called c. the foci are inside the two branches. The equation is rewritten as 9(y .x2/b2= 1 becomes Y 2 .&x2= 1 has a = 2. x2 + y2 no longer indicates an ellipse.x2/9 = 1.X 2 = 1.a from one focus and c + a from the other. differ by 2a = 4. so 186 = 2a. The hyperbola has a natural rescaling. A 45" turn produces 2X Y = 1.a/b. Here is an application to navigation. A ray coming in to one focus is reflected toward the other.a) = 2a. The diflerence (not the sum) is (c + a) . Where is the ship? Answer: It is on a hyperbola with foci at the transmitters. Then Y = 1 at the vertex.18 The hyperbola iy2 . You can't miss them in Figure 3. Radio signals travel 186 miles in a millisecond.4(x + $)2 = 28 9 . Divide by 36. Then y2/4 .
This also changes A and Cbut the combination B~ . A level cut hits only that one point (0. Ellipses. THE GENERAL EQUATION Ax2+ Bxy + Cy2 Dx + Ey + +F=0 This equation is of second degree. A parabola has B2 = 4AC. . complete squares as in Questions 3 and 6. hyperbola. What is the graph of AX? + Bxy + c y 2 = O? The ellipsehyperbolaparabola have disappeared. Kepler discovered that the Earth travels on an ellipse (also Chapter 12). It is a circle (a special ellipse). A cut at the exact angle of the cone gives only one line. y2. y. That positive number 4 signals a hyperbolasince A = . To rotate by an angle a. I I The equation Ax2 Bxy cyZ = 1 produces a hyperbola if B~ > 4AC and an ellipse if B2 < 4AC. Finally Einstein discovered that light travels on hyperbolas. After the xy term is gone. containing any and all of 1. as in x2 = 0.4AC if A' and C' have opposite signs.y sin a + x cos a. because this special combination stays constant during rotation. is matched by the importance of the equations. Then read off a and b. and Hyperbolas To summarize: Find the center by completing squares. But if the Greeks were right. x2. + + I To recognize the curve. The beauty of the geometry. It is a hyperbola With B' = 0. However we rotate. A plane is cutting through a cone.x2 = 1.O). An example is 2xy = 1. the equation stays the same. rescale to one of the model equations y = x2 or x2 + y2 = 1 or y2 . The formulas for A'. as predicted for ellipses. C' are painful so I go to the key point: B' is zero + if the rotation angle a has tan 2a = B/(A . Is the curve a parabola or ellipse or hyperbola? Start with the most important case Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 = 1.4 1 1 is negative. The equation shrinks to x2 + y 2 = 0.1 and C = 1 have opposite signs. Another example is x2 + y2 = 1. To find the center. = (7) Substituting for x and y changes AX^ Bxy + c y 2 = 1 to A ' x ' ~ + B'xly' + Cryf 2 = 1.C). The remaining question is about F = 0. two lines. xy.y' sin a y = x' sin a + y' cos a and x cos a + y sin a y' = . with . and one line are very extreme cases of an ellipse. + C'yr2= 1. A single point. the cone is still cut by a plane. x.3. and parabola. For total perfection. The original B~ .x2 = 1. Then B ' was also positive. x2 = 0. A steep cut gives two lines. B'. + All these "conic sections" come from planes and cones.4AC is not changed (proof omitted). with B~ = 4. It rotates to y2 . leaving only its asymptotes y = x.5 Parabolas.4AC = 0 . we deal with x and yby centering. The hyperbola becomes y2 ?. we remove Bxy by rotating the plane. That is in four dimensions. change x and y to new variables x' and y': x = X' cos a . Galileo discovered that projectiles go along parabolas (Chapter 12). which Archimedes saw. the curve is easily recognized from A ' x ' ~ ~ 4A1C' is positive. The combination B~ .4AC = 4. The degenerate case F = 0 occurs when the plane cuts right through the sharp point of the cone. and not in Chapter 12. a circle with radius zero.
Centering by X = x 1 and Y = c moves the vertex to (0. and an xy equation for the path. Which points are a distance 1 from the directrix and focus? 18 The parabola y = 9 .O). The graph of 4x2 + 5xy + 6y2= 1 is a F .above vertex.x2/b2= 1 with a = r and b = s . c) and (0. The general equation is AX^ + C + F = 0. 0) with foci at (+4. The focus of this centered parabola is e . 1) and find the new equation. a) and (0. _+ 1).c): c = . X = x .O) and (1. also P y=ax2+bx+c 1 infinity y2 H .5 Readthrough questions EXERCISES The graph of y = x2 2x + 5 is a a . 1) and (2. 16 y = x2 . Locate the vertices and foci. y = t .O) (b) open upwards with focus at (0. + All these curves are conic sectionsthe intersection of a Y and a . the maximum height. Dividing by h leaves x2/a2+ y2/b2= 1 with a = i and b = i . 1) equal to 12 (c) with both foci at (0. The asymptotes are the lines . 2 The parabola y = 3x2 . Introducing . If we rescale to X = x/4 and Y = y/2 the equation becomes 0 and the graph becomes a p . 19 Find equations for all parabolas which (a) open to the right with vertex at (0. To move the vertex to . At this minimum. What is special about this x? Show that it gives y = c . The area is nab = I . The foci are at x = c = m .t2 at time t. + 1 The vertex of y = ax2 + bx + c is at x y '. Find dxldt and dyldt at the start. Simplify to reach the equation of an ellipse. The graph lies in the rectangle whose sides are k . Dividing by 9 leaves y2/a2. Then Y = X2. On the upper branch y 3 t .3 Applications of the Derivative equation vertices foci . If D = E = 0 the center of the graph is at D . Then shift the center to (1.a) (0. 0) (b) with sum of distances to (1.=x2 I a2 b2 (0.. 0) and sum of distances= 2a = 10.O) and (1. The w of distances from the foci to a point on this hyperbola is x . A steep cutting angle yields a A ..12x has xmin = . 2134 are about ellipses. 12). All to the focus..x2 = 9 is a q . The graph of y2 . (b) Locate the focus and directrix of Y = 3x2. = /. y) = ( b ). 20 A projectile is at x = t. 3x2 is as large as 12x.9 yields Y = x2. Then isolate the remaining square root and square again.x has vertex at and Y = (0. At the borderline angle we get a B . 21 Find the equation of the ellipse with extreme points at (+2.O). Square and simplify. Its lowest point (the vertex) is (x. 23 Find equations for the ellipses with these properties: (a) through (5.2 and Y = y + 12 centers the equation to 22 On the ellipse x2/a2+ y2/b2= 1./= 3. . The equation becomes Y = d . The sum of distances from the foci to a point on this ellipse is always n . + . 3541 are about hyperbolas. rays coming straight down are f + + Problems 1520 are about parabolas.O) and (0. . 15 Find the parabola y = ax2 + hx + c that goes through (0.O) (c) open downwards and go through (0. 0) set X = The graph of x2 + 4~~= 16 is an a .(b2/4a). The foci are at y = c = v . solve for y when x =c = This height above the focus will be valuable in proving Kepler's third law. 17 (a) In equation (2) change $ to p. . 24 Move a square root to the right side of equation (5) and square both sides.b/2a. The equation Ax2 + Bxy Cy2 = 1 gives an ellipse when E .x2 opens with vertex at . 1) and (5. Draw the curves 314 by hand or calculator or computer. Centering by Y = y .
x 2 = 1 at (xO.4ac.2)2 = . = 1 goes through this point with the right slope (it 27 (4.2 ~=)1. which is the borderline case like a parabola. & 2) (b) vertices (0.. 42 For which A. 33 Rotate the axes of x2 + xy + y2 = 1 by using equation (7) with sin a = cos a = l / f i . 3: 1. & 3).2)2 .4AC? 36 Find the slope of y 2 . 2.) with foci at . What is its equation and what is B~ .1 and Y = y + 3. P F . Therefore y2 . y) to (8.4AC in terms of a and b.12x = 0 gives the hyperbola (y . 4. what hyperbola contains (x. 46 The roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0 also involve the special combination b2 . Deduce steps 2.3. R is the mirror image of F . (b) Compute B2 . + F =0 30 Figure B proves the reflecting property of an ellipse. 37 If the distances from (x. points in the plane. xx. + 40 Following Problem 39 turn y2 + 2y = x2 + lox into y 2 = x2+ C with X. 3) on the curve. + PF2 < QF1 + QF2 (left side = 2a.5 Parabolas. (c) Show that the plane meets the cone in an ellipse if a2 + b2 < 1 and a hyperbola if a 2 + b2 > 1 (steeper). 38 If a cannon was heard by Napoleon and one second later (b) For the ellipse x2/a2+ y2/b2= 1 show that the tangent by the Duke of Wellington. The roots come together when b2 = 4ac. C. 45 (a) When the plane z = ax +by + c meets the cone z2 = x2 + y2. Rewrite in the form Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0. a seconddegree goes through those points.. yo). This quadratic equation has two real roots if and no real roots if . 2.l/(slope of tangent) = . based on the XY equation with X = x . 34 What are a. b. The x'y' equation should show an ellipse.2 ~+) ~ (c) (2. has to be the tangent line). Choose X and Y to produce X 2 + Y2 = 1. Find dyldx at that point and the equation of the tangent line.4y is part of 2(x + 3)2 = 2x2 .8: the reflecting property is proved.4y2 = 1 and find its foci and asymptotes.4y is part of (y . 4 from 1.2x + Y2 + 6y = 6 (b) ~ ~ . foci (0. a n d Hyperbolas 129 25 Decide between circleellipseparabolahyperbola.1)2/4= 1 is really a with center at and radius . Ellipses.2 x . c for the Earth's orbit around the sun? 35 Find an equation for the hyperbola with (a) vertices (0. (Check the slope.2x . and C equal to . Problems 4246 are about seconddegree curves (conics). 44 Given any curve AX^ + .2 x + 212y=6 ~ ~ + (d) x2 . & I). Show that yy. The slope of the line from F 2 is S= . 3. Q is outside) PR + P F 2 < QR + QF2 P is on the straight line from F 2 to R a = . Its center is and it opens to the . Q is any other point on the line. 32 Compute the area of a square that just fits inside the ellipse x2/a2+ y2/b2= 1. 41 Draw the hyperbola x2 . yo).2(x 3)2= .2x . By the reflection property.2y . 0) and (8. . + + and 2x2 + 12x 39 y2 . in the tangent line.~ ~ . ' 29 The slope of the normal line in Figure A is s = . 31 The ellipse (x .. ~ Show that the water surface at z = 0 is an ellipse. 3.3)2!4 + (y . y)? circle x2 + Y2 = r2 at (x. = r2 is tangent to the 10. 43 Show that x2 + 2xy + y2 + 2x + 2y + 1 = 0 is the equation (squared) of a single line.6 ~ = 6 (c) ~ ~ . F does AX^ tion (empty graph)? + cy2 + F = 0 have no solu Test your numbers s and S against this equation. 0) differ by 28 (a) Check that the line xxo + yy. asymptotes y = x (y . Y. (a) x2 . the cannon was somewhere on a equation is xxo/a2+ yyo/b2= 1. eliminate z by squaring the plane equation.y = 6. 915) is above the focus on the ellipse x2/25 + y2/9 = 1. asymptotes y = 2x 26 A tilted cylinder has equation (x .
6 + 4 = 7 9 x4 = 1 2 . To repeat: 8 is special because it equals 4 8 + 4.As soon as you can. EXAMPLE 3 x n + . the sequence goes back toward 8: Equation for limit: If the iterations x." The basin contains all starting points x. leads to this same number x*. x.. = 0 the sequence is 2 . Each limit x* has a "basin of attraction... It uses the cos button. If we start at x.= xi has two fixed points: 0 = 0' and 1 = 12.. x2 is the input and out comes x. This limiting equation yields x* = 8. Starting from x. goes quickly to x* = 0. = cos2x. 256. 7. x29 = .) converge to x*.7391. The only approaches to x* = 1 are from x. A computer would convince us.. 8. The early numbers are not important. is special because it equals cos .74. pressing "cos" each time. To explain why the x's converge (or why they don't) is the job of calculus.6 Iterations X n + 1 = F ( x n ) Iteration means repeating the same function. and the sequence diverges to + m. which does not need a calculator. = 3 the sequence &. = 8. . + 4 is X*= I .+. I am in radian mode on a calculator. EXAMPLE 1 x12 = . x3=L . 16. That produces x2 = cos . . x14 = ...7391. 6. . Take its cosine: x.= F(x. not the squaring button. A. every x.75.54 = . + 8 is the "steady state" where input equals output: 8 = F(8).+ = F(x. is the input that leads to x.. .7931)? Let me slow down to understand these questions. It is thefixedpoint. Starting from x. = cos x. The graphs of y = x and y = F(x) intersect at x*. when we see what is special about 8: When the x's approach x*..7391? Note on iterations Do x1 = cos x. say x. EXAMPLE 2 x. The central idea is expressed by the equation x. . When we start at x. . Choose any starting value..This is iteration.1.) = i x .. + = cos x. The number . . Suppose the function is F(x) = cos x. Sometimes x* also depends on the starting value x.. So will mathematics. . 4.130 3 Applications of the Derivative 3.+. + 4.. The goal is to explain why the x's approach x* = . . Starting from x.739085 .? Absolutely not! Iteration creates a new and different function cos (cos x).. x.. . = ix. = 2 we get 4. = 1. In its turn.. . the limit of x. then x* = F(x*). . Then take the cosine of x.. = .. .... 8. . = 1 (of course) and from x. The basins were a. . x13 = . 7 + 4 = 7 L2. that lead to x*. = 4 cos x. 73. What limit do the x's approach? Is it 3(. and x2 = cos x. and it produces the sequence x . seem to be approaching x* = 8. For Examples 1 and 2. Every starting value x. This output x.). what is important is the output after 12 or 30 or 100 steps: . The iteration is x. = F(x. Look at a second example. iterate with x. +..86. Those numbers 0.73. ~ 3 = . Sometimes there is no limit. led to . . mean that x. The third step creates F(F(F(x)))...7391. What is special about . = F(x2). . Here F(x) = x2.. x2=i*4+4=6.x * 4. = . The x's may approach a limit x*. + .7391 and 8. depending on the function F. . .7391. Substituting xo into F gives x. = 12. x2.54. the sequence is 8.=4*0+4=4.
= F(x. It is a very convenient way to see the whole process. = cos x. is far away. The iterations are aiming for (x*. (1) The "error" x.) on the 45" line.). does the sequence still approach x*? When there are several attracting points. Every step multiplies approximately by F1(x*). 6 Iterations x.. Points near 1 move away.x* is the same as F(x.x* is multiplied by the slope dF/dx.) .. < 1.) go up or down to (x.). F is f x + 4 and F' is i. . x. . x. In Example 3... We now find the rule that decides whether x* is attracting or repelling. x*) = (. the two points xo = 1.): From (x. The next section produces crazy but wonderful iterations...) on the curve." Both methods throw light on this crucial test for attraction: IdF/dxl< 1. First proof: Subtract x* = F(x*) from x. There is attraction to 8. These steps are repeated forever. and all the rest. I challenge you to find the limits and the basins of attraction (by calculator) for F(x) = x .) . the rule is based on x. Now cross to the 45" line at (x. THE GRAPH OF AN ITERATION: COBWEBS .+ . = F(x. x* = 0 is attracting. = F(xJ 131 the whole line (that is still to be proved). The basic idea of calculus is that AF is close to F'Ax: x. Figure 3... which x* do we reach? This section starts with good iterations. which solve the equation x* = F(x*) or f(x) = 0.x*).Its size controls the speed of convergence. The other is the graph of y = x (the 45" line). x. . x. Points near x* move toward x*. I admit one major difficulty. The key is the slope dF/dx at x*. This is the crossing point of the two graphs y = F(x) and y = x." Starting at (x. If x. The difference x. This is AF. near a fixed point x* = F(x*): x* is attracting if IdF/dxf is below 1 at x* x* is repelling if IdFldxl is above 1 at x*. .x* = F(x.. Then comes a picture of convergence. but we are converging on the answers. There is attraction to .7391. The next error x.7391 because lsin x* I < 1. not converging and not blowing up. Example 3 had three basinsthe interval 1 < x. At the end we discover Newton's method..tan x.) on the 45" line.3 .19 shows the graph of cos x and the "cobweb. In Example 3.. From x. From (x. The iteration x. There is superattraction to x* = 0 (where F' = 0). There is repulsion from x* = 1 (where F' = 2). In Example 1. The approximation in equation (1) only holds near x*. go up to the curve at F(x. x. In Example 2. Example 1 was x. x...F(x*) z F1(x*)(xn . . F(x) is cos x and F1(x) is sin x. .+ . = F(x. That height is x. The fixed point x* = 1 is repelling. Please choose a function and join in. . based on I F'I < 1 or I F'I > 1 at x*.). + + 3J Start from any x . They lead to "fractals" and "Cantor sets" and "chaos. It may never be finished. F is x2 and F' is 2x. The iteration jumps back and forth between these graphs.) go across to (x. The outer basin Ixo(> 1 led to co.) involves two graphs at the same time.7391).F(x*)... One is the graph of y = F(x).x* is smaller or larger. First I will give a calculus proof." The mathematics of iterations is not finished. by "cobwebs.
4) to (4. but it quickly goes away.= xz. Both graphs are straight lines. Y followed by E X E. The cobweb is onesided. Each step draws a line.n 2. The fixed point x = n: is in a basin by itself! Note 1 To draw cobwebs on a calculator.6) to (6.= f xn + 4.6). Now move the cursor vertically to y = F(x) and press E X E. graph y = F(x) on top of y = x. Figure 3. The graph of y = x2 crosses the 45" line at two fixed points: O2 = 0 and l 2 = 1. Example 2 was xn+.so the distance to 8 is multiplied by f at every step.. On a Casio.xl)line to curve to line.20 Converging and diverging cobwebs: F(x)= x2 and F(x)= x . That requires a slope greater than one.O) to (0. 349 Cobwebs go from (xo. Distance from x* = 1 is doubled (at the start).20a starts the iteration close to 1. Example 3 was xn+. The path from x. Continue. Notice how y changes (vertical line) and then x changes (horizontal line). Figure 3.3 Applicafions of the Derivative Fig. one way is to plot (x. Then move horizontally to y = x and press E X E.4) to (4. One path moves down to x* = 0which is superattractive because F' = 0.) and give the command L I N E : P L 0 T X . from (0. The slope of F(x) is 4. This fixed point is repelling because F'(1) = 2. the graph of F(x) must cross the 45" line from below. . Cobwebs diverge from this unstable point.sin x. 3. which separates the basins of attraction. > 1 diverges to infinity.xo)to (xo. The iterations and cobwebs converge quickly.n Fig. EXAMPLE 4 F(x) has two attracting points x* (a repelling x* is always between).xl) to ( x l . In between. x.20b shows two crossings with slope zero. .
We will see how quickly Newton's method works (when it works). What is a good choice of c (or c. and f (x.+ . approach x* (or do the x.) into an optimal formula for x.+~x*=x. they used iteration. There are two key questions. converge to x*. The right side is (1 . It is a fundamental technique in scientiJic computing. (4) .) to decide on the next point x. How quickly does x.) +f (x*)). The function F(x) combines x.. x* = x* . If no fixed points are attracting.)? D W P L E 5 f (x) = ax .ca)(x.b is zero at x* = bla. if it changes from step to step) is absolutely critical. It is a fixed point of F (we can assume cn+ c # 0 and f (x. The starting guess xo is also importantbut its accuracy is not always under our control.= (1 . It is the outstanding algorithm to solve equations. One possibility is to jump ahead to the next section on "Newton's Method.) and f '(x.x*). : . Replace b by ax*. Notice how F(x) is constructedfrom f (x)they are different! We move f to the right side and multiply by a "preconditioner" c.) A good algorithm may switch to Newton as it gets close. and it is totally built on tangent approximations. Set the range (square window or autoscaling). This makes the problem interesting. .'s have a limit.= X. The choice o f c (or c. x. The iteration xn+ = xn. . Store F(x) in the Y = function slot Y 1 .c(ax. Note 3 A basin of attraction can include faraway x. and both of them are answered by the slope Ft(x*): 1. Then the limit of equation (2) is (3) That gives f (x*) = 0.) Subtracting x* from both sides leaves an equation for the error: f (x*). which is at our disposal. The iterations use f (x.." That method is an iteration to solve f (x) = 0.c . (I write x* for the solution. . . 133 For the TI81 (and also the Casio) a short program produces a cobweb. diverge)? 2. We start by recognizing that there are many ways to reach f (x*) = 0..b) intends to find bla without actually dividing. The other possibility is to understand (through calculus) a whole family of iterations. (Early computers could not divide. This family depends on a number c." THE ITERATION xn+.7 for "cycles" and "chaos.b). If the x. Run the program and answer the prompt with x.x*(error). Suppose the x.. see Section 3. The best choice of c produces Newton's method.'s (basins can come in infinitely many pieces).ca)(error)..c~(x. This "error equation" is .: Note 2 The x's approach x* from one side when 0 < dF/dx < 1. I emphasize that iteration is by no means a new and peculiar idea.6 Iterations xn+ = F(xn) .) At this point we offer the reader a choice.3. it solves the right equation. + c(ax.
However we can come close. This corresponds to m = 1 . We apply the tangent approximation.cal decides everything: x. Linear equations never do.) = F(x. (ax 2 h) : fail xo Fig. . To understand x. . This example did not need calculus.x*). Now calculus enters.ca < 1. 3.+ = x.ca).x*). But look at the other lines. where A stands for the slope df /dx at x*: x.+ .c ( a s . = l /f '(x. This is Newton's method. if the multiplier is small.cf (x. The error goes to zero IF' I is less than 1. = x. The multiplier m = 1 .h ) : good 1 x (ax b) : best Y . The new error at step n + 1 is approximately the old error multiplied by m = 1 ..cf '(x*). We keep returning to the basic test Iml= I Ff(x*)l< 1: There is only one difficulty: W e don't know x*.).3 Applications of the Derivative At every step the error is multiplied by ( 1 . (7) This is the error equation.c(f (x. = xo .) f ( x * )by A(x..x* . T H E BEST CHOICE O Fc The immediate goal is to study the errors x.: Choose c. . .1 < 1 .cA. Then x.cA)(x.f(x.) and m + 0. Newton has c = l /f '(x. Therefore we don't know the perfect c. converges to x* if and only if .21a. if (5) The perfect choice (if we knew it) is c = l/a.(l/a)(axo is the horizontal line in Figure 3. The absolute value ( 1 . which is F'. By building dfldx into F(x).). When you see a &Terence off's think of dfldx. in a problem that doesn't start by asking for a derivative.b) = bla.) f (x*)).21 The error multiplier is m = 1 . f ( x J f '(x. You are seeing how calculus is used.). converging in one step.ca in the linear example.cA is as near to zero as we can make it. They go quickly to zero. The key idea is that close to x* the nonlinear equation f ( x )= 0 is nearly linear. That zero.ca into ..+ . F(x) F( x ) F '(x* ) Y . subtract the equation x* = x* . .Newton speeded up the convergence of the iteration. (6) . Then one iteration gives the exact answer: x . . Replace .cf (x*): x. which turns the multiplier 1 .x*. It depends on the slope A =f ' ( x * )at the unknown solution. by using the slope at x.x* = x.x* z ( 1 .
The second column shows convergence (attracted to x*).+. and each x.). + = 4cos x.+ = X.cos x.): x0 = S O XI c=1 . = l /f '(x.98 4.cos x = 0 with different iterations (different c's).) or update c by Newton's rule c..) 4. The third column shows the "quadratic convergence" of Newton's method. . The intersection point where 2x* = cos x* has no simple formula. f (x.8. It takes one genuine Newton step. We asked earlier if its limit is $(." The equation f (x) = 0 is rewritten as x = x f (x). After n steps the error is closely proportional to mn= (.45062669 The column with c = 1 is diverging (repelled from x*). How does this convergence match the prediction? Note that f '(x) = 2 + sin x so A = 2. which has IF' I = 14 sin XI< 1. because m + 0. This is "successive substitution. is substituted back to produce x.05 c = 1/(2 + sin 4) c. . and it succeeds. This squaring carries us from to to lo' to "machine E" in three steps. Because m is negative the errors change signthe cobweb goes outward.45O.98 10 multiplier m = .1. Then m x 0. then c is fixed.018)"that is "linear convergence'' with a good multiplier.018 m +0 (Newton) The first column shows a multiplier below . Iteration with c = 1 does not always fail! .31 will show that (error)..4 m = . = x.x* = 0...38 c = l /f '(x.018.45063 c. We start from xo = f and iterate x. going down each column. No. In fact m itself is proportional to the error. This iteration fits into our family with c = i .) = . not f . . The line y = 2x crosses the cosine curve somewhere near x = f.435. Problem 3. ..) .3 . Note 2 Newton's method is successive substitution for f /f '. The errors grow at every step.7391). < error):. Note 3 Edwards and Penney happened to choose the same example 2x = cos x. . 6 Iterations Xn+ q = F(xn) EXAMPLE 6 Solve f (x) = 2x . The second column shows convergence with m = .1.) with three diflerent choices of c. The number of correct digits is doubled at every step as Newton converges.x*. are multiplied by the predicted m below that column: c= 1 x0 . it is x* = . . Take c = 1 or c = l/f '(x.c(2xn. The third column (Newton's method) approaches x* so quickly that . Look to see whether the actual errors x. Multiplying the error by m is more attractive than ever. = l/f '(x. = 1/(2 + sin x. But they cleverly wrote it as x. so at each step the error is squared.4501836 and seven more digits are exact for x3.. Note 1 The choice c = 1 produces x.
. In both cases dF/dx = 1 at x* = 0.. x*) = m .cf(x*). The steps are quicker.+ = . We have three ways to study iterations x.2 8 .x i ) to see chaos.3 Applications of the Derivative Note 4 The choice c = l /f ' ( x o )is "modified Newton. The errors approach zero if s . dF/dx is 12 Draw the cobweb for x. at x* = 9 . F = x3 has f fixed points. .F(x*) z I . After one step xl = b . This is an intersection of y = x3 and y = n . . . xo) to points have F ' = ( . because they don't require a new ff(x. + = 4(xn. For F = x3 the fixed I . = x : . x* = O?18 For which numbers a does x. the error equation is x.. The point is called I .+ . . f (x) = 0 can be solved iteratively by x. =x. you spend half your money each year and a rich but foolish aunt gives you a new $1000. so speed is important. an a . a = 1 and when a = . . By experiment or cobwebs.+~ =4xn. then x* is a e point. the other is repelling..95).). which has the fixed points 11 Draw the cobwebs for x. Rule: Cobwebs are twosided when . to .x* = F(x.3 is attracting. in which case F'(x*) = P . .. Convergence to x* is w certain. What is your steady state balance x*? What is x* if you start with a million dollars? 24 The US national debt was once $1 trillion. (2) find the fixed points x* and test IdF/dxl< 1 (3)draw cobwebs.+.+ = X : describes. starting from xo = 2. x2. Inflation reduces its real value by 5% each year (so multiply by a = .+.. .1 starting from the . 21 (important) Find the fixed point for F(x) = ax + s. =. . . Are they attracting or repelling? 10 From xo = . + = tan x.): (1) compute x l . converges to $. .+ = ax. Millions of dollars are spent on Newton's method. . = F(x. from different x.3 are repelling. find the basin of xo's that go to the attractor.. After two steps x2 = F(xl) = c . Solve equations 1316 within 1% by iteration. Compute X.1 = Ixnl 9 Check dFldx at all fixed points in Problems 16. The cobweb goes from (x. + 4 when 23 Starting with $1000. will converge to it if x." After one step of Newton's method.l)/a? .6 EXERCISES Readthrough questions x.) 7 x.  c f (x.x* x m( q ). c is fixed. . Draw the cobweb with its "cycle. = x i + x. x.). . Why don't the x.) 4 xn+l= l / f i 6 x.cf (x. . find a c that succeeds and a c that fails.l? . When is it attracting? 22 What happens in the linear case x. 3.) . + = x.).1 compute the sequence x.+ = x. = t "successive u "and c = v is modified Newton.0. If it happens that input = output. + = sin x. That is because the x.6 and xo = 2. 28 Start the cobwebs for x.. x* = (a .1 and x. What do the iterations do? 27 A $5 calculator takes square roots but not cube roots. Starting near a fixed point. .+. The x...= a(x.x i ) converge to 19 Iterate x.1.x.+I 3 &+I =& fi. (a) Do the iterations converge? (b) Propose a theory based on F" for cases when F' = 1. periodic point xo = 0. 5 x. In all its forms.. f ( x )= 0 is the central problem of computing. Subtracting x* = x* .x: .= a(x. are repelled if k . But we need more steps. ) to ( . The choice c = 1 is c.. h < 1. l to see if the iterations are attracted too..1.. . = 1 )x. . .+ = x i . and it is superattracting because 0 .+x. ) and converges to (x*.. Another periodic point is Start nearby at x o = ... to test convergence: 1 Xn+l =xi 3 2 x. Explain why xn+ = In Problems 18 start from xo = .%. approach x* = $? 20 One fixed point of F(x) = x2 .+ 1 = 2xn(1.x. The choice produces Newton's method. .x:) converge to . but overspending adds another $100 billion.+~ = 3xn(1x. or x* = d . and x. What is the steady state debt x*? 25 xn+ = b/xn has the fixed point x* = Show that IdF/dx( = 1 at that pointwhat is the sequence starting from xo? 26 Show that both fixed points of x.+." Two steps produce x... Solve f (x) = 0 in 2932 by the iteration x. 17 For which numbers a does x. The multiplier is m = r .
7 Newton's Method (and Chaos) 137 33 Newton's method computes a new c = l/f '(x. Also ( ~ 0 s )What ~ ~ .9 to find basins of attraction to n. comes from f (x. which multiple do you reach? Test points in 1. ..) and f '(xo).) = 0 is step 1 of Newton's method: At this new point. compute f (x. What do we see at x. Our goal is to come as close as possible to x*. ) and f'(x.9 (in color?).2 = 0 and f(x)=sinx+=O. .) at each step.22 shows x* and a starting guess x. We know where we are. Figure 3. 40 What are the solutions of f (x) = x2 + 2 = 0 and why is Newton's method sure to fail? But carry out the iteration to see whether x. Between any two basins there are basins for every multiple of n. The multiplier for Newton is m = 0.tan x has fixed points where tan x* = 0.Dividing by f '(xo) and solving for x. Near x* = 1 the multiplier approaches m = 0.this x. . 2n. The best we can do is to make the right side zero! The tangent line crosses the axis at x.3. Predict the convergence for different c (to which x*?). and which direction the curve is going. @ 35 By experiment find each x* and its basin of attraction. And more basins between these (afractal). 36 Test Newton's method on x2 . Show that F' = 0 when f (x) = 0. The new guess ..? The graph has height f (xo) and slope ft(x0).).8 and 1. which crosses at x2. (b) Newton's iteration has F(x) = x f (x)/f '(x). starting far out at xo = lo6. when f(x) = x2 4 and xo = 1.6 reached Newton's formula for x. What are these graphs approaching? Why so slow? 38 Make a table of iterations for c = 1 and c = l /f '(xo) and c = l/f'(x. + ) = 0 and . when Newton's method is applied to f (x) = x2 . + is Newton's method. Mark them on the line from 0 to n.7 Newton's Method (and Chaos) The equation to be solved is f (x) = 0.)(x. .1 = 0. Section 3. The best plan is to follow the tangent line. 37r. (the next guess). find dF/dx at x*: 3. We don't know if the curve bends (we don't have f "). + ~ = x. They give a new tangent line. 4n. + a.C(X:. At every step we want f (x.) +f '(x. are these graphs approaching? 43 Graph sin x and sin(sin x) and (sin)%.5x + 4.After dividing by f '(x.0 and 1. Its solution x* is the point where the graph crosses the x axis. 39 In the iteration for x2 .).x. . while the curve crosses at x*. We now do that directly. Newton replaces f (x) by its linear approximation (= tangent approximation): We want the left side to be zero.9.) = 0 x. 37 Find the multiplier m at each fixed point of x . At first the error is reduced by about m = 3.+ . )the height and slope at x. From xo = 2. 41 Computer project F(x) = x . Magnify the picture around xo = 1. which uses all the information we have.). 34 Apply Problem 33 to find the first six decimals of and n/6. So x* is any multiple of n. 42 Graph cos x and cos(cos x) and cos(cos(cosx)).x. Write out the iteration formulas for f (x) = x3 . the formula for we settle for f (x.2 = 0.x.7 < xo < 1.) +f '(xo)(xl . based on the information f (x. . .
1) (Newton's method) The desired Af is f(x. The ancient Babylonians had this same idea.21 tangent line Fig. If we know two of those numbers. Estimate the slope f'(x) from Af/Ax 2. Linear approximation involves three numbers. .) (3) F(x.b is zero at x* = b and also at b. + b/x. divide into b. EXAMPLE 1 (Square roots) f(x)= x 2 .) converges quickly to x*. Estimate the change Af from f'(x) Ax 3. b 2x.22 Newton's method along tangent lines from xo to x. and average the two numbers.)/f'(x. 5 . It is remarkable to realize that calculus has now used all three calculationsthey are the key to this subject: 1. = F(x. The convergence test is IF'(x*)I < 1. = xn+ x  (X. +1 = ½(x. (4) This simplifies to x..5 . to x 2. They are Ax (across) and Af (up) and the slope f'(x). The slope F' is zero at the solution.5 1. and formula (3) for the new guess becomes Xn + 1 = Xn x2 b 2x.).138 3 Applications of the Derivative 31. That makes Newton's method converge at high speed. +.) = 2x. Guess the square root.).. They iterated xn. The tangent line from x. Formula (3) is exactly Ax = f(x. Newton's method is a quick way to find square rootsprobably built into your calculator. crosses the axis at xn+ 1 : Newton's method Usually this iteration x.): F(x) = 2 x+  x and F'(x) = 2 17 1 The Babylonians did exactly the right thing. we can estimate the third. Estimate the change Ax from Af/f'(x) (Section 2. 3.  1 2 X. The slope is f'(x. when x 2 = b.). =. without knowing functions or slopes. Newton achieves F'(x*)= 0which is superconvergence.1) (Section 3.
start the iteration xn+ . It will never cross the axis. . Figure 3. Remark 2 Starting at x. where x* = F(x*). The fixed points are x* = f (our solution) and x* = 0 (not attractive).2x2. The first step computes 410 and blows up.becomes ~ X ~ ~~+. There is fast convergence if 0 < xo < 1. Then x.without dividing by a. (8) At each step the error is squared. with many starts x. Newton converges to instead of + That is the other x*.. The slopes F' (x*) are zero (typical Newton) and 2 (typical repeller). But it is the slope Ff(x*)that decides whether we get there.i=2(x. 1 1 EXAMPLE 2 Solve .Subtracting 4from both sides of (7) changes the iteration into the error equation: X ~ + ~ = ~ X .7 Newton's Method (and Chaos) To find a. Remark 1 You can't start this iteration at xo = 0. This is terrific if (and only if) you are close to x* = ). The tangent line goes to a negative x.i)~.. The iteration xn+. Often it is difficult to predict which x* Newton's method will choose.. Finding basins of attraction was one of the problems that led to fractals. + ~ square: This is (error).= F(xn)converged to the 45" line." but other parts of the basin may be far away. Example 2 has F(x) = 2x .1/x2. = . Then Ff(x)= 0 when f (x) = 0. In the previous section we drew F(x).a = 0 to find x* = .22a shows whythe tangent line at zero is horizontal. Now x* is the point on the axis where f (x*) = 0.is f '(x) (f'w2 "(x). .a. There is divergence if x. . Numerical experiments are needed.2 is not good: The algebra in Problem 18 confirrhs those experiments. Otherwise squaring a large error and multiplying by .= f (xn+ 4/xn)at xo = 1. Surprisingly. The key to Newton's method is Ff= 0 at the solution: The slope o f F(x) = x .3. .. Around every solution is a "basin of attraction. = f (1 + 4): The wrong decimal is twice as far out at each step. Newton uses f '(x) = .22 shows a long trip backwards. x a fi fi Here f (x) = (llx) . is negative or xo > 1. E $(error):.1. To repeat: It is f(x*) = 0 that we aim for. After that Figure 3. The error is squared. we don't divide: Do these iterations converge? I will take a = 2 and aim for x* = f. In this section we are drawing f (x). Subtracting = F(xn) gives an error equation which displays that x* = 2 from both sides of x . It explains the speed of Newton's method.
23 starts from xo = 2 = cot 8. = 10 comes x. = cot 28. you will see that the fast convergence to $ is very typical. x.llx. Example A The sequence xo = 1. even if the curve y = x2 + 1 never crosses. + A FORMULA F O R x.llx. Equation (5) still gives the iteration for b = . Newton's method might as well give up. Replace cosinelsine by cotangent. = i(10 . We will now discover x.. Then x2 = cot 48.i (nothing is imaginary). Our points are on the cotangent curve.. and the identity says this: If xo = cot 8 then x. The iteration for 2x = cos x was in the previous section. = 0." It is tempting to retreat to ordinary examples. . but this one exactly fits +(x. So what do they do? The starting guess xo = 1 is interesting. By trying exercises from the book or equations of your own. . . If Newton's method starts close to x*. Then x. its convergence is overwhelming. and n. the common denominator is 2 sin 8 cos 8 (which is sin 28).4 (in practice it certainly is). Then x2 divides by zero and blows up. x.95.sin2 8 (which is cos 28). The key is an exercise from trigonometry books.n/4.): In the left equation. where Newton's method is a big success. has a division by xl = 0. This reminded me of "chaos.. There is no real square root of 1. Then the next guess divides by that small number and goes far out again. After much indecision and a long wait. When x.&)= 4. Here I am going to choose a third example that came from pure curiosity about what might happen. but somehow it is more interesting.3 Applications of the Derfvative The examples x2 = b and l/x = a show fast convergence or failure. x2 = m matches the cotangents of .1...i. is less than half as large.... Figure 3. is large. E X A M P L E3 What happens to Newton's method ifyou ask it to solvef (x) = x2 + 1 = O ? The only solutions are the imaginary numbers x* = i and x* = . But it has no way to know that! The tangent line still crosses the axis at a new point x. I expected other sequences to go to infinity. = cot 2" 8.) bounces around. In Chapter 13. But the experiments showed something different (and mystifying). and the error was squared at every step. There is no real solution x*. Instead of those good functions.1: The x's cannot approach i or . . This sequence blows up because x. Newton's method solves much harder equations. = 0. The function can be much more complicated than x2 . Most of those problems just give practice with sines and cosines. This is the formula. and maybe not so important. The results are absolutely amazing. After x. = +(x.n/2. It is followed by x. The numerator is cos2 0 . and every iteration doubles the angle. and Newton's method x. That has to be the main point of this section: Follow the tangent line. and in reality. may I stay with this strange example x2 1 = O ? It is not so predictable. The equation is x2 = . a number near zero eventually appears. ..
This is a revolutionary idea. which is much more delicate than you might think.Iteration gives x.3. is about half as large (at 20).llx. This is typical. when 8/n was or 3. zn= 1 x. In fact the xlo's are 0. We are not accustomed to innocentlooking formulas like cot 2" 8. Our formula for x. There are books about it. which are absolutely hopeless after 100 steps. Examples A and B were special. The x's can't converge..: = (sin 2n0)2. They are strongly repelled by all points. Now I get to tell you about new mathematics. . The most familiar example is the weather. Example B The sequence I/&.1 +(cot 2n8)2 + 1  1 (11) . The article said that the snowballing of small errors destroys the forecast after six days. each new z turns out to involve only the old z and z2: + . Eventually one of the angles 4 8. The starting angles 60" and 61" look close. If that were a multiple of 18W. The headline "Forecasting Pushed Too Far" appeared in Science (1989). We are accustomed to complicated formulas (or no formulas). and the x's go far out again.. CHAOS FROM A PARABOLA /fi. By switching from x to z = l/(l x2).2n/3. After ten steps 0 is multiplied by 2'' = 1024. and 4~13. hits on a large cotangent. This is the most famous quadratic iteration in the world..2 . 3. We can't follow the weather equations for a monththe flight of a plane can change everything.6 and 14. = cot 2"O. Example C Start with a large xo (a small 8). This chaos in mathematics is also seen in nature.. What we have here is chaos. leads to z.. X3 x0=2 Fig. the cotangents would still be close. that a simple rule can lead to answers that are too sensitive to compute. = .+ = 4(xn.1 I /& matches the cotangents of n/3. but now they are different by 1024". First I will change the iteration x.7 Newton's Method (and Chaos) X2 X. Then x. This sequence cycles forever because xo = x2 = x. .8 8.) into one that is even simpler.23 Newton's method for x2 + 1 = 0 . They are also extremely sensitive to the value of 8. and Problem 28 shows where it comes from.
What happens then? The new and unexpected behavior is between 3.The general principle is to start with a number zo between 0 and 1. you . The cycles are stable for shorter and shorter intervals of a's.'s can cycle or Jill the whole interval (0.z2.. That happens when a is small: for 0 < a < 1 the z. when 2"8gets large. In the window for period 3.. for different a's. I don't know why. You can see it on your own computer. converging to ). Cycles of length 16 and 32 and 64 can be seen in physical experiments. Those stability windows are reduced by the Feigenbaum shrinking factor 4. the computer has plotted the values of zlool to z2000omitting the first thousand points to let a stable period (or chaos) become established. With a = 3. .57 and 4. .57.55.l)/a Those limit points are the solutions of z = F(z). All numbers stay between 0 and 1 and they may approach a limit. approach z* = 0 for 1 < a < 3 the z..l) or approach a Cantor set. I would like to give a brief and very optional report on this iteration. which is stable in a little window (you could compute it) around a = 3.a(z*)'.24. and compute z.6692.3 Applicaiions of the DerhrcrHve The sine is just as unpredictable as the cotangent." It alternates between x = 342 and y = . If we look at a double step = F(F(z. But remember the test for approaching a limit: The slope at z* cannot be larger than one. They are the fixed points where z* = az* .452.383 to 327 to SO1 and back to 375. but they are all unstable before a = 3. This cycle must be attractive or we would not see it. But it also becomes unstable as a increases. . Something has to happen. The sequence bounces from 375 to . approach z* = (a . and there are at least three possibilities: The z. When when a = 3. It is easy to check IF'I < 1 at the limits predicted above.2az. take 100 steps.)). No points appeared in the big white wedge. The hard problemsometimes impossibleis to predict what happens above a = 3.az2 has F' = a . Here we describe some things to look for. + ~ a increases past 3. Down each line of Figure 3. The z's cannot approach a limit when IFt(z*)l> 1.. z3. The new thing is to locate this quadratic as the last member (when a = 4) of the family Example 2 happened to be the middle member a = 2. this cycle becomes unstable. I start with a random number zo. and write down steps 101 to 105: The first column is converging to a "2cycle. x and y are fixed points of the double iteration z . .5 you see a "4cycle" in the tableit repeats after four steps. At that point the period doublesfrom 2 to 4.. Here F = az .45. Those satisfy y = F(x) and x = F(y) = F(F(x)). Our case is a = 4.4. It is fascinating to watch the behavior change as a increases. Next comes an 8cycle.
.4. which looks like the famous Cantor set: To construct the Cantor set.. f. There may be a stable cycle of some long period. like an infinitely long coastline. are in the set.. .7 Newton's Method (and Chaos) 143 c The ~eriod 2. There is period doubling at the end of every window (including all the windows that are too small to see). a=4 see only three 2's. For fractals it takes c/rD circlesand D is the dimension. A mathematical snowflake starts with a triangle and adds a bump in the middle of each side.. Period 3 is followed by 6. Nevertheless the lengths of the removed intervals add to 1 and the Cantor set has "measure zero. At each step take out the middle thirds.l] into three pieces and remove the open interval (4. A third possibility is to approach a very thin limit set.. Fractals That selfsimilarity is typical of a fractal. 3). So is $ (Problem 42). CANTOR SETS AND FRACIALS I can't tell what happens at a = 3. Covering an ordinary line segment with circles of radius r would take clr circles. The z's may come close to every point between 0 and 1. 6. . 5) and (&#) from what remains. is the number of z's in a cycle. when blown up..8. 3. Then remove (&. The Cantor set has dimension larger than 0 and smaller than 1.o Applied Mathematics by Gilbert Strang.24.3. copies the larger picture." What is especially striking is its selfsimilarity: Between 0 and you see the same Cantor set three times smaller. Every section. ..azz from any zo and plotting the results. . scaled down by 9. The word "fractal" comes from fractional dimension. All the endpoints 3. 4. . The snowflake boundary has dimension larger than 1 and smaller than 2. The points that are left form the Cantor set. divide [O. 4 Fig.24 Period doubling and chaos from iterating F(z) (stolen by special permission from Introduction t. From 0 to 6 the Cantor set is there again.. There is an infinite sequence of scales. The final boundary is selfsimilar. 12. At every step the bumps lengthen the sides by 413. WellesleyCambridge Press). You can reproduce this figure by iterating zn+ = azn.
I don't know what that does for astronomy (or astrology). 3. The secant method follows the secant line instead of the tangent line: . The programs pause to display each approximation x.25 Cantor set (middle thirds removed). These Newton and secant programs are for the TI8 1.x. f (x. Its behavior is chaotic. The newspapers report that Pluto's orbit is chaoticeven though it obeys the law of gravity. Both should .. there is absolutely no way to predict the results.. . . z. Its equation is y f (x. and x . .) = (Af /Ax)(x . the secant give four times as many correct decimals: (error) method is also chaotic for x2 + 1 = 0. . Think what this means in an experiment (or the stock market). The most dazzling books are The Beauty o f Fractals and The Science of Fractal Images. The most original books are Mandelbrot's Fractals and Fractal Geometry. No measurement can ever be sufficiently accurate..x. SECANT METHOD: CALCULATOR PROGRAMS . and statistical tests find no pattern. in which Peitgen and Richter and Saupe show photographs that have been in art museums around the world.24. and the difference x.11. the programs display R 00 T A T and the root x.42: has a = 4. . If f (x.+. Fractal snowflake (infinite boundary). If simple rules produce chaos. For all practical purposes the numbers are random.)..) = 0. We return to friendlier problems in which calculus is not helpless. Our cover has a fractal from Figure 13.. Set y = 0 to find equation (13) for the new x = xn+ . Secant: x. But calculus can approximate by AflAxusing the values of f(x) already computed at x.3 Applications of the Derivative Fig. (Af/Ax)n where ( Af G)f f(xn)f(xn1) i xnxn1 (13) The secant line connects the two latest points on the graph of f(x). the value f (x. The most readable book on this subject is Gleick's bestseller Chaos: Making a New Science.. at the end of Figure 3..). NEWTON'S METHOD VS. The hard part of Newton's method is to find df ldx. . goes everywhere and nowhere. Answer the prompt with the initial x. Prediction: Three secant steps are about as good as two Newton steps. The motion is totally unpredictable over long times. where the line crosses the axis.( e r r ~ r ) Probably ~. Place the formula for f (x) in slot Y 1 and the formula for f '(x) in slot Y 2 on the Y = function edit screen. Our iteration zn+ = 42. The sequence z. Press E N T E R to continue or press 0N and select item 2 : Q u i t to break. . We need it for the slope of the tangent line. = X 8. .=x..
= F(xn)= .'s approach? 3 I believe that Newton only applied his method in public to one equation x3 . This is convergence. and 1. how many decimals in x* = 2.az. = 2x. EXERCISES 7 Solve x2 . are normally related by 4 d .1 (5 decimals).ax. What limit do the x. the iteration becomes x. Draw a graph to show which xo lead to which root. .. converge to h if xo > 0 and to f (x) = x2 + 1.5.P . Solve x* = F(x*) and find F1(x*). (b) Prove divergence if 11 . . After two steps from xo = 2. 1 To solve f (x) = x3 .2 ~ ~ ) ~ . 1.3x. Solve 917 to four decimal places by Newton's method with a computer or calculator. converges to a single m . For which xo does the sequence 1 ax.2 x o ( < 1 or O < x o < 1. in Example 2 is the same as (1 .3x ..b = 0.. 20 Rewrite x. .) +f '(x. :Goto 1 : D i s p "ROOT AT" :Disp X PrgmS: SECANT :Disp "X@" :Input X :X + S :Yl+T :D i s p " X I = " :Input X :Yq+Y :LbL I :XS+D :X + S :XYD/(YT)+X 3.) = 0..2x . experiment with the Newton iteration x.x = 0 (which xo to which root?) 13 x + 5 cos x = 0 (this has three roots) 14 x . strange formula x.l)/(x + 1) Newton's formula is x... Run Newton's method starting from 0. . the The b to the curve solution x = a is Newton's x. = i . Later the limit is a Cantor set.1... + lla)? 21 What is Newton's method to find the kth root of 7? Calculate to 7 places. to decide which xo lead to x* = 5. approach zero (so x. . Prove convergence if 1 1 .+ .b. From which side? . 19 With a = 3 in Example 2. iterations. 5 Find x. 6 Graph f (x) = x3 . + = 2x. z.. and x.3.6x + 5 = 0 by Newton's method with xo = 2. Choose any xo except x*.)(x . The (error). . = az.) = (1 . . . = I . + tan x = 0 (find two roots) (are there more?) . 10 x4 . . After a = 3 the limit is a 2cycle. The i if xo < 0. Newton's iteration is x... fi 22 Find all solutions of x3 = 4x .2x. For a d 3. Instead it leads to chaos. For x. .ax: as (1 ..)2. crosses the axis at x. Experiment to decide which xo converge to which root.) = (1 .09455148 are correct? 4 Show that Newton's method for f(x) = x1I3 gives the . which is a onedimensional example o f a 0 . . Changing to z = 1/(x2+ 1) yields the parabolic iteration z.. For f (x) = x2 . = g .) = 2x. (b) f '(xo)= 0. what iteration comes from Newton's method? 2 For f (x) = (x ..5 and 3.x.1 and estimate its roots x*... while the c crosses at x*.5 = 0. which means n .2xo1 > 1.. The errors at x.2x.ax. 18 (a) Show that x. x A number of correct decimals f at every step.100 = 0 (faster or slower than Problem 9?) 11 x2 .7 Newton's Method (and Chaos) 145 :Y+T :Yl+Y : D i s p "ENTER F O R M O R E " :D i s p " X N F X N XNXNMI" :D i s p X :Disp Y :Disp D :Pause :If Y#O :Goto 1 : D i s p "ROOT A T " :Disp X PrgmN:NEWTON :Disp "x@" :Input X :X+S : Y p Y :LbL 1 :XY/Y2+X :XS+D :X + S : Y p Y :DispWENTERF O R M O R E " : D i s p "ON2TOBREAK" :Disp " " :D i s p " X N F X N XNXNMI " :Disp X :Disp Y :Disp D :Pause : I f Y#g.Thecantorsetisself. if (a) f (x. . 8 If f (x) is increasing and concave up (f' > 0 and f "> 0) show by a graph that Newton's method converges.7 Readthrough questions When f (x) = 0 is linearized to f (x. Raphson carried the idea forward but got partial credit at best. = 2xn. This cannot converge to k . . Draw a graph to show the = 0.x = 0 (which xo to which root?) 12 x3 .
= 1/(1+ xi).5. 2. l/y. At each step print Problems 2329 are about x% 1 = 0 and chaos.8. Test on f ( x )= x2 . starting from xo = 1 and x = 2. take three steps for f ( x )= x2 .5.295~ zooms. = xo.64x . 45 Try Newton's method on cos x = 0 from xo = . 28 Turn Problem 27 upside down. + Axf + *AX(S. show that 2 .0) = 0 is x* = 1..42: equals sin228.2.8...). + 71). In other words it relates df / d x to Af / A x .O) < (x. )= 5 to reach x2 = 2. The cycle is from 342 to . + 4 + & + .9. 41 If the zoom factor is 10. = lly. Predict the result for xo = 1.9 and test.1 f (x. which finds fractals.3O8 16907 1 does Newton's method ever stop? 43 The solution to f ( x )= ( x . Try Newton's method from x.) + from xo = 0 and explain. The inputs are xo and x. and negative at the midpoint x = 1./f A) f: = 0 .8 T h e Mean Value Theorem and IgH6pital's Rule Now comes one of the cornerstones of calculus: the Mean Value Theorem. 27 If y = x 2 + 1. Problems 3341 are about competitors of Newton.2/4(yn. .+ = . . Continue. never returns to xo =cot 1. positive at x = 2.4 changed to 2 or 3. the code calls f(x). So x* lies in what interval? Take a second step to cut the interval in half again.146 3 Applications o f the Derivative Bisection method If f ( x )changes sign between xo and x .l)/y:. 38 Write a code for the bisection method. Newton only converges linearly. 49 Repeat Problem 48 with 3.05. Which is closer to x* = 2? 46 Use the Newton and secant programs to solve x3 . ) have the same sign.lox2 + 22x + 6 = 0 from xo = 2 and 1. Graph sin x and three iterations from xo = 2 and xo = 1. =cot 2"0 blow up? For 8 = 4 7 when does cot 2"8 = cot 8? (The angles 2"8 and 0 differ by a multiple of 7c.21141 = 0 by several axis. What is the iteration to solve x2 = O ? 33 To speed up Newton's method. = 8. 25 For 8 = 1. = 1. + 34 Halley's method uses S. From xo = . 47 Newton's method for sin x = 0 is xn+ = x..36 = 0 to find the basin of attraction for x* = 1.x ) = 0 by x. In this example Newton does not always find a root. From which xo does it converge? The distance to method solves x / ( l .1. 31 Newton's . = xo + 7c (and x2 = x .1 and x. Solve lox3 . 40 A direct method is to zoom in where the graph crosses the . 23 For 8 =n/16 when does x.. Y. Calculus depends on this connec .Show that it is in the Cantor set. Problem 35 and the point x2 where it crosses the axis.For f ( x )= x2 .) 24 For 8 = 7c/9 follow the sequence until x. It survives when middle thirds are removed.1. to . each new y is out an interval that contains x*.y) < (1.. Extra credit: Which xo's give convergence? 44 Apply the secant method to solve cos x = 0 from x0 = . Switch to a faster method when the interval is small enough. If cot xo is exactly n. x.41. and 1. find the quadratic iteration (10)for z 29 If F(z)= 42 . show that x l = 1 + O ( 2 ) which is cubic convergence.4 is negative at x = 1. 35 Apply the secant method to f ( x )= x2 .. Then graph Y3(x)= Y2(Y1(x)) and Y. . find its sign at the midpoint x2 = $(xo+ x .39. 42 The number 2 equals $(1 . Decide whether f ( x ) changes sign between xo and x2 or x2 and x.308. find the step Ax from f "(x. Compare with Newton. The angles 2.95. then the number of correct decimals for every zoom..+ = 4(yn. = 42. and 1 never differ by a multiple of n because 26 If zo equals sin20.6..9)/(x. ).452.4 = 0. .. Also find a pair of points for which y = F(z) and z = F(y).5 or 4. 1).e (slope at a point) to the global picture (average slope across an interval). 32 At a double root. show that x .tan x.308. Stop if f ( x 0 ) and f ( x . Newton uses f ' ( x . Show that this equals y.4z2 what is F(F(z))?How many solutions to z = F(F(z))?How many are not solutions to z = F(z)? 30 Apply Newton's method to x3 . It connects the local pictu. .. x* = 0 is exactly squared. 3.) = 0. Repeat on that halflength (bisected) interval.3x2 + 2. 39 Three bisection steps reduce the interval by what factor? Starting from xo = 0 and x .) Axf '(x. This leads to the computer project in Problem 3. 48 Graph Yl(x)= 3 .4 to show the secant line in square window (0.75. q ~ x2) and Y2(x) = Yl(Yl(x))in the 36 Draw a graph of f ( x ) = x2 . = 1 + E. 37 f ( x )= x2 .5.10.1). Find Af /Ax and the next point x2 by hand. ..
The average slope or velocity is zero.26a has no derivative at x = 1. The velocity could be 100 and then 50averaging 75 but never equal to 75. We don't find c. If we allow a jump in velocity.3. 3M Mean Value Theorem Suppose f(x) is continuous in the closed interval a < x < b and has a derivative everywhere in the open interval a < x < b. c 1 vaverage. It equals df/dx at c.I ave = 7575 75 I  50  1 t=2 Vaverage. The average velocity is Af _ f(2) f(0) 150 75. . and f remains continuous at a and b. b). Suppose the function starts at zero and returns to zero. The notation for a closed interval [with endpoints] is [a. Thus f' is defined in (a. Geometrically.) We will take away this cheap escape by requiring a derivative at all points inside the interval. Then at . f . is there a moment when the instantaneous velocity is 75? Without more information.f(b) f(a) f::  '(c) at some point a<c<b. Proof At a point inside the interval where f(x) reaches its maximum or minimum. The proof is based on a special casewhen f(a) = 0 and f(b) = 0. 3N Rolle's theorem Suppose f(a) =f(b)= 0 (zero at the ends). df/dx must be zero. For an open interval (without endpoints) we write (a. In Figure 3. There is a derivative df/dt at all interior points (but an infinite slope at t = 0). This is not a constructive theorem. At that moment the velocity does not exist. Then f'(c) =0 at some point with a < c < b. 3. which we saw first for velocities. If the average velocity is 75.8 The Mean Value Theorem and I'H8pital's Rule 13U 1JU  147 100 50 100vt7 75 I I f(t). There is at least one point where f'(c) = 75. Figure 3. we just claim (with proof) that such a point exists. The value of c is not known.26b the distance increases by 150 when t increases by 2. then f' = 0 at the turn.(1) The left side is the average slope Af/Ax. b). This special case (keeping the assumptions on f(x)) is called Rolle's theorem. if f goes away from zero and comes back. We have to prove that f'(c)= 0 at a point in between. (The distance function in Figure 3. the answer to that question is no. That is an acceptable point c. At 20 2 The conclusion of the theorem is that df/dt = 75 at some point inside the interval.26 (a) vjumps over (b) v equals tion.27a shows the difference between f= 0 (assumed at a and b) and f' = 0 (proved at c). t=2 Fig. b]. it can jump right over its average. A derivative is allowed at those endpoints toobut the theorem doesn't require it.
He may not have believed his own theorem! Probably he didn't know what it meantthe language of "evanescent quantities" (Newton) and "infinitesimals" (Leibniz)was exciting but frustrating. which was basic to this chapter. Its average slope is Af/Ax = 10/100. The truth is that nobody cares about the exact value of c. Close becomes exact ( z becomes = ) when f ' is computed at c instead of a: 6 + ?If f ( x ) doesn't reach its maximum M. proving the theorem. b] cannot approach infinity. In Figure 3. 3. not Newton and Leibniz). he didn't accept the conclusions.? It is ironic that Rolle himself did not believe the logic behind calculus. The idea is to tilt the graph back to Rolle's special case (when A f was zero). loo). At those endpoints dfldx might not be zero. The desired point c is found. Rolle's theorem applies to F(x). Essential fact: A continuousfunction on [a. The derivative ff(x)= 1 / 2 6 exists in the open interval (0. and what was really serious. which is equally acceptable.a). this distance is F(a) = F(b) = 0. There is an interior point where Ff(c)= 0. but his special case when f (a) =f (b) = 0 leads directly to the big one. By the Mean Value Theorem there must be a point where 10/100 =f '(c) = 1/2& That point is c = 25. At that point take the derivative of equation (2): 0 =f '(c) . Notice how it affects the linear approximation f (x) zf (a) f ' (a)(x . . So he went back to number theory.(Af /Ax). even though it blows up at the end x = 0. Curves had infinitely many flat sides. Its existence is what matters. then 1/(Mf ( x ) ) would be continuous but also approach infinity. This is the Extreme Value Theorem. slope df/dx  / ' Fmax f (c) = 0 Fig. The key to our proof is that a continuous function on [a.3 Applications of the Derivative Small problem: The maximum could be reached at the ends a and b. the distance F(x) between the curve and the dotted secant line comes from subtraction: At a and b. b] reaches its maximum and minimum. iff (x) < 0 in between. Limits were close but never reached. The Acadkmie des Sciences had to stop his battles (he fought against ordinary mathematicians. EXAMPLE 1 The function f (x) = goes from zero at x = 0 to ten at x = 100.27 Rolle's theorem is when f(a) =f(b) = 0 in the Mean Value Theorem. Proof of the Mean Value Theorem We are looking for a point where dfldx equals AflAx. Rolle didn't accept that reasoning. But in that case the minimum is reached at an interior point c.27b.
I'H6pital is saying that when functions go to zero their slopes control their size. because cos c < 1 proves again that sin x < x. That deceptively simple case is a key to the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. An easy case is f= 6(x . The Rule is followed by examples and proofs. L'H6PITAL'S RULE When f(x) and g(x) both approach zero.cos x all become  0 0 at x = 0. The goal is to connect derivatives (local) to differences (global). The derivative is the special case g(x) = x .8 The Mean Value Theorem and l'H6pital's Rule EXAMPLE 2 The function f(x)= sin x starts from f(0)= 0. the theorem gives Af= 0.a) and g = 2(x . The ratio f/g is exactly 6/2. EXAMPLE 3 If f'(c) = 0 at allpoints in an interval then f(x) is constant. (4) The approximation is useful. with g' = 1. what happens to their ratio f(x)/g(x)? f(x) g(x) _ x2 x or sin x x or x. They end up with another theorem (like this one)." in which two functions become small while their ratio might do anything. The exact prediction uses the slope cos c at an unknown point between 0 and x: (approximate)sin x e x (exact) sin x = (cos c)x. The exact formula is interesting. because everything is computed at x = a = 0. This is a "race toward zero. whose limit is df/dx: f(x) f(a) 0 x .a. It is the derivative! Af/Ax automatically builds in a race toward zero. Most applications of Af=f'(c)Ax do not end up with a number. The slope is below 1. The problem is to find the limit of f(x)/g(x). we cannot work separately with f(x) and g(x).a. . The graph is a horizontal line. Since 0/0 is meaningless. Geometrically.0 but lim f(f(a)f'(a). Every pair of points has f(b) =f(a). But the next applicationl'HOpital's Rulemanages to produce a number out of 0/0. xa xa (5) The idea of I'H6pital is to use f'/g' to handle f/g. Proof When f' is everywhere zero. This is not the quotient rule! The derivatives of f(x) and g(x) are taken separately.a). One such limit is already studied.3. The linear prediction (tangent line) uses the slope cos 0 = 1. so the sine graph stays below the 450 line.sin x 1 .
The next figure shows the same limit 612.. The other part approaches g'(a).(Also the limit point x = a can represent a finite number or + oo or . the limit hasn't happened yet.) The one absolute requirement is that f (x) and g(x) must separately approach zerowe insist on 010. Now take the limit on the right side of (7) as x approaches a. We hope gl(a) is not zero.a cancel. 1 The reason behind l'H6pital's Rule is that the following fractions are the same: That is just algebra.28 shows these straight lines dropping to zero..cos x 0 leads to .leads to 7.cos x X equals lim x+O sin x . 1 f tan x f ' .1. lYH6pital enters only for 010..4 if f gM(x) cosx g 0 g' 0 0 = 0.oo.1 . 3. Generally the limit off /g can be a finite number L or + oo or .= . That picture is the key to 1'Hdpital's rule. Otherwise there is no reason why equation (6) should be true.28 (a) f is exactly g(x) fo (4 g = 3. (x) (b) f approaches f'(4 7 = 3.3 Applications o f the Derivative (4 Fig. It has the same limit as f "lg": 0 f' 0 fW(x)sinx . Figure 3. g(x) s (4 the ratio of their slopes. f = g 1 . 1 This equals zero. At x = 0 this is still g' sin x 0' Solution Apply the Rule to f 'lg'.and .oo. In this case we can divide one limit by . controlled by 6 and 2. At x = 0 the limit is g sin x g cos x 1' EXAMPLE 6 x .sec2x EXAMPLE 5 .cos x f ' . The factors x .+ . and the numbers f (a) and g(a) are zero by assumption. What normally happens is that one part approaches f ' at x = a. when the curves are tangent to the lines.sin x .+ . don't use l'H6pital: Ordinary ratios approach lim f (x) divided by lim g(x). EXAMPLE 4 (an old friend) lim xro 1 .then compute . With f (x) = x and g(x) = x . We keep it finite.
The extension is due to Cauchy. To prove this more general form of l'H6pital's Rule. The ordinary Mean Value Theorem leads to F'(c)=0which is equation (9).oo. When f(x) . b] and (9) [f(b) f(a)]g'(c) = [g(b) . The proof comes by constructing a new function that has F(a)=F(b): F(x) = [f(b) f(a)]g(x) . See Problem 24 when f(x)/g(x) approaches oo/oo. A really curious example is x l/In .f'(a) '(a) xa g(x) g'(a) (8) This is also l'H6pital's answer. who cleared up the whole idea of limits.00 and 2. But logarithms and e have to wait for Chapter 6. When f'(x) +f'(a) and separately g'(x) . The limit of equation (10) as b +a and c +a is l'H6pital's Rule. Remark The basic "indeterminate" is oo . try l'H6pital's Rule. This function is actually a constant! It equals e. We could have x2 . Their limits are oo and . He published this rule in the first textbook ever written on differential calculus.g'(a). when f'/g' might approach a limit even if the separate parts do not. there isa point a <c<bwhere Generalized MVT If f(x) and g(x) are continuous on [a.x or x . Therefore f(b) g(b) f'(c) g'(c) (10) As b approaches a. Inserting those zeros into equation (9)leaves f(b)g'(c) = g(b)f'(c). take logarithms. To find the limit in these cases.8 The Mean Value Theorem and l'H8pltal's Rule the other limit. so does c. Those come from limits of f(x)9(x). oo. To go back down a level. or cc while g(x) approaches 0.) Three hundred years later we apply his name to other cases permitted in (6).3. The point c is squeezed between a and b. we need a more general Mean Value Theorem.x2 or (x + 2) .[g(b) .g(x). apply the 0/0 rule to f(x)/(1/g(x)). his overall limit is f'(a)/g'(a). The next level has 00 and 1" and oo. THE GENERALIZED MEAN VALUE THEOREM The MVT can be extended to two functions. which shows all three possibilities 00 and 1" and 00o.g(a)Jf'(c). anything is possible for f(x) . 1. or 0.g(a)]f(x). I regard the discussion below as optional in a calculus course (but required in a calculus book). Then g(x) In f(x) returns to 0/0 and 0 . At the next level are 0/0 and co/co and 0 oo. we need more information.x. If f(x) and g(x) approach infinity. (That was in 1696the limit was actually discovered by his teacher Bernoulli. You will recognize the special case g = x as the ordinary Mean Value Theorem. . That gives the "normal" answer lim f(x) (x) = limit of (7).cc and l'H6pital's Rule.0 and g(x) + co. If f(x) approaches 0. Application 1 (Proof of l'H6pital's Rule) The rule deals with f(a)/g(a) = 0/0. b). 3Q differentiable on (a. The important idea already came in equation (8).
4f "(a)(x. If this is also 0/0.1)' In 710 show that no point c yields f (1) f (1) =f '(cX2). b).a)2. and find out more.This is equation (10) with different letters. It produces a point c between a and Ccertainly between a and xwhere el(C).a)' with a<c<x. go on to the limit of 0 . Rolle's theorem is the special case when f (a)=f (b)= 0.a)'. A chief consequence is I'Hdpital's Rule. and draw a conclusion about f ( x )= sec2x. The quadratic prediction f ( x )=f (a)+f '(a)@. 12 Show that csc2x and cot2x have the same derivative and find f ( x )= csc2x .10.2 stated that the distance between a curve and its tangent line grows like ( x .3 Applications of the Derlvathre Application 2 (Error in linear approximation) Section 3.near a = 100: JE. ( 1 1) The pattern suggests an error involving f " ( x )and ( x . with a f on the open interval (a.000496.. That last term predicts e = .f(x) and g(x) + m as x + a.a)'. 13 lim x+3 29 x3 14 lim x3 x+ 3 29 .0).a) + k ( x .a ) is exact for some c between a and x. and the point c satisfies g .0005. = a: (12) etl=f"(x) gn = 2 Key idea Compare the error e(x) to ( x ..8 EXERCISES Readthrough questions The Mean Value Theorem equates the average slope AflAx over an a [a. which applies when . The proof chooses c as the point where f reaches its h .1 = . Now we can prove this. After checking el(a)= gl(a)= 0.a)' and g" = 2 and e" =f ". The error in f (a)+f '(a)(x. The statement is c .eM(c) and therefore gl(C) g"(4 With g = ( x . Explain why the Mean Value Theorem fails to apply. EXAMPLE 7 f ( x ) = e(x) .a) is less than $ M ( x where M is the maximum of I . It requires f ( x ) to be d on the e interval [a.a) The Generalized Mean Value Theorem finds a point C between a and x where e(x)/g(x) = el(C)/g'(C).et'(c) .a)2 is exact for another c. b]. Linear approximation is f ( x )=f (a)+f'(a)(x . the 9f "(c)(x. 1 f(x)=x3 3 f ( x )= tan 2nx 2 f ( x )= sin n x 4 f(x)= 1+ x + x 2 5 f ( x ) = ( x .E 10 + (A) + 1(&) 2 2'. Normally this limit is f '(a)/gl(a). provided this limit exists. Both are zero at x el=fl(x)ft(a) g' = 2(x .1)1° 6 f ( x )= ( x .tan2x. In that case the limit of f (x)/g(x) equals the limit of n . apply the same theorem to et(x) and gt(x). 7 f(x)=Ix$1 9 f ( x )= 1 x 1'I2 8 f ( x )= unit step function lo f ( x ) = 1/x2 11 Show that sec2x and tanZx have the same derivative. Find all points 0 < c < 2 where f (2)f (0)=f '(c)(2. b] to the slope df ldx at an unknown b . The actual error is J102 . The key example f = x2 shows the need for a factor (to cancel f" = 2).g(x) gt'(c)' equation on the right is e(x)= A very good approximation is J. 3. The e m in linear approximation is e(x)=if"(c)(xa)' e=f(x)f(a)fl(a)(xa) g = ( x . The error formula is proved. Evaluate the limits in 1322 by l'H6pital's Rule.a)'.a) + error e(x). Consequences of the Mean Value Theorem include: If f l ( x ) = 0 everywhere in an interval then f ( x ) = i .cot2x.a)'. The prediction f ( x ) =f ( a ) + I ( x .
recognize x.(11~).)'.4 and g = x 22 x lim ro JGJlx X 34 It is possible that f '(x)/gl(x)has no limit but f (x)/g(x)+ L. ( 4 = lim.sin x cos x) and g(x) is i(x . CSC X x+O 28 Compute lirn by common sense or trickery.) + 4f (c)(x*. and estimate M. that limit 17 lirn X+Z XX sln x 18 lirn Xi 19 lirn x+o (l+x)"1 x 20 lim xro (l+x)"1nx x2 . (b) Explain why f (x) is $(sin x . What is the limit as the graphs become parallel in Figure B? f (x. if it exists.' The proof starts from 0 =f (x*) = f(x)/g(x) equals the limit of f1(x)/g'. L'H6pital's Rule looks is better known to us as instead at the limit of Conclusion from l'H6pital: The limit of f '(x).sin x cos x). . then f(b) >f(a) at all pairs o b > a. + 2.)(x*.). The limit of 30 If Idf/dxl< 1 at all points.X*1 < Mlx. . Say what the property is and find c. What is the limit off (x)/g(x)?What goes wrong in l'H6pital's Rule? 24 l'H6pital's Rule still holds for f (x)/g(x)+ m/m: L is This is why l'H6pital included an "if.8 The Mean W u e Theorem and IgH8pital's Rule 15 lim x+O 153 (1 + x)2 .(x).+ . prove this fact: 31 The error in Newton's method is squared at each step: Ix.3.1 X 16 lim xro J Gxi . Thus f '(x) cannot have a "removable 3' sin x .x.. Show that X+Q x+cos x x + sin x l'H6pital gives no answer. the ratio f '/gl approaches 4 as x + 2. If f (x)/x has a limit as x + 0. cot X 29 The Mean Value Theorem applied to f (x) = x3 guarantees that some number c between 1 and 4 has a certain property.) +f '(x. Divide by f'(x. Remember that cosines are below 1. (c) Compute the true limit of f (x)/g(x). in 100 hours (sleeping and eating and going backwards are allowed) then at some moment your speed is 37 As x + m l'H6pital's Rule still applies." (a) Find L as x .A. .x* 1.i i x1 s~n x 32 (Rolle's theorem backward) Suppose fl(c) = 0. 36 If you drive 3000 miles from New York to L. agrees with fl(0). + .if that limit exists.x. Where did we use the rule for 0/0? What other limit rule was used? 25 Compute lim ('/') 26 Compute lim x+o ' 1 (a) Guess the limit of f/g as the angle x goes to zero.tan x 21 lim x0 x 23 For f = x2 . . (b) From the formula f '(x) = sin (llx) + 2x cos (llx) show that f '/g' has no limit as x + 0.jllg(x) = lim g1(~)/g2b) = ~2 lip g'(4 lirn f g(x) l l l f (x) f '(Wf ( 4 f'(4 ' Then L equals lim [f '(x)/gl(x)] if this limit exists. Are there necessarily two points around c where f (a) =f (b)? 33 SupposeflO)= 0.. 38 Prove that f(x) is increasing when its slope is positive: If f points f'(c) > 0 at all points c.0 when f (x) = x2cos (l/x)'and g(x) = x. 35 Stein's calculus book asks for the limiting ratio of f (x) = triangular area ABC to g(x) = curved area ABC. + x+co x2 + X 2x2 ' 27 Compute lim by common sense.
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01)~(2)= lo' exactly. 0 1 ) ~= 9. 3. but it is using much more accurate methods. A melting snowball of diameter six inches loses a half inch in diameter. 1 . x+Ax j ( x l is In the other form the basepoint is x and the step is Ax. Estimate its loss in surface area and volume.a.1 is f (x) exactly known? != 0.3.2 sin2 x. . 5 fi The approximation is f (x) w sec % (x . Since = 8sr = 47rr2.24375. chose a = 0 since 0. Then f ' (x) = 2 sin x cos x and f ' (0) = 2 sin 0 cos 0 = 0.9997 x which is close t o 10 x = low4.1 Linear Approximation (page 95) CHAPTER 3 3.000099997. you can also use the reciprocal rule.. The linear approximation is f (0. ? r The function being approximated is f (x) = (sin x ) ~ We .01 is near that basepoint and f (0) = 0 is known. Remember that the average = : close t o f l ( x ) .1 to find f (4. Since sec x = &. Step 4: What is the formula for the approximation? Step 5: Substitute x = 4. &= .k ( 4 .01). f (x) f (a) + f l ( a ) ( x . 2 In the first formula.) To summarize: Linear approximation 0.1) w rf (x) w a .4). The other form is f Ax) w 2 LAX. Note and inches since the radius decreased from 3 inches to 2 : inches.4) = 0. where x = 0 and y = 0 and slope = 0. A calculator gives the value (sin 0 . quadratic approximation .a ) or f ( x + Ax) . It's good t o memorize all six trigonometric derivatives a t the bottom of page 76.01) w 0 0(. 0 1 ) ~w 0. That is all the second form says: A f i s close to fl(x)Ax. Here are the steps t o approximate + Ai Step 1: What is the function being used? It is f (x) = . Let a = 4. .1 We know that Step 2: At what point "a" near x = 4. The step x 2 + (5 + +& + S). The right side is the tangent 5 is Ax.1 APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES (page 95) Linear Approximation This section is built on one idea and one formula. The formula is written in several ways. a is the "basepoint . depending which letters are convenient. The tangent line is the x axis! It is like the tangent t o y = x2 a t the + bottom of the parabola. The idea is t o use the tangent line as an approximation t o the curve. The linear approximation is (sin 0 . .0001. The tangent line Y = f (a) f l ( a ) ( x . r The area and volume formulas on the inside back cover are A = 47rrZ and V = g s r 3 . 5 a .24390.a ) approximates the curve y = f (x). the linear corrections (the "differentialsn) are d A = 8 s r d r and dV = 4sr2dr.%) or f (x) w 2 2. This is the slope of the tangent line. 0 1 ) ~ base point a = 0. (This is Problem 3. The calculator gives 1. .15) Calculate the numerical error in the linear approximation t o (sin 0 . h o m f l ( x ) = 2 sin x cos x comes f "(x) = 2 cos2 x . Then dA = 87r(3)(a) = that d r = 67r square inches and dV = 4 ~ ( 3 ) ~ (= 9 97r ) cubic inches. Find the linear approximation to f (x) = sec x near x = % You will need the derivative of sec x. Either way.(x & line Y(x). To compare with the quadratic correction we need f U ( x ) .25. f (x) = sec z leads to f l ( x ) = sec x tan x and f ' ( 5 ) = sec tan % = ( 2 ) ( 1 ) . calculator approximation .1. Then f "(0) = $(0.& (x . (Note: The calculator is approximating too. Compare the error with the quadratic correction AX)^ f "(x). The step is x . f(x) + fl(x)Ax." We use the function value f (a) and the slope f '(a) a t that point. from the 2.
There are no rough points.99'1~ = 1.9996874. In this case Ay = 8 3 1 and dy = 800. Every textbook gives problems where algebra gets the answer .01) = 1.01)~(*) = 4. they are easier to forget. Tangent line is Y = 1.2). according as f'(x) = 0 can be solved by a iittle algebra or a lot of computation. Did you guess about a couple of yards? Here's the mathematics: C = 27rr.a)P with p In terms of z and Ax. The second step is calculus . . and endpoints. where A y is along the curve. f" = & near 18 Actual error: .z2)l for . On the graph. The point about differentials is that they qllow us to use an equal sign (=) instead of an approximation sign (m).1) = 4 and f (1) = 0.6322 x = 9 : $(. A maximum can also occur at a rough point (where f'is not defined) or at an endpoint. How much more steel will have to be added? Take a guess before you turn to differentials. In Problems 1 . We want to estimate the change in circumference C when the radius increases by one foot. Note that the actual radius of the earth doesn't enter into the calculations. The differential dy equals d y / d x times the differential dx. ! + + 3. The approximation is Y = 1300.2 Maximum and Minimum Problems (page 103) Note on differentials: df is exactly the linear correction f' (x)dx. The first step might come from a word problem . Near x = a = 10. 26 V = r r 2 h so dV = xr2dh = ~ ( 2 ) ~ ( 0 .so you see how the whole method works.4(x .4 find stationary points.01)) = 4. The end values are f (. this problem had d A = 8xrdr. The error is of order (Ax)P or 2 f (x) = and a = 2 : Y = f ( a ) f'((~)(x .. This may be the easiest step. At z = 11 the exact value is (11)3 = 1831.2).16) = 2 + !!(. The differential is dC = 29rdr. They are not only easier to find.2. 5 . We start with those. the equation for that line is = 2.(3 + . Compare 15. (This is Problem 3. ) r(. Those movements are along the tangent line. find its derivative. 10 f (x) = x1I4. then to estimate sin(%+ Ax) we add (coe x)Ax. a linear approximation is given by the tangent line.i x .0) = 0. The third step is fast or slow.you have to choose a good variable x and find a formula for f (x).1 5 x 5 1.5) The function is f (z) = (z . linear approximation is f (x + Ax) ar f (x) + f' (x)Ax. 1.10). rough points. More steel will be added to the band to make it lie one foot above the equator all the way around. If we know sin x.99 .3. so this 2yard answer is the same on any planet or any sphere. 6 f (z) = sin2 z and a = 0 : Y = sin20 2sin 0 cos O(z .6296 lo'. It is a good notation for the linear correction t e r m 4.(. and solve f t ( z ) = 0. Subatitute dr = 1 foot to find dC = 2n feet 6. Readthroughs and relected evennumbered rolutionr : Y = f (a) + f'(a) (x . Decide whether each of these is a local or absolute minimum or maximum. (x . Imagine a steel band that fits snugly around the Earth's equator. Usually those are easier to locate than the stationary points that solve f t ( z ) = 0. There are three steps: Find the function.to produce the formula for f'(x). predicted error for f = fi.a) = .9996875. At x = a. When f (z)is the area A(r).2 Maximum and Minimum Problems Here is the outstanding application of differential calculus.a). the linear approximation to y = z3 is Y = 1000 + 800(x .3 feet. Tangent line is x axis. Y = 16114+ f 163/4(15.
2u)2 + (cost of gas per mile). The endpoints have f (1) = 3 and f (8) = 6. For 1 < x < 2 the slope f'(z) = 22 is never zero. Then u = 40 or u = 120. The endpoints are maxima.22) = 2 x ( 1 .26) A limousine gets (1202u)/5 miles per gallon.012/~7~~10n = & dollars/mile. &) is a relative maximum. The gas costs + U6d. The chauffeur costs $lO/hour. per mile is C ( u ) = f &. Then f'(x) = 0 at z = 0. Find the cheapest driving speed. The bottom is (0. Gas is $l/gallon.x ) ( l . The speed with lowest cost is u = 40 mph. There is no maximum. 5.2 ~ ) ~ . Substituting 0 and 5 into f(s) gives 600 and +25. . Since f ' ( x ) is defined for all x. In such a case watch for a rough point at the 'breakpointn between the parts .5)' is positive on both sides of x = 5. (This is Problem 3.O) for absolute minimum. rough point. All powers zP with 0 < p < 1 are zero at x = 0 but with infinite slope. f ( x ) = 2 is a rough point. we do the calculus: Minimize the cost per mile. z p .5)2 is suspicious.2.22).600 all for x. f ( x ) = 32' a .z2)(l. The breakpoint is at x = 1.4% for 0 5 x 5 1 and f ( x ) = x2 1 5 x 5 2. The graph is rising for x > 0 and falling for x < 0.600) and (5. The endpoints are (0. f ( 1 ) = 0 and = &. Then f'(x) = 0 at x = 0 and x = 5.where the formula changes.2.lox 25) = 12x(z .l blows up.25) are stationary points. This function has no stationary points.40x3 + 150x2 . 'For all xn is often written '00 < x < oo". as z + oo and x + 00. The cost blows up at the speed limit u = 60. 10 (120 . a . f(i) The next function has two parts with two separate formulas. There is a tie (0. Although f'(2) = 0 . and x = &. This is the minimum point. This is (cost of driver per mile) = dollars/mile. 4. this point x = 2 is not in the interval 0 x 5 1. What is to be minimized? Total cost Note that 0 < u < 60.4) is the absolute maximum and ($. That means (0.4 for The slope for 0 < x < 1 is f'(x) = 2 s .5)2. Its derivative is never zero. The slope f'(x) = 12x(z . (This is Problem 3. The slope is f'(x) = )x1I3.4. there are no stationary points.8) The twppart function is f ( x ) = x2 .2 Maximum and Minimum P r o b h s a (page 103) The derivative by the power rule is f' = 2(x .120x2 3002 = 12x(x2 . there are no rough points.0) and (2.0) and (1.3.Substitute into f ( x ) to find f ( 0 ) = 0 . Plot all these critical points to see that (1. Since f'(x) never equals zero. so x = 0 . Now that the hard part is over. The driver costs z+ dC du 10 u2 5(2) (120 . Still it has a maximum and a minimum! There is a rough point at x = 1 because the slope 22 .600) .O). x = 1. the rough point is a minimum. 2.4 from the left does not equal 2%from the right.2u)2 =o if 10 = u2 This gives u2 = (120 . We reject u = 120. + + Discussion: Look more closely at f'(x). Or you could say that the maximum value is infinite. just a 'pause pointn before continuing upward. The endpoints where f = 0 are absolute maxima. The double factor ( x . Note that f'(0) is not defined. The stationary point at x = 5 is not a maximum or minimum.an absolute minimum. The slope is f ' ( x ) = 12z3 . where f ( x ) = 3. No endpoints. The maximum is at the 'endn even if there are no endpoints.
2+ + 2 I believe that a tilted rectangle of the same area also fits in the triangle.3) gives maximum area 6. Form a box with no top by cutting four squares of sides x from the corners of a 12" x 18" rectangle. We can make the problem easier by working with f (x) = (x .3. (This is Problem 3. + . The minimum distance is from (2. the The quadratic formula gives x = 2 maximum volume is obtained when x = 5 .$x) = 6 s . We want to maximize A = xy with 0 < x < 4 and 0 < y < 6.4)2 = dZ54 = 2fi.4) to the parabola. y = 0 and point on the third side which maximizes the area xy. Find the 7. Because of the square root.qx = 3.43) A rectangle fits into a triangle with sides x = 0. The point (2. The distance is D = J(4 .22 inches long. The equation 4 f = 1 links x and y. we would like t o find the shortest. Now take the derivative: = 6 . Correct? 8.f i m 2. Dl (x) is algebraically complicated. Set to zero: 5 1 fi.2)2 + ( f .2)2 ($. We want to maximize volume = (height)(width)(length): The endpoints are x = 0 (no height) and x = 6 (no width). Since x < 6. we have also minimized D. This gives y = $ = 2.6 or x m 2.2) on the parabola. Find the minimum distance from the point (2. Before we can take a derivative. 10~dl004(18) g = 1. The distance is D = J(x .4) to the parabola y = $. Using the square rule. and gives y = 6 . Then y = 6 .6.2x inches wide and 18 . so that x m 7. Of all segments from (2.qx.4) to the point (4.35 inches.35. we need to write y in terms of x (or vice versa). + Then = 0 if x3 = 64 or x = 4. I f we can minimize f = D2.4)2.3x = 0 when x = 2. What x gives a box with maximum volume? a Cutting out the squares and folding on the dotted lines gives a box x inches high and 12 . This makes a = x(6 .2)2 (2 .$x2.4)2 = distance squared.
'a" as basepoint this is f " ( a ) ( ~ .18x2 x3. The best h is = .O). This is zero sin(5 = .bx is b 2 / 2 a at x = b/a. the graph bends.sin x cos(l0 . d24 + a.i cos 10 = . when 10 . This happens only for straight lines f ( x ) = mx b. 4/3 36 Volume of popcorn box = x(6 .x) = i cos(2x .3 Second Derivatives: Bending and Acceleration Readthrough8 and eelected evennumbered solution8 : (page 110) If df l d x > 0 in an interval then f (x) is increasing.$)2 has derivative 22 4x(x2 = 0 a t x = 0. so V s[l $ 56 First method: Use the identity sin x s i n ( l 0 1 = qh2. Then = n [ l . 28 When the length of day has its maximum and minimum.~~~~~~i~~ out So f'(t) = ()1+3(t3)3 (1+3t~)~ 3. The maximum when 22 = 10 is $ cos 10 = .122 + 24 = 0 or x = 6 f = 6 i fi at stationary points. + & + + . even though df/dx is not zero. If a maximum or minimum occurs a t x then fl(x) = 0. The minimum when 22 . Points where f1(x) = 0 are called stationary points. When the slope f '(x) does not change. the equation 3t2+2t1 = 0 gives t = =1 3' At that point f. + +5) b) 5) i)2 3.x). In reality the time unit of days is discrete not continuous. then f "(x) = 0. The endpoints give f (0) = f (2n) = 1. its derivative is zero (no change in the length of day).) 46 The cylinder has radius r and height h.!jcos 10.. Note: 3 6  r2 + i = I gives r = &. x* is an absolute maximum when f (x*) 2 f (x) for all x. + +. Zero is an endpoint and it gives the minimum. At a minimum point. + + Second method: sin x sin(l0 .10 = n is + + + . the slope is going from . Going out r and up $ h brings us to the sphere: r2 ( $ h ) G 1.x . When the slope changes. f " must be positive. At a maximum point. Dividing by 3 gives (q) a.so f" is negative. Extreme values can also occur when f1(x) is not defined or at the endpoints of the domain. x2 . The linear part f (x) f l ( x ) A x follows the tangent line.x has a (minimum) a t x = 8 A stationary point that is not a maximum or minimum occurs for f (x) = x3.x) has derivative cos xsin(l0 . z. It makes sense that the approximation to f (x Ax) is better if we include bending. Don't just cancel the factor x! The nearest point is (0. Then sin x sin(l0 . The minimum of $ax2 .$ ) 2 = x2 (x2 . A relative minimum occurs when f (x*) 5 f (x) for all x near x*. At those points f = the maximum. The function f (x) = 3x2 . Maximum volume is at (V has a minimum at x = 6 when the box has negative width.(&h)2]h.08.x) ..1+3t)(Gt) = 9t3~t+3..x) (12 .x) = 722 .3 Second Derivatives: Bending and Acceleration (page 110) The first derivative gives the slope. = 2= The endpoints f (0) = 1 and f (00)= 0 are minima. 1.08. Writing the squared distance as z 2 + (y.3. 1 '2 = fi h. and f ($) = the minimum.92 o r sin(5 62 The squared distance x2 (y . i .10) . The term to add is f " ( x ) ( ~ x ) ~ With . Then = 72 . f At an inflection point. then A f is small instead of df = 0.92.22 equals 0 or n. The second derivative gives the change of slope.a ) ~ . f" = 0 and the graph is momentarily straight. The volume of the cylinder is V = nr2h = n [ l . 18 f1(x) = cos x sin x = 0 a t x = 2 and x = $. 1+3t3 3. ' goes from + to .362 3x2.x) is (sin 5) (sin 5) = .($h)2] n($h)h = 0 gives + + x =6  a.x) which is sin(l0 .to Since f ' is increasing. The minima of 1x1 and 52 for 2 5 x 5 2 are at x = 0 and x = 2. a.$)2 = y + ( t ~ we forget that y = x2 2 0.
2 We want inflection points = 0 at x = 0 and x = 1. Take = x . The quadratic approximation is x4 rn 1 4(2 . provided f " changes sign. Taking the second derivative we get f"(x) = 2 Since f"(3) > 0 the point is a minimum. + + +  2. r + + f ( a ) = . the function has a minimum. Then y = &x3(Intermediate step: the first derivative is $ x2 .3(sin x ) sin ~ x 6 sin z(eos x ) = ~ 6 sin x . 9 + + . and the slope is decreasing. Now compute f" = 22 2.f ( x . the function has s maximum.%x4 i x 3 . The only inflection point is a t x = 0. f ( a ) = 1. If f " (x) < 0 then the graph is concave down. With that term iftt + + + the error is AX)'). $f"(a) Readthrough8 a n d selected evennumbered aolutiona : The direction of bending is given by the sign of ftt (x). f1'(x) is negative. 3 Ax4.3.l I 2 is again suspicious.$x3). then y = 2 . If the second derivative is positive in an interval.1) + + 6(x .Inflection points require fM(x)= 0. At a point where f '(x) = 0 and f" (x) > 0..I ) ~ .$x3 + + i x 2 . The 3point approximation to f"(x) is [f(x + A x ) . Alternative: y = x2 for x < 0. At x = I. rrr.10. fl(x) = x2 2 1 . The tangent lines are below the graph. f0(z) is positive. 20 ft(x) = cosz 3(sin x ) cos ~ z gives f"(z) = sin z . At a point where f' (x) = 0 and f" (x) < 0. There is a stationary point a t x = 3.3 Second Derivatives: Bending and Acceleration The (page 110) $ makes this exactly correct when f = (x . 3 + y.9 sintx. which means that x = 0 or x = 1. The bending stays positive and the tangent line stays under the curve. if any.2f (x) f ( x . This is positive (y is concave up) between 0 and 1.Without that extra term this is just the linear (or tangent) approximation. 3. A point where f " (z) = 0 is an inflection point. where f" goes from negative to positive: bend down then bend up.2x2 x = x(x2 . Use f "( x) to decide be tween maxima and minima of f (x) = )z3 + x2 .Z #0 f '(x) = 22 = 0 if 2x3 = 54 or x3 = 27.3 = (x 3)(x I). 1. The graph bends upward.Ax)l/lAx. f t ( a ) = . Concavity is updownup from 0 to rrr.I ) ~Note . of f (x) = $x5 . then y = +x2 up to x = 1. secondorder approximation to f (x Ax) is f (x) + ft(x)Ax + (x)(AX)%.) aqd also where (sin x ) = ~ % (an angle x in each quadrant). The double root from (x . This example has f "(x) = x3 . So this point is a local minimum. 4. f l ( a ) = 4. the function is concave up (or convex). This point is a local maximum. The sign of f" does not change as x passes 1. The tangent line crosses the graph. . Locate inflection points. At x = 3. fl(x) = . The centered approximation to f t ( x ) is [ f ( x A x ) . Use the formula boxed on page 109 with o = .x2. At a true inflection point the curve and line cross. Inflection points where sin x = 0 (at 0.32. f N ( z )= . so the stationary points are x = 1 and x = 3. because then f" = 2 cancels the $.x2 for x > 1. Then downupdown from rrr to 27r. Find the minimum of f ( x ) = x2 + z .A X ) ] / ( A X ) ~The .a)'. Here f' = i x 4 .lox.22 1) = x(z . This test on f" does not say whether the minimum is relative or absolute. = 6. Write down the quadratic approximation for the function y = x4 near x = 1. f"(a) = 12. But x = 1is not a true inflection point.
which is drawn for 0 < x < 6. >) the degree of the denominator? Equal degrees since y . + 8. 3. ) (0.142 1/63 = . the function f (x) approaches 7. f (x) 4 00 as x approaches .13 are based on the graph below. . & + + 10. f (2) = 2 + 4 + 8 = 14.4.) .f (3) = 3 9 27 = 39. AX = 114 AX = 1/8 1 A 2 .) and ( . 42 f (1) = 3.. The inflection point where f "(x) = 0 is (6. fl(x) is positive for which x? x < 1 and x > i. When it is squared the function goes to +oo on both sides of x = 1.00111.f"(0) 113 = . At x = 2 the difference is . . In each question you complete the graph for 6 < x < 0. 2. I f this f (x) is a ratio of polynomials. The limit is 4 (from above).A x ) (Ax)' .O).032 1+x+x21148 = . . (i. $1.O) and (2. . 9.021 l/448 = . The true fl' = 2 62 is also 14. .Ole 2/15 = . the function f (x) approaches . (2. The error involves f"" which in this example is zero. 5. comes from the omitted terms x3 x4 + x6 + . x x < 2 omitting x = 1.(1. The second difference is S91F+3 = 14.2 (fO ) + f ( . + + + + + + 3.067 = .3.O). This is large because x = 2 is far from the basepoint. 1.=. The degree of the numerator is (<. fN(x)> 0 and the curve bends up when . The limit is 4 (from below).4 Graphs (page 11 91 fb) = r=.133 2/63 = .. f (01 ~I(o) j(Ax)f l4~1 f/(o) l t A ~ ) . the denominator must have what factor? (x 1)2 or (x 1)' . The intercepts or axis crossings of this graph are ( .002 36 At x = 0. Note causes blowup at x = 1. Questions 11 . As x + 00.1 the difference $ . As x + oo. The stationary point with horizontal tangent is ( . 1 (from the left and from the right).11) = .4 Graphs (page 119) 1. 4.(1 2 4) = 8.333 1/7 = .
flx) = f(x) Problems 14 . Make f (x) even.3. and behavior as x + oo and x + 00. asymptotes. The function is neither even nor odd since f (. To find horizontal asymptotes. Make f (x) odd. so the graph is always rising. At x = 0 we find the only intercept y = 0.4 Graphs (page 119) 12.17 are designed to be done by hand. The slope is f '(x) = *. 11. .t b . you need to think about x and y intercepts. wilh period 6 : fix) = . even functio : flx) = flx) 1 odd function. (And it helps to plot a few 14. Sketch y = A. Thus y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote (also as x . Since f"(x) = the graph is concave up when x < 1 and concave down when x > 1. let x get very large. < qL. Especially find the asymptotes. To graph a function from its equation.flk + 6 ) 6v . c o [ d : ? .x) = % is neither f (x) nor .Since x = 1 makes the denominator zero. Use the information given by derivatives.oo).f (x). y6 : : : . the line x = 1 is a verticai asymptote. Make f (x) periodic with period 6. 1 13. & . Then & gets very near t o y = 1. Consider also whether the function is even or odd.
y = 1. Slopes are multiplied by d/c.f'(x).9 + +m). so there is a stationary point a t x = 0. when the denominator x2 .9)'. t. Each derivative is like an infinite zoom.The zoom transform changes Y = F ( X ) to y = dF(x/c). Its graph is symmetric =6 x2 . Since 3 = 6(x . Note f (x) = about the y axis. the line x = a is a vertical asymptote. We zoom in to that box for another digit of x*. A box around the graph looks long and thin. The derivative is f '(x) = 12x(x2 . Even junctions have odd derivatives. The asymptotes of y = x2/(x2 .b. as x r a.O) and (2. Second derivatives are multiplied by d/c2.O).') The derivative is 2 = 1 . and f1'(x). then y = mx b is a sloping asymptote.x = .1' As x gets large.) 2 . This centering transform changes y = f (x) to Y = b f(X a). For the model y = Cx2.1 gives y = . except at x = 0 where f (0) = 1. Sketch y = (page 11 9) A.a and Y = y .2)(x+2) and cancel x 2 from the top and bottom. That point is a local maximum. because its graph crosses the x axis. To move (a.he graph is   The position. The vertical asymptote is x = 1 where the denominator is zero. + & + . The numerator has greater degree (2 versus 1) so we divide: 3 +3+ (You should redo that division. But solving dy/dx = 0 is more accurate. then x = b is a horizontal asymptote. The slope of dy/dx is day/dx2.This function is even because y(x) = y(x). g. Sketch y = s. + Near a point where dy/dx = 0. Sketch y = Why will it have a sloping asymptote? There are intercepts at (0. y = 4. b) equals the new slope at (0. y= x2 22 x 21 + there are stationary points at (x . If If (x)l r a .1)' = 3 or x = 1f concave up if x > 1 and concave down if x < 1. b) to (0. shift the variables to X = x . The function sin kx has period 2x/k. and bending of y = f (x) are decided by f(x). the graph is extremely flat.O). (This is illegal at the point where x 2 = 0 and we have The graph is the stmight line y = x .&. sin x . Vertical asymptotes are x = 3 and x = 3. not odd or even. set x = C Xand y = dY. If f (x) + b for large x. x = 2.0).) + 17.01C.c o s x 22 f(x) = $ + 2 x + 3 10 (a) False: has no asymptotes (b) T h e : the second difference on page 108 is even (c) False: f (x) = 1 x is not even but f" = O is even (d) False: tan x has vertical asymptotes but sec2 x is never zero. Vertical asymptotes at all multiples x = nlr. the last fraction is small The line y = x + 3 is a sloping asymptote. To stretch the axes by c and d. vertical asymptotes when sin x = cos x at x = tar.4 Graphs 15.There is no solution y = 0.mx r b for large x.9 is zero. + + 1 2 & is even.3. a.2 with a hole at x = 2. If f (x) . In fact y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote (because x2s f (x) so this function is even.I ) . Readthrough8 and relected euennumbered rolutionr : . + It has a straight graph! x = 2 is not an asymptote even though the denominator is zero! We can factor x24 into (2. (Sloping SO asymptotes come when 'top degree = 1 + bottom degree. Always maz or min at x = 0. The graph passes through x = 0.4) are x = 2. 16. y = . 16 sin x + c o s x is periodic. The original slope at (a.~ t . slope. Explain why this function is even.
It has a = fi and b = &. b2 = 9. Find the center and the two foci.b2 we calculate c = & &.a ( x .I ) ~ N . 40 (a) The asymptotes are y = 0 and x = 3. + + = 5.5. 3. a t (7. Dividing by 144 gives the standard form = 1.therefore conic section. But B2 . Foci are c = 5 from the center. are left and right of the center at (3 .sin x. at ( .33) Rotate the axes of x2 + xy + y2 = 1. 1. Center at ( . We must also add 9 x 4 and 16 x 1 to the right side: 9(x 2)2 . l ) . (In examples. Write the equation of a parabola with vertex a t (1.124 = 0 is the equation of a hyperbola.48. The x2 and y2 terms have opposite signs.73205.5 Parabolas.2) and (3 at Tk = + &. no inflection point. The special point of a circle is its center. otice how the vertex is at the focus is a = 2. 4(x + 3)2 + 9(y . Ellipses.) 1 ) 15 ~ . For numerical computation it is the other way: derivatives are very sensitive.l) and (3. 4. 9x2 .3) and focus at (1. derivatives seem easier than integrals. (b) The asymptotes are y = 1 and x = 1 (double root).3.2). and Hyperbolas (page 128) 38 This is the second difference f. Also the curve itself has to be recognized . + 4 = 1 We see an ellipse centered Divide by 36 to make the right side equal 1: (3.95.3) when the equation has x .16y2 + 36s + 32y .16 = 144. (This is Problem 3. A parabola has only one focus (the other one is at infinity) and we emphasize the vertex.so or ( 2 ~ = + x2 or x2 = 5. Then the foci 3. minimum near x = . In algebra.l).O) when the equation is y = &x2.4AC is positive. The distance from the vertex to =The equation is (y . They should be filled by 4 and 1 t o give (x + 2)2 and (y .5 Parabolas.6 .3.2 . which indicates a hyperbola. so (1. ellipse.2)2 = 36 is the equation for an ellipse'.l).l (sin x)" = .1 and y . Regroup the terms: The blanks are for completing the squares.3) = . The special points for an ellipse are the two foci. a plane cuts through a cone . Lengths a 2 = 16." with x2 and xy and y2. A hyperbola has two foci and two vertices and two branches and frequently a minus sign in a critical place. vertices. Vertices are Now read off the main points. Ellipses. 42 The exact solution is x* = fi = 1. Find the center. The focus is below the vertex. parabola. and foci.2). or hyperbola. we try t o write the equation so the special points of the curve can be recognized. Use equation (7) with sin a = cos CY = 1 AJz + 2 Jzy'. integrals are smooth.j (local maximum).From c2 = a2 . The original equation involves x2 and y2 and * The rot ation is x = A Jzx ' xy so we compute  I y' and y = l x ' Jz . In geometry.16(y . and Hyperbolas (page 128) This section is about "second degree equations. The zoom should find those digits. & i. 2.as circle. c = a = 4 from the center.&. 58 Inflection points and second derivatives are harder t o compute than maximum points and first derivatives.1)2= 124 36 . The vertex is a t (0. l ) and (2. 48 The exact x = 3 fi solves 52 4 K l is defined only for x 2 . so the parabola opens downward.l).I ) ~ .
Since an ellipse has 02 = b2 c2 we find b = 3.O) set X = x  (+. x .4 moves the vertex to (0. The foci are at y = &c = f a .O). The equation becomes Y = x2.14. and so the other vertex must be at (1. + 9 +$ Readthroughr and releeted evennumbered rolutionr : The graph of y = x2 22 5 is a parabola. If D = E = 0 the center of the graph is at (0.l) and foci at (2.12y = x . + + The form X = &y2is x + 4 = 2(y . y = 3. 6. i ) . Add 9 to both sides so that y2 . Find the ellipse with vertices at (0. The equation Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 = 1 gives an ellipse when 4AC > B ~The . an ellipse. The distances from it are a = 5 and c = 4. A steep cutting angle yields a hyperbola. Thus & = 2.5 Parabolas. Group the y terms: 2y2 . = 1. if the foci are at (1. 1 4 xy = 0 gives the two lines x = 0 and y = 0. I). y) = (1.(y')' 1 and y2 = (x')~ 2 1 + xIY' + i(Y')2 1 and zy = (XI)' 2 .0. 1 + xy + y2 = 1 into $ ( x ' ) ~+ $ ( Y ' ) ~ = 1. 16 y = x 2 . i. This is + + 12y .3.o). The focus is o = f from the vertex.x hasvertex at Tomove thevertex to (0. The sum of distances from the foci to a point on the ellipse is always 8.5 and y . 0) and (10. The graph lies in the rectangle whose sides are x = f4. 7.i). 1) is a = 4. All these curves are conic sections .(y')2.x'y' 2 Substitution changes x2 5. and Y = y + Then Y = X 2 . If we rescale to X = x/4 and Y = y/2 the equation becomes y2 = 1and the graph becomes a circle. Ellipses. What is the equation of a hyperbola having a vertex at (7.6y 9 = (y . O). y = f2. + + x2+ The graph of y2 . The equation is = 1. so we have a sideways parabola with a horizontal axis. Dividing by 9 leaves #/a2 .l) and (8. Then (y . The negative sign is with y2 because the hyperbola opens horizontally.312.2y2 1 + .All rays coming straight down are reflected to the focus. The distance from the center to each focus is c = 5.x2 = 9 is a hyperbola. Its lowest point (the vertex) is (x. graph of 4x2 + 5xy + 6 3 = 1 is an ellipse. At the vertex the equation becomes 0 = 0.the intersection of a plane and a cone. Notice x .O) and (9. and Hyperbolas (page 128) 1 x2 = (XI)' . The area is lrab = 8u. a The center must be at (5. Centering by X = z 1 and Y = y . The general equation is Ax2 + Bxy + cY2 + Dx + Ey +F = 0. The difference of distances from the foci to a point on this hyperbola is 6.3)2 = $z 2 = f ( x 4).14 = 0 is the equation for a parabola. + + + The graph of x2 4y2 = 16 is an ellipse. The distance to (7.4). = 4 and b = 2.x2/b2 = 1with a = 3 and b = 3. . The focus of this centered parabola is ( 0 . On the upper branch y 2 0. Dividing by 16 leaves x2/02 y2/b2 = 1 with a.7. There is no xy term and no x2 term.l). halfway between the foci. 0). a degenerate hyperbola with vertices and foci all at (0.O). The vertex of this parabola is at x = 4. Therefore the equation is = 1. At the borderline angle we get a parabola. The asymptotes are the lines y = fx.3)2 is a perfect square. The foci are at x = fc = f a . Finally b= = 3. Divide by 2 to get y2 . The foci are on the line y = 1. + Find the vertex and focus.O). I)? The center must be at (3.6y = f x .
On the other hand xo = 2 leads to xl = 3 ( 2 ) ( 1 . Then ENTER many times to reach threeplace accuracy x* = 0. This is 3 . $(:)2 = at t = = 1 or ?. 1.5 . s2 = 34 The Earth has a = 149.25. Then 23 = 0.679. which means attraction. Follow the steps in this table: . Press \r.72) = 0. Compute X I . our orbit is nearly a circle. = and repeat.167 (or . That value IF'I = 1 is why the calculator showed very slow attraction to x* = $.870 kilometers (Problem 19 on page 469 says 1..72 and xz = 3(0. Are they attracting or repelling? This is one of the many times when a calculator comes in handy. Equal roots if b2 = 4ac. Then c = 2. This gives x* = 32' . On the in the interval < x* < T I 8 1press cos. 32 The square has side s if the point = area of square. .t o test convergence.6.+ 1 . The path is the parabola y = x .2) = 6 and x2 = 3 ( 6 ) ( 1.02 on page 356). Then y . i. Get into radian mode! By sketching y = x and y = cos fi together you can see that there is just one solution. (This is Problem 3. Then check d F / d x a t the fixed points.4ac is negative.(l .0.6 Iterations x. Note x* = fi so xo = 2 is a good place to start.x2. .) (page 136) 20 The path x = t. On the TI81I use 3 ANS (1ANS) and just push ENTER.x*. If we start a t xo = 3. 40 Complete squares: yZ : + 2y = ( y 1)' .6 Iterations xn+l = F ( x n ) This is not yet a standard topic in calculus.3. It is npeLLing if IFt(x*)l > 1. + + + $ + +5 + + x2 3. y = t . then xl = $ and we stay a t that fixed point.4ac is positive and no real roots if b2 .1 and x2 l o x = ( x 5)' . 46 The quadratic ax2 bx c has two real roots if b2 .6)(1.y2 = 24. R o m xo = 0. the title "Iterations" is not widely used.62. The iteration is fixed there if it starts there. Certainly Newton's method with xl = F ( x o ) and x2 = F ( x l ) is always taught (as it should be). ANS.x.+l = 3x. solve x* = 3x*(1 .M a . . ~ The solutions z* = 0 and x* = are fixed points. Or rather. < . lo6 and b = d m .0.6.x* is smaller than x.5 studies x.15) Solve x = cos fi by iteration. x s .6 and xo = 2. % To decide whether the fixed points attract or repel. 4(3+ ( 5 . (this looks like x* = $). We gave iteration a full section because it is a very important application of calculus.( .2 lo4 km.71705088 and eventually xa = 0. so x* = 0 is repelling. Then Y = y 1 and X = x satisfy Y 2. This b is very near a. This fixed point is attmctzng if IFt(x*)I < 1. Use d n M a .. At x* = $ the derivative is 1 so we are on the borderline.72)(1. 3 ( ~ *=) 22.lo8 km). 3. The "cobweb" spirals inward.). cos. To find the fixed points algebraically.7 = 0.+l = F(z.3 ( ~ * )or ~.6048.6) = 0.25 5 the hyperbola is . x2. take the derivative of F ( x ) = 3 x ( l .6 ) ) = 126 and x3 = 3(126)(1. i)is on the ellipse.6.126) = 47250. 2.1 = X 2 .6118732. The sequence is diverging.5. Other iterations should be presented too! Main ideas: The fized points satisfy x* = F(x*). somewhere Pick a starting point like xo = 0. Start from xo = . Many iterations lead to x = 0. At x* = 0 the derivative is 3. If we start at xo = 0 .6666. This requires + $(:)2 The eccentricity e = is 0. then xl = 0 and we stay a t 0.6 it gives X I = 3(0. Problem 3.x*).t 2 starts with 2 = $ = 1 a t t = 0 (45' angle). The derivative F' a t the fixed point decides whether x. . Write out the first few steps of Newton's method for solving x3 .597.x).
Then xl = sin xo is less than xo.9129.cfl(x*). .sin xo . if /xoJ= l x . 2 8 (a) Start with xo > 0. tan xo .+l = x : + x. 1 and . Convergence if I F1(x*)1 < 1 or 1< a < 3. The sequence xo..1.66666.3. + ~ = x i describes an i t e r a t i o n . a t x* = 0 .6. then x* is a fixed point.912931 . repels) and F t ( x ? ) = 1 . decreases to zero (convergence: also if xo < 0..1.3 are repelling. the x. is increasing (slowly repelled from 0). . Apparently period 2. in which case F1(x*) = 1 . 9 If x .Subtracting x* = x* . convergence to x.) . Since F'(&) = 2 f i + 1 > 1and F'(&) = 2&+ both fixed points are repelling.x*). This is an intersection of y = x3 and y = x. ' + + + + .+l = F(x. The fixed points are solutions of x* = (x*)' x* . This gives ( x * )~ 3 = 0 and x* = & or F ( x ) = x2+ x .sin(sin xo) . those digits are almost certainly correct in x* = i/i = 1. if lxo/ > lx. It probably blows up but it might cycle and it might be chaotic. 1..+l x* = F(x.) 2 0 x* = (x*)2.).x* rs.xl = 1. thus x* = or x* = &.l ) / a the derivative f ' = a .3.2 f i 1. from different xo : has fixed points x* = ( x * ) ~which . are repelled if IF1(x*)l > 1. Also check a = 3 : with xo = .For F = x3 the fixed points have F' = 0 o r 3. xl ) t o (xl . After one step x l = xo.xl) and converges to (x*. The cobweb goes from (xo. (This is Problem 3. and it is superattracting because F' = 0. .gives x. The errors approach zero if 1 < m < 1. the error equation is z. = l / f l ( x * ) produces Newton's method. allows 1 0 xo = . = and x' = At these fixed points F' = 22' equals 1 & (greater than 1 so x.2(a . tan (tan xo) .1) = 2 . 4.F(x*) M F1(x*)(xn . .& ( x l attracts).The choice c. (For completeness check a = 1 : convergence t o zero.x2.x3 = 1. The derivative 22' + 1 equals 2& 1 or .) (page 136) Since 32 and x3 begin with 1.1.x*) = ( 0 .x2 = . The multiplier is m = 1.3. . Then F t ( x ) = 2x+ 1. The sequence xo . 1. m(xn . .3 or ( x * ) = ~ 3.cf(x*). X I . f (x) = O can be solved iteratively by x.xo) t o (xo. will converge to it if (F1(x*) I < 1.66666 my calculator gives back 2 2 = . 18 At x* = (a . Starting near a fixed point.c f (x.6 Iterations z. F = x3 has t h r e e fixed points. We have three ways to study iterations x. both have lF'l > 1.a.) : (1) compute (2) find the fixed points x* and test IdF/dxl < 1 (3) draw cobwebs.+ 1 = x. divergence to oc. The x. The double step xn+2 = x x* = 1 and x* = 1. Convergence t o x* is not certain.+l = F(x. or x* = F ( x * ) .26) Show that both fixed points of x. + 6. it happens that input = output.+l . Readthrough8 and eelected evennumbered solutions : 3 After two steps x2 = F ( x l ) = xl 3 = xo. .x*). The iteration has nowhere t o settle down. O ) . The iterations blow up. Since (tan x)' = sec2 x 1 1 there ? +. Cobwebs show convergence t o x? if lxol < lx.2ax equals f '(x*) = a . 2 6 The fixed points satisfy x* = ( x * ) ~ x* .) On the other hand x l = tanxo is larger than xo. Let 1 < 1. The choice c = 1 is "successive s u b s t i t u t i o n n and c = l/f' (xo) is modified Newton.The point is called a t t r a c t i n g . . T h a t is because x.cf' (x*).l. .
3xtf20 4x3.125) is correct to three places.115 x2 = 9(2.5.+l = x. = sin x .f (xn) = x. + (. Use this method to solve sin x = 0. cos(cos(cos x)) are approaching the hori~ontal line y = . (Of course we do know (sin x)' = cos I!). (where x* = cos x*) . 5 + .7 Newton's Method and Chaos = (20)'/'.A. Every step just multiplies by 3.11474.5. to show the iterations.125.. Comparing x2 and x3 indicates that #% = 2.6 (two start points). They don't converge to z*= 0. the curve stays closer to the axis than the 45' line (convergence). by multiplying top and bottom by 3x:l3 so xn+l = x.1148. 42 The graphs of cos x.4) Show that Newton's method for f (z)= x1I3 = 0 gives z.0. Then xs = 2. cos(cos x). .7391. The fraction is made simpler 1/5 5 =n = 22. (page 145) Choose f (x) = x4 . The secant method is good for those occasions when you don't know fl(x). 1. Then XI = q(2) $ = = 2. See Problem 22 for F1' = 0.5 and XI = 0.. Use Newton's method to approximate Newton'r method i r x.s + + 2. say xo = 2.is no attractor (divergence). The next point is Choose a starting point.. 45: It helps to simplify the expression on the right: 4x~(xt20) 4x3. The tangent line at each x hits the axis at the next point 2%. (b) F" is (sin x)" = ...+l = x. Start with xo = 0. Otherwise divergence. r Draw a graph Newton's method for the equation x113 = 0 gives z.20 with fl(x) = 4x3.7.+l by the secant method (formula at end of the line) With f (z) . f '(zn) 3 = 2.as x passes so..sin x and (tan x)" = 2 see2 x tan x. For every x this number is the limit.+l = 22. 2. h .20 . . x". this table gives x. . (This is Problem 3. %+I = . f = 2. 4 x:. + 3. Theory: When F" changes from to .
Changing to z = l/(x2 1)yields the parabolic iteration z.4zn. Actually sin' . this should solve sin x = 0. the correct zero of f (x).) = 0.5 = f rr 0.x* are 0 and 2.606129 ~ x O and a secant step leads to = 1. 2 3.308 to xl = xo = 3. 26 Ifzo =sin29 then zl = 4 z o .x.+~. 1.xi1). and x.5 to four places.F .+ 1 = 4zn .F.az: converges to a single fixed point. Note to instructors: The multiplier is (this is +FM(x*) : see 2f (x 1 Problem 31 of Section 3. The number of correct decimals doubles at every step. After a = 3 the limit is a 2cycle.f (xn)/ft(xn) is Newton's x. The Cantor set is selfsimilar.("rr+l)lx. 2 so Newton's formula is xn+1 = xn .32 . The xn converge to 6 if xo > 0 and to 6 1 . . Beadthrwgha and releeted evennumbered rolutiona : When f (x) = 0 is linearized to f (zn) ft(zn)(z. which means that t h e z's alternate between two values. This is quadratic convergence. Then =c O s ~ ~= ~ .100 approaches x* = fiif xo > 0 and x* = fi if xo < 0.88. 6 f(x) = x3 . In this case the error at step n 1 equals times (error at step n)2.1= 0: roots near 1.3. So the sequence approaches x* = 1.b. For f (x) = x2 .8 The Mean Value Theorem and I'HGpital's Rule [page 152) Since x3 = x4 = 0. y. If you get a form "oo . For a 5 3.5.45143.523599.F.+~ are normally related by rr error):. Later the limit is a Cantor set. : . The errors at x. 44 A Newton step goes from xo = .5236. Newton's iteration is xn+l = )(b + + 9). This cannot converge to i = if xo < 0. + 3. the solution x = xn .4 4 =4sin294sin48 = 4sin28(1sin28) = 4 s i n 2 ~ c o s 2 8 = ( 2 s i n B c 0 ~ 9= )~ sin2 29. The tangent line to the curve crosses the axis at xn+l. + + a. xn The derivatives Ft = 1. oon use algebra to transform it into # t z. + +9 i T . .6 10 Newton's method for f (x) = x4 . which is a onedimensional example of a fractal. + & & 9. 24 8 = t . while the curve crosses at x*. = 7r this happened at step 6 so xa = xo.+1 = 2 ' 1 x* 2The fixed points of this F satisfy x* = x* which gives x* = 1 and x* = 1. t. the iteration becomes xn+l = l(xn 2 Instead it leads to chaos.1 2 f(x) = x+l has ft(x) = 2 x.8 The Mean Value Theorem and l'H6pital's Rule (page 152) Be careful to apply l9H6pital's Rule only when the limit of leads to or (The limit can be as z + a or z + oo or x + 00. zn+l = azn .9.oon or "0 .8). For f (x) = x2 1. In Problem 9 the multiplier is and convergence is quicker. x2 = xl > . 1 = (x+l).
0 .882. not "exactlyn one.1 . (The Mean Value Theorem states there is at least one c..o e. Find the limit of x .1 and 2 where the slope of the tangent line a t x = c is fi 5.v / Z Z as x + oo. Don't be tempted to apply the rule again! The limit is $ = 0. Since sec2 c always exceeds 1 inside the interval we have % > 1 and t a n a > a . What does the Mean Value Theorem say about the function f (x) = x3 on the interval [. Choose f (x) = tan x. we have oo . Then 9 limx. The MVT says that there is some c between .= 0.Then use 1'HBpitalb rule: limx X. Since sec 2 ( q ) is infinite and 1 . Use the Mean Value Theorem to show that tan a > a when 0 < a < $a. This is also of the form oo . of the form We can apply I'Hbpital's rule to get limx. 2 = 1 csc2 x . 7..oo. The limiting answer is 0.the numerator stays a t 4 while the denominator goes t o oo.l 5.8) has slope = 3.1.0..8 are about the Mean Value Theorem.csc x as x r + times r 1 gives + ( O ) ( l ) = 0."3a~~+1 has the form g.l) t o (2. Now lim. The secant line connecting (1.  i. Find lim. the Theorem says that there exists a point c where fl(c) = sec2 c = t a11n .csc x as sln x . What is the number c in question 6? r The slope of y = x3 is and c w f0. T. The answer is 0. The limit is 0.sln x = W. by changing sec 22 to A.a ] . r On the interval [0.) 2 = 3x2. Rewrite the problem to make it %. There are actually t w o values of c where the tangent line is parallel t o the secant. limx.  .1. So c2 = 8. sln x . + 0 This approaches The rule takes the derivative of sin2 x and x t o find 2 sinxcos x and 1. This has the form "oo .cot x). 4.00. Questions 6 . i.oon. Find the limit of cot x .: sec 2 x ( l .. The slope of the tangent at x = c is 3c2 = 5. Find limx. Rewrite cot x . An algebraic trick works (no I'Hbpital): As x . 3xa3z3"1.l x3. W is sin x 3.o 2 sin x C O B x .2]? r 7 The graph tells the story. 1 Direct answer without 12Hbpital: sin x 2.cot x = lim cos2x ~ .cot 2 = 0. 6.+ 2sin2x f 2 One application of 1'Hbpital's rule gives limx.
which applies when f (x) and g(x) + 0 as x * a.sin0 = (acosrc)(2 . 10 f (x) = 3 has f (1) = 1 and f (1) = 1. Therefore lf(x) . + + + A chief consequence is 1'HBpital's Rule. MVT does not apply because f (x) is n o t c o n t i n u o u s in this interval. In that case the limit of f ( X ) / ~ ( X ) equals the limit of f l ( x )/g' (x).1 ) )1nx ~ n ( l +2x ~)~'n = (1'HBpital again) lim.l ) ( l + ~ ) ~ n ~( n . But there are no two points where f (a) = f (b) (no horizontal secant line). Which are attracting and which are repelling? Find the real roots of f (x) = x3 + 2x + 1 using Newton's method. (There is a corner.a)2 is exact for another c.cotZ x has f' = 0 at every point c. 12 $csc2x = 2csc x(csc x cot x) is equal to $ cotZx = 2 cot x(csc2x).cosZ x = 1 . go on to the limit of f " ( ~ ) / (x). ~" 1 or c = 3 2 s i n 2 r . . Normally this limit is j' (a)/g' (a).cos2 x 16 l'H6pital's Rule does not apply because has no derivative at x = 0. l h Jz 1% 3 Chapter Review Problems Computing Problems C1 C2 C3 C4 Find the fixed points of j (x) = 1. b] to the slope df l d x a t an unknown point.0) when cosac = 0 : then c = Z 2. correct to four places. The prediction f (x) = f (a) f1(c)(x . Then f (x) = csc2 x . Geometric interpretation: If the tangent slope stays between 1 and 1. The statement is A f / A x = f' (x)for s o m e point a < c < b. The limit from the left (where x < 0) is L = 1 These .. provided this limit exists.a ) is less than M (x . Consequences of the Mean Value Theorem include: If f1(x) = 0 everywhere in an interval then f ( x ) = c o n s t a n t . Rolle's theorem is the special case when f (a) = f (b) = 0. The function f (x) = x3 has f' = 0 at x = 0 (horizontal tangent).a) is exact for some c between a and x. n ( n . but no point c has ft(c) = 0.a ) + f f t t ( c ) ( x.3 Chapter Review Problems Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered solutions : The Mean Value Theorem equates the average slope A f /Ax over an interval [a.1 at all points.o 20 limx. If this is also 010. The proof chooses c as the point where f reaches its maximum o r minimum. so does the slope of any secant line.l sln x = sill 1 = 0 (not an application of I'Hbpital's Rule). and the point c satisfies f1(c) = 0. 30 Mean Value Theorem: f ( x ) .f(y) = fl(c)(x.f ( ~ ) = l Ift(c)llx.a)2 where M is the maximum of if" I. Minimize y = (you will find a relative minimum: why?).y). Solve f (x) = 2 sin x . with a derivative on the open interval (a. trigonometry cscZx .2 sin x. ." 18 limx. The error in f (a) f t ( a ) ( x . b). The limit from d G d G ' 9.) The knowledge that 1 .cos x rn $ gives rn Then 9 x has onesided limits. By the MVT f (x) must have the same value at every pair of points a and b. The quadratic prediction f (x) = f (a) ft(x)(x .1 = 0 correct to four places. the right (where x > 0) is L = . 32 No: The converse of Rolle's theorem is false.yl 5 yl since we are given that I f'l 5 1 at all points.o 2 2 .o l + ~ 52 = limx. limits also come from "onesided I'HBpit a1 rules. By sin2 x . It requires f (x) t o be c o n t i n u o u s on the closed interval [a. b].
42 (c) x2 +5 (d) 6 Dl0 A 20 meter wire is formed into a rectangle. Draw rough graphs.8 find stationary points. Based on Figure 3. With another sketch.o 7. Findlimx. R8 State 1'H6pitalYsRule. show why the theorem may not hold if f (x) is defined on (a.. ellipse. dx.x limx. Find the 'en guaranteed by the Mean Value Theorem for y = x3 .~and1imz. Ay.. what are the three types of critical point to consider? Sketch a function having maxima or minima at each type of critical point.o+x2cotxandlim. D l 1 A level rectangle is to be inscribed in the ellipse D 12 6+ & Write these equations in standard form and identify parabola.2 indicate the error between the curve and its tangent line.2 x + ~ ~ + 6 y + 2 (d) = 0x 2 = 2 y + 2 x (a) 4 z 2 + 9 3 = 3 6 Dl3 Dl4 Dl5 Compute limz. b) but not at the endpoints.Dl D2 DS Find a linear approximation for y = 1 Approximate + $ near a = 2.2]. R6 For f (x) = x3 . R7 Draw a picture to explain the Mean Value Theorem. = 1. or hyperbola. R S Explain the second derivative test for local maxima and minima of f (x). tan x .3 C h a ~ t eR r eview Problems Review Problems R1 R2 Linear Approximation: Sketch a function f (x) and a tangent line through (a. 6 ) . The ellipse 1s drawn above. Then find a quadratic approximation.32 + 1= 0. e. + 2%on the interval [1. Ax. using a linear approximation. show why this theorem may not hold if f (x) is not differentiable on (a. Label dy. Show by a picture why a fixed point of y = F(x) is attracting if IEI< 1and repelling if > 1. Find the rectangle of maximum area.+l =P . To find the maximum (or minimum) of a function. The volume of a cylinder is V = sr2h. Maximbe the area. f (a)).7 ~ ~ + 1 1 2 (c) =0 ~ ~ .o+(~~).. What is the percent change in volume if the radius decreases by 3% and the height remains the same? Is this exact or approximate? In 4 . and endpoints.o 3 and lim. How do you know when t o use it ? When do you use it twice? Illustrate with Drill Problems . Newton's method is x. rough points.. D9 Where are these functions concave up and concave down? Sketch their graphs. (b) 1 6 ~ ~ . Also relative and absolute maxima and minima. (a) ( 1  (b) 12x2/3. R4 R5 Are stationary points always local maxima ar minima? Give an example or a counterexample. With a third sketch.
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4 CHAPTER 5 Integrals The Idea of the Integral Antiderivatives Summation vs.Contents CHAPTER 4 The Chain Rule Derivatives by the Chain Rule Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives Inverses of Trigonometric Functions 4.2 6. Integration Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions The Definite Integral Properties of the Integral and the Average Value The Fundamental Theorem and Its Consequences Numerical Integration 177 182 187 195 201 206 213 220 5.4 8.7 CHAPTER 7 Techniques of Integration Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Trigonometric Substitutions Partial Fractions Improper Integrals 7.1 8.3 8.5 CHAPTER 8 8.3 4.4 6.5 8. Work.7 5.1 7. and Energy .2 8.5 6.5 5.1 6.3 5.2 7.4 5.2 4.1 4.6 6.3 7.6 Applications of the Integral Areas and Volumes by Slices Length of a Plane Curve Area of a Surface of Revolution Probability and Calculus Masses and Moments Force.6 5.8 CHAPTER 6 Exponentials and Logarithms An Overview The Exponential ex Growth and Decay in Science and Economics Logarithms Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation Powers Instead of Exponentials Hyperbolic Functions 228 236 242 252 259 267 277 6.3 6.2 5.4 7.1 5.
The "inside function" g(x) gives y. The product rule gave two terms. then Jindf (g(x)): The squaring function gives y = x2. It is easy to learn. derivatives come from the sum rule and product rule. then find g(x). We will first explain the new function. This section combines f and g in a third way. It is created out of the two original functions: if x = 3 then x2 = 9 and sin(x2)= sin 9. The derivative of that new function does involve the cosine times 2x (but with a certain twist). Figure 4. This is the input to the "outside function" f(y). On a calculator you input x. . and they are used in that order. The composite function is sometimes written fog (the circle shows the difference from an ordinary product fg). sin x.) When f and g are added and multiplied.CHAPTER 4 Derivatives by the Chain Rule 1 1 4. But there is another way of combining the sine function f and the squaring function g into a single function. There is not a button for every function! But the squaring function and sine function are on most calculators. then push the "g" button. This is g(x). and cos x. Still ahead are ex and log x. (So far the old functions are xn. May I say here that the chain rule is important. There is a "chain" of functions. You start with x.1 The Chain Rule 1  You remember that the derivative of f(x)g(x) is not (df/dx)(dg/dx). It starts with x and ends with z. The sine function produces z = sin y = sin(x2). g = 2x. and then find the "chain rule" for its derivative. not one term. More often you will see f(g(x)): Other examples are cos 2x and ( 2 ~ )with ~ . then push the "f" button: From x compute y = g(x) From y compute z =f(y). The derivative of sin x times x2 is not cos x times 2x.la shows how squaring will stretch and squeeze the sine function.This is f(g(x)). I see it as the third basic way to find derivatives of new functions from derivatives of old functions. and you will use it often. That is called composition. The new function is sin(x2)the sine of x2. combining sin x and x2 into the composite function sin(x2).
It wouldn't do anything.1 The Chaln Rule That graph of sin x2 is a crazy FM signal (the Frequency is Modulated). The chain starts with y = x3. 1 + 1 2 n: y = (sin x ) ~ Fig. The order off and g is usually (f(x)) gives important. Every output xn is fed back as input. This is a special case of the chain rule. The ordinary product is x2. F(x) is composed with itself. The derivative of z = F(F(x)) is which is f times f .t When the second identity function operates on x it produces x again. Here output f. For f(x) = sin x and g(x) = x2.A calculator has no button for the identity function. to find xn+ = F(xn). This is iteration. The composition of 2t3 and y4 gives f(g(x)) = x12. EXAMPLE I The composite functionfig can be deceptive. That result is often written sin2x. Compare with a product g(x) sin x. . The wave goes up and down like sin x. but not at the same places. Changing to sin g(x) moves the peaks left and right. a. which is an AM signal (the Amplitude is Modulated). An extremely special case is f (x) = x and g(x) = x. which is totally different. So z = x. y3 2Y Y5 Jn (COS x)~ 22x X 2" x+5 The last one adds 5 to get y. Remark f(g(x)) is usually different from g(f(x)).1. Compare them in Figure 4. I can give more composite functions in a table: Y=gM 1 COS X z=f(y) z=f(g(x)) J. The chain f(g(x)) produces only x! The output from the "identity function" is g(x) = x. how does f(g(x)) differ from the ordinary product f(x)g(x)? The ordinary product is x7.The example F(x) = f x + 4 has F(F(x)) = f($x 4) + 4.1 f(g(x)) is different from g(f(x)).or f then g. Then it subtracts 5 to reach z. EXAMPLE 2 In Newton's method. If g(x) = x3 and fly) = y4. to save on parentheses. . The derivative of F(x) is t . It is never written sin x2. That produces z = &x+ 6. Apply g then f. The derivative is 1 times 1. the chain in the opposite order g something different: First apply the sine function: y = sin x Then apply the squaring function: z = (sin x ) ~ . and then z = y4 = x12. We multiply derivatives.4. 4.
2 The chain rule: . We do not want dfldx at x. True.4 Derivatives by the Chaln Rule equals input: f(g(x)) = x.3. and AzlAy approaches dzldy. The point is that cos y must be evaluated at y (not at x). These "inverse functions" are in Section 4. The limit of a product is the product of the separate limits (end of quick proof). dz dz dy EXAMPLE 4 The derivative of z = sin 3x is . dx dydx Az Az Ay dz d z d y Fig. 4. the ratio AylAx approaches dyldx." in which each changed input yields a changed output: Ax produces Ay produces Az. Therefore Ay must be going to zero. The key is to write AzlAx as AzlAy times AylAx.= . dx dydx (2) As Ax goes to zero. EXAMPLE 3 If z = (sin x ) ~ then dzldx = (2 sin x)(cos x). z = y2 leads to dzldy = 2y. The inside function sin x produces dyldx = cos x. We have to connect the final Az to the original Ax. The other examples create new functions z(x) and we want their derivatives. In the limit. It is a "domino effect. It does not lead to 2x. We multiply derivatiues: 4A Chah Raze Suppose gCx) has a derivative at x df(y) has a derivative Then the derivative of z =f(g(x)) is . (4) In this order. dz dx dzdy =f'(gf4) sf(*. Caution The chain rule does not say that the derivative of sin x2 is (cos x)(2x).AzAy becomes the chain rule .= 3 cos 3x. The answer is 2y cos x. there is a change in z =f(y).5 1  at y = g(x). cos y is the derivative of sin y. Here y = sin x is inside. THE DERIVATIVE O F f(g(x)) What is the derivative of z = sin x2? It is the limit of AzlAx. we want dfldy at y = x2: The derivative of sin x2 is (cos x2) times (2x). dydx I The slope at x is dfldy (at y) times dg/dx (at x). AyAx dz dz dy Az . Therefore we look at a nearby point x + Ax. That change in x produces a change in y = x2which moves to y + Ay = (x + AX)^.= Ax Ay Ax dx d y dx' . dzldx is given by the "chain rule": Ax. Then let Ax approach zero.= .= .approaches . From this change in y.. We have not yet found the function whose derivative is 2x cos x.
over the chain rule.1: Question A Buick uses 1/20 of a gallon of gas per mile. We named the output z. What never changes is the key ideaderivative of outside function times derivative of inside function.dzdy dx dydx' It was here. Then AzlAx approaches f '(y) times gf(x). (I have to mention that when Ax is approaching zero. The answer is (1/20)(60) = 3 gallons/hour. You drive at 60 miles per hour. not cos x. It is even easier to forget the . If that happens. EXAMPLE 5 Let z =f(y) = yn. The chain rule is (dy/d t) = (dy/dx)(dx/dt).) As Ax + 0. The chain rule multiplies by dyldx: This is the power rule! It was already discovered in Section 2. I can explain that factor 3. I have to ask you to accept whatever letters may come. That oscillates like sin t except three times as fast. . + AY Ax g'(x) and  Az AY+f '( y) =f '(g(x)). and the inside function is called u: dy = cos u . z = (x3 + 1)5 z = (sin x ) ~ z = (1 . The distance is z = sin 3t. In this case dzldy is nyn'.which is the chain rule (dz/dy)(dy/dx). which is dzldy.1 Important All kinds of letters are used for the chain rule. We have to assign it the correct meaning. That extra factor cos x is easy table below. Very often it is called y. His notation practically tells you what to do: Take the limit of each term.1 in the last example. that the "battle of notation" was won by Leibniz. especially if x is switched to t. du The derivative o f y = sin u(x) is dx dx Examples with duldx are extremely common. Then dzldy = cos ythis is cos 3x.n).In the ~ 3(sin x ) cos ~ x.1 The Chain Rule The outside function is z = sin y. The speededup function sin 3t completes a wave at time 2n/3 (instead of 2. Az/Ay becomes 010. Naturally the velocity contains the extra factor 3 from the chain rule. Proof of the chain rule The discussion above was correctly based on Az Ax  AzAy AyAx and dz .x ) ~ dz/dx = 5(x3 + dzldx = 3 sin2x dz/dx = 2(1 .4. The inside function is y = 3x. How many gallons per hour? Answer (Gallons/hour) = (gallons/mile)(mileslhour). Find the derivative of f(g(x)) = [g(x)ln. Square roots (when n = 112) are frequent and important.x) times 3x2 times cos x times . it is theoretically possible that Ay might hit zero. Suppose y= x2 .5. the derivative of (sin x ) is to forget. Remember the other factor dy/dx = 3.
1). cos u(x) has dyldx = m .2 sin (2x + 1). RECOGNIZING f( y) A N D g(x) A big part of the chain rule is recognizing the chain.Evaluate them at the right places y.x (threefunctions). E X A M P L E 8 The derivative of sin x2 is 2x cos x2.4x2 sin x2. The derivative of 2x + 1 is rememberedwithout z or u or f or g.1) the derivative is g ." The slope of cos(2x + 1) is . Then dzldx = 1 . The quick way is to keep in your mind "the derivative of what's inside. + In 110 identify f(y) and g(x). The graph is shifted and the slope shifts too..sin(2x + I). the numbers f(g(x)) and g (f(x)) and f (x)g(x)are s .dy dx dy dx' That last term needs the chain rule again.1). so d 2 z / d ~needs 2 the product rule: dz dy dz . In this case ytt= 2 and (yt)2= 4x2.equals b . Then duldx is just 1 (not .1) then dyldx = cos(x . The slope of 5g(x) is 0 and the slope of g(5x) is P . If y = sin(x . For z = sin(x4. The first factor is evaluated at y = f (not at y = x). The chain rule gives dzldx as a product.. E X A M P L E 7 sin J& is a chain of z = sin y. The table started with (x3 + 1)'.4 Derivatives by the Chain Rule E X A M P L E 6 The chain rule is barely needed for sin(x . When f = cosine and g = sine and x = 0. Finally there is the question of second derivatives.dx dydx leadsto +d2z .1 and not at the unshifted x. Its inside function is y = c . Then the product rule gives d2z/dx2= 2 cos x2 .3)2 1Z = ( X ~ . The power rule for y = [u(x)Inis the chain rule dyldx = n . the careful way is to write down all the functions: cos (2x + 1) is cos u & z = cos u u = 2x + 1 dzldx = (./G 4 z = t a n 2x 6 z = sin & . u. y = 3 z = cos(x3) 5z=.1. the chain (x2.sin u)(2) = . At x = 2.~ ) ~ dz  The proof of the chain rule begins with Az/Ax= ( I ) k ) and ends with I . Then you see it as us. Strictly speaking the inside function is u = x . The inside function is u = x3 + 1. (product rule!) is In calculations. With practice this decomposition (the opposite of composition) gets easy: x sin x is . You look at it for a second. x. From their derivatives find . (2&) ( With that triple chain you will have the hang of the chain rule: The derivative of sin f i is (cos J K ) This is (dz/dy)(dy/du)(du/dx). dx 2 z = (x3.1). times 2 from the chain rule. The triple chain z = cos(x 1)' has a shift and a h and a cosine.u = 1 . its outside function is z = d .dz d2y dx2 dydx2 d (dz) . Readthrough questions z =f(g(x)) comes from z =f(y) and y = a . y = &. Then dzldx equals e . It becomes d2z/dy2times ( d ~ / d x ) ~ . Notice especially: The cosine is computed at x . Changing letters.
The derivative of F( 4 ) ( ~ is) . . (b) The derivative of the identity function is zero. Starting at x = n/4 find z = (sin x ) on ~ the graph. 28 (Recommended) If g(x) = x3 find f(y) so that f(g(x)) = x3 + 1. say f(7) = 9. . Because is continuous.(1 . (b) You read 200 words per minute. / m 21 z = sin(l/sin x) + 1) 22 z = (sin x ~ ) ~ In 2326 find dzldx by the chain rule and also by rewriting z. 31 The derivative of f(f(x)) is your formula on f(x) = l/x. (d)The derivative of f ( l + x) is f '(1 + x). 27 If f(x) = x2 + 1 what is f(f(x))? If U(x) is the unit step function (from 0 to 1 at x = 0) draw the graphs of sin U(x) and U(sin x). 29 If f(y) = y . find the other four. but f(y) is not always zero. Draw graphs of those g's and explain from the graphs why g(g(x))= x. Then find h(y) so that h(g(x))= x.71 < 6 whenever Ix . Find two more g's with this special property. (e) The second derivative of f(g(x)) is f "(g(x))gW(x). 38 If g(x) = 1 . Find dzldx from (dz/dy)(dy/du)(du/dx). 15 z = x2 sin x 16 z = (9x + 4)312 Problems 1722 involve three functions z(y). There are 9 pages per section. Find F(F(F(x)))also called F(~)(x). Is it ( d f l d ~ ) ~ Test ? Final practice with the chain rule and other rules (and other letters!). 17 z=sin J3 18 z = d w ) 20 z = sin($ 19 z = . Conclusion: I f Ix . Then find h(x) so that f(h(x)) = x2. If g(x) = llx then g(g(x)) = l/(l/x) = x. and u(x). Then . 37 Only six functions can be constructed by compositions (in any sequence) of g(x) = 1 .draw the graphs of R(x) and R(sin x).4) < 6 then . The chain rule multiplies derivatives to get 12x5. y = x3. Then find k(y) so that k(g(x))= 1. So there are words per section. 55 Iff = x4 and g = x3 then f ' = 4x3 and g' = 3x2. In 1116 write down dzldx. If R(x) is the ramp function i(x + [XI). These are inversefunctions. there is a 6 such that I f(g(x)) . 36 Suppose g(x) is continuous at x = 4.1 The Chain Rule 159 because is continuous. Starting at x = 3 find your way to z = sin 9. But f(g(x)) = x12 and its derivative is not 12x5. . Find the x or t derivative of z or y. Proof E is given. Suppose f ( y ) is continuous at y = 7.7 1 < 6. there is a 6 such that Ig(x) . 40 True or false (a) If f(x) =f(x) then fl(x) =f1(x). 32 If f(3) = 3 and g(3) = 5 and f '(3) = 2 and g'(3) = 4. find the derivative at x = 3 if possible for (a)f(xlg(x) (b)f(g(x)) ( 4 g(f(x)) ( 4 f (f(x)) 33 For F(x) = i x + 8. From any start (try x = 0) the iterations x. y(u). Where is the flaw? 56 The derivative of y = sin(sin x) is dyldx = 57 (a) A book has 400 words per page. Then f(g(x)) = and g ( f ( ~ ) = ).2 find g(x) so that f(g(x)) = x. (c) The derivative of f(l/x) is . . Don't write down f and g. show how iteration gives F(F(x))= dx + 12...1).l/(f ( ~ ) ) ~ . 41 On the same graph draw the parabola y = x2 and the curve z = sin y (keep y upwards.) converge to C. So you read pages per minute. Jrn. say g(4) = 7. This shows that f(g(x)) approaches f(g(4)).x then g(g(x))= 1 . 39 Construct functions so that f(g(x)) is always zero. 30 Find two different pairs f(y). . g(x) so that f(g(x)) =  ((") ($) (2) . with x and z across).dy . Then f(g(x)) is con tinuous at x = 4 and f(g(4)) = 9.4 1 < 8. How many minutes per section? 35 Suppose g(x) = 3x + 1 and f(y) = i(y . 34 In Problem 33 the limit of F("'(x) is a constant C = .4.9 1 < E whenever Ig(x) . Then find k(x) so that f(k(x)) = 1. = F(x. Starting with g and f. 42 On the same graph draw y = sin x and z = y2 (y upwards for both). J'm (c) cos 4 in equation (8).x) = x.x and f(x) = llx. Check this when z = y2. 43 Find the second derivative of (b) (a) sin(x2+ I) 44 Explain why dx .
Work with the equation as it stands. 59 Coke costs 113 dollar per bottle. solve for y = 2/x and take its derivative: dy/dx = . (b)You walk in a train at 3 miles per hour. As x changes.Then plot F"(x) and G"(x) to see where the difference shows up.2/x2. That includes the constant term 3. If dyldx = 113 then dxldy = .? The function y(x) cannot be given explicitly. 4. All we have is the implicit definition of y. It is a situation that often occurs. EXAMPLE 2 sin y dy + sin x = 1 leads to cos y + cos x = 0 dx = dy EXAMPLE 3 y sin y = x leads to y cos y + sin ydy dx dx 1 Knowing the slope makes it easier to draw the curve. . In the first case. At x = 2 the slope is . We still need points (x. and you see the idea: Include dyldx from the chain rule. but how to find dyldx? This section answers that question. EXAMPLE I The power rule for y5 and the product rule for xy yield Now substitute the typical point x = 2 and y = 1. these y's will changeto keep (x. Sometimes we can solve for x.160 4 Derivatives by the Chain Rule 58 (a) You walk in a train at 3 miles per hour. For xy = 2 that is no trouble. Galois proved that there is no solution formula for fifthdegree equations. The buyer gets bottles per dollar.214 = . The problem with y5 + xy = 3 is that it can't be solved for y. The train is shown on TV (1 mile train = 20 inches on TV screen). whose derivative is zero. and met his end. The train moves at 50 miles per hour. y) on the curve. The way out is implicit differentiation. even if y is not known explicitly as a function of x. 60 (Computer) Graph F(x) = sin x and G(x) = sin (sin x)not much difference. but the slope of y5 + xy = 3 requires a new idea. The curve is a hyperbola. The point x = 2. y = 1 satisfies the equation and lies on the curve. Equations like sin y + sin x = 1 or y sin y = x (maybe even sin y = x) are difficult or impossible to solve directly for y. Nevertheless we can find dyldx at any point. Find the x derivative of every term in y5 + xy = 3. y) that satisfy the equation. We want to know dy/dx at a typical point. Do the same for F1(x)and G1(x). Dividing y5 + xy = 3 by y  +That was before he went to the famous duel. Your ground speed is miles per hour. and solve for dyldx: dy 5 dy +2+ 1=0 dx dx 1 dy produces =dx 7' This is implicit differentiation (ID). Your speed across the screen is inches per hour. but it is practically never used. Fourthdegree equations do have a solution formula.112.2 Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates We start with the equations xy = 2 and y5 + xy = 3. as a solution to y5 + xy = 3.
1/7. EXAMPLE 5 The radius of a circle is growing by dr/dt = 7. but the odd thing is that we are given another derivative dg/dt. how much head start should the outside runner get? Only 10i feet.x/y: dy x dx so y  d2 y 2 dx y dx/dx . .1. The essential theory can be boiled down to one idea: "Go ahead and differentiate. Now the derivative (the x derivative!) is 14y3 y2 d dx 77 dx at y=l. If your speed around a turn is 55 and the car in the next lane goes 56. Solution dC d(2)(7) dt dr dt dCdr = 14ir.x dy/dx y2 /y) y + (x 2 y2 + x 2 =. That agrees with the explicit slope . or operate directly on x 2 + y 2 = 25: 2x + 2y or x y (4) Compare with the radius. Here the variable is t because that is typical in applications.y4 . To find df/dt. go on to the second derivative.2/x 2. what is the additional length of the rope? Answer: Only 147r feet.x/y)(y/x) = . gives x dy/dx + y = 0.y/x.2 Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates 161 gives x = 3/y .y and up x." EXAMPLE 4 Find the tangent direction to the circle dy =0 dx dy dx x 2 + y 2 = 25.000 miles. so d 2y/dx 2 is negative. which has slope y/x. y2 y3 (5) RELATED RATES There is a group of problems that has never found a perfect place in calculus. To emphasize implicit differentiation. The example xy = 2. The top of the circle is concave down. If the distance is 24. and examples will make the point. if two lanes on a circular track are separated by 5 feet.x2 . The slope dy/dx is . without solving for y in terms of x. done implicitly. From the rate of change of g we find the rate of change off. We can solve for y = + 25 . That is pretty basic. This is the problem of related rates. How fast is the circumference growing? Remember that C = 27rr (this relates C to r). who wins? See Problem 14. The radius goes across x and up y. Use the quotient rule on . ID is explained better by examples than theory (maybe everything is). we need a relation between f and g. Their questions are carefully prepared. (3) Again dy/dx = . y) = 0 can be differentiated directly by the chain rule. All these examples confirm the main point of the section: 4B (Implicit differentiation) An equation F(x. The chain rule is df/dt = (df/dg)(dg/dt). Suppose you want to put a rope around the earth that any 7footer can walk under. Examples 68 are from the 1988 Advanced Placement Exams (copyright 1989 by the College Entrance Examination Board).4. but its implications are amazing. The slopes multiply to give (. More realistically. They seem to fit hereas applications of the chain rule. The tangent goes across . The problem is to compute df/dt.
5003 . balloon for Example 8. Answer: dx!& = 1. what is the value of dxldt? Solution The key relation is x 2 + y2 = z2. EXAMPLE 6 The sides of the rectangle increase in such a way that dzldt = 1 and dxldt = 3dyldt.) = j. I drew three figures before catching on to x and s.4 Derhrathres by the Chain Rule Fig.) z= dz J S K i i % P = ~ o f i= = dt 2.= .) The balloon is rising at a constant rate of 3 meters per second (this means dyldt = 3) and the observer is 100 meters from point C. including z = 5.3 Rectangle for Example 6.) Y tan I!?= 100 = dB 1dy sec28 . It is interesting that we never knew x or s or the angle.+ 6 . shadow for Example 7.= . Take its derivative (implicitly): dx dy dz dx dy produces 8 . EXAMPLE 8 An observer at point A is watching balloon B as it rises from point C . 4 Note This problem was hard.3 f i 2050fi7' (b) Find the rate of change in the area of right triangle BCA when y = 50.(3) 6 2 dt 2 dt (.= l o . EXAMPLE 7 A person 2 meters tall walks directly away from a streetlight that is 8 meters above the ground. 4. (c) Find the rate of change in 8 when y = 50. The term 6dyldt equals 2dx/dt. so we have l0dxldt = 10. except for dxldt = 3dyldt..= dt 100 di z =(3) i66125 dB 2 2 3 . ( T h e y want dzldt. at what rate in meters per second is the person walking? Solution Draw a figure! You must relate the shadow length s to the distance x from the streetlight. (a) Find the rate of change in z at the instant when y = 50. ( T h e Jigure is given. 2x+2y=2zdt dt dt dt dt We used all information. The problem gives dsldt = 419 and asks for dxldt: x s d x 6 ds By similar triangles . At the instant when x = 4 and y = 3. If the person's shadow is lengthening at the rate of 419 meters per second. ( T h e y want dB/dt.so .3 ..
+ Problems 1518 resolve the speed of light paradox in Example 9. so B speeds up as sec 8 increases. Then I took its derivative. your shadow at B seems to go faster than light.1 out of 9. sec 8 approaches infinity. Iff = g2. This speed is impossiblesomething has been forgotten. Directly by ID reach d2y/dx2in equation (5). The figure shows y = z sin 8. D U P L E 9 A is a lighthouse and BC is the shoreline (same figure as the balloon).) 12 Show that the circles (x . If you walk around a light at A. 1). We need a relation between f and I . 16 (Even smaller paradox) As B moves up the line. Not only is it wrong. then ID and related rates hold no terrors. The speed dyldt is 100 sec28d8/dt. If we substitute y = 50 too soon. From 12. We don't have to solve for b . Take the t derivative to show that z' = y' sin 0. &. The equation of the tangent line is y . why is dyldt larger than dzldt? Certainly z is larger than y.2)2 + y2 = 2 and x2 + (y . The x derivative of this equation is a ." 50% solved Example 6 and 21% solved Example 7. 14 Equation (4) is 2x 2y dyldx = 0 (on a circle). This is totally wrong. Therefore y' . 11 Show that the hyperbolas xy = C are perpendicular to the hyperbolas x2 .4. Apparently dyldt = (dzldt) sin 8.2 Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates In all problems Ifivst wrote down a relationfrom the figure. If f 2 + g 2 = 1 . To find a number (8 is wrong). The light at A turns once a second (d8ldt = 2 1 1 radianslsecond). B moves faster than light! This contradicts Einstein's theory of relativity. Term by term the derivativeis 3x2 + c = 0. By implicit differentiation find dyldx in 110. Therefore dyldx = h . Paradox When 8 approaches a right angle.2 EXERCISES Readthrough questions For x3 + y3 = 2 the derivative dyldx comes from a differentiation.) "Candidates are advised to show their work in order to minimize the risk of not receiving credit for it. 15 (Small paradox first) The right triangle has z2 = y2 + 1W2. Replacing y by this is dyldx = I . Then I substituted known information. A second example is y2 = x. then its volume grows by dV/dt = m .2)2 = 2 are tangent at the point (1. If you can explain that (Problem IS). In related rates. How quickly does the receiving point B move up the shoreline? Solution The figure shows y = 100 tan 8. (The substitution is after taking the derivative of tan 8 = y/100. then (dfldt) = k (dgldt). does your car turn faster or slower than a car traveling 5 meters further out at 26 meters/second? Your radius is (a) 50 meters (b) 100 meters. At x = y = 1 this slope is e . Same problem. we are given dgldt and we want dfldt.y2 = D. the average on Example 8 (free response) was 6. Smaller paradox (not destroying the theory of relativity). Solvingfor dyldx gives d . But as 0 increases they become 7 x2y = y2x 8 x = sin y 17 (Faster than light) The derivative of y = 100 tan 0 in Example 9 is y' = 100 sec208' = 2OOn sec20. The paradox is resolved (I hope) in Problem 18. 4. This is 200n sec28.000 candidates.1 = f . (Perpendicular means that the product of slopes is 1. the exact opposite is true: dzldt = (dyldt) sin 9. So does dy/dt. If the sides of a cube grow by dsldt = 2. you also need to know n . 13 At 25 meterslsecond. the derivative of 50/100 is useless. then df/dt= I .
page 186." 19 If a plane follows the curve y =f(x).3). Compute y = g(x). and the 1960 ScientiJic American. 29 Starting from P = V = 5 and maintaining PV = T. Here is what that means. this speed approaches . (b) its (b) Differentiate the cosine law 62 = 32 + x2 . Then z' = y' sin 8 and y' = 100 sec28 8' (all these are ID) lead to y' = 20hc/(c cos28+ 20071 sin 8) As 8 approaches n/2. How fast is the top going down the wall? Draw the right triangle to find dy/dt when the height y is (a) 6 feet (b) 5 feet (c) zero. to find the piston speed dxldt when 0 = 7 31 A camera turns at C to follow a rocket at K. across a street 6 meters wide). That is for Einstein to explain. See the 1985 College Math Journal. how fast is the plane going up? How fast is the plane going? 20 Why can't we differentiate x = 7 and reach 1 = O ? Problems 2129 are applications of related rates. At what height y does dyldt = . and its ground speed (a) Choose c so the ball meets the receiver. *(b) At that instant the distance D between them is changing at what rate? 27 A thief is 10 meters away (8 meters ahead of you. How fast is it approaching you when (a) it is 16 miles from you. distance over speed. 30 (a) The crankshaft AB turns twice a second so dO/dt = is dxldt = 500 mph. 22 The top of the 10foot ladder can go faster than light. find dV/dt if dP/dt = 2 and dT/dt = 3. the short sides increase by 2 meters/second but the angle between them decreases by 1 radianlsecond. say y = 3.3).c? 23 How fast does the level of a Coke go down if you drink a cubic inch a second? The cup is a cylinder of radius 2 inchesfirst write down the volume. (c) Relate d28/dt2to d2y/dt2and dyldt. Such a speed is impossiblewe forget that light takes time to reach B. 24 A jet flies at 8 miles up and 560 miles per hour. Find drldt. There is a remarkable special case of the chain rule. Inverse functions: Start with any input. y = 8t. 8 increases by 27t in 1 second ~(t) A t is arrival time of light 8 is different from 2nt 100 18 (Explanation by ID) Light travels from A to B in time z/c. say x = 5. (c) you run away on your side? 28 A spherical raindrop evaporates at a rate equal to twice its surface area. Note: y' still exceeds c for some negative angle. What one function does. the inverse function .2 (3x cos 8) 1 1 2 and 0 = n. How fast does the area increase or decrease? 26 A pass receiver is at x = 4. How fast are you approaching if (a) you follow on your side.z1/c. y = 10c(t. Then compute f(y). (b) Relate dO/dt to dyldt based on y = 10 tan 8. and the answer must be 5.164 4 Derivatives by the Chain Rule passes c (the speed of light) when sec28 passes . The thief runs on that side at 7 meters/ second. (a) Relate dzldt to dyldt when y = 10. (b) you run toward the thief. A shadow is 8 miles from you (the sun is overhead). (c) the plane is 8 miles from you (exactly above)? 25 Starting from a 345 right triangle. 21 (Calculus classic) The bottom of a 10foot ladder is going away from the wall at dx/dt = 2 feet per second. Its arrival time is t = 8/2n+ Z/C SO 8'/2n = 1 . The ball thrown at t = 3 is at x = c(t . It occurs when f(y) and g(x) are "inverse functions. you run at 9 meters/second." That idea is expressed by a very short and powerful equation: f(g(x)) = x. "Things that go faster than light.
The inverse gives 32 = 9. In the opposite direction. So y 2 0. To say it directly: The inverse of y = x .4." Instead of a new point z it returns to the original x. With domain of g = range of g'. In the same way g multiplies last by $ while f multiplies first by 3.f= domain of g Fig. The domain of gthe set of numbers with square rootsis restricted to x 2 0.3 Inverse Functions and Their Derhrathres undoes. the square root of y 2 is g(f(y)) = y. The inputs to g' are the outputs from g. The square of f(g(x)) = x. If the demand y is a function of the price x. If g(5) = 3 then f(3) input x. From x = 32 (freezing in Fahrenheit) you find y = 0 (freezing in Celsius). Figure 4.'(Ax)) = x and g(g=g  = y.'. The loop in the figure goes from x to y to x. Notice that $(x . Here x is degrees Fahrenheit and y is degrees Celsius. and so is the definition: Inverse function: If y = g(x) then x = g . The inputs to g are the outputs from g'.32) subtracts 32 first. I f x = g . Starting with x = 5. dyldx is 519 and dxldy is 915. E X A M P L E 2 y = g(x) = $(x . The nonnegative x goes into g and comes out of g'.'(g(x)) is the "identity function. When f and g are applied in the opposite order. The chain g(f(y)) = (y + 2) .4 "F to "C to O F ." It is not l/g(x). Iffis the inverse of g then g is the inverse off. domain off = range of g 5 y = (x9 32) x20 y=G range 0f. There is another important point. they still come back to the start.32) and x =f(y) = : y + 32 are inverse functions (for temperature).2 is x = y + 2. Then the function f adds 2. . = 5.2 brings back y. f i is Starting from x = 9 we find y = 3. Those are inverse functions. First f adds 2. The outputs y2 are nonnegative. The inverse function is written f ' and pronounced "g inverse.'(y). You might think we could square anything. This matches the range of g . but y must come back as the square root of y2. then the price is a function of the demand. That brings back x = 5. then g subtracts 2. That produces y = 3. E X A M P L E 3 y = g(x) = f i and x =f(y) = y2 are inverse functions. Caution That example does not allow x to be negative. In Example 2. the equation x = (&)2 is possible and true. In this example y is also nonnegative. To summarize: The domain of a function matches the range of its inverse.2 and f(y) = y + 2 are inverse functions. The inverse function f takes the output y back to the E X A M P L E 1 g(x) = x . The inverse function takes y = 0 back to x = 32.4 shows how x = 50°F matches y = 10°C. The composition g .'(y) then y = g(x). The inverse gy + 32 adds 32 last. This will make the chain rule particularly easyleading to (dy/dx)(dx/dy) = 1. The relation is completely symmetric. the function g subtracts 2. Always g. Their derivatives obey a fundamental rule: dyldx times dxldy equals 1. 4.then g =f  ' '. Iff = g.
This is the chain rule with a special feature. g must be steadily increasing or steadily decreasing.l(y): if y = 3x . . This is the reason inverses are important. This shows with special clarity the rule for derivatives: The slopes dyldx = 3 and dxldy = 5 multiply to give 1. the derivative o f both sides is 1. The function g has no inverse if two points x1 and x2 give Ax. For each y. Since f(g(x)) = x. That solution is x = g. Figure 4. Prevent x from passing n/2 and the sine has an inverse. THE DERWNE O F g' It is time for calculus. In the next section it leads to totally new derivatives. There must be only one x for each y. even if their slopes are not constant. Forgive me for this very humble example. If we know g' we now know f'.5 shows how two x's give the same y. then gl will not be a functionbecause a function cannot produce two x's from the same y. Its inverse would have to bring the same y back to x1 and x2. Every time we solve an equation we are computing a value of g Not all equations have one solution. No function can do that. To be invertible over an interval. the inverse of y = sin x is not a function.'(y). If there is a second solution. Write x = sin. It is a crucial application of the chain rule to the derivative of f(g(x)) = x. On the interval 0 < x < n.'y.6 then x = +(y + 6) (this is g'(y)) ify=x3+1 thenx=13 (thisisg'(y)) In practice that is how g' is computed: Solve g(x) = y. the equation g(x) = y is only allowed to produce one x.4 DerhroHves by the Chaln Rule Z f g(x) = y then solving that equation for x gives x = g . No inverse function (two x's for one y). Many angles have the same sine. That rule will be tested on a familiar example. Not all functions have inverses.) = g(x2). This rule holds for all inverse functions.5 Inverse exists (one x for each y). EXAMPLE 5 (ordinary multiplication) The inverse of y = g(x) = 3x is x =f(y) = iy. I x = sin ' y x I XI y = sin x nl2 n12 x2 n Fig. 4. g'(y) cannot equal both xl and x2. '. EXAMPLE 4 There is more than one solution to sin x = f.
The logarithm of 1 is 0. Those derivatives are limits of fractions. 4. The logarithm of 2 is 1. The inverse of y = $is x. One is made up of linear pieces that imitate 2". Notice that the graphs go steadily up. y = 2 is the same for both. The y axis becomes horizontal and x goes upward. That is the whole point of inverse functionsif 2 = g(4) then 4 = g . Thus the model gives the correct x = log2y at the breakpoints y = 1. To change the slope from 3 to f ..:. you would have to turn the figure... After that turn there is another problemthe axes don't point to the right and up.= y2..2.'(2). . What is s ecial is that the same graphs also show the inverse functions.6 Graphs of inverse functions: x = i y is the mirror image of y = 3x. TI have seen graphs with y=g(x) and also y=g'(x). The only problem is.because 2' = 1. Fig. because dxldy = l/(dy/dx). Figure 4. which is not yet definedand it' is not going to be defined here. The mathematics sees the same pairs x and y. The graph of x = i y comes from turning the picture across the 45" line. because they are so important. but it is true. So are the heights y at the start of each piece. at those special points..2) on the line x = fy. . because 2' = 2. The logarithm of 2j is the exponent j. and the typesetter in position. If y = sin x then x = sin'y.6~). The fractions are (Ax/Ay)(Ay/Ax)= 1 and we let Ax + 0. the graph of x = g'(y) is on its side.2. 4. Before going to new functions. we need a better idea. Both examples involve the exponential and the logarithm. EXPONENTIALS AND LOGARITHMS fi I would like to add two more examples of inverse functions.. The pair x = 4.4. The other is the true function 2". We can find dxldy two ways: The equation (dx/dy)(dy/dx)= 1 is not ordinary algebra. $.) To keep the book in position. But you have to see the graphs..6) on the line y = 3x goes into the point (6.4.3 Inverse Functlons and Their Derhrathres EXAMPLE 6 The inverse of y = x3 is x = y1I3. The functions bx and logby are so overwhelmingly important that they deserve and will get a whole chapter of the book (at least). x =g'(y). The eyes see a reflection across the 45" line (Figure 4. 8.4. He thinks it's crazy but it's not . For me that is wrong: it has to be . I want to draw graphs. You also have to look in a mirror! (The typesetter refused to print the letters backward..? The graph of x = g'(y) is the mirror image of the graph of y = g(x). The special properties of g and g' allow us to know two functionsand draw two graphsat the same time. The slopes 1.. The slopes are I.6 shows y = and y = 3x. The slopes in the linear model are powers of 2. 2.4. it appeared in Chapter 1. . The inverse is a discrete model for the logarithm (to base 2). The point (2. equal the heights 1. .
which is . It is the "natural logarithm" of 2. Now the question is: If we create the composite function z = h(g(x)). The exact slope is a number c (near .07. .'y and x = tan'y can be done quickly.10 is the now the height at x = is the number 2'12. which is tenth root 2'/1° = 1. The logarithm of 1. y. what is its inverse? . But do not lose sight of 2" and ex. The inverse functions x = sin. I f 2'/1° 1.y.and = 1. Then (dx/dy)(dy/dx) The right choice is to use "natural logarithms" throughout. The exponential solves dyldx = cy.O7 1/10. I f y = ZX then x = log. and for h' we divided by 3. the logarithm undoesand vice versa.07 is near 1/10. Check that numerically. I have to mention that calculus avoids logarithms to base 2. The slope at x = 0 is no longer 1it is closer to Ay/Ax = . In place of 2.7) that we are not yet prepared to reveal. who wants that? Also 11.= . The slope is proportional to the function. The figure on the right shows the true exponential y = 2". At x = 0.07 then log.. but the real thing is better.. The beautiful property is that dxldy = llcy.2).. enters the slope of log.07/. 1 2 4 1 2 4 Fig. they are based on the special number e: (2) The derivatives of those functions are sensationalthey are saved for Chapter 6 . Together with xn and sin x and cos x..leads to j d x = j $ dy Y or x = l n y + C. 10.4 Derlwthres by the Chain Rule The model is good. The special property of y = 2" is that the slope at all points is cy. dx dx 1 or . Now look at the inverse functionthe logarithm..07. 1. the logarithm must start with slope l/c. Since the exponential starts with slope c. They solve dyldx = cythe key to applied calculus. Base b = 2. The reason for including integrals first (Chapter 5) is that they solve differential equations with no guesswork: dyy y = ex is the inverse of x = In y..693147. Integrals have applications of all kinds. 4. y. But The height at x = .2 and h(y) = 3y were easy to invert. Its graph is the mirror image: fi. The slope is near . For g' we added 2.. 1. What the exponential does. spread through the rest of the book.10/. THE INVERSE O F A CHAIN h(g(x)) The functions g(x) = x . the heights y are the same as before. .693147. Note It is almost possible to go directly to Chapter 6 .2.. they are the backbone of calculus. The logarithm of 2" is the exponent x.7 Piecewise linear models and smooth curves: y = 2" and x = log. The reason lies in that mysterious number c.or z = 3(x .
It is like multiplication by B = 3 and B . The rule for matrix inverses is like the rule for function inversesin fact it is a special case. We start with x 2 2.2 and then x = z2 + 2.' and h. The domains and ranges are explained by Figure 4. EXAMPLE 7 z = h(g(x))= 3 ( x . The product B . A chain of inverses is like writing in prosewe do it without knowing it. (3) ' That last equation looks like a mess. 4. and finds their derivatives.' inverts the product AB. The whole chain collapses.' ( z ) ) = i z + 2.'(h. when g' and h' are in the correct orderwhich is opposite to the order of h(g(x)). The inverse of h 0 g is g . The problem is to recover x from z. Then g . Now suppose a second function multiplies by another matrix A: z = h(g(x))= ABx.' A . to leave g'(g(x)). Fig.o h'. But that is x . First h. EXAMPLE 9 Inverse matrices (AB)' = B'A' (this linear algebra is optional). but it holds the key. I t can be found directly by solving z = 3(x . The inverse function multiplies by the inverse matrix: x = g .8 The chain g . The first step is to invert A.' = 113. .' z . I had better not wander too far from calculus.'A . The next section introduces the inverses of the sine and cosine and tangent.3 Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives Virtually all known functions are created in this way. Adding 2 brings back x 3 2which is in the original domain of g. The correct order is z2 + 2.8.(h(g(x)))) =x. Subtracting 2 gives y 2 0. from chains of simpler functions. h. because that came last: Bx = A .4.'(hK1(h(g(x)))) = x is onetoone at every step. That would give ( z + 2)2.' ( y )= B .' y . Then the second step multiplies by B' and brings back x = B . The answer is one of the fundamental rules of mathematics: 40 The inverse of z = h(g(x))is a chain of inverses in the opposite order: x =gl(hf(z)).' divides by 3. Remember that the ultimate source is the chain rule.' ( h .' adds 2.2). EXAMPLE 8 Invert z =Jx 2 ' by writing z2 = x . That part of the chain does nothing! The inverse functions cancel. Taking the square brings back y 3 0. The problem is to invert a chain using the inverse of each piece. The inverse adds 2 and takes the squarebut not in that order.is applied first because h was applied last: g . In the middle you see h. Taking the square root gives z 3 0. Suppose a vector x is multiplied by a square matrix B: y = g(x) = Bx. which is wrong.' z .2) and x = g . except that x and y are vectors.
x then x = 1 . The inverse of a piecewise linear function is piecewise . y3.y. Draw its graph starting from y(0) = 0 The mirror image is piecewise constant with jumps at the points to the heights .'(4 l/f(x) The chain rule applied tof(g(x))= x gives (df/dy)( m ) = n .) i g(x2) at any two points. 31 y = 5 x . 23 y = x3 ./. For an ordinary graph of g . two more functions with this property f =f .')' 30 At the points x. The notation is f = g. The function g must be steadily k or steadily ' 17 Ifflx) and g(x) are increasing. but with x across and y up. write g"no inverse. then its mirror image ( ) is on the graph of g'.s i n x at x = O . f ( 4 + &x) fwd4 f (dx)) f . The inverse of the chain n = h(g(x)) is the chain x = B .170 4 Derlwthres by the Chain Rule 4. Horizontal line test: If no horizontal line touches its graph twice then f(x) is invertible because ' The functions g(x) = x . Then (dx/dy)(dy/dx)= w .and g = d . Separately draw its mirror image x = g.'. For y = x2 and x = s . 39 y = sin x at x = n/6 41 y = sin x2 at x = 3 40 y = tan x at x = n/4 42 y = x . By definition x =g'(y) if and only if f . Substituting x2 for y gives dx/dy = v . Compute. If y = 1 . because = b .'? 16 Vertical line test: If no vertical line touches its graph twice then flx) is a function (one y for each x). Solve equations 110 for x.'? Show that gl(g. What can you say about f . The slope of g . 12 Solving y = givesxy. the slopes are dy/dx = q and dx/dy = r . How do you know that there is no function f .l/x are x2 and l/x2. x2. More directly dxldy = 11 P .'? In 3942 find dxldy at the given point. The composition e is the identity function. and also if c < . If (3. Y9 29 The slopes of&) = 3x3 and g(x) = . Also g (f(y)) = c . 11 Solving y = gives x y . O S x G n 34 y=Ixl2x 36 y = J ~ .y = x + 1 orx=*. which two of these might not be increasing? I ." 1 y=3x6 3 y=x21 2 y=Ax+B 4 y = x/(x .1) [solve xy . Construct (f(x)) = x. which is the composition of E and F .3 Readthrough questions EXERCISES 15 Suppose f(2) = 3 and f(3) = 5 and f(5) = 0.'(4)? 14 Supposef(2) = 3 and f(3) = 5 and fl5) = 5.. x+l raw x1 Y1 the graph to see why f and f .dy/dx and dxldy. the slopes are dyldx = t and dx/dy = u . take the reflection in the line Y . to find the inverse function x = When more than one x gives the same y. When y is in the range of g. it is in the g of Y=g'.are the same. Why isn't this the inverse function? 5 y=l+x' 7 Y=X~I 9 y = sin x 1 xa solve that equation for y. ' 18 If y = l/x then x = lly.times the slope of g equals 0 . If g has an inverse then Ax.8) is on the graph of g. Why isn't f = g.'? What is g. Those particular points satisfy 8 = 23 and 3 = A .y = x] 6 Y =1 x 1 8 y=2x+Ixl 10 y = x1IS[draw graph] 28 If dxldy = Ily then dyldx = (these functions are Y = ex and x = In soon to be honored properly).4 andfly) = y + 4 are a functions.I). Its inverse is x = D . jumps to yl.1 25 y=X x1 and x = 27 If dyldx = lly then dxldy = . Similarly x is in the h of g when it is in the I of g'. y2. = 1. x OSx<l 13 Supposef is increasing and f(2) = 3 and f(3) = 5. x3 a piecewise constant function . The graphs are their own mirror images in the 45" line. In 2126 find dyldx in terms of x and dxldy in terms of y.'(y).or f ' 19 For which numbers m are these functions invertible? (a) y = mx + b (b) y = mx + x3 (c) y = mx + sin x 20 From its graph show that y = 1 x 1 cx is invertible if c > 1 + The graph of y = g(x) is also the graph of x = x . If g(x) = 3x and h(y) = y3 then z = c .1.a y = 1 or x= 1 +ay . For y = 2x + 1 and x = %y . ~ G x < l 38 y = I/. Now Y In 3138 draw the graph of y = g(x). What can you say about f .1 0 33 y = l/(x+ 1) 35 y = 10" 37 y = 2 32 y=cos x.
48 Z = ( ~ + X ) ~ 50 z = # x + 4 ) + 4 52 Solvingflx) = 0 is a large part of applied mathematics.9. 58 (for professors only) If G(y) is the maximum value of yx . 53 (a) Show by example that d 2 ~ / d yis 2 not l/(d 2y/d~2). The graph of x = sin'y is a mirror image of y = sin x. Then find x = g. We only want one piece of that curve. 59 Suppose the richest x percent of people in the world have (b)If y is in meters and x is in seconds. since the sine goes up and down infinitely often. If the whole sine curve is allowed.4. On that interval the sine is increasing.7r/2and + n/2. The angle x lies between . 44 If f(x) > x for all x. show that f '(y) c y.2x4. and on basic ideas like the inverse. Prove by graphs and by the chain rule. If the range of prices is p 2 0. then d2y/dx2is in and d2x/dy2is in .'(2)).F(f .'(y) has a derivative at every y.': For y =Ax) this is Newton's equation x* x x + 55 If the demand is l/(p + when the price is p.'(~1)isf . infinitely many angles would have sin x = 0. like 8x3 in Problem 57.ly.4 Inverses of Trigonometric Functlons 43 If y is a decreasing function of x. 4. 46 z=5(x4) 47 z = (xm)" 49 z = 6 + x 3 51 z = log(l0") 56 If dF/dx =f(x) show that the derivative of G(y) = yf YY). This maximum is a function G(y).G(y). Therefore it is totally natural to invert the sine function. Assume that f(x)=dF/dx is increasing. then the demand is y when the price is . ' .YY).': x* = . prove that F(x) is the maximum value of xy . in Figure 4. The sine Fig. so each y comesfvom exactly one angle x.'( f . Express the solution x* in terms off . Then y percent of the wealth is held by percent of the people. In the ehains 4651 write down g(x) andfly) and their inverses. what is the range of demands? (a) If flx) is invertible so is h(x) = (b)If f(x) is invertible so is h(x) =f(flx)). This is a case where we pay close attention to the domains.4 Inverses of Trigonometric Functions Mathematics is built on basic functions like the sine. 45 True or false.F(x). For the bold line the domain is restricted. (c)f . 57 For each number y find the maximum value of yx . then x is a function of y. 10& percent of the wealth. Their slopes are cos x and I/.9 Graphs of sin x and sin. 4./. with example: 171 54 Newton's method solves Ax*) = 0 by applying a linear approximation to f . Verify that the derivatives of G(y) and 2x4 are inverse functions.
The table at the end lists all the essential facts.1 and 1.y = sin x gives dx dy cos x This derivative 11 Jm gives a new vf pair that is extremely valuable in calculus: 'distance f(t) = sin . It produces an angle x = sin .lythe angle whose sine is y.'y at y = 1 is infinite: l / J W = 110. EXAMPLE 2 The slope of sin .'y when y = sin x and 1 x 1 < 7112..sin2x. Solution We are given the sine./1 . The slope 110 is an extreme case of the chain rule. (4) .t2 ' Inverse functions will soon produce two more pairs.'(g(x)) = x: n 71 sin'(sin x)= x for . That puts x between 0 and n.d x < sin(sin'y) = for . we want the cosine. So its mirror image is vertical. We are seeing g.1 < y < 1. the cosine is the square root of 1 . use equation (2): 1 dy = cos x so that dx = 1 .'y) = y.t. Again: The symbol sin'(1) stands for the angle whose sine is 1 (this angle is x = n/2). Explain.y) l =J cos x This formula is crucial for computing derivatives.The inverse sine of is 7116.x2. with the required sine.s/2 and 7112. The graph cannot be allowed to go up and down.'(cos x) = x and cos(cos. Question What is dldx (sin'x)? Answer 1/.'y. we make the function invertible. By restricting to an interval where sin x is increasing. Its sine is y = 4. At y = 1 the graph of y = sin x is horizontal. Each y from . The key to this problem must be cos2x = 1 . When the sine is y. The chain rule gives (slope of inverse function) = l/(slope o f original function). The inverse function brings y back to x.4 Derivatives by the Chain Rule function could not have an inverse. This has nothing to do with l/sin x. Certainly the slope of sin x is cos x./1 . I just changed letters. Historically x was called the "arc sine" of y. THE INVERSE COSINE AND ITS DERIVATIVE Whatever is done for the sine can be done for the cosine. To switch from x to y. The slope is zero. But the domain and range have to be watched. We use it immediately. The angle x is between .1 to 1 should be the cosine of only one angle x. from the derivatives of tan'y and sec. 2 2 4 EXAMPLE 1 (important) If sin x = y find a formula for cos x. The mathematical notation is sin'. velocity v(t) = 1/.y2: . (1) The inverse starts with a number y between . Then the cosine is steadily decreasing and y = cos x has an inverse: cos . It is x = sin'y (the inverse sine): x = sin. and arcsin is used in computing. The figure shows the 30" angle x = 7116. THE DERIVATIVE OF THE INVERSE SINE ' (2) The calculus problem is to find the slope of the inverse function f(y) = sin'y. =" cos(sin y .
4.4 Inverses of Trigonometric Functions The cosine of the angle x = 0 is the number y = 1. The inverse cosine of y = 1 is the angle x = 0. Those both express the same fact, that cos 0 = 1. For the slope of cos 'y, we could copy the calculation that succeeded for sin y. The chain rule could be applied as in (3). But there is a faster way, because of a special relation between cos 'y and sin 'y. Those angles always add to a right angle:
cos ly + sin 'y = ~n/2.
173
Figure 4.9c shows the angles and Figure 4. 10c shows the graphs. The sum is nT/2 (the dotted line), and its derivative is zero. So the derivatives of cos ly and sin'y must add to zero. Those derivatives have opposite sign. There is a minus for the inverse cosine, and its graph goes downward:
The derivative of x = cos'y is dx/dy =  1/ 1y
(1, )
2
.
x= cosly1 (0, 1) (0, Tc/2)
iny = 2
T
1

(1,0)
( 1
,
'r)
11
Fig. 4.10
The graphs of y = cos x and x = cos y. Notice the domain 0 < x < 7n.
Question How can two functions x = sinly and x = cos y have the same derivative? Answer sin y must be the same as  cos ly + C. Equation (5) gives C = 7E/2. THE INVERSE TANGENT AND ITS DERIVATIVE The tangent is sin x/cos x. The inverse tangent is not sin'y/cos 'y. The inverse
function produces the angle whose tangent is y. Figure 4.11 shows that angle, which is between  7t/2 and 7r/2. The tangent can be any number, but the inverse tangent
is in the open interval  7r/2 < x < rn/2. (The interval is "open" because its endpoints
are not included.) The tangents of nr/2 and  7r/2 are not defined. The slope of y = tan x is dy/dx = sec 2x. What is the slope of x = tan'y?
By the chain rule d.=
dx
dy
sec
1 I2 x
I 1 + tan2x
1
1
+y
2
4E
The derivative off(y) = tan y is df =
dy
+I y.(
(8)
4 Derivatives by the Chain Rule
slope = slope = 1 Y
slope =
I Y I Jy2I
Fig. 4.11 x = tanly has slope 1/(1
+ y2). x = sec'y has slope l / l y l , / m .
EXAMPLE 3 The tangent of x = z/4 is y = 1. We check slopes. On the inverse tangent curve, dx/dy = 1/(1+ y2)= 1. On the tangent curve, dy/dx = sec2x. At z/4 the secant squared equals 2. The slopes dx/dy = f and dy/dx = 2 multiply to give 1.
Zmportant Soon will come the following question. What function has the derivative 1/(1+ x2)? One reason for reading this section is to learn the answer. The function is in equation (8)if we change letters. It is f(x) = tan 'x that has sfope 1/(1+ x2).
COS X
1
cot x
Fig. 4.12 cos2x sin2x = 1 and 1+ tan2x = sec2x and 1+ cot2x = csc2x.
+
INVERSE COTANGENT, INVERSE SECANT, INVERSE COSECANT
There is no way we can avoid completing this miserable list! But it can be painless. The idea is to use l/(dy/dx) for y = cot x and y = sec x and y = csc x: dx 1 dx 1 dx  1 and  = and  = dy csc2x dy sec x tan x dy csc x cot x '
(9)
In the middle equation, replace sec x by y and tan x by Jy2  1. Choose the sign for positive slope (compare Figure 4.11). That gives the middle equation in (10):
The derivatives of cot  'y and sec y and CSC y IVC
d (cotly)=dy
'
'
1 1 + y2
(setly)=
d dy
1 d 1 (csc  y) = I Y I J ~ d~ IYIJ
'
.
(10)
Note about the inverse secant When y is negative there is a choice for x = secly. We selected the angle in the second quadrant (between 4 2 and z). Its cosine is negative, so its secant is negative. This choice makes sec'y = cos'(lly), which matches sec x = l/cos x. It also makes sec 'y an increasing function, where cos 'y is a decreasing function. So we needed the absolute value lyl in the derivative.
4.4 Inverses of Trigonometric Functions
Some mathematical tables make a different choice. The angle x could be in the third quadrant (between  n and  n/2). Then the slope omits the absolute value. Summary For the six inverse functions it is only necessary to learn three derivatives. The other three just have minus signs, as we saw for sin'y and cos'y. Each inverse function and its "cofunction" add to n/2, so their derivatives add to zero. Here are the six functions for quick reference, with the three new derivatives. function f(y) inputs y outputs x slope dxldy
If y = cos x or y = sin x then lyJ< 1. For y = sec x and y = csc x the opposite is true; we must have lyl> 1. The graph of secly misses all the points  1 < y < 1. Also, that graph misses x = n/2where the cosine is zero. The secant of n/2 would be 110 (impossible). Similarly csc ly misses x = 0, because y = csc 0 cannot be l/sin 0. The asterisks in the table are to remove those points x = n/2 and x = 0. The column of derivatives is what we need and use in calculus.
Readthrough questions
The relation x = sin'y means that a is the sine of b . Thus x is the angle whose sine is c . The number y lies between d and e . The angle x lies between f and g . (If we want the inverse to exist, there cannot be two angles with the same sine.) The cosine of the angle sin 'y is , /?. The derivative of x = sin  'y is The relation x = cos 'y means that y equals i . Again the number y lies between k and . I . This time the angle x lies between m and n (so that each y comes from only one angle x). The sum sin y + cos  'y = 0 . (The angles are called P , and they add to a q angle.) Therefore the derivative of x = cos 'y is dxldy = r , the same as for sin'y except for a s sign.
In 14, find the angles sin 'y and cos 'y and tan 'y in radians. 1y=o 2y=1 3y=l 4y=J3 5 We know that sin .n = 0. Why isn't .n = sin 'O?
6 Suppose sin x = y. Under what restriction is x = sin ly?
7 Sketch the graph of x = sin y and locate the points with slope dxldy = 2.
'
8 Find dxldy if x = sin' iy. Draw the graph. 9 If y = cos x find a formula for sin x. First draw a right triangle with angle x and near side ywhat are the other two sides? 10 If y = sin x find a formula for tan x. First draw a right triangle with angle x and far side ywhat are the other sides?
11 Take the x derivative of sin ' sin x) = x by the chain rule. Check that d(sin'y)/dy = 11 + V 1  y2 gives a correct result.
'
The relation x = tan'y means that y = t . The number y lies between u and v . The angle x lies between w and x . The derivative is dxldy = Y . Since tan 'y + cot 'y = z , the derivative of cot  'y is the same except for a A sign. The relation x = sec l y means that B . The number y never lies between C and D . The angle x lies between E and F , but never at x = G . The derivative of x = sec 'y is dxldy = H .
12 Take the y derivative of cos(cos' = y by the chain rule. Check that d(cos 'y)/dy = 11 1  y2 gives a correct result. 13 At y = 0 and y = 1, find the slope dx/dy of x = sin 'y and x = cos'y and x = tan'y. 14 At x = 0 and x = 1, find the slope dxldy of x = sin'y and x = COS'y and x = tan'y.
?
176
4 Derhratiies by the Chain Rule
15 True or false, with reason: ~1 (a) (sin  'y)2 + (cos  ' Y )= (b) sin y = cos y has no solution (c) sin l y is an increasing function (d)sin is an odd function (e) sin  y and cos y have the same slopeso the same. (f) sin(cos x) = cos(sin x)
34 Find a function u(t) whose slope satisfies u' + t2u' = 1.
35 What is the second derivative d2x/dy2of x = sinly? 36 What is d'u/dy2 for u = tan y?
'
'
'
' '
'
they are
Find the derivatives in 3744.
37 y = sec 3x
38 x=sec'2y
40 u=sec'(tan x) 42 z = (sin $(sin'x) 44 z = sin(cos x)  cos(sin x)
39 u = sec  '(xn)
41 tan y = (x  l)/(x + 1) 43 y = sec 
16 Find tan(cos'(sin x)) by drawing a triangle with sides sin x, cos x, 1.
Compute the derivatives in 1728 (using the letters as given). u = sin 'x z = sin  '(sin 3x) z = (sin ' x ) ~
z=
' , / =
'
'
18 u = tan'2x
45 Differentiate cos '(lly) to find the slope of sec y in a new way.
'
20 z = sin '(cos x) 22 z=(sin'x)' 24 z = ( 1 +x2)tan'x 26 u = sec'(sec x2)
The domain and range of x = cscly are Find a function u(y) such that du/dy = 4/ ,/1  y2. Solve the differential equation du/dx = 1/(1+ 4x2). If dujdx = 21J1_X2 find u(1)  u(O).
.
d m sin'y
ly/cos
x = ~ e c  ' ( ~1) +
u = sin
Jm
u=~in'~+cos'y+ tanply Draw a right triangle to show why tan 'y + cot l y = 4 2 . Draw a right triangle to show why tan'y If y = tan x find sec x in terms of y. Draw the graphs of y = cot x and x = cot  y. (a) y =  3 Find the slope dx/dy of x = tan'y at (c) x =  4 4 (b) x = 0
= cot'(lly).
50 (recommended)With u(x) = (x  l)/(x + I), find the deriv. So ative of tan'u(x). This is also the derivative of the difference between the two functions is a .
51 Find u(x) and tan'u(x) and tan'x at x = O and x = m. Conclusion based on Problem 50: tan u(x)  tan x equals . the number
'
'
'
52 Find u(x) and tan 'u(x) and tan 'x as x +  co. Now tan 'u(x)  tan 'x equals , Something has happened to tan'u(x). At what x do u(x) and tan'u(x) change instantly?
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Resource: Calculus Online Textbook
Gilbert Strang
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4.1 The Chain Rule
(page 158)
CHAPTER 4
DERIVATIVES BY THE CHAIN RULE
4.1
The Chain Rule
(page 158)
The function sin(3x 2) is 'composed' out of two functions. The inner function is u(x) = 32 2. The outer function is sin u. I don't write sin x because that would throw me off. The derivative of sin(3x 2) is not cos x or even cos(3x 2). The chain rule produces the extra factor $,which in this case is the number 3. The derivative of sin(3x 2) i d cos(3x 2) timed 3. Notice again: Because the sine was evaluated at u (not at x), its derivative is also evaluated at u. We have cos(3x + 2) not cos x. The extra factor 3 comes because u changes as x changes:
+
+
+
+
+
+
(algebra)
 = 
Ay Ax
AyAu AuAx
approaches
 = 
dy dx
dydu duds
(calculur).
These letters can and will change. Many many functions are chains of simpler functions.
1. Rewrite each function below as a composite function y = f (u(z)) Then find
.
2 = f (u) $ or 9$.
$5 = (sec2 u)(cos x).
(a) y = tan(sin x)
(b) y = cos(3x4)
(c) y =
y = tan(sin x) is the chain y = tan u with u = sin x. The chain rule gives Substituting back for u gives = sec2(sin x) cos x.
2
cos(3x4) separates into cosu with u = 3x4. Then
$2 = ( sinu)(12x3) = 12x3 sin(3x4). y = &is y = 3 with u = 225. The chain rule gives 2 = (  2 ~  ~ ) ( 2 ) =  4 ( 2 ~  5 )  ~ . Another perfectly good udecomposition" is y = ! , with u = (2% 5)2. Then 2 =  5 and 5 = 2(2x  5) (2)
(really another chain rule). The answer is the same:
2. Write y = sin You could write the chain as y = f (w), w = g(u), u = u(x). Then you see the slope as a product of three f(Z~t0~8, = ( s ) ( e ) ( $ ) .
fi5. and y = & as triple chains y = f (g(u(x))). Then find 2 = ft(g(u)) b(u) 2.
$=
.4(2x  5) =
22 5
2
is
For y(x) = sin d$ = (%)(%)($)
= (cosw)(&)(6x).
the triple chain is y = sin w, where w = 4 and u = 3x2  5. The chain rule Substitute to get back to x: o s d ~ . 2 ~ 1 i S q 6% cos d3x2  5 2 J '
3 =c d~
I.
For y(x) = f let u = $. Let w = 1  u. Then y = $. The derivative is
With practice, you should get to the point where it is not necessary to write down u and w in full detail. 'by this with exercises 1  22, doing as many as you need to get good at it. Problems 45  54 are excellent practice, too. Questions 3  6 are based on the following table, which gives the values of functions f and f ' and g and g ' at a few points. You do not know what these functions are!
x 0
1
3
f (4 f ' ( 4
1 2
4
g(x)
0
l@
1
9
4
9
g'(4 undefined
3
&
2
1
2
2
3
4
JZ
2
1
;
fi 2
:
'
4
1 and
3. Find: f (g(4))
f (g(1)) and f (g(O)).
rng(4) = 2 a n d f ( 2 ) = $ s o f(g(4)) = 4. Find: g(f (1)) and
l
4.
Alsog(1) = l s o f ( g ( 1 ) ) = f ( l ) =
Then f(g(0)) = f ( O ) = 0 
g(f (2))
and
g ( f (0)).
Since f ( 1 ) = $, the chain g(f(1)) is g($) = Also g ( f ( 2 ) ) = 9($) = $. Then g ( f (0)) = g(1) = 1. Note that g(f (1)) does not equal f (g(1)). Also g(f (0)) # f (g(0)). This is normal. Chains in a different order are different chains.
9.
2 at x = 9. The chain rule says that 2 = f'(g(x)) . g'(x). At x = 9 we have g(9) = 3 and g'(9) = $. At g = 3 we 1 . have f '(3) =  &. Therefore at x = 9, 2 = f '(g(9)) . g'(9) =  . = 6. If y = g(f (x)) find 2(1). Note that f(1)= $.
5. If y = f (g(x)) find
16 6 96
g'(f(l)). ft(l) 7. If y = f (f (z)) find
f'(1) =
$(a)
i i
=4 8 .
2 at x = 2. This chain repeats the same function (f = g). It is "iteration." becomes 2 = f1(u) . f l ( x ) . At x = 2 the table gives u = 5. r If you let u = f ( x ) , then 2 = $ Then = f '(i) . f '(2) = ( q) ( i)= f . Note that (f '(2))2 = ( i ) 2 . The derivative of f (f (x)) is
not ( f ' ( ~ ) ) ~ And . it is not the derivative of (f ( x ) ) ~ .
Readthroughs and selected evennumbered solution8 :
z = f (g(x)) comes from z = f (y) and y = g (x) . At x = 2 the chain (x2  1)3equals 3 ' = 27. Its inside function is y = x2  1, its outside function is z = y3. Then dz/dx equals ty2dy/dx. The first factor is The triple chain evaluated at y = x2  1 (not at y = z). For z = sin(x4  1) the derivative is 4x3 cos(x4  1). ( s i n ( x 1)). z = c o s ( x + 1) has a shift and a s q u a r e and a cosine. Then dzldx = 2 cos(x 1)
+
+
The proof of the chain rule begins with Az/Ax = ( A z l A y ) ( A y / A x ) and ends with d z / d x = ( d z / d y ) ( d y / d x ) . du The power rule for y = [u(x)lW Changing letters, y = cos u(x) has dy/dx = sin u(x). is the chain rule dx dy/dx = nun'&. The slope of 5g(x) is 5g1(x) and the slope of g(5x) is 5g1(5x). When f = cosine and g = sine and x = 0,t e numbers f (g(x)) and g( f (x)) and f (x)g(x) are 1 and s i n 1 and 0.
! ?
d '
2 f i
22
% = 4x(sin x2)(cos x2)
2 8 f (y) = y 1;h(y) = ~; k(y) = 1 38 For g(g(x)) = x the graph of g should be s y m m e t r i c a c r o s s t h e 45" line: If the point (x, Y) is on the graph so is (Y, x). Examples: g(x) = $ or x or
+
m.
4 0 False (The chain rule produces  1 : so derivatives of even functions are odd functions) False (The derivative of f (x) = x is f1(x) = 1) False (The derivative of f ( l / x ) is f l ( l / x ) times 1/x2)
4.2 Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates
(page 163)
True (The factor from the chain rule is 1) False (see equation (8)).
42 R o m x =
go up to y = sin f . Then go across t o the parabola z = y2. Read off z = (sin f ) 2 on the horizontal z axis.
4.2
Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates
Questions 1  5 are examples using implicit diferentiation (ID). 1. Find
2 from the equation x2 + xy = 2. Take the x derivative of all terms.
The derivative of x2 is 22. The derivative of xy ( a product) is x 2 x + ~ g + ~ = 0 , a n d $ =  ~ . In this example the original equation can be solved for y = f (2  x2). Ordinary ezplicit differentiation yields d x = 2 x 2  1. This must agree with our answer from ID.
$ + y. The derivative of 2 is 0. Thus
*
2. Find
2 from (x + y)3 = x4 + y4. This time we cannot solve for y.
The chain rule tells us that the xderivative of (x 3(x
+ y) '(1 + 2 )= 4x3 + 4 y3 2. Now algebra separates out $ = : $ ? ( : '; $
+ y)3 is 3(x +
+ 2). 'Therefore ID gives
.
3. Use ID t o find
2 for y = x
d G .
Implicit differentiation (ID for short) is not necessary, but you might appreciate how it makes the problem easier. Square both sides to eliminate the square root: y2 = x 2 ( l  x) = x2  x3, so that dy 2y = 22  3x2 and dx 4. Find dy 22  3x2 = dx 2~
 2 %  3x2  2  3% 2 x d G 2 d S 0
9when xy + y2
= 1. Apply
ID twice to this equation.
First derivative: x
d 2 + y + 2y
2 = 0. Rewrite this as $ = s. Now take the derivative again.
, so I prefer
t o use ID on the first derivative equation:
The second form needs the quotient rule
5.
& for 3 and simplify the answer to 9= (z+22s)3. Find the equation of the tangent line to the ellipse x2 + xy + y2 = 1 through the point (1,O).
Now substitute The line has equation y = m(x  1) where m is the slope at (1,0). To find that slope, apply ID t o the equation of the ellipse: 22
+ x 2+ y + 2y 2 = 0.
Do not bother t o solve this for
x = 1 and y = 0 t o obtain 2
+ 2 = 0. Then rn = 2 = 2
$. Just plug in
 1).
and the tangent equation is y = 2(2
Questions 68 are problems about related rater. The slope of one function is known, we want the slope of a related function. Of course slope = rate = derivative. You must find the.relation between functions. 6. Two cars leave point A a t the same time t = 0. One travels north at 65 miles/hour, the other travels east a t 55 miles/hour. How fast is the distance D between the cars changing at t = 2? The distance satisfies D2 = x2
+ y2.
This is the relation between our functions! Find the rate of
change (take the derivative): 2 0 % = 2%
% +2y 9. We need to know
= 2(110)(55)
a t t = 2. We already know
dlz = 55 and $ = 65. At t = 2 the cars have traveled for two hours: x = 2(55) = 110, y = 2(65) = 130 1 1 o 2 1302 r~ 170.3. and D = d
+
Substituting these values gives 2(170.3)
+ 2(130)(65), so % w 85 miles/hour.
7. Sand pours out from a conical funnel at the rate of 5 cubic inches per second. The funnel is 6" wide a t the top and 6" high. At what rate is the sand height falling when the remaining sand is 1 " high? Ask yourself what rate(s) you know and what rate you want to know. In this case you know
% = 5
(V is the volume of the sand). You want to know when h = 1 (h is the height of the sand). Can you get an equation relating V and h? This is usually the crux of the problem.
The volume of a cone is V = ) r r 2 h . If we could eliminate r, then V would be related to h. Look at the figure. By similar triangles f = ), so r = ah. This means that V = i r ( k ) 2h = &rh3. Now take the t derivative:
=
dh
2
$7r(3h2)2.After the derivative has been taken, substitute what is
SO
known a t h = 1: 5 = &7r(3)=,
9=
in/sec
M
6.4 in/sec.
8. (This is Problem 4.2.21) The bottom of a 10foot ladder moves away from the wall at 2 ft/sec. How fast is the top going down the w d l when the top is We are given gives 22 (a) 6 feet high? (b) 5 feet high? (c) zero feet high? The equation relating x and y i s x2 + y2 = 100. This
2 = 2. We want to know dyldt.
Substitute
$ + 2y $ = 0.
$ = 2 to find 2 = ?.
(a) If y = 6, then x = 8 (use x2 (b) If y = 5, then x = 5&
+ y2 = 100) and = % ft/sec. (use x2 + y2 = 100) and 9 =  2 a ft/sec.
(c) If y = 0, then we are dividing by zero:
2 =  F. Is the speed infinite? How is this possible?
Readthrough8 a n d relected evennumbered solutions : For x3 + y3 = 2 the derivative dy/dx comes from implicit differentiation. We don't have to solve for y. Term by term the derivative is 3x2 = 0. Solving for dyldx gives x2/y2. At z = y = 1 this slope is 1. The equation of the tangent line is y  1 =  l ( x  1).
+ sy22
A second example is y2 = x. The x derivative of this equation is 2y$
Replacing y by
= 1. Therefore dy/dz = l / 2 y .
f i this is dyldx = 1 / 2 6 .
In related rates, we are given dg/dt and we want df /dt. We need a relation between f and g. If f = g2, then (dfldt) = 2g(dg/dt). If f 2 + g2 = 1, then dfldt = I f the sides of a cube grow by dsldt = 2, then its
8%.
volume grows by dV/dt = 3s2(2) = 6s2. To find a number (8 is wrong), you also need to know s.
4.3 Inverse finctions and Their Derivatives
8
(page 170)
f (x) + F ' ( ~ ) $
=y+x$
so
12 2(x  2) + 2 y g = 0 gives = 1at (1,l); 22 + 2(y  2 ) g = 0 also gives 20 x is a constant (fixed at 7) and therefore a change A x is n o t allowed
24 Distance t o you is and rate is
2
2=
g.=1.
x = 8fi
d m , rate of change is $
(560) = 280\/5, (b) x = 8 and rate is 83+8 (560) = 280fi; (c) x = 0 and rate = 0. = 4m2$. If this equals twice the surface area 4nr2 (with minus for evaporation) 28 Volume = ) r r 3 has than
*
with
$ = 560. (a) Distance = 16 and
$ = 2.
4.3
Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives
(page 170)
The vertical line test and the horirontal line test are good for visualiiing the meaning of "functionn and "invertible." If a vertical line hits the graph twice, we have two y's for the same x. Not a function. If a horizontal line hits the graph twice, we have two x's for the same y. Not invertible. This means that the inverse is not a function.
horizontal line test fails:
two x's and no inverse
These tests tell you that the sideways parabola x = y2 does not give y as a function of x. (Vertical lines and y = &.) Similarly the function y = x2 intersect the graph twice. There are two square roots y = has no inverse. This is an ordinary parabola  horizontal lines cross it twice. If y = 4 then x = f '(4) has two answers x = 2 and x = 2. In questions 1 2 find the inverse function x = f 1. y = x2 2. This function fails the horirontal line test. It has no inverse. Its graph is a parabola opening upward, which is crossed twice by some horizontal lines (and not crossed at all by other lines).
4
+
/ . Then x+ = Jy2 Here's another way to see why there is no inverse: x2 = y  2 leads to x = f, represents the right half of the parabola, and x =  d s is the left half. We can get an inverse by reducing the domain of y = x2 2 to x 2 0. With this restrict ion, x = f ( y) = J. The positive square root is the inverse. The domain of f (x) matches the range of f
+
'
2. y = f (x) =
5 .(This is Problem 4.3.4) Find x as a function of y. Write y = 5 as y(x  1) = x or yx  y = x. We alwaya have t o uolve for
x. We have yx  x = y
or x(y  1) = y or x =
&.
Therefore f
=
&.
Note that f and f ' are the same! If you graph y = f (x) and the line y = x you will see that f (x) is symmetric about the 45' line. In this unusual case, x = f (Y) when y = f ( x ).
4.3 Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives
(page 1 70)
You might wonder at the statement that f (x) = 5 is the same as g(y) = The definition of a and F ( t ) = function does not depend on the particular choice of letters. The functions h(r) = and G ( z ) = 2 are also the same. To graph them, you would put r, t, or z on the horizontal axisthey s 1 are the input (domain) variables. Then h(r), F(t), G(z) would be on the vertical axis as output variables.
5.
5
ft
The function y = f (x) = 32 and its inverse x = f '(y) = (abrolutely not&) are graphed on page 167. For f (x) = 32, the domain variable x is on the horizontal axis. For f = $ y, the domain variable for f  I is y. This can be confusing since we are so accustomed to seeing x along the horizontal axis. The advantage of f (x) = 42 is that it allows you to keep x on the horizontal and to stick with x for domain (input). The advantage of f  (y) = f is that it emphasizes: f takes x to y and f  takes y back to x.
iy
'
'
3. (This is 4.3.34) Graph y = 1x1  2x and its inverse on separate graphs. y = 1x1  22 should be analyzed in two parts: positive x and negative x. When x 0 we have 1x1 = x. The function is y = x  2%= x. When x is negative we have 1x1 = x. Then y = x  2 s = 32. Then y = x on the right of the y axis and y = 32 on the left. Inverses x = y and x = %.The second graph shows the inverse function.
>
1 ?I =  3 ~ 1 1
'
x 1 2x 3, = 1
Inverse reflects 8CrOSS 45'1ine
v=x
~=f'(~)
h.
>Y
I
x = d y
3 
4. Find
when y = x2 + x. Compare implicit differentiation with The x derivative of y = x2
1 + x is 2 = 22 + 1. Therefore = m. The y derivative of y = x2 + x is 1 = 22 diz + 5 = (22 + 1)2. This also gives 2 = &. dy
It might be desirable to know dl as a function of y, not x. In that case solve the quadratic equation x2 + x  y = 0 to get x =
''P4'. Substitute this into
d y 
=
&=
Now we know x = '*yi (this is the inverse function). So we can directly compute f + ( I + 4y)'/2 4 = &. Same answer four ways!
*.
=
5
2=
5. Find
$ a t x = a for y = cosx + x2.
Substitute z = a to find
$ =  sin x + 22.
2 =  sin a + 2s = 2s. Therefore
&.
Readthrough8 and eeleeted evennumbered eolutione : The functions g(x) = x  4 and f (Y) = y + 4 are inverse functions, because f (g(x)) = x. Also g(f (y)) = y. The notation is f = g' and g = f  l . The composition of f and f' is the identity function. By definition
4.4 Inverses of Trigonometric finctions
( p g e 1 75)
x = g'(y) if and only if y = g(x). When y is in the range of g, it is in the d o m a i n of g'. Similarly x is in the d o m a i n of g when it is in the r a n g e of g'. If g has an inverse then g(zl)#g(xz) a t any two points. The function g must be steadily i n c r e a s i n g or steadily decreasing. The chain rule applied t o f (g(z)) = x gives (df/dy)(dg/dx) = 1. The slope of g' times the slope of g equals 1. More directly dx/dy = l / ( d y / d x ) . For y = 22 1 and x = i ( y  I), the slopes are d y l d z = 2 and 1. For y = x2 and x = dx/dy = 3 the slopes are dyldz = 2 x and dxldy = l/2Jji. Substituting x2 for y gives dx/dy = 1 / 2 x . Then (dx/dy)(dy/dx) = 1.
a,
+
The graph of y = g(x) is also the graph of x = gl(y), but with x across and y up. For an ordinary graph of g', take the reflection in the line y = x. If (3,8) is on the graph of g, then its mirror image (8,3) is on the graph of g'. Those particular points satisfy 8 = Z3 and 3 = log2 8. The inverse of the chain z = h(g(z)) is the chain x = gl(hl(z)). If g(x) = 32 and h(y) = y3 then 3 1 and h'(z) = z113. z = ( 3 ~= ) 2~ 7 x . Its inverse is x = iz1/3, which is the composition of gl (y) = zy 4 x=L (f' Y1 matches f ) 22 1 4 f' does not exist because f (3) is the same as f (5).
16 No two x's give the same y.
*
dr
= As( ~  1 ) ' r d dZ y =
9= (x
I)~.
4 4 F i r s t p r o o f Suppose y = f (x). We are given that y > x. This is the same as y > f '(y). S e c o n d p r o o f The graph of f (x) is above the 45' line, because f (x) > x. The mirror image is below the 45' line so f'(y)
< y.
48 g(x) = x + 6 , f ( y ) = ~ ~ , ~  ' = ( yy )  6 , f'(2) = e ; x = f i  6
4.4
Inverses of Trigonometric Functions
(page 175)
The table on page 175 summarizes what you need to know  the six inverse trig functions, their domains, and their derivatives. The table gives you
1. Compute (a) sin'(sin
since the inverse functions have input y and output x. The input
y is a number and the output x is an angle. Watch the restrictions on y and x (to permit an inverse).
t ) (b)
cos'(sin
g)
(c) sin'(sin
K)
(d) tan'(cos 0) (e) cos'(cos(
;))

$ brings us back t o 2 . (b) sin = :and then cos' (i)= + 9 . Note that + 9 = 2. complementary (they add to 90' or 9). Always sin' y + cos' y = 9.
(a) sin is
9 and sin'
The angles
and
$
are
(c) sin'(sin a) is not a! Certainly sin K = 0. But sin'(0) = 0. The sin' function or arcsin function
; only yields angles between  5 and .
s ( d ) tan'(cos0) = t a n  ' 1 = (e) cos'(cos(
a
But cos(5) = 0 and then cos'(0) = 5 .
5)) looks like 5.
4.4 Inverses o f lligonometric Functions 2. Find
(page 1 75)
if x = sin' 3y . What are the restrict ions on y?
We know that x = sin' u yields
2 = ?Set u = 3y and use the chain rule: 2%= 3 ,/n. di=z = JX. The restriction lul 5 1 on sines means that 13yj 5 1 and 1 yl < 4. 2 when z = cos'(i).
What are the restrictions on x? accepts inputs between 1 and 1, inclusive. For this reason
3. Find
cos'
1$1
5 1 and 1x1 2 1. To find the
derivative, use the chain rule with z = cos' u and u =
f
:
4. Find
2 when y = sec' d m . (This is Problem 4.4.23) ' In this problem u = d m . Then The derivative of y = sec' u is JG'
IUI
dy = dydu dx dudx
1
x
iu1,/2zzc
 (substitute for
u) =
x 1 = f(x2+1)1x1 2241'
Here is another way t o do this problem. Since y = sec' J K l w , e have sec y = sec2 y = x2 + 1. This is a trig identity provided x = ftan y. Then y = ftan' x and
5. Find
4  and 2 = f1 ~ ~ + l
1 
'
.
2 if y = tan'
By subtraction
f
 cot'
: .
Explain zero.
The derivative of tan
2
' 2 is
+
2 .x3 ,: ;%
.
The derivative of cot'
= 0.
Why do tan'
and cot'
8
5  ~9+4' have the same derivative? A n they equal?
5 is 
1
2
Think about domain and range before you answer that one. The relation x = sin' y means that y is the sine of x. Thus x is the angle whose sine is y. The number y lies between  1 and 1. The angle x lies between 7r/2 and 7r/2. (If we want the inverse to exist, there cannot be two angles with the same sine.) The cosine of the angle sin' y is
dz.
The derivative of x = sin' y is
dxldy = l/JG.
The relation x = cos' y means that y equals cos x. Again the number y lies between  1 and 1. This time the angle x lies between 0 and a (so that each y comes from only one angle x). The sum sin' + cos' y = 7r/2. (The angles are called complementary, and they add to a right angle.) Therefore the derivative of x = cos y
'
is dx/dy =  l/J1y2', the same as for sin' y except for a minus sign. The relation x = tan' y means that y = tan x. The number y lies between 00 and oo. The angle x lies between a/2 and r/2. The derivative is dx/dy = 1/(1+ y2). Since tan' y cot' y = n / 2 , the derivative of cot' y is the same except for a minus sign.
+
The relation x = sec' y means that y = sec x. The number y never lies between  1 and 1. The angle x lies between 0 and a, but never a t x = a/2. The derivative of z
= sec'
y is dz/dy = I/ I y I J y G .
4
Chapter Review Problems
10 The sides of the triangle are y,
. I 1' . 14 W p l \ x = o = 1; = 00; dy \x=o = 1; d s ~ n  \==l  cos =  1 ;!3!Sply11,=', +. sin 1 sec 1 16 cos'(sin x) is the complementary angle  x. The tangent of that angle is smx = c o t x. 3 4 The requirement is u' = TO satisfy this requirement take u = tan%.
d(tan"
y)
vlz=o
5
d m ,and 1. The tangent is
wlz=l
&.
~ 6 u = t a n  ' ~ h a s $ = ~ ( a l n+ d ~~ =  ~ ~ .
,
= (cos x) (sin' x) (sin x) Note that z # x and # 1.
4 2 By the product rule 4 8 u(x) = tanlax (need to cancel 2 from the chain rule).
4~ = ~ w = l & . T h e n & t a n  l u ( x ) = ~ ~  1+u2 dz  l+(*)a 50 u(x) = 2+1 has dx A ( ~ + l)
~
2 A This is also the derivative of tan&! So tan' u(x)  tan' x is a constant.
(z+l)a+(zl)a  xa+l*
4
;
+
*.
2
4
Chapter Review Problems
R1 2
Give the domain and range of the six inverse trigonometric functions.
Is the derivative of u(v(x)) ever equal to the derivative of u(x)v(x)?
Find y' and the second derivative y" by implicit differentiation when yZ = xZ + xy.
RJ
R4 Show that y = x + 1 is the tangent line to the graph of y = x + cos xy through the point (0,l).
R5
If the graph of y = f (x) passes through the point (a, b) with slope m, then the graph of y = f'(x) passes through the point with slope .


R0 Where does the graph of y = cos x intersect the graph of y = cos' x? Give an equation for z and show . 6 is a solution. that x = .7391in Section 3
R7 5 intersect at right angles. Show that the curves xy = 4 and x2  y2 = 1 'The curve y2 x2 1 = 0 has 2%= 0 so its slope is x/t~." What is the problem with that statement? Gas is escaping from a spherical balloon at 2 cubic feetlminute. How fast is the surface area shrinking square feet? when the area is 5 7 6 ~
R8 R9
+ +
zy2+
4
Chapter Review Problems
R10 R11 R12
A 50 foot rope goes up over a pulley 18 feet high and diagonally down to a truck. The truck drives away at 9 ftlsec. How fast is the other end of the rope rising from the ground?
Two concentric circles are expanding, the outer radius at 2 cm/sec and the inner radius a t 5 cm/sec. When the radii are 10 cm and 3 cm, how fast is the area between them increasing (or decreasing)?
A swimming pool is 25 feet wide and 100 feet long. The bottom slopes steadily down from a depth of 3 feet to 10 feet. The pool is being filled a t 100 cubic feetlminute. How fast is the water level rising when it is 6 feet deep at the deep end?
8 1 3 A fivefoot woman walks at night toward a 12foot street lamp. Her speed is 4 ft/sec. Show that her ftlsec when she is 3 feet from the lamp. shadow is shortening by R l 4 A 40 inch string goes around an 8 by 12 rectangle  but we are changing its shape (same string). If the 8 inch sides are being lengthened by 1inchlsecond, how fast are the 12 inch sides being shortened? Show that the area is increasing at 4 square inches per second. (For some reason it will take two seconds before the area increases from 96 to 100.) R15
The volume of a sphere (when we know the radius) is V(r) = 4ar3/3. The radius of a sphere (when we know the volume) is r(V) = ( 3 ~ / 4 r ) ' / ~This . is the inverse! The surface area of a sphere is A(r) = 47rr2. The radius (when we know the area) is r(A) = . The chain r(A(r)) equals . The surface area of a sphere (when we know the volume) is A(V) = 4 r ( 3 ~ / 4 s ) ~The / ~ . volume (when we know the area) is V(A) = . (Find dy/dx in Problems D l to D6).
RIB
Drill Problems
Dl DS
y = t3  t2
+ 2 with t = fi
D2 D4
y = sin3(2x  a)
y = tan' (4x2
+ 72)
y=cscfi
In D7 to D l 0 find y' by implicit differentiation.
D l 1 The area of a circle is A(r) = s r 2 . Find the radius r when you know the area A. (This is the inverse function r(A)!). The derivative of A = 7rr2 is dA/dr = 2rr. Find drldA.
MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu
Resource: Calculus Online Textbook
Gilbert Strang
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Contents
CHAPTER 4
The Chain Rule
Derivatives by the Chain Rule Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives Inverses of Trigonometric Functions
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
CHAPTER
5
Integrals
The Idea of the Integral Antiderivatives Summation vs. Integration Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions The Definite Integral Properties of the Integral and the Average Value The Fundamental Theorem and Its Consequences Numerical Integration 177 182 187 195 201 206 213 220
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8
CHAPTER
6
Exponentials and Logarithms
An Overview The Exponential ex Growth and Decay in Science and Economics Logarithms Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation Powers Instead of Exponentials Hyperbolic Functions 228 236 242 252 259 267 277
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7
CHAPTER 7
Techniques of Integration
Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Trigonometric Substitutions Partial Fractions Improper Integrals
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5
CHAPTER 8
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6
Applications of the Integral Areas and Volumes by Slices Length of a Plane Curve Area of a Surface of Revolution Probability and Calculus Masses and Moments Force, Work, and Energy
The key idea is nothing more than a basic fact of algebra. A selection is inside the cover of this book.1 T h e Idea of the Integral This chapter is about the idea of integration. Instead of functions. Doing the addition is not recommended.. . The step of "going to the limit" is the essential difference between algebra and calculus! It has to be taken. where suggests velocity. v.f. Newton and Leibniz had an absolutely brilliant intuition. It is certainly not the only problem that integral calculus can solve. we need two sets of n numbers. each of which is infinitesimally small. v. and skip over all the ideas. .. (Area is the clearest example of adding up infinitely many infinitely thin rectangles. We explain how it is done in principle. To see what happens before the limiting step. We can integrate v(x) ifit turns up as the derivative of another function f(x). which allow you to compute areas under the most amazing curves.) But I am really unwilling just to write down formulas.. Basically. we have n ordinary numbers.... We will do the same. Integration is a problem of adding up infinitely many things.it becomes the basic fact of calculus. In the limit as n + co. The key is to work backward from a limit of differences (which is the derivative). They started with something simple. f(x) is an "antiderivative". .. but that is needed for the dx and dy of calculus. where f recalls the idea of distance. The whole point of calculus is to offer a better way. . The integral of v = x is f = $x2. If we don't find a suitablef(x).. The problem of integration is to find a limit of sums. The list of j ' s will grow much longer (Section 5. numerical integration can still give an excellent answer. and also about the technique of integration.CHAPTER Integrals 5.. The first set will be v. and there is no reason why we can't share it. The integral of v = cos x is f = sin x. .. so it always comes first. I could go directly to the formulas for integrals. in order to add up infinitely many infinitesimalsbut we start out this side of it.f. and then how it is done in practice. SUMS A N D DIFFERENCES Integrals and derivatives can be mostly explained by working (very briefly) with sums and differences. The second set of numbers will be f.4 is crucial). You might think d would be a better symbol for distance.
& . 6.3.f4= 1. We add the v's by finding the f 's. Similarly f2 cancels f2 and f. v2 + + vj. which is f2. Our next step is to understand how the integral is a limit of sums. leaving only the last fn and the starting foe The sum "telescopes": + U2 + 03 + . The sum of all four v's is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10.3." Calculus will change sums to integrals and differences to derivativesbut why not let the key idea come through now? + The differences of the f's add up to f. It is remarkable how often f can be foundmore often for integrals than for sums.+ 99 (the v's)? Answer They are the differences between 0.5 Integrals A first example has n = 4: f1. 4? By taking drerences. Thesef's are squares.. Those numbers are displayed in a bar graph (Figure S. The difference vj involves only the two numbers f i . the sum of 50 odd numbers is (50)2. All f's in between are canceled. 2 1 2 . $.4 how do you produce f = 1. 3. for investors). from the fact that there is no fo. The tricky part is to discover the right f's! Their differences must produce the v's. From v = 1. please keep reading.f2.3 is 3. Subtracting 6 .and $ million dollars.. After million dollars. Eventually fn and fo are left. That completes the algebra. The differencef2 fl = 3 ..4. In calculus. Each v is the difference between two f 's: vj is the dierencefi .f3. 3 .6. If the example is too good to be true. the income per year is $. cancels f3. 3. 2. the tricky part is to find the right f(x)..1 is v2 = 2. The difference between 10 and 6 is 4. lo? By taking sums.. fi.9. 3. The sum& involves all the numbers v. SUMS APPROACH INTEGRALS Suppose you start a successful company.la. + (fn fn.. 4 The relation between the v's and f's is seen in that example. and the natural idea is to agree that fo is zero. 1. 01. . 10. + v n = (fl fo) + (f2 f1) + (f3 f2) + . v 4 = L 2 . When fo is zero.. This is the discrete form of the derivative. Its derivative must produce v(x). how do you produce 1.. When you are given 1. fo . the sum is the finalf. By the Fundamental Theorem. 6. This need for a starting point will come back to haunt us (or help us) in calculus. v3. The first two v's add to 3.. In the first four years you reach x years. 10.1)The number fl is canceled by fl .f i . The first three v's add to f3 = 6. but your company is an exception. 01 Question How do you add the odd numbers 1 + 3 + 5 + . The rate of income is increasing. I admit to a small difficulty at j = 1. . I realize that most startup companies make losses. The fact that one reverses the other is the "Fundamental Theorem. The first v should be fl fo. That idea from algebra is the key to calculus. Taking sums is the opposite of taking di$erences.2. Now look again at those same numbersbut start with v.
h . This is exactly like velocities and distances.fi. but it becomes important when a second investor (smarter than the first) asks a harder question. Addition gives 6. those numbers are also the areas of the rectangles. We add remembering to multiply them all by 114 (because each rate applies to 114 year). After three months. The area approach is better because the 114 is automatic. We are emphasizing the correspondence between athiition and area. but that was an overstatement. and the base of each rectangle is Ax = 11365.2a is closer to reality. The income in three months was not more than 112 times 114. with a total area below 5) & fi a+ + fi . The graph shows four rectangles. The total income is the total area of the rectangles.15 million dollars. with 4 years divided into 16 quarters.1 Total income = total area of rectangles = 6. but now v is the incomeper year andf is the totalincome. Each rectangle has base 114. This is also the area of the 16 rectangles. The incomes as stated are false. Then a hardworking investor divides time into days. One investor. The next step divides time into weeks. After one week the rate is only J1/52. f i fi f i + + Here is the problem.5.15. The total area is now 5. or 1461 because of leap year.Algebraically.1 T h m Idea o f the Integral * Year Fig. rate multiplied by the time. the .lb shows this totalwhich is reached at year 4.56 million dollars. The company did not make a million dollars the first year. + + + $. closer to the truth. All other quarters and years were also overstated. fi is still v l The second answer comes from geometry. There is a rectangle for every week. At that point there are 4 x 365 = 1460 rectangles. Figure 5. 5.fi. That is the height of the first rectangleits base is Ax = 1/52. The bar graph showed = 1 for the whole year. The first answer is Figure 5. so that factor enters each area. asks a simple question: What is the total income for all four years? There are two ways to answer. Again there are two ways to find the total. the rate of income was only = 112. / 1 6 / 4 . possibly weak in arithmetic. You see what is coming. vj. fi. That point may seem obvious. . It gives a new estimate for total income. Since the base of each rectangle is one year. when x was 114. and I will give both. + . of heights .
. That question cannot be answered by arithmetic. . because it involves a limit.1 Readthrough questions EXERCISES For functions. + v.. 9 are v. + + v. . + v.. ) .. + 19 equals g . Integrals begin with sums. The calculation is elementary but depressingadding up thousands of square roots. Algebra (area of n rectangles): Compute v.2 Income = sum of areas (not heights) million dollars. 1. 0 0 0 I I I I I I I I I I I Year Fig. + . . .) (f2 f . It is approximated by four rectangles of heights 10. For n rectangles covering the triangle the area is the sum of . It is better approximated by eight rectangles of heights n and area o . (f.." We are looking for a number below 54. each multiplied by A x from the base. There has to be a better way. The better way.04  .5 Integrals Total income = area of rectangles 1 = (sum of heights) I I I I 2. . . i of v(x) is f(x). + . / % . Taking sums is the d of taking differences. The geometry problem is to find the area under the square root curve. Key idea: If v(x)= dfldx then area = integral to be explained next..768 . Then v.. CI The problem of summation is to add v . 0 .. The whole idea is to allow for continuous change. This is the k of a triangle with base x and height lox. 30. . The rectangles have base A x and heights &. As n + cc this sum should approach the number P . . Calculus (area under curve): Compute the limit of Ax[v(Ax)+ v(2Ax) + . The triangle under v = l o x out to x = 4 has area I . 5.. a  . is v..f j .. + + + e f The differences between 0. o. .d.4.. f.. and f. = From this pattern 1 + 3 + 5 + . equals b . There are 4/Ax rectanglesmore and more terms from thinner and thinner rectangles. by finding f's. 40 and area m ..I. The cancellation in ( f l f... in fact the best way. The area is the limit of the sum as A x + 0. v. It is solved if we find f ' s such that vj = a . then the sum isf. That is the integral of v = lOxfrom 0 to 4. = For jj =j the difference between f l . . finding the integral is the reverse of h .. Key idea: If vj =fj . " " " . then the If V ( X ) = l o x then f ( x ) = i . 20.f..) leaves only c .. This limiting area is the "integral. is calculus. . If the derivative of f ( x ) is v(x).. 5.
seconds. . 5. because the between the f's is not changed.x is decreasing. In the limit we find dfldx = x2 and f(x) = . .114. + 11. starting from fo = 0. 4.2.4. The extra area is A f= . . 4 Any constant C can be added to the antiderivative f(x) because the of a constant is zero. 10 How do you know that the sum over 208 weeks is smaller than the sum over 16 quarters? 11 A pessimist would use at the beginning of each time period as the income rate for that period.u is close to . = rjNow fo = .2 4 e q u a l ~v. 6 The sums h = (rj . . under the graph of v(x). 13 At every step from years to weeks to days to hours.. f. ..1 The Idea of the Integral 181 Problems 16 are about sumsfj and differences vj.1) hash f. . =f.. What is her estimate. h . f. fi 12 The same pessimist would redraw Figure 5. .+rnequals . + rj' adds up to (remember to subtract f.f 2 .2. As Ax + 0 we suspect that dfldx = . the pessimist's area goes and the optimist's area goes . The difference between them is the area of the last & from . '. 1 With v = 1. 3.. & per year. 3. How much lower .118. how accurate is it. . 1 give a total estimated expense of .56? m.) 8 If v = 1. 24 Draw graphs of v = and v = x2 from 0 to 1. b . Therefore 1 + r + . and why? 21 What is the area f(x) under the line v(x) = 6 .. So is almost a rectangle with base Ax and height Af1A. This is almost a rectangle with base and height So Af/Ax is close to . .). is the estimate of total income? & 4. 8. + rj' adds up to f.. 16 Draw the curve from x = 0 to 4 and put triangles below to prove that the area under it is more than 5.? (not 2j). areas add to l? The same is true for 11 = x3 and v = 25 From x to x +Ax.f.= rj'. 4.Thesuml+r+. fo is still true. Write down the first area. . (a) Check that 2 5 . find the area of the three rectangles that enclose the graph of v(x)= x2. Draw them enclosing the triangle to show why this total is too high. .5. .x above the interval from x to 6? What is the derivative of this f(x)? 23 With Ax = 113. 17 The expenses drop to zero at x = expense during those years equals of ..x above the interval from 2 to x? What is the derivative of this f(x)? 22 What is the area f(x) under the line v(x) = 6 .2 with heights 0..l)/(r . Verify that u. 8. Therefore the geometric series 1 + r + . 16.. Find the area f(x) from 0 to x. . 9 When time is divided into weeks there are 4 x 52 = 208 rectangles. The area to x + Ax is f(x + Ax).1) also have f j fj. The total . What is f. . fi &..112. 112. 2. Which .. (b) What is 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + l6? 3 The differences between f = 1. . 118 are v = negative v's do not add up to these positive f's.. Draw the curve between the rectangles to show why the pessimist is always too low and the optimist is too high. 4.. . above the interval from 0 to x. 3. These 15 (Important) Let f(x) be the area under the curve.8. 2 The same v = 1. the formula for vj is Find f. . Redraw Figure 5. & 14 The optimist and pessimist arrive at the same limit as years are divided into weeks. Find formulas for vj andfj when j is odd and j is even. 5 Show thath = rj/(r . + v. the 208th area.. . .1 (both parts) using heights . fi fi Problems 1722 are about a company whose expense rate v(x) = 6 . are the differences between f = 1. Now fo = 1 and f j = 2j. the area under v = x2 is AJ: This . .. Look left and right from the point where = 1. 4.. What is the height of the last rectangle? How much does this change reduce the total rectangular area 5. hours.. 19 How many rectangles (enclosing the triangle) would you need before their areas are within 1 of the correct triangular area? 20 The accountant uses 2year intervals and computes v = 5. write down the f's starting from fo = 0. This is the area 7 Suppose v(x)= 3 for x < 1 and v(x) = 7 for x > 1. 1 at the midpoints (the oddnumbered years). Problems 916 are about the company earning 18 The rectangles of heights 6. Any C can be added to fo. 2. 26 Compute the area of 208 rectangles under v(x) = x=Otox=4. days. and the jth area. 2. (Two pieces. 4. 114..
In calculus the derivative of f(x) is v(x).2 Antiderivatives The symbol was invented by Leibniz to represent the integral. I can't give the proof (yet)it is the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. since we stop after four years. is vj. curved areas. addition vs. The lower limit is x = 0. where the area begins. They understood the parallels between sums and integrals. by following that analogy. The heights vj of the rectangles are the heights v(x) of the f x dx. II 50 (Discrete vs. rectangles vs. curved area = l v(x) dx = (1) The rectangles of base Ax lead to this limitthe integral of The "dx" indicates that Ax approaches zero. the sum of the v's isf. involving and and dxbut we don't have a number. I & THE ANTIDERIVATIVE I wish I knew who discovered the area under the graph of It may have been Newton. Our problem asks for the area out to x = 4: &. integration) laAe integral of 4 x ) ib the wnence iir fix): rfdfldx = fi then area = &. When we integrate. We now find the area under the square root curve. The "limits of integration" are 0 and 4. The derivative of xn is nxn'now we need the antiderivative.It contains an unwanted factor 312. but the key idea was shared by Newton and Leibniz. I can give the answer." You can imagine curve. . put 213 into the antiderivative: f(x) = 3x3I2has the required derivative V(X) = x 'I2 = &. (The Jinish could be any point x = b. dx. Solution Since the derivative lowers the exponent. and to find a functionf(x) whose derivative is requires us to work backwards... f. fo. To cancel that factor. (The start could be any point x = a. &. The sum of vj times Ax approaches "the integral of v o an infinitely thin rectangle above every point. It is a stretchedout S . In algebra the differencef." We have It is the opposite of Chapters 24. This symbol is a powerful reminder of the whole and rectangular area construction: Sum approaches integral. We go from x'I2 to x3I2. instead of ordinary rectangles above special points. (3) I1 What is f(x)? Instead of the derivative of we need its "antiderivative. The outstanding problem of integral calculus is still to be solved. the antiderivative raises it. The quick formula is f(x) = xn+'/(n + 1)we aim to understand it.5. I. The answer was available earlier. dx =f(4) fo. continuous. But then the derivative is (3/2)x1I2. When we add.. What is this limiting area? We have a symbol for the answer. from the Latin word for sum. and between differences and derivatives. the area under the v(x) curve is f(x) minus f(0).) The upper limit is x = 4. S approaches approaches curved area:  &. That l i d is the integral of &porn 0 to 4: 5fi &.) The area of the rectangles is a sum of base Ax times heights The curved area is the limit of this sum.
(113 is above.) &. and the area is g4)(4) = 8.and 213 of that it sits in. The functions y = The areas for these inverse functions add to a square of area 1. EXAMPLE 1 The antiderivative of x2 is ix3. This is f(4) f(0). the height is 4.) The total income after x years is 3x3I2. Divide by 5 (or n + 1) to cancel the 5 (or n + 1) from the derivative. At x = 4 we find x3I2= 8. which is the antiderivativef(x). The square root curve covers 213 o f the overall rectangle with area x3I2. Those are Remark on curve. And don't allow n + 1 = 0: The derivative v(x) = xn has the antiderivative f(x) = xn+ ' / ( n+ 1).f (0)3. If you turn the the areas below and above the and x = y2 are inverses! curve by 90°. Then subtract f(0) = 0: The total income over four years is 1613 = 53 million dollars.3 The integral of v(x) = & . 5. The sum from thousands of rectangles was slowly approaching this exact area 5f. is (The false income was 1 million dollars. = 3 million dollars. I 2 3 Year . Therefore the antiderivative of x4 is x5/5. & & & & AREA UNDER A STRAIGHT LINE You already know the area of a triangle. The area out to x = 1 is . c 1 2 3 : Year 4 I Fig. it becomes the parabola. in the corner of Figure 5. The region is below the diagonal line v = x in Figure 5. There you see the key to integrals: Work backward from derivatives (and adjust). The rectangle goes out to x and up to rectangle is below the curve.2 43/2=16 Total income = 3 3 T 1 I Rate of income = a= e . Other areas The income in the first year. is the exact area 1613 under the curve. at x = 1. Integration is . Now comes a numberthe exact area.4. and x2 The 213 from and the 113 from x2 add to 1. or 113. The base is 4. This is the area under the parabola v(x) = x2.3. Multiply by 213 to get 1613. Other antiderivatives The derivative of x5 is 5x4.
. The new heights are 112. even if the widths Ax are unequal and the rectangles fit inside the triangle or across it. We only impose two rules: 1. 4. (The next answer would be 84. 512. . For the straight line. The total area in Figure 5. 83. 2. because the triangle is inside. one step at a time.) But more important than the formula is the idea. The four rectangles have area 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. That limit is independent of the particular widths and heightsas we absolutely insist it should be. We are carrying out a Iimiting process. The effort of doing the addition is increasing. 2.4b is the sum of the base Ax = 112 times those heights: area = $($ + 1 + $ + 2 + + 4) = 9 (which is closer to 8). in which the region is much more complicated. 312. Answer With base A x = $ the area is $($+++ +4)=8$. The question will be the sameDoes the limit exist? The answer will be the same.. 1. and will be established soon.5 allows any continuous v(x). and it will be the area under the curve. so the answer is still too high.4 Triangular area 8 as the limit of rectangular areas 10. . . and build up the integral f(x) = +x2 as the limiting area of many rectangles. 3. The same limiting process will apply to other areas. and to improve it we need more rectangles. That is greater than 8. The rectangles could lie below the curve. A formula for the sums is needed. That limit will be the integral of v(x). The next rectangles will be thinner. It will be f(x). And it is not required that they cover the triangle completely. The area under the graph is defined to be the limit of these rectangular areas. 10 is a first approximation to the triangular area 8. The limiting answer will still be 8. The largest width Ax.. The area of the rectangles is approaching the area of the triangle. The top of each rectangle must touch or cross the curve. you will have the beginning of something important. 9. the limit does exist and equals 8. not required! But if you allow calculus to repeat that answer. must approach zero. as Ax decreases.. They extend above the line...Yes. Question What is the area of 16 rectangles? Their heights are $. Area Under a Curve What requirements are imposed on those thinner and thinner rectangles? It is not essential that they all have the same width. if that limit exists. 3.5 Integrals Exact area = 8 u (x) = S Area under v (x) = x Fig. 4. of width Ax = 112 instead of the original Ax = 1.. Therefore we pause to comment on what is important.. 5. 712. There will be eight rectangles instead of four. Section 5.
No new area is being added.EXAMPLE 2 The triangular area from 0 to x is f(base)(height) = f(x)(x). We lookfor afunction whose derivative is 4 . the rectangles lie under the graph. The fcurve flattens out when the vcurve touches zero.4. The derivative of 4x is 4.x. If we sample v at x = 1. exact area 8.$x2. So does f = f x2 C.2. That is f(x) = f x2.i x 2 . but it makes these calculations easier. rectangular area = f(3f + 3 + + + Sixteen rectangles would have area 7f. but the Fundamental Theorem offers a faster way.5 The area is Af Since v(x) decreases.. But the indefinite integral is not necessarily 4x . The definite one involves the limits 0 and 4. INDEFINITE INTEGRALS AND DEFINITE INTEGRALS We have to distinguish two different kinds of integrals.34 = 4. + EXAMPLE 3 Suppose the velocity is decreasing: v(x) = 4 .x choose f(x) = 4x . Calculus skips past the rectangles and computes f(3) = 7f. Its derivative is v(x) = x. But notice that fx2 + 1 has the same derivative. 1 2 3 4 = 74 . Because v is decreasing.f ( x ) bends down. What is the area out to an arbitrary point (like x = 3 or x = l)? We could insert rectangles. 1 2 3 4 Fig.3. the right end of Then the rectangular area 3 + 2 + 1 + 0 = 6 is less than the each interval gives v. 5. Any antiderivative of 4 .x will give the area. We can change f(x) by a constant without changing its derivative (since the . for any constant C. the derivative of fx2 is x. The area between x = 1 and x = 3 is the dference 77:. There is a "constant of integration" in f(x). so work backward: to achieve dfldx = 4 . the indefinite one doesn't: The indefinite integral is a function f(x) = 4x .f x2.. The definite integral from x = 0 to x = 4 is the number f(4) f(0). They both use the antiderivative f(x). which is wiped out in its derivative v(x).3f = 4. and eight rectangles with base 4 come closer: f 0) = 7. In Figure 5. We repeat that the rectangles need not have the same widths Ax. this is the area of the trapezoid. The definite integral is definitely 8. The rectangles are inside the triangle.x.5.
It contains no arbitrary constant C. Then we come back to the definite integral and the Fundamental Theorem: 5. . =f. It also has f(x) = " The area under from to is The 'Onstant is canceled in computing the difference P minus q . Then f is the g of v.Ax + + v. it contains no variable x. This is a k integral. The indefinite integral is the most general antiderivative (with no limits): indefinite integral f(x) = J v(x) dx = 4x . Finding the v under the vgraph is the opposite of finding the w of thefgraph. If V(X) = x8 then f(x) = r . The constant C can be anything (including zero). The last is the general case. the definite integral of v(x) from a to = uj then the definite sum of The sum v.l") (or x3I2) 7 2 sin COS +sin cos zx 8 sec2x + 1 lo sin (by experiment) 11 sin 12 sin2x cos x 14 . More that that. The following functions are also antiderivatives: The first two are particular examples. to give all functions with the required derivative.Ax becomes the d of ~ ( x )The . and S:v(x) dx equals h minus i . It is the area under the graph between those endpoints.4 computes many more from antiderivatives. The differencef(3) f(l) is like fn f. If f. The definite integral is determined by the function v(x) and the limits of integration (also known as the endpoints). + + v. u(x) dx =f(1) f(0). 1 5x4 + 4 x 5 2 x + 12x2 4 (&)3 3 I/& (or x . So the sum of v's is multiplied by to approach the integral. Then compute the definite integral 1. As Ax + 0 the area v.2 EXERCISES Readthrough questions Integration yields the a under a curve y = v(x). 1: 16 The areas include a factor Ax. The limits of integration are i . which is a I and not a function f(x). To see the relation of indefinite to definite. The sum of v j from 1 to n has become "the integral of v(x) from 1 to 3. fj. C disappears in the subtraction.derivative of a constant is zero).+ u7 is . The the LJ integral is f(b) f(a).1 (find all f ) 13 0 (find all f ) 15 If dfldx is v3 = v(x) then z. . The theory of calculus will show that there are no others. . subtract f at one limit from f at the other limit: The constant cancels itself! The definite integral is the diflerence between the values of the indefinite integral. To find the area between the limits.$ x 2 + C. + . fo leads to the Fundamental t integral is f(x) and Theorem v(x) dx = s . symbol for the indefinite integral of v(x) is The problem of integration is solved if we find f(x) such that f .3 computes other areas from sums. the definite integral is a number. answer this question: What is the definite integral between x = 1 and x = 3? The indefinite integral gives f(3) = 74 + C and f(1) = 3f + C. * Find an antiderivative f(x) for v(x) in 114. the base of each rectangle. The difference of f's is divided by to approach the derivative. (5) By contrast. and 5.." Section 5. The example v(x) = x has f(x) = m . It starts from rectangles with base b and heights v(x) and areas c .
5.  . 30 Draw the graph of a function y4(x) whose area function is v4(x). (a) 2f(x) is an antiderivative of 2v(x) (try examples) (b) f(2x) is an antiderivative of v(2x) (c) f(x) + 1 is an antiderivative of v(x) + 1 (d)f(x + 1) is an antiderivative of v(x + I). containing the triangle out to x = 4. What is their area. May I recall that there is sometimes an easier way? If we can find an f(x) whose derivative is u(x).3 Summation versus Integration This section does integration the hard way. We find explicit formulas for f.) Given a successful f. According to the Fundamental Theorem. m2. + + u. which explains how to look for f(x). the limits produce the area f(x) under a curve. The time t* when the population increased fastest. 27 Describe the indefinite integrals of vl and u2. = u. (If we can't find an antiderivative we fall back on summation. 24 Find the area under the parabola v = x2 from x = 0 to pv\. The next section.13) and six rectangles (base 11. 32 Suppose u(x) increases from 40) = 0 to v(3) = 4. adding any constant produces another fsince the derivative of the constant is zero. 21 Draw y = l/x2 for 0 < x < 1 with two rectangles under it (base 112). and what is the area for four rectangles? Guess the limit. The right constant achievesf(0) = 0. 5. 23 (with calculator) For v(x) = I/& take enough rectangles over 0 < x < 1 to convince any reasonable professor that the area is 2. The area under y = v(x) plus the area on the left side of x = v'(y) . whenflx) is an antiderivative of u(x). 8. Relate it to the area 1613 below Start with f(0) = 0. (e) ( f ( ~ )is )~ an antiderivative of ( 4 ~ ) ) ~ . and find the total area. &. In what way do these numbers appear on the graph? 1.. What is the area with N rectangles? 19 Draw y = sin x from 0 to 11. m3)have less area than two rectangles. with no extra effort. / 10 0 26 Draw y = v(x) so that the area Ax) increases until x = 1. will displace this one. 2. and 83..16)contain an arch of the sine function. Do the areas increase? Increase then decrease? . Draw f4(x). 29 The graph of B(t) shows the birth rate: births per unit time at time t. 18 Draw four rectangles with base 1 below the y = x line. Find Ax) and verify that f(1) f(0) = 2.3 Summation versus Integration 17 The areas of 4. 20 Draw an example where three lower rectangles under a curve (heights m. equals 33 True or false. and 16 rectangles were 10. when f is spotted directly. .. x = 4. D(t) is the death rate. From areas of rectangles. Three rectangles (base 11. Find a formula for the area AN of N rectangles and test it for N = 3 and N = 6. 22 Repeat Problem 21 for y = llx. 9. 31 If v2(x)is an antiderivative of y2(x). The change in population from t = 0 to t = 10. and decreases to f(3) = 1. 3. then the integral of u is$ Sums and limits are not required. Find the areas and guess the limit. dfldx should return us to v(x)and we verify in each case that it does. stays constant to x = 2. 25 For vl and v2 in the figure estimate the areasf(2) and f(4). 28 For v4(x)find the areaf(4) f(1). The time T when the population was largest. draw y2(x).
j 2 is not meaningless either. A SPECIAL SUMMATION FORMULA How do you add the first 100 whole numbers? The problem is to compute tZeno the Greek believed it was impossible to get anywhere. Every term is j 2 and by the same rules. T H E SIGMA NOTATION In a section about sums. Question What happens to these sums when the upper limits are changed to n? Answer The sum depends on the stopping point n. There is nothing special about the letter j. + 6 = 6n. Then the sum is 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 = 30. The next section searches for antiderivatives. . The limits on j (written below and above C) indicate where to start and stop: The k at the end of ( 1 ) makes an additional point. 6 looks meaningless. Their sum can be written in summation notation. Consider l 2+ 2 ' + 32 + 42. that becomes "the sum of j 2 from j = 1 to 4. We will come back to it in Chapter 10. Dummy variables are only on one side (the side with C). that sum is 4j2.f(... That is a "dummy variable. since he would only go halfway and then half again and half again. Infinite series would have changed his whole life. Here are six sums: k=O 1 1 1 'f 7 =I + + + . sums stop at n. = 2 [infinite series] 2 2 4  The numbers 1 and n or 1 and 4 (or 0 and K ) are the lower limit and upper limit.. Integrals stop at ." no better and no worse than k (or i).can be found.u) or *f. A formula is required (when possible). I hope it seems reasonable that the infinite series 1 + 3 + $ + adds to 2. The upper limit n is on both sides. and we now look for special cases when ." It equals 30.t A sum like Z:=.5 Integrals This section constructs f(x) from sums. However the i was probably intended to be j. In fact C:=.. Spoken aloud. The individual terms are vj = j2. using the capital Greek letter C (pronounced sigma): 1' + 2' + 32 + 42 is written j=1 x 4 j2.u. The dummy variable i or j or k is the index of summation. there has to be a decent way to express them.and they have no effect on the sum. It follows the rules. but it is actually 6 + 6 + .
They are related by j = k + 100 or equivalently by k =j . That gives 10000. Believing that a number like 10000 can never turn up by accident. and 2 + 99. then k =j . If j ends at 200. but not written.= v. + 100 is 5050 as before. There are 399) = 493 such pairs. What happens if n is an odd number (like n = 99)? Formula (2) remains true. The next terms n .5.3 ) . EXAMPLES OF CHANGING THE VARIABLE (and the limits) 1 2' equals 1 2 ' ' i =0 j= 1 . (He solved this problem at a ridiculous age. Bothsums are v 3 + . It is found through changing the limits of summation: 200 j is the same sum as j = 101 (k + 100)... 1 viequals i=3  uj+.1). + v n . always adding to 101. but the exact sum is i n 2 + i n . which gave his friends the idea of getting him into another class. Their difference is 15050. If n is even (as 100 was) then there are i n parts. Second solution The answer 15050 is exactly the sum of the first hundred numbers (which was 5050) plus an additional 10000. The variable must change everywherein the lower limit and the upper limit as well as inside the sum. It is there. to be able to shift limits around. First solution This is the sum from 1 to 200 minus the sum from 1 to 100: The middle sum is $(200)(201) and the last is i(100)(101). you would see the answer at once.100 starts at 1.1 and 2 also add to n + 1. for convenience. because it is 5050 minus 100. 100 is added to each of those 100 terms. because the middle term (which is 50) has nothing to combine with. Thus the sum is (50)(101)= 5050. Thus 1 + 2 + + 99 equals 493 times 100.100. Therefore the sum is i n times n + 1: The important term is i n 2 . If j starts at 101. k ends at 100. and 3 + 98. we look for a reason.) His solution was to combine 1 + 100. Both sums have 100 terms (that doesn't change).3 Summation versus Integration If you were Gauss. The sum from 1 to n uses the same idea.. The combinations 1 + 99 and 2 + 98 still add to n + 1 = 100. 3 4 (here i = j .. or 4950. has turned up again! EXAMPLE Find the sum 101 + 102 + . If j appears in the sum. Note! I left out '7 = "in the limits. Our key formula fn fn. Often the lower limit is moved to zero or one. k=l This is important. it is replaced by k + 100 (and if j2 appeared it would become (k + From equation (4) you see why the answer is 15050. The first and last terms add to n + 1. The sum up to 99 equals the sum up to 100 with the last term removed.. The sum 1 + 2 + . There are fifty of those combinations. The dummy variable j is replaced by another dummy variable k.. Remark That sum had to be 4950. + 200 of the second hundred numbers. j=O . Both sums are 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 (here i = j + 3 a n d j = i .
Note about 1 2 + . but at first the result looks surprising: i =0 C 2' equals 2 2'. . Check f. and i f the changef. 6 . The first problem is to find f. But that separate test is not necessary! Iffl is right. and calculus is needed.) This may seem a minor point. The dference f. Every i on the left becomes i . The good thing is that Gauss found the sum f n(n + 1). j= 1 5 6 i= 1 With practice you might do that in one step. For any sum f. By trying to guessf.'. This is the guess f.. The answer is given by some higher power (like Gauss). There is absolutely no excitement. There is a deeper point here. .t Therefore I will try to do that for the second problem.6. Integration is parallel to summation. with fl = 1 and f2 = 5 and f. The goal is to find the pattern in that sequence.. The underlying idea is mathematical induction: Assume the statement is true below n. .(it equals n). is right for every n. It is the area in Figure 5. which is the sum of squares. The new variable j can be changed back to i. is f n(n + 1). but soon we will be changing the limits on integrals instead of sums. There f is an antiderivative (or +The goal of real teaching is for the student to find the answer. Calculus looks for an f(x) whose derivative is v(x).Why change n to n . f. = 14. but not inf.. The f's must begin correctly and they must change correctly. The other region lies under the parabola v = x2... It is much better when we lower powers find the answer for ourse1ves. For n = 1 the answer fn(n + 1) = f 1 2 is correct. his formula for&. The bad thing is that his method looked too much like a trick.. Dummy variables have no meaning of their own.. T H E SUM O F j2 AND THE INTEGRAL O F x2 An important calculation comes next. To prove that 1 + 2 + . And also the problem.. 5 changes to i = 1. Reducing n by 1. Then i = 0. f. This is a sum of squares. skipping the temporary letter j. It cannot be divided into rectangles. Prove it for n.f. to show that the change in f's agrees with v.. and it is better to see a "change of variable" here first. So j + 3 = n and j = n . = 1' + 22 + 32 + + n2. must be right. Proof by induction: Check fl (it equals 1). . I would like to show how this fits the fundamental rule connecting sums and differences: Gauss says thatf. Goat + + n = f n(n + 1). A final step is possible..+ n. but I am not happy with most of the exercises that use it. = n that is included inf. (At first two steps are safer. there are two things to check.3? Because the upper limit is i = n. is f (n . should be the last term n in the sum: This is the one term v. thenf. That is the logic behind mathematical induction. For n = 2 this formula f 2 3 agrees with 1 + 2. and it is proved correct by some lower power (like us). and you will often see it.1 on the right. One region is made up of rectangles. we are copying what will soon be done for integrals.3.' equals 2 zi. so its area is a sum of n pieces. Equation (6) was the key test.1)n. .I ..
350.I produces on = n2: We see n2. . I add 1 + 2 + . When the sum is replaced by the integral (the area).333. What is fascinating is the contrast with calculus. . an integral). but also .5. equation (7) is available: the sum is 338..5. For calculus the important term is in3: n The sum j= 1 j2 of the first n squares is  1 1 1 n3 plus corrections . 5.333. verify that fn f... Copying directly from integrals. Factor out (&)3. We have to explain why. Many applications (example: the number of steps to solve 100 linear equations) can settle for in3. The new guess (which should be right) is + To check this answer.n2 and ..833.350. If we need the exact answer. because the curve is v = x2. I could try to guess ten thousand rectangles but I won't. It is time for algebrawhich means that we keep "Ax" and avoid numbers. Now take a thousand rectangles.n. verify first that f l = 1.n + f. or a third of a million. The best start is a good guess. To put back n in the difference. and we add heights times base: area of rectangles = (. The idea is to approach an infinite number of infinitely thin rectangles. = n2. could be called an antidiflerence (better to call it a sum).J($) ($&) + + * m e + (FJ(k).'s whose differences produce v.+ n = qn(n 1) to the sum. (&)2.. . The guess f n 3 needs correction terms. Here f. The exact area of the thousand rectangles is 333. is precisely a third of a million. But the calculations are getting worse. f n . I subtract f n from the sum. The base of every rectangle is Ax = &. To be certain. To test if it is right. To cancel f in the difference. Calculus has no correction terms! They get washed away in the limit of thin rectangles. Also f2 = 5 and f3 = 14. which fits the sum of squares formula. check whether f. The area under the parabola. 3 2 6 In practice f n 3 is an excellent estimate. Algebra looks for f. we might try fn = fn3. What you have left is l 2 + 22 + + 10002. we get an absolutely clean answer: The integral of v = x2 from x = 0 to x = n is exactly in3.. Their heights are (&)2. The sum of the first 100 squares is approximately f(100)3.6 Rectangles enclosing v = x2 have area (4n3+ in2 + AX)^ z I 2 3 AX)^ = 3x3. A hundred rectangles gave an area of 338. out to the point x = 100.3 Summation versus Integration 191 1 2 3=n Ax 1 2 3 = nAx Fig. Main point: The area is approaching 333.. with many rectangles.
and we add areas: area = (AX)~(AX) + (2Ax)'(Ax) + . leaving a sum of n squares. still the slope of f'(s). the area under v(x) is f(x): That Fundamental Theorem is not yet proved! I mean it is not proved by us. That completes the calculation for a parabola.7 will do it. What was true for the numbersf. but it is The reverse of slope is area. According to the Fundamental Theorem. I am not quite sure. It used the formula for a sum of squares. Proved or not. The other terms are approaching zero! They contain Ax.. and as the rectangles get thinner they disappear. Whether Leibniz or Newton managed to prove it. (Thus n = 100/Ax.. and cj is true in the limit for u(x) and. the difficulty is that we have too many limits at once. + (nAx)'(Ax) = n j= 1 (jAx)'(Ax). gles of width Ax approach the limiting area = f The exact area is j V(X) dx. (8) 100 Factor out AX)^.. Now v(s) can vary continuously. the bases are Ax. But the underlying idea is much more general. and we add areas: . The vanishing of those corners will eventually be proved for any continuous functionsthe area from the correction terms goes to zerobut here in equation (9) you see it explicitly. The area is (Ax)3 timesf. and Section 5. A real proof has to separate those steps. The leading term is a third of a million. Its base is Ax. you are seeing the main point. as predicted. But it can be done. The limit of the sums agrees with the antiderivative: The antiderivative of v(x) = x2 is f(x) = i x 3 . and n = : Ax This equation shows what is happening. Starting from sums of differences. The differences Af/Ax approach the derivative. The sum of 1 + 2 + + n is i n 2 + i n .5 Integrals The interval of length 100 is divided into n pieces of length Ax. They only account for the small corners of rectangles that lie above the curve. so its height is AX)^. (1 + 2 + 3 + 412= 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 Proof without words by Roger Nelsen (Matlzenmtics Finally we review the area under r.f(x). The heights are jAx. The area under the curve came from the central idea of integration: 100/Ax rectanThe rectangular area is Z vj Ax. = x.) The jth rectangle meets the curve v = x2. In the limit Z becomes j and vj becomes v(x) and AX becomes dx. The sums of cjAx are approaching the integral. going out to x = 4. which was special. This gives the area of n = 4/Ax rectangles.
Finally we try the quick way.8 comes back to this ruleand to Simpson's rule that fits parabolas and removes the S AX)^ term and is built into many calculators. then a thousand rectangles will reach an accuracy of The problem is that the rectangles are unbalanced. but the convergence is much too slow. The thing to watch is the relative error En= Dn/In: + . 8 i . Midpoint rule is better: error  l/(~ork)~. Sixteen rectangles of width i brought the correction 2Ax down to f . The antiderivative of v = xP is f = xP+' / ( p 1 ) . The area under v = xP from 0 to n is n/Ax x p d x = lim Ax+O j = 1 1 ( ~ A x ) ~ ( A xnP? )= ~ + l Calculus doesn't care if the upper limit n is an integer.. First. 1 + + n is f n2 plus i n .5. 83. The error is proportional to A x . 5. Done. Those corrections disappear in calculus. .6. Here are actual numbers for p = 1. That is horrifying! The numbers 10.. With eight rectangles and Ax = f. because dfldx is v. Optional: pth powers Our sums are following a pattern. Important note There you see a question in applied mathematics.. the area was 8 + 2Ax = 9. Somehow the A x term must be removed. Their right sides touch the graph of v. If there is an error. and you know what is coming. seem to approach the area 8 in a satisfactory way. If the correction is AX)^ instead of A x .7 Endpoint rules: error  l/(work)  lln.. and AX)^ disappears faster.000 = 10. when the sum and integral are easy: Sn= 1 + . + nP = terms.3 Summation versus Integration 193 With A x = 1 the area is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. The sum of pth powers is 1 n P + l plus ~0wection 1~ + 2~ + . Section 5. The area under v = x is f = f x 2 . The sum of squares is i n 3 plus correction terms.9. but their left sides are much too high. The best is to cross the graph in the middle of the intervalthis is the midpoint rule. Then the rectangle sits halfway across the line v = x. We only need p + 1 > 0 to be sure nP+ is genuinely the leading term. The correction terms disappear and the sum approaches the integral. We are close to interesting experiments. + n and In= x dx = i n 2 . But to get an error of we need eight million rectangles: 2A x = 2 4/8. and it doesn't care if the power p is an integer. ( 1 1) p+l The correction involves lower powers of n. It takes twice as much work to get one more binary digit in the answerwhich is absolutely unacceptable. The exact area is 8. The difference is Dn= f n. what size is it? How does it behave as Ax + O? The A x term disappears in the limit. and the error is zero. Fig.000. The area out to x = 4 is 3(4)2= 8.
and equals P . vi is the same as 0 u i + . The correction terms approach zero very w . 2 Compute j=O x 3 ( j 2j) and 1 112'. m and equals n . The sum z: =. For n = 100 the leading term is g . . . check f l = s and check f. One more numbera third of a millionwas mentioned earlier.S. which is written i . which compares to the sum Sloe of 100 squares: These numbers suggest a new idea.3). I hope you can push the experiments far enough to discover C(p). j= 1 n x 10 0 (l)'/i! times 0 lo! . Theformulafor 1 2 + 2 2 + . and please jind a formula for En. Readthrough questions The Greek letter a indicates summation.7963 0. .=.The number 20100 is f (200)(201).. Please write down the next line n = 400. The leading term equals the integral of v = x from 0 to 100. 4 Evaluate 1 (i= 1 6 1)'i and 1 (j= 1 n 1)'j. and the goal is to see the pattern.. so the first .0072 In this and future tables we don't expect exact values. are sure to obey a systematic rulethey are proportional to l/n and to an unknown number C(p) that depends on p. or you can derive it from knowing Snand I. + n 2 i s f . 5 Write these sums in sigma notation and compute them: 6 Express these sums in sigma notation: 7 Convert these sums to sigma notation: 8 The binomial formula uses coefficients 1 Compute the numbers n= 1 l/n and 1 (2i . i2 is the same as 2. The correction term is h . = r . For& = Z. You can guess En from the table. The errors En.equals 4 . The last entries are rounded off. The limits are c . The area under the parabola v = x2 from x = 0 to x = 9 is u . to keep njixed and change p.= vj the differencefn f. The computer can find sums without a formula! With its help we go to fourth powers and square roots: lo0 $ 67 1A629 3(100)~'~ 4. This is close to the area of v rectangles of base Ax. In uj the dummy variable is b .Toprove it by mathematical induction. The formula should show that En goes to zero. More important. i=2 5 100 9 With electronic help compute 10 On a computer find 1 l/j 1 1000 and 10 x 1 l/j.= t .. The sum Z f = . it should show how quick (or slow) that convergence will be. This is not an exercise with an answer in the back of the bookit is mathematics. It came from integrating x2 from 0 to 100. The sum is the total i of 100 rectangles. 4 6 n 3 Evaluate the sum i=O 2' and i =0 2'. The correction term is the area between the k and the I . When uj = j this term is d and the last term is sum equals f .
Then (6@+(11@+(4fl= . + unless 26 Guess C(p) in the formula E n . turn those into three equations for a. Compare. bl = 1.j) is ( ~ 1 . fi = 5.. 23 Add n = 400 to the table for Sn= 1 + + n and findthe • Compute both sides if al = 2. + + a : ) 21 Suppose f.. = in2(n+ 33 The average of 6. has the form an bn2 + cn3. + 23 + + n3 is f. 2 + ~2. None of this makes sense (i +j) is vl = k=1 13 "Telescope" the sums k= 1 x n (2' . the equals dx = . .1 uses vectors. . a.. + (2n . Always Ivl + v21 < lvll + lv21 In the limit this becomes 1 . Guess an approximate formula for E1OO.. b.1) 31 Find the flaw in the proof that 2" = 1 for every ' = 1. 37 The sum Ax 'IAx relative error En.2) + (wl..z C(p)/n. b = 3.. is the same as S minus . j=1 28 Let S be the sum 1 + x + x2 series. + n8 = qn9+ correction. 14 Simplify the sums j= 1 v2 = ( 5 5. 35 Suppose n rectangles with base Ax touch the graph of v(x) at the points x = Ax. In practice. Guess and prove a formula for En. . f3 = 14. Vl. We leave aside sums of rectangular areas.4 Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions This section integrates the easy way. Express the total rectangular area in sigma notation.. b2 = 4..• . 36 If l/Ax rectangles with base Ax touch the graph of u(x) at the left end of each interval (thus at x = 0. 3+ (j1 +. this approach is more or less independent of the approach through sumsbut it gives the same answer. b. wi. If you know fl = 1. 25 Add p = 3 and p = 3 to the table for SloO.p. Therefore S = if x = 2 because + + of the (infinite)geometric + . ..1)Ax) 1 f(jAx) f((j AX 5. The average of . . 27 Show that 1 1.4 Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions 11 Simplify 195 i= 1 x n (ai bil2 + + i= 1 x n (ai .2' ') and 29 The doubik sum J All but two terms cancel. then 2N=2N192N1/2N2= 1*1/1=1.~ ) double sum i (i is j=l x[ ] x (1 +j) plus 1 5) 30 he double sum . Prove that Z (ui.. Ax.l + ~2.nAx.. i= 1 . 2Ax.2f8 +f7)? 18 Induction: Verify that l2+ 22 + + n2 is f.j) 17 The antiderivative of d2fldx2 is dfldx. 4 is I7 = 3(6 11 4). Then xS = x x2 + x3 .= n(n + 1)(2n+ 1)/6 by checking that fl is correct and f.17)= 0.Instead we search for an f (x) with the required derivative u(x). 11.) express the total area in sigma notation.Find an approximate formula for En. Then compute both sides for any a.. The text has a proof without words.p = 1 P +  + 1 W .f. 32 Write out all terms to see why the following are true: 19 Prove by induction: 1 + 3 + 20 Verify that 1 by checking f. vn 1s v = .. and fn f. and their limits as Ax + 0. What is the sum (f2 . 2Ax. 1 + ~ 1 21 . a2 = 3..2f2 +fl) + "' + (f9 . by looking for antiderivatives. b. The i = 1 wi.2.l = n2.. 24 Add n = 50 to the table for Sn= l 2 + + n2 and compute ESo.1)= n2. The proof in Section 11.. And also. .5 1<1 1 1 151. The solutions a = 4. .. + h . Compute vl and v2 and the double sum.2fl+f0) + (f3 .1) and j= 3 x n x (h+ 12 j= 1 (2 +j). For n = 0 we have 2 n e N. c. If 2" = 1 for every n = 0.bi)2 to a: and i= 1 x n i= 1 i aibi# f aj i bk.5. c = $ give what formula? 22 Find q in the formula l8+ + 34 The S ~ I W inequality ~ ~ Z is ($ aibiJ < ($ ($ bf).. 1.
1 is not included.(constant) = 0 d dx  d (x) = 1 dx There are two ways to make this list longer. and the chain rule.5 Integrals search for an antiderivative may not succeed. The techniques will be further developed in Chapter 7this section is short but good. First we write down what we know.T The other possibility is to use rules for derivatives to find rules for integrals. Thus our goal is to find antiderivatives and use them. An expression for f (x) can have tremendous advantages over a list of numbers. Known pairs Powers of x Function v(x) xn Antiderivative f (x) xn+'/(n + 1) + C n = . In the t W e will soon meet ex. enormously and easily. For emphasis we list three derivatives above three integrals: . We may not find f. because n + 1 would be zero. f (x) is an antiderivative of v(x) because df /dx = v(x). . It integrates between specified limits.csc sec x tan x csc x cot x x +C Inverse functions I/./1/(1 + x2) sin' x tan' +C x+C You recognize that each integration formula came directly from a differentiation formula. On each line. Everything flowed from those three. because the derivative of the sine is the cosine. the product rule. Then f goes in one column and v = df/dx goes in the other co1umn. One is to find the derivative of a new f (x). Here we hope to find a function (the indefinite integral). That is the way to extend the list. RULES FOR INTEGRALS Among the rules for derivatives. It is f ( x ) and also ~ ( x ) . That requires a symbolic integration code like MACSYMA or Mathematica or MAPLE.8. but not by discovering f . They were linearity. v = x' will lead us to f = In x. A computer is ready to integrate v. which goes in both columns. Trigonometricfunctions cos x sin x sec2x sin x + C cos x + C tan x + C sec x + C . In that case we go back to rectangles. or a reasonably nice v(x). three were of supreme importance. or both. or on to something better in Section 5. to obtain a number (the definite integral). The integral of the cosine is the sine.
The real problem is to find that one antiderivative. just remember to write "+ C" after one of them. so logically the last rule is enough. The graph of + w has two regions below it.4 Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions 197 reverse direction (from v to f )this is still true. The constants for each part combine into a single constant. Integration by parts will be left for Section 7.1. EXAMPLE 2 The antiderivative of 6 cos t + 7 sin t is 6 sin t . The antiderivative is tan x .7 cos t + C. Adding areas gives the sum rule. EXAMPLE 1 The antiderivative of v = x2 + x  is f = x3/3 + ( x . All antiderivatives allow the addition of a constant. The three basic methods of differential calculus also dominate integral calculus: linearity of derivatives .(x)dx+b~w(x)dx Note about the constant in f ( x )+ C. the area under v and the area from v to v + w.sec x tan x . Answer tan x  x +C . Suppose f and g are antiderivatives of v and w: t. However it is so important to deal quickly with constantsjust "factor them outvthat the rule cvcf is stated separately. The rules can be restated with integral signs: sum rule: constant rule: linearity: J [ ~ ( x+) w ( x ) ]d x = J V(X) dx + J dx W ( X ) dx J CV(X) dx = c J V(X) ~[av(x)+bw(x)]dx=a~t.sec x + C.1) + C.')I(. LINEARITY O F INTEGRALS What is the integral of v(x) w(x)? Add the two separate integrals. To give all possible antiderivatives of a function.sin x . Differentiation is often simple. EXAMPLE 3 Rewrite 1 1 .1 . so most people check that df ldx = v(x). which comes first. That rewriting is done by a symbolic algebra code (or by you). Question How to integrate tan2 x? Method Write it as sec2x . For a combination like av(x)+ bw(x). This section starts on substitutions. The first two rules are special cases of the third.sin x as 1 + sin x 1 . The proofs come from the linearity of derivatives: (af + bg)' equals af' + bg' which equals av + bw. + sum rule: constant rule: linearity : f +g cf is an antiderivative of is an antiderivative of v+w cv af + bg is an antiderivative of av + bw This is a case of overkill. reversing the chain rule to make an integral simpler.sin2x cos2 x = sec2x .1.linearity of integrals product rule for derivatives + integration by parts chain rule for derivatives + integrals by substitution The easiest is linearity.5. the antiderivative is af ( x )+ bg(x)+ C.
Divide by 2 or 15: Notice the 2 from x2. Officially the derivative of (x + 2)4 uses the chain rule.8b.f (cos x ) + ~C u = sin x (compare Example 6) u = sin x u = cos x (compare Example 4) The next example has u = x2 .1 and duldx = 2x. the 5 from the fifth power. the function on the left is its antiderivative! There are two points to emphasize right away: 1.5 Integrals INTEGRALS BY SUBSTITUTION We now present the most valuable technique in this sectionsubstitution. The key step is choosing u: EXAMPLE 8 xdx/./n = JFi+ C j x J F T dx = $(x2.1)3'2+ C j cos 2x dx = f sin 2x + C A ship of x (to x + 2) or a multiple of x (rescaling to 2x) is particularly easy: EXAMPLES 940 5 (x + 2)) dx = $(x + 2)4 + C You will soon be able to do those in your sleep. but otherwise dgldx has to be there. dgldx = 2x) the integral of cos x2 is (failure) the integral of x2 cos x2 is (failure) (no dgldx) (wrong dgldx) To substitute g for x2. 2. Constants are no problemthey can always be jixed. you have to remember the chain rule: f (g(x)) has derivative f '(g(x))(dg/dx) sin x2 has derivative (cos x2)(2x) (x3 + 1)' has derivative 5(x3+ ll4(3x2) To see the If the function on the right is given. For Example 10 the inside function is u = 2x. We can fix constants like 2 or 15. Very often the insidefunction g is written u. The trick is to spot an inside function whose derivative is present. when f is the integral of v : EXAMPLE 4 EXAMPLE 5 EXAMPLE 6 1sin x cos x dx = &(sinx)' + C 1sin2x cos x dx = $(sin x ) + ~C j cos x sin x dx = . This . Choosing the insid?function g (or u) commits us to its derivative: the integral of 2x cos x2 is sin x2 + C (g = x2. idea. and the graph shifts overas in Figure 5. We use that letter to state the substitution rule. But the inside function u = x + 2 has duldx = 1. Its derivative is duldx = 2. we need its derivative. and the 3 from x3. The "1" is there automatically.
to change everything from x to u. We switch from x to u. Here are the four steps to substitute u for x: 1. (4) This really shows how substitution works. 6x from the chain rule cancels 6. some remarkable integrals are possible.4 Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions V(X  199 xV (x 2) area lf (x2) 0 Fig. The most common mistake is to confuse dx with du. and 7x is what we started with. With ingenuity. Remark on differentials In place of (du/dx) dx. 5. EXAMPLE 12 J(cos Vx) dxl 2/: = f cos u du= sin u + C = sin (put in u) x+ C (integrate) (put back x) The choice of u must be right. Locate v(u) times du/dx times dx. Now 3x + 7 rescales and shifts: f cos(3x+7) dx= ' sin(3x+7)+ C (3x+7)2 dx= 3+ C (3x+7) Remark on writing down the steps When the substitution is complicated.8 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 Substituting u = x + 1 and u = 2x and u = x 2. Check the derivative of ½ sin 2x: the 2 from the chain rule cancels the ½. Here 3x2 + 1 needs 6x: 7x(3x 2 + dx 6 7 us (3x2 + 1)46x dx u4 dx Now integrate: . The change of variables (dummy variables anyway!) leaves an easy integral. (2) Squeezing the graph by c divides the area by c. Substitute u(x) back into this antiderivative f.5. The rule for any nonzero constant is similar: Sv(x + c) dx =f(x EXAMPLE 14 + c) and v(cx) dx= f (cx). many people just write du: S(3X 2 + 1) 4 6x dx = u4 du = u5 + C. The exponent 5 cancels 5 in the denominator. But most will remain impossible forever. and we also switch from dx to du.sin 2 x have no "elementary" antiderivative. Those integrals are well defined and they come up in applicationsthe latter gives the distance . Integrate J v(u) du to find f(u) + C 4.+ C(3 65 6 7 (3X 2 + 1)5 5 + C. and then u turns back into 3x 2 + 1. or v(u) times du 3. The last graph has half of du/dx = 2x. Choose u(x) and compute du/dx 2. The factor du/dx from the chain rule is absolutely needed. it is a good idea to get du/dx where you need it. to reach du. 5 (3) Check the derivative at the end. The functions cos x 2 and 1/ 4 . but we put it there by multiplying and dividing by 2.. required factor 2 is missing in J cos 2x dx.
22 dyldx = y 2 (try y = cxn) 24 dyldx = l / J n 43 If f(t) is an antiderivative of v(t). 1 1J2$x. 2x dx/(l + x2) The antiderivative of v dv/dx is leads to J q . P . Since 2x is missing. In terms of u the integral is Returning to x gives the final answer. + + 5 Find the indefinite integrals in 120. + J. 21 dyldx = x2 41 The acceleration d2 f /dt2 = 9. / g dt 14 1 t 3 & 7 dt 16 J (1 + x312)& dx 12 18 38 j (x2 + 1)'dx is not &(x2 1)) but 39 + . The derivative of (sin x ) is ~ b . find antiderivatives of 23 dyldx = J1Zx (a) v(t + 3) (b) v(t) 3 (c) 3v(t) (d) v(3t). which we don't yet know. But we can fix up n: + n cos u + C = . when f is an antiderivative of v: 2(x) C (a) J f(x)(dv/dx) dx =if (b) j v(v(x))(dvIdx)dx =f(V(X)) +C (c) Integral is inverse to derivative so f (v(x))= x (d) Integral is inverse to derivative so J (df /dx) dx =f (x) + If 7 d f /dx = v(x) then v(x .y d 2 ~ / d x= 2 26 dyldx = x/y 28 d y/dx5 = 1 30 dy/dx = 5 fi 32 (dyldx)' = & True or false. when f is an antiderivative of v: ( 4 1v ( W ) dx =f (u(x))+ C (b) J v2(x) dx = ff 3(x) C (c) j v(x)(du/dx)dx =f ( ~ ( x ) ) C (d) J v(x)(dv/dx)dx = 4 f 2(x)+ C The best substitutions for 1tan (x + 3) sec2(x + 3)dx and J ( ~ ~ + l ) ' ~ xare d xu= I and u = k . The answers are n and 0 . / = dx (always C) + True or false.. Readthrough questions Finding integrals by substitution is the reverse of the a rule.I) dx = 11 13 15 1t3 d t / J g J (I + &) dx/& 1t .I) dx = and and 1cos3x sin x dx 9 1cos3 2x sin 2x dx Jd t / J s 8 1cos x dx/sin3x 36 If 10 J cos3x sin 2x dx df /dx = v(x) then . Therefore the antide~ x dx. That can be computed to tremendous accuracy. dyldx = lly d2y/dx2= 1 d2y/dx2= . Then duldx = f h = I .cos nx n 1 + C. rivative of c is d . v(x2)xdx = 1v(2x . The exercises concentrate on substitutions. .5 Integrals around an ellipse. To compute (1 + sin x ) cos so substitute substitute u = e . which need and deserve practice. Then du= I and m . (two 17 19 J sec x tan x dx j sec2x tan2x dx J 2x dx/(x2+ 1) is J du which will soon be In u.8 gives f (t) = integration constants). but not to perfect accuracy. 1cos x tan x dx 20 J sin3x dx 40 Show that 12x3dx/(l +x ~= j ) (U~ . u = x2 1 does not work. du = g . + . 42 The solution to d 4 ~ / d x= 4 0 is (four constants). The integral J dx/(l + x2) is known immediately as r . dx (add + C) 2 1. We give a nonexample1 (x2 + dx does not equal i ( x 2 + l)3to emphasize the need for duldx.1) du/u3 = In 2132 find a function y(x) that solves the differential equation.
the equation gives the area from a to b. You may think we should have defined integrals before computing themwhich is logically true. pay attention to the great formula of integral calculus: lab Iab ~ ( tdt ) = V(X) d~ =f (b) f (a). Viewpoint 1: When f is known. check that d f /dx is v. For a typical v(x). Changing the example to f (x) = (x + . For mileage traveled." The constant is not settled because f (x) + C has the same slope for every C.1. Every continuous function v(x) has an integral (also some discontinuous functions). v(t) dt =f (x) f (a) (indefinite integral) the area from a to x is 1 the a m a f r o a to b is EXAMPLE I v(x) dx =f (b) f (a) (definite integral) The area under the graph of 5(x + 1)4 from a to b has f (x) = (x + 1)': The calculation has two separate stepsfirst find f (x).the area between a and b. When the goal is a numbera definite integralC can be assigned a definite value at the starting point. This section does the same for area. Then the Fundamental Theorem completes the circle: The integral leads back to dfldx = u(x). When we care only about the derivative. The object is to define the integralin the most frequent case when a suitable f (x) is not directly known. Don't pay attention to t or x. The upper limit in the second step gives plus f (b). C makes no difference. THE CONSTANT OF INTEGRATION Our goal is to turn f (x) + C into a definite integral. (2) For the area up to x (moving endpoint. Viewpoint 2: When f is not known. leading to the definition of the integral.f(a) x31: = 8 .5 The Deflnlte Integral 201 T h e Definite lntearal The integral of v(x) is an antiderivative f(x) plus a constant C. we can't find f (x) by guessing or substitution. First. we subtract the reading at the start. The indefinite integral contains " + C. the equation defines f from the area. we choose C. Distance is f(t) and area is f(x)while the definite integral is f (b) f (a). The first requirement is to have area = zero at the start: f (a) + C = starting area = 0 so C = f (a). Second.5. indefinite integral).1 gives an equally good antiderivative . After the first step. But still v(x) has an "area" under its graphand this yields the desired integral f (x). use t as the dummy variable: . we construct f (x). Most of this section is theoretical. The area up to x is the antiderivative that we couldn't otherwise discover. Now we go much further. Notice the brackets (or the vertical bar): f(x)]: =f(b). But the idea of area (and the use of rectangles) was already pretty clear in our first examples. the lower limit gives minus f(a). This section takes two steps. then substitute b and a.1 [cos XI:'=cos 2t .
. the minimum of v(x) is mk. But most problems involving the chain rule go more slowlyby substitution. (In this case a ' = O2 and b2 = 32 = 9.l .cos x2. We will not go back to those formulas. b] into n subintervals [a. But for other functions. Example 2 jumped directly to f ( x )= . It can be studied in detail. EXAMPLE 4 1 : sin x2 dx = ?? (no elementaryfunction gives this integral).(a 1)'.11: = ((b+ 1)' .+ n2. Set u = x2. which is + cos 0.. In this case u = x2 + 5. [x. The length of subinterval k is Ax. The alternative is to find f ( x )= Q(x2 + 5)4 in one jump (and check it). or understood in principle. the chain rule produces an extra 2xno adjustment will work. because the . But f (b)f (a)stays the same. x 2 ] . b].The maximum is M. Does sin x2 still have an antiderivative? Yes! Every continuous v(x) has an f (x)..1 disappears: [ ( x + 1)' ... with duldx = 2x: IO3 2x sin x2 dx = lo3 du sin u . The endpoints are xo = a and x. The limits on u = x2 + 5 are u(0)= O2 + 5 and u(1)= 1 ' + 5. divide up the interval from a to b. then u goesfrom ~ ( ato ) u(b). Step 1 Problem Integrate the continuousfunction v(x)over the interval [a. x2. The chapter started with the integrals of x and x2.(. [xn. That limit is the integral.. m e area from 0 to 3 is + The upper limit copies the minus sign..1) . we can write it as J v(x)dx.cos x2.) Z f x goes from a to b.. x.Whether f ( x ) has an algebraic formula or not.. That example shows the right form for solving exercises on dejkite integrals.((a+ 1)' . we now take the limit of rectangular areas. from formulas for 1 + .and now f (0)= 0. = b.]. Therefore duldx = 2x (or du = 2x dx for differentials).cos 0). Split [a. We have to account for the missing 2.1)= (b + 1)' .+ n and l 2 + .b]. the rectangular areas also approach a limit. . If we try cos x2. To define that integral. The truth is that the definition is not so painfulyou virtually know it already. . This definition is a major step in the theory of calculus. We need new limits when u replaces x2. The "meshpoints" x. = xk .. too irregular to find exact sums. EXAMPLE 2 When v = 2x sin x2 we recognize f = . Those limits on u are a ' and b2.dx = dx sin u du. INTEGRALS AS LIMITS O F "RIEMANN SUMS" We have come to the definition of the integral.. The lower limit gives .. . The integral is Qu4. In that smaller interval.xk. That is why the uintegral goes from 5 to 6.
Similarly the upper sum decreases. LI nl. When it exists. Remark 1 The sums s and S may fail to approach the same limit. If v(x) is continuous. Riemann sum S* is in between. They never pass each other. (5) The area under v(x) is contained in the area "S" of the upper rectangles: MAx + M2 Ax 2 + + MAxn= S.9a shows why s < area < S. 5. (6) The lower sum s and the upper sum S were computed earlier in special caseswhen v was x or x 2 and the spacings Ax were equal. so for integrals: The definition involves a limit. "I· r. h X r. Important: The area under v(x) contains the area "s" of the lower rectangles: 203 fb v(x) dx > m fbv(x) dx Ax1 + m2Ax 2 + + m. Figure 5. That number is the definite integralthe area under the graph. A is the "Riemann integral" of v(x) from a to b. The maximum in one piece can be below the overall maximum. A standard example has V(x) = 1 at all fractions x = p/q. those sums close in on a single number A. Now add more and more meshpoints in such a way that Axmax + 0. The lower sums increase and the upper sums decrease. and also for some discontinuous functions.A and S + A as Axmax + 0. = s. and V(x) = 0 at all other points..5. nx. The "upper rectangle" reaches to Mk.9 Area of lower rectangles = s. Upper sum S includes top pieces. REMARKS ON THE INTEGRAL As for derivatives. "L·rl k Mk p. When a new dividing point x' is added. s goes up and S comes down. Notice an important fact. Every . DEFINITION The area A is the common limit of the lower and upper sums: s . As new points are added. I hope the next five remarks (increasingly technical) will help to distinguish functions that are Riemann integrable from functions that are not.x a r. The minimum in one piece can be greater (see second figure) than the original mk. and we always add "if the limit exists. Since v is continuous. Calculus is built on limits. So the sums come closer together: s < s' < IS' < S. X . A•v v(x (X)1 )V (1 m 3.5 The Definite Integral Now construct rectangles. (7) I have left space in between for the curved areathe integral of v(x). (8) This limit A exists for all continuous v(x). the lower sum increases." That is the delicate point. there are points Xmin and Xmax where v = mk and v = Mk (extreme value theorem). The "lower rectangle" over interval k has height mk. Fig. The graph of v(x) is in between.
/I min max mid any x k Fig.. Remark 3 With patience another key step could be proved: If s + A and S + A for one sequence of meshpoints. where S and s come together.10). That jump interval has mk = 0 and Mk = 1. Very often A is closer to S* than to s or S. the areas differ by less than 2e(AXk). the upper and lower sums differ by less than 2e(Ax 1 + Ax 2 + . and require Axmax + 0. The lower sum is always s = 0. But when we multiply by Axk. The gap in equation (7) stays open.a (the sum of 1's times Ax's). Then the total rectangular area is a "Riemann sum" between s and S: S= v(x )Ax 1 + v(x*)Ax 2 + . bounded below. See Figures 5. As e + 0 we conclude that S comes arbitrarily close to s.. and it is the upper bound of all possible sprovided those bounds are equal.. but it belongs here for reference. We have to know that the line of real numbers has no "holes. 0. The area under a step function is clearthe rectangles fit exactly. (9) We cannot tell whether the true area is above or below S*. On every interval the minimum mk equals the maximum Mkexcept on the interval containing the jump.. Every continuous function is Riemann integrable.10. It starts with continuity at x*: "For any e there is a 6 . Multiplying by the base Axk. The decreasing sequence S." so there is a number A to which these sequences converge. The extreme sums s and S are used in the definition while S* is used in computation. " When the rectangles sit between x* .9c and 5.. the bounds Mk and mk differ by less than 2e. The rectangles have height v(x*). Two problems are hidden by that reasoning. The integral is the lower bound of all upper sums S.. The same limit A is approached by "inbetween rectangles. then this limit A is approached by every choice of meshpoints with Axmax . So A exists. The upper sum is always S = b .10 Remark 4 Various positions for x*' in the base. Therefore mk = 0 and Mk = 1. This function V(x) is not Riemann integrable. the difference between s and S goes to zero. to define the integral. The area under its graph is not defined (at least by Riemannsee Remark 5). Any increasingsequence.204 5 Integrals interval contains rational points (fractions) and irrational points (nonrepeating decimals). The other problem is about continuity.a). They squeeze in on a single number A. That is true. One is at the end. ifv is continuous..)= 2e(b . The midpoint rule takes x * in the middle of its interval (Figure 5. The proof is optional (in my class)." The height v(x*) can be computed at any point x* in subinterval k.6 and x* + 6. + v(x*)Ax. We assumed without saying so that the . Remark 2 The step function U(x) is discontinuous but still integrable. approaches a limit. 5. + Ax. and Section 5. V (X )/ 0 right /4"" . The gap must close. if it is bounded above. converges to the same limit. Combining all rectangles.8 will establish its extra accuracy. The Riemann sums approach the Riemann integral.
If u(x) = dfldx. Thus cos x]: equals e . all q = 1. Substituting u = 2x . v(x) dx =f (4) + C The integral J. The upper rectangle with base Ax.5 EXERCISES Readthrough questions In J : v(t) dt =f (x) + C. collecting the rules that are needed in applications. On an infinite interval. even if we can't find a simple i . works everywhereso v = x2 is uniformly continuous. Therefore the next section turns from definition to properties. 1. again to allow more functions). The definition of the integral is still being studied by experts (and so is the derivative. This fact (proof omitted) makes the reasoning correct.. We did not allow for the possibility that 6 might approach zero where v(x) is rapidly changingin which case an infinite number of rectangles could be needed.5. what constants C make 110 true? 1 Jn Jb. Then all fractions can be covered with intervals of total width E.q/q by narrow intervals of total width ~ 1 2Combining ~. At x = b the integral becomes c . x2. The notation f ($1: means d . Here X$ is any point between t . (Amazing. Our reasoning requires that v(x) is unifomly continuous: 6 depends on E but not on the position of x*. . That completes a fair amount of theory. but the irrational numbers (where V(x) = 0) are "uncountable.6)2= 4x*6. the properties of the integral are used by everybody.) The idea is to cover 1/q. named after s . The lower sum s is n . when the fractions are packed so densely. the choice 6 = ~ / 4 b Remark 5 If those four remarks were fairly optional.quals t . . He allowed infinitely many subintervals (smaller and smaller). 2/q. 6 must get smallera subinterval by (x* + ~ 5to keep 4x*6 below E. The upper sum S is equal to m . divide [a.1 changes J: dx into h (with limits on u)." The integral ought to be zero.. v(sin x) cos x dx =f (sin b) + C v(t) dt =f (t) + C (careful) 6 dfldx = v(x) 7 +C dx=j:.b U(X) dx can be defined for any I function v(x). 5. and S* = u approaches the area. Somehow V has more 0's than 1's. the upper sum S is only E. The o is between s and S. Modern mathematics needs to integrate the zeroone function V(x) in the first remark.. The fractions (where V(x) = 1) can be put in a list. Also [cos x + 3]". u3du. If S and s 3 4 5 1 : v(t) dt = f (x) + C J:. And since E was arbitrary. b] into subintervals of length Axk= k . By contrast.. Lebesgue discovered a major improvement. but Riemann's upper sums all involve M . approach the same r . even v = x2 is not uniformly continuous.5 The Definite Integral width 26 is the same around every point x*. possibly more than you want or needbut it is satisfying to get things straight. b]. use rectangles of height v(x. = 1.the total + $ + $ + . the constant C equals a . But on a finite interval [O.*). which shows why the antiderivative includes an arbitrary Q . It changes across ) (x* ~ . . (x2l)j2x . has height Mk= 1 .)= E. Then at x = a the integral is b . As more meshpoints are added.2. As x* gets larger. The intermediate sums S*. Since V(x) = 0 width to cover all fractions is no more than E(& everywhere else. A continuousfunction on a closed interval is uniformly continuous..that defines the integral. 3. No single 6 succeeds at all x*. and v(x) is integrable. S P and s q . They are very straightforward. the "Lebesgue integral" is zero as desired. this one is totally at your discretion.. V(X) dx =f (b) + C 2 j. For each E there is a 6 that works at all points in the interval.. First the meshpoints xl..
Ax = l/n and each xf is the midpoint. 23 Repeat 19 and 20 with Ax = 4 and compare with the cor rect answer. The average of n numbers is clear. (d) If vl(x) v2(x)= u3(x).X)dx = C (change x to t. find f (x). .< b. (e) If vl(x) v2(x)= u3(x). then all Riemann sums S* in equation (9) also approach A. (f) The midpoint sum is the average of S and s.s in 21 is the area 23Ax of the far right rectangle. .001. explain f (x) = 31 (a) If df /dx = 1 : v(t) dt. The integral was defined in order to be used. We now collect together seven basic properties of defirrite integrals. v(x) dx = C v(2t) dt. Draw a rough graph with M(0) = 0 and M(1) = 1. ' 1 5.8 9 I : ' v(t) dt =f (x2)+ C 26 Find the Riemann sum S* for V(x) in Remark 1. with reason or example. Find Ax so that S < 4. For Ax = .V(X) and f(I) = 0.10 gives the exact area With Ax = 3 in 1922.4. 33 True or false...6 Properties of the Integral and Average Value m The previous section reached the definition of 1 : v(x) dx. and the integral extends that ideait produces the average of a whole continuum of numbers v(x). 25 If v(x) is increasing for a . and its applications are even more important. (a) Every continuous v(x) has an antiderivative f (x). There is only one function v(x). That is the first (not surprising) property in the list. What is the area under the graph? 30 If dfldx = . The addition rule for [v(x) + w(x)] dx will not be repeatedeven though this property of linearity is the most fundamental. We start instead with a different kind of addition. (c) If S and s approach A as Ax + 0.< x . their upper sums satisfy S1 +S2 =S3.x ) dx ~ (u = 1 . (b) If d f /dx = + v(x) and f (3) = 0.. Is W(x) integrable? 28 Suppose M(x) is a multistep function with jumps of 3. find the maximum Mk and minimum mk and upper and lower sums S and s. the difference S .x) 12 29 For M(x) in Problem 28 find the difference S . (x2+ l)lOxdx 13 El4tan x sec2x dx 11 15 sec2'xtan x dx 17 1 : dx/x (take u = l/x) 1 " : sin8x cos x dx 14 1 . x3(1. Those areas approach zero. + v(x) and f (0) = 3. f . This S* is wellbehaved but still V(x) is not Riemann integrable. b] is Riemann integrable. The definition was chosen so that the integral has properties that make the applications possible. (g) One xf in Figure 5. (b) If v(x) is not continuous. Choose u(x) in 1118 and change l i m i t s . 1 . when 1 : v(. This develops from the last rule in the following list (Property 7). xdx/Jm' 18 1 . at the points x = +.s (which approaches zero as Ax * 0). and elsewhere W(x) = 0. their Riemann sums at the midpoints xf satisfy Sf + S t = ST. x2"+' dx (take u = x2) 16 1 . So every increasing function on [a. Their sum is the integral from a to c. 1 . but now there are two intervals. 19 21 32 In your own words define the integral of v(x) from a to b. . The integralfrom a to b is added to its neighborfrom b to c.. Compute the integral in 1116. 27 W(x) equals S at x = 3. find f (x).&. Its properties are important. (x' + 114dx x3 dx 20 22 sin 2nx dx x dx.4. 24 The difference S . With Ax = 5 find S and s.s is the + + area of the rectangle minus the area of the rectangle...O1 find the upper sum S. But the subject cannot stop there. 4. 4. .. S and s approach different limits. also dx and limits) 10 1 .. One direct application is to the average value of v(x).
Rectangular areas obey (1)with a meshpoint at x = b to make sure. Curious fact: Odd function times even function is odd.x) = . Areas cancel: j•a 6x d= x]'. Property 2 fb v(x) dx = 0. change sign to go backward. v(x) dx = O0. Proof When c = a the right side of (1) is zero. these powers change sign.5. but odd number times even number is even. which we expect to be zero. dt = 1 _=0 "Odd" means that v(. so the one from b to b must be zero.. together with their inverses. and a minus sign on the integral (Figure 5. 5.. x 5. It is. "Even" means that v(.x) = + v(x). c. Property 1 is worth pursuing.. It indicates how to define the integral when a = b. Next we see what happens if c = awhich makes the second integral go from b to a.a)6 = 0. All the normal rules for rectangularareas are obeyed in the limit by integrals. The functions sin x and tan x are also odd. odd cancels. .a to a equals zero. For even functions. (1) 207 J This sum of areas is graphically obvious (Figure 5.a) = 2 sin a. b. The "upper limit" a is smaller.. It also comes from the formal definition of the integral. v(x) = . If x changes sign. . EXAMPLES t2 dt = .6 Properties of the Integral and Average Value Property 1 Areas over neighboring intervals add to the area over the combined interval: v(x) dx + I' v(x) dx = J v(x) dx.1 1b). Then the integrals on the left side must cancel.. Property 4 For odd functions Ja. That justifies a minus sign on the rectangular areas. If v(x) is odd then f(x) is even! All powers 1. For even functions •a v(x) dx = 2 fo v(x) dx. x4 . a6 (. The integral "from b to b" is the area over a point.sin(. their limits also obey (1). x3 .1 la). That comes from Property 1 when c = b. In goingfrom b to a the steps Ax are negative. which is Property 3.v(x) a o _ c a 1 o x x x I Fig. Going backward reverses the sign: Property 3 fa v(x) dx =  f~ v(x) dx =f(a)f(b). This is an important family of functions. What happens when an integralgoes backward? The "lower limit" is now the larger number b. The functions x.11 Properties 14: Add areas. Conclusion: Property 1 holds for any ordering of a. and the integralof an odd function from . x 2. are odd. When Axmax approaches zero. are even functions. even adds. areas add: J"a cos x dx = sin a .v(x). Equation (1) has two identical integrals.
" (4) With f' = v.5 Integrals The next properties involve inequalities. Then the rectangular area. The inequalities were needed to compute the derivatives (therefore the integrals) in the first place. We need the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to guarantee that f(x) = f v(t) dt really gives f'= v. Property 7 (Mean Value Theorem for Integrals) If v(x) is continuous.12 Properties 57: v above zero. A direct proof of (3)places one rectangle across the interval trom a to b.12) is between the areas under I and u: Property 6 If 1(x) < v(x) < u(x) for a < x < b then 1(x) dx II EXAMPLE 1 cos t<1 =~ a v(x) dx ~ ~ a u(x) dx.x < x. (3) and (4) are the same equation. At some height the area will be just rightequal to the area under the curve. Examples 12 seem to give new and shorter proofs. the area under v (Figure 5. Now we have a proof: The lower sums s are positive and they increase toward the area integral. .a) times v(c). = (2) x cosC t dt I 1 dt sin x EXAMPLE 2 1 sec 2 t =• 1 dt <• sec 2 tdtdt 1 2 x <tanx EXAMPLE 3 Integrating 1 1 leads to tan. But honesty makes me admit to a flaw in the logic. This is equation (3). All those examples are for x > 0.4 used geometry to prove sin h < h < tan h. So the integral is positive: Property 5 If v(x) > 0 for a < x < b then J v(x) dx > 0. 5." (3) This is the same as the ordinary Mean Value Theorem (for the derivative of f(x)): f'(c) f(b) f(a) ba (a) average slope of f. If v(x) is positive. A positive velocity means a positive distance. Vave Fig. You may remember that Section 2. v between 1and u. But I think the reasoning is doubtful. there is a point c between a and b where v(c) equals the average value of v(x): (cv(c)ba I a v(x) dx = "average value of v(x). equals the curved area Jf v(x) dx. the area under its graph is positive (not surprising). Then the rectangles for v stay between the rectangles for 1 and u. Suppose v(x) stays between a lower function 1(x) and an upper function u(x). In the limit. Now raise the top of that rectangle. starting at Vmin (the bottom of the curve) and moving up to vmax (the top of the curve). average value (+ balances ). A positive v lies above a positive area. which is (b . A more general statement is true.
which is the same as f x .5. The integral is f (x) = i x .6 Properties o f the Integral and Average Value / u(x)=x u(x>= x2 u(x) = sin2x = v(c) Fig. The steady term is f . where sin2 c = $. which are terrific for numerical integration as Section 5. Integration is parallel to summation! Sums approach integrals. Discrete averages . 7  Where does this function x2 equal its average value f? That happens when c2 = f . See the figure or the formula: sin2 x = f . It is a major application of the integral.13b.4 cos 2x. and it is guided by the ordinary average of n numbers: Vave = V(X) dx comes from uave = . EXAMPLE 5 The average value of x2 is f (between 1 and . THE AVERAGE VALUE AND EXPECTED VALUE The "average value" from a to b is the integral divided by the length b . = 0. but not explained. It is the center point x = 0.a) = average height at some c.). At some point (at two points in Figure 5. . so c can be either of the points I/& and .(vl + v2 + n 1 .. EXAMPLE 6 The average value of sin2 x over a period (zero to n) is i : (note .1/J? in Figure 5.. This integral of sin2 x will be seen again.f cos 2x.13 shows equal areas above and below the average height v(c) = vaVe.1): (note .. This was computed for x and x2 and sin2 x...8 will show. and v. EXAMPLE 4 The average value of an odd function is zero (between  1 and 1): For once we know c. The graph of sin2x oscillates around its average value f . Figure 5. the oscillation is .i sin x cos x. That direct proof uses the intermediate value theorem: A continuous function v(x) takes on every height between v. 5.12~) the function v(x) equals its own average value. where v(c) = vav. Please verify that df /dx = sin2x. 7 (5) The point c is n/4 or 344.13 Mean Value Theorem for integrals: area/(b . Those are the Gauss points..sin 2x.a. + v.
Now comes continuous probability. 3 is 3.. 3 is 3." Since a whole continuum of numbers lies between 0 and 1. PREDlClABLE AVERAGES F R O M RANDOM EVENTS Suppose you throw a pair of dice. The average value of the squares of those numbers is (x2). This means all numbersnot just integers.9 and 7.5 Integrals approach continuous averages. (Those fractions add to 36/36. and come back to it in Chapter 8. 4. Otherwise why throw them? But the average over more and more throws is totally predictable. Beside each outcome we can write its probability: To repeat. The outcome is not predictable. The average of 4. The average of n numbers from l/n to n/n is The middle term gives the average.000. you get an A. and the average is not between 6. when n is odd. n has .oo the sum approaches an integral (do you see the rectangles?).$. The ordinary average of numbers becomes the continuous average of v(x) = x: 1 n + l +2n 2 and Iol x dx = (note bo 1 ) In ordinary language: "The average value of the numbers between 0 and 1 is 4. that statement is meaningless until we have integration.000.000 and 12. For dice. its expected value is 5 and its expected square is 3. Use the random number generator on a computer and round off to integers.000. but we know its probability. we are adding two numbers between 1 and 6. We introduce it briefly here.3.) The total from a million rolls is even more unpredictableit can be anywhere between 2. = x2dx/(b . why is the expected square equal to 3 instead of i? The ideas come from probability theory. This expected value is found by adding the products in that line above: Expected value: multiply (outcome) times (probability o f outcome) and add: I f you throw the dice 1000 times. Only the probabilities are known. Ifyou pick a number randomly between 0 and 1. and calculus is leading us to continuous probability. all possibilities are covered." Second.a) = 4. Or we can do the addition. and they add to 1. we don't expect the number to be exactly &so we need to define "expected value. As n.1. What is the probability of hitting the particular number x = n? It is zero! By any reasonable measure. The probability of 2 is the chance of two ones: (1/6)(1/6)= 1/36.. We don't know what will happen. if the expected value is 9. To me that sentence is a puzzle. one roll is unpredictable. The average of f . %. Suppose all numbers between 2 and 12 are equally probable. The outcome is between 2 and 12. Nevertheless the average of those million outcomes is almost completely predictable. First.
That is a big jump. The second step comes after more calculus. It is more accurate to use 20 intervals of length 112 and probability 1/20. add up each outcome times the probability of that outcome. Similarly. To the hostess. I will show quickly how that happens. In the continuous case. But a random student sees it differently. A random professor has expected class size 29. As Ax + 0 they approach an integral. These are rectangular areas (Riemann sums). The integral of xp(x) is x. the expected value.6 Properties of the Integral and Average Value no chance to occur. First divide 2 to 12 into intervals of length Ax = 1 and probability p = 1/10. it is a limit of sums. Suppose there are 95 classes of 20 students and 5 classes of 200 students. From the point of view of probability. = 7. This completes a first step in probability theory. it is 10 minutes. The probability is 1900/2900 of being in a small class and 1000/2900 of being in a large class. Here we end with the expected values of xn and I/& and l/x.5. every x has probability zero. The integral of p(x) is 1. or even 2. but the average is predictable. But that is virtually impossible. the average is 63: Here all outcomes are integers (as with dice).5. From the point of view of integration. Traffic problems could be eliminated by raising the average number of people per car to 2. but if you are a random customer it is 40. Adding class size times probability gives the expected class size for the student: (20) (E) + (200) (IWO) 2900 2900 = 82 students in the class. If you came at a random time it would be 10. because some outcome must happen. The average is 6$. and you see what is coming. the average waiting time at a restaurant seems like 40 minutes (to the customer). and this problem has p(x) = 1/10. while most students are in large classes most of the time. Decaying probabilities use e" and e"'then the chance of a large x is very small. Part of the problem is the .. Each choice of x is random. The probability of an outcome between x and x + dx is p(x) dx. the chance of each outcome is zero but the probability density at x is p(x) = 1/10.. The average outcome in the continuous case is not a sum but an integral: expected value E(x) = dx x2 xp(x) dx = S212 x 10= 20]2 l2 = 7. If we round off x. for a random choice between 0 and 1 (so p(x) = 1): A CONFUSION A B O U T "EXPECTED" CLASS SIZE A college can advertise an average class size of 29. The total enrollment in 100 classes is 1900 + 1000 = 2900. who averages over the whole day. But an interval of x's has a nonzero probability: the probability of an outcome between 2 and 3 is 1/10 the probability of an outcome between x and x + Ax is Ax110 To find the average.
. How many values of x2 are above and below? If possible repeat ten times. explain from Property 6 why j : I. 9 The minimum of 10 The value of S". The integral v(x) dx equals b . If < x then v(x) dx < d . . its expected value is k . Percentage (b) is smaller. 3. 16 (a) Antiderivatives of even functions are odd functions.... If x is chosen from 1 < x < 9. 23 The average of v(x) = 1/(1+ x 2 ) on the interval [0. It is equal to u(c) at a point x = c which is f . 13 On the symmetric interval 1 < x < 1. 21 What function has vave (from 0 to x) equal to $ v(x) at all x? What functions have vave = v(x) at all x? 22 (a) If v(x) is increasing.vave is an (a) What is the average distance Y up to the semicircle? (b) Why is this different from Problem 27? Buffon needle odd function. b] as b + co. . The average of V(x) = approaches x2/(1+ x2) approaches . The average value of v(x) on V(X) the interval 1 < x < 9 is defined by . 5. 7 with equal probabilities $.. (b) Squares of odd functions are odd functions. It equals 0 . If x is chosen from 1.334. 27 A point P is chosen randomly along a semicircle (see 11 The average value from x = 0 to x = 3 equals $(vaVe on 0 < x < 1) + 3(vav.v(x) d x l 6 Iv(x)l dx. is than 20 (a) Which property of integrals proves ji v(x) dx < If x is chosen from 1.+ vJn also approaches zero. 28 A point Q is chosen randomly between 1 and 1. In 16 find the average value of v(x) between a and b..8) dx = O ? 18 If f (2) = 6 and f (6) = 2 then the average of df /dx from .. Readthrough questions The integrals v(x) dx and v(x) dx add to a .. and find all points c where vave = v(c). lu. (b) Take derivatives of both sides for a second proof.333 and . v(t) dt is at x = 4. 25 Find the average distance from x = a to points in the interval 0 < x < 2. most people would be in crowded cars.v.a) is the average value of f (x) figure: equal probability for equal arcs). 14 If l(x) < v(x) < u(x) then dlldx < dvldx < duldx.l. The reason is c . The rectangle across this interval with height v(c) has the same area as g . the average of Ivll. .I dx? (b) Which property proves j". approach zero as n + co prove that their average (vl + . What is the average distance y from the x axis? The radius is 1. The chance of falling between x and x + dx is p(x) dx = m . 8 with probabilities i.. In practice. x=2tox=6is 19 (a) The averages of cos x and lcos xl from 0 to n are 1. 2. its expected value (average) is 1 . v(t) dt does not depend on x.. The expected value E(x) is the integral n . 24 If the positive numbers v. v(x) . 1: v(x) dx < j: Iv(x)l dx? Together these are Property 8: 11. 12 The ratio (f (b) f (a))/(b. the chance of hitting an integer is I . The expected value of x2 is 1 ..5 Integrals difference between (a) the percentage of cars with one person and (b) the percentage of people alone in a car.(t) dt < xv(x) for x > 0. The average value of u(x) = x + 1 on the interval 1 < x < 9 is h 17 What number 8 gives ! j (v(x).. . Is the formula different if a < 2? 26 (Computer experiment) Choose random numbers x Are 916 true or false? Give a reason or an example. between 0 and 1 until the average value of x2 is between .(x. See Problems 3738. (b) The average of the numbers v. ona<x<b. 15 The average of v(x) from 0 to 2 plus the average from 2 to 4 equals the average from 0 to 4.on 1 < x < 3).
averag. 36 Prove from the definition of dfldx that it is an odd function if f (x) is even. we have an indefinite integral. adding to G. . Find Kvefrom 0 to t.v(x)) is always odd. what is the chance that its coordinates have yZ < x? 33 The voltage V(t) = 220 cos 2n. = $(v(x). we have a definite integral. The chance of an individual belonging to size is group 1 is . since integrals are harder than derivatives.7 The Fundamental Theorem and Its Applications 29 (A classic way to compute n.) A 2" needle is tossed onto a floor with boards 2" wide. 15 seconds each: (a) If f (x) < g(x) then df ldx 6 dgldx. We do not require or expect a formula for f (x)it is the area out to the point x. 213 37 Suppose four classes have 6.10. (xl /G) + . 31 If you roll three dice at once. The derivative df ldx equals the original v(x). *Prove Z: X?/G 2 G/n. When the upper limit is a variable point x. Integrate it from a fixed point a to a variable point x. It is Part 2 that we use most./G). The chance of being in the first class is ing . It is a function of x! The Fundamental Theorem says that this area function has a derivative (another limiting process). beyond the standard problem of area under a curve.) 30 If Buffon's needle has length 2x instead of 2.. write (x as an even function plus an odd function. The expected size of his or her group is E(x) = x. (b) If df /dx 6 dgldx then f (x) < g(x). + and l/(x + 1) v(x) dx =f (4) f (0) = . Therefore we can find its derivative. (This happens when cos 8 > y = distance from midpoint of needle to nearest crack. the average . . shade the part where cos 8 > y and find the fraction of area that is shaded. Find the probability of falling across a crack. d waveon all intervals then u(x) 6 w(x) at all points. this integral f(x) is a number. Correct the mistake.+ x. Compute 42 Why are there equal areas above and below vave? 5. The expected class size (for the student) is 38 With groups of sizes xl . Integrals can add up rings and triangles and shellsnot just rectangles. More generally: When the endpoints depend in any way on x.. True or false. After the proofs we go to new applications.t/60 has frequency 60 hertz and amplitude 220 volts.5.  + T H EF U N D A M E N T A L THEOREM.8..(x)= $(v(x) + u(x)) is always even.x.7 T h e Fundamental Theorem and Its Applications When the endpoints are fixed at a and b. (c) xv(x) is odd if v(x) is even..O < y 6 1. 34 (a) Show that veve. We also compute the derivative when the integral goes from a(x) to b(x)both limits variable. Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem reverses the order: Integral ofderivative o f f equals f C .2) find f (x). (d) If v. P A R T1 Start with a continuous function v . and 40 students. the integral is a function of x. For each x. The answer can be a volume or a probabilitynot just an area.(x. with help from the Mean Value Theorem. This requires the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. 41 If v(x) = Ix . If v(x) = Thus x2 for x < 3 2x for x < 3 then f(x) = 2x for x > 3 x2 for x > 3 ' u(x) dx. 0 < y 6 1.16.. find the probability P(x) of falling across the same cracks. (b) Show that vOdd(x) 35 By Problem 34 or otherwise. what are the probabilities of each outcome between 3 and 18? What is the expected value? 32 If you choose a random point in the square 0 6 x < 1. In the rectangle 0 6 8 < 7r/2. That will follow quickly from Part 1. The essence of the Theorem is: Derivative of integral of v equals v.
the lower limit moves.5 Integrals The dummy variable is written as t.14. \ + A. When x moves. so we can concentrate on the limits. That area is approximately v(x) times Ax. ( ." Then df ldx is the height at v(x). has area Af. AflAx is close to the height v(x).= v(x). this is Property 1.1.v) f(.0. The area out to x + Ax minus the area out to x equals ~f= the small part from x to x + Ax. umin and vmax approach v(x). The limit of equation (2) is the Fundamental Theorem: Af + d f Ax dx and v(c) + u(x) SO . then f (x) has a corner where dfldx is not v(x). Ax Ax I This is Property 7. This point c is somewhere between x and x + Ax (exact position not known). the Mean Value Theorem for integrals. not on t. As Ax  j . the derivative is v(x). When Ax * 0 and the strip becomes infinitely thin.instead of a to x. DERIVATIVES WITH VARIABLE ENDPOINTS When the upper limit is x. the expression "close to" converges to "equals. (1) Officially. The average value on this short interval equals v(c).d tp Af * = u(."+Ax ~ ( t dt ) . . and we let Ax approach zero. The thin strip in Figure 5. Why assume that v(x) is continuous? Because if v is a step function. To find df ldx. v(t) dt = v(t) dt.14 Fundamental Theorem. We could skip the Mean Value Theorem and simply bound v above and below: for t between x and x + Ax: integrate over that interval: umin 6 ~ ( t )G Vmax G vmaxAx vminAx Q A f (4) . Dividing by its base. The integral goes from x to 6.\+AX Fig.u)A. Graphical meaning The fgraph gives the area under the vgraph. Part 1: (thin area Af)/(base length Ax) + height u(x). start with A f =f (x + Ax) f (x) = diflerence of areas: I. df dx If Ax is negative the reasoning still holds. The val of the integral depends on the limits a and x.r x X+AK x . 5. Suppose the lower limit is x. Now divide by Ax: 1 x+Ax A fv(t) dt = average value = v(c). so v(c) approaches u(x)remember that v is continuous. That squeezes c toward x. In the limit dfldx again equals v(x).
It also looks like the chain rulewhich it is! To prove (6) we use the letters v and f: A= ~ ( t dt ) =j(h(x)) f (a(x)) (by Part 2 below) (by the chain rule) Since f ' = v. .v(x). v(t) dt is dx The quickest proof is to reverse b and x.(cos 2x)(2). So there is a minus sign in the derivative of area: The derivative of g(x) = dg = . The derivative according to (6) is v(x) times 1the Fundamental Theorem. area v(a)da is lost The general case is messier but not much harder (it is quite useful). because dbldx is 3x2 and daldx is 2 (with minus sign).v(x). When a = 0 and b = x. Area v(b)db is added. As x goesforward. 5. but it depends on x. EXAMPLE2 A=[: .7 The Fundamental Theorem and Its Applications The change in area is on the left side of Figure 5.sin 2x dAjdx = (cos x3)(3x2). The other case has a = x and b = constant. we have daldx = 0 and dbldx = 1.u(x).v(x).5. The upper limit b(x) is not necessarily x.. and we want dAldx: v(t) dt then = dA dx db da v(b(x)) . although it seems to depend on x.15b). Suppose both limits are changing.: cos t dt = sin x3 . That fits with (6). Note that v(t) = l/t so v(3x) = 1/3x. In the next example the area turns out to be constant. Then the lower limit in (6) produces . When the integral goes from a = 2x to b = x3. The area A between those limits changes as x changes. area is removed.15 Area from x to b has dgldx = . dx dx The figure shows two thin strips.v(a(x)) . equation (6) is proved. its derivative is new: E X A M P L E1 A = 5. dx Fig. which reverses the sign (Property 3): g(x) =  1' v(t) dt so by part I dg = . one added to the area and one subtracted. The lower limit a(x) can also depend on x (Figure 5.15.dt t has dA = dx ( ) (&) (3)  (2) = 0. First check the two cases we know.
The antiderivative is f (x). Note the crucial role of the Mean Value Theorem. but intuition is not the same as proof. local to global." The application starts with v(x). It assumes that v(x) is continuous. But Part 1gave another antiderivative for the same v(x). u(t) dt has . Why does v(.5 Integrals Question A = I . Therefore f (x) must be constant. This special case (the zero function) applies when A(x) and f(x) have the same derivative: IfdAldx = dfldx on an interval. the definite integral: Calculus is beautifulits Fundamental Theorem is also its most useful theorem.x) have a plus sign? THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM. Part 2) If u(x) = Proof dx u(x) dx =f (b) f (a). The proof rests on one extremely special case: dfldx is the zero function. the graph must be flat. . So f (a) + C = 0. If dfldx = v(x). It was the integralconstructed from rectangles and now called A(x): v(t)dt dA alsohas =v(x). A local hypothesis (dfldx = 0 at each point) yields a global conclusion (f = constant in the whole interval). At the upper limit j'(b) + C = A(b). there are points where f (a) # f (b). there is a point c where f '(c) = (b) f ba (this is not zero because f (a) # f (b)). points to intervals. and integrates using f (x): 5D (Fu~tdamental Theorem.= u(x) dA dx + v( x). Everybody knows this is true. At the lower limit the area integral is A = 0. We easily find f (x) = constant. the Theorem says that We can't rely on knowing formulas for v and fonly the definitions of and dldx. Assume that df ldx = 0 in an interval. Subtract to find A(b). It is the key f dfldx is f (x) + C. The derivative narrows the field of view. to integration. So A(x) f (x) must be constant. Iff (x) is not constant. When the slope is zero. By the Mean Value Theorem. (7) Reason: The derivative of A(x) f (x) is zero. "The integral o We search for an f (x) with this derivative. the integral widens it. But f '(c) # 0 directly contradicts df ldx = 0. The Mean Value Theorem connects instantaneous to average. PART 2 We have used a hundred times the Theorem that is now to be proved. dx Since A' = v and f ' = v. the special case in equation (7) states that A(x) =f (x) + C. The problem is to prove that there are no other possibilities: f ' must be constant. Now comes the big theorem. then A(x) =f(x) + C. That is the essential point: The integral from rectangles equals f (x) + C.
5.f(a) = v(x*)(xi . quite different from areas. rather than launching into physics or engineering or biology or economics.0. away from rectangles to rings. We could squeeze rectangles under a circular curve.16. . because its error is of higher order (Ar)2." we have integralsinstead of sums. Our intuition has to take a completely different direction. 5.) = v(x. Its derivative 27nr is the circumference. Up to now the integral has been the area under a curve. but four examples can be given immediatelywhich will make the point. _) (by the Mean Value Theorem) (by the Mean Value Theorem) (by the Mean Value Theorem).7 The Fundamental Theorem and Its Applications Another proof of Part 2 starts with f' = v and looks at subintervals: f(xi) . All those will come. The integral adds ring areasjust as it added rectangular areas: A= C dr = 2nr dr = Ir 2 . and add up the thin rings in Figure 5.a) f(x 2) f(x 1)= V(X2)(X2 . but what is the real explanation for A = My point is that the pieces are not rectangles.16 Area of circle = integral over rings. but their heights would have nothing to do with C. EXAMPLE 3 (for circles) The area A and circumference C are related by dA/dr = C. There are many other applications. By the Fundamental Theorem. the integral of C is A. Volume of sphere = integral over shells. J C(r) dr? shell volume = 4ntr 2Ar Fig. The area is 7r2. as Ax . Chapter 8 has space to develop more applications. Certainly rr2 is the integral of 2nrr.*)(b . Whenever additionbecomes "continuous. The sum on the right.f(x . Then the ring area is close to C times Ar.Xi) f(b) . What is missing is the geometrical reason. This is precisely the kind of approximation we need.x. The question is why. That is our first step toward freedom. Suppose the ring thickness is Ar. We stay with geometric problems. is APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION J v(x) dx. 217 The left sides add to f(b) f(a). The goal here is to take a first step away from rectangles.
trr2 = 2rr Ar + 7r(Ar)2 . 5. EXAMPLE 4 For a sphere. EXAMPLE 5 The distance around a square is 4s. The exercises ask you to set up other integralsnot always with rectangles. However there is another solutionunconventional but correct. Its width is Ar and its length is close to C. Infinitesimally speaking dV= A dr: V= A dr = 2 4rr dr = rr3 .  t S OSlX OS V s S s do T AA = 4sAs? dx 1 Fig. Archimedes used triangles instead of rings to find the area of a circle. I tried to understand that by drawing a figure. The inside and outside circles have different perimeters.17 Trouble with a square. but in the figure dAlds looks like 4s. Finally there is a geometrical reason. What worked for circles will work for spheres.17b shows a typical strip of length x = cos v (the curve has v = cos'x). Success with horizontal strips and triangles. The derivative of V is A. and the shells explain why. A shell goes from radius r to radius r + Ar. We want the volume of the shell. so the limits are on v not on x: area = O2 cos v dv = sin v]' 2 = 1.0 leaves dA/dr = C. That is close enough! Again we are correct except for (Ar)2 . As the thickness Av approaches zero. Something is wrong. The surface area is 47rr 2 . EXAMPLE6 Find the area under v(x)= cosx from x= 0 to x= 1. We could look harder. and find one. . Dividing both sides by Ar . We are integrating J upward. surface area and volume satisfy A = dV/dr. but we don't need it exactly. but we have no antiderivative for cos. That is a conventional problem. Main point: Integration is not restrictedto rectangles. Figure 5. Why does the area have dAlds = 2s? The side is s and the area is s2. The thin rings become thin shells.218 5 Integrals The ring area AA can be checked exactlyit is the difference of circles: AA = ir(r + Ar) 2 . so its thickness is Ar. Its derivative 2s goes only half way aroundthe square. so the volume is about 47rr 2 Ar. The bell is ringing so I leave this as an exercise. This is the volume of a sphere.x. This is CAr plus a correction. The ring unwinds into a thin strip. Normally this works. The region can be filled with horizontal rectangles (not vertical rectangles). so this is not a true rectanglebut the area is near CAr. the total area becomes x dv.
So dA/ds = s Find the derivatives of the following functions F(x).7 Readthrough questions The area f(x) = J v(t) dt is a function of a . If s is increased by As. this says that m . a small change Ax produces the area of a thin c This area Af is approximately d times o . its derivative is b . Where is F(Ax). If d2 f/dx2 = d2 g/dx2 then f(x) = g(x) + C. From this special case we conclude: If dA/dx = dB/dx then A(x) = n . Draw a figure with horizontal strips and integrate.7r .t dt 20 x)dfdt dt 34 The area above the parabola y = x 2 from x = 0 to x = 1 is 4. In the special case when df/dx = 0. with reason: (a) All continuous functions have derivatives. The minus sign is because h . Show why. Another reason: It is close to a triangle with small base rdO and height Integrating ½r2 dO from 0 = 0 to 0 = gives the area of a quartercircle. If s is increased by As. (d) A(x) = J~ dt/t 2 has dA/dx = 0. then automatically 1Sbdx/x = o The square 0< x < s. y = s.v(x). Find f~ v(t) dt from the facts in 2829. z s has volume V= . The total volume of . y. Take derivatives to zero). (b) All continuous functions have antiderivatives. the extra area has the shape of . One reason: It is 2 a fraction dO/2n of the total area . The three square faces with x = s or y = s or z = s have total area A = . The derivative of J1 v(x) dx is zero.In the example X" t dt. locate F(n + Ax) . t < s has hypervolume H= . . then v(x) is an .17? It seems to show that dA = 4s ds. the extra hypervolume is 9 x o 10 1 0x 2 x x +2 t 3 dt AH . 27 True or false. Its volume is V = the four faces with x = s. 26 Example 2 said that 2x dt/t does not really depend on x (or t!). 21 True or false If df/dx = dg/dx then f(x) = g(x)..F(Xi) on a sine 22 For F(x) = 1S graph. If an antiderivative of 1/x is Inx (whatever that is). z = s. By Part 1 of the Fundamental Theorem.. 35 The wedge in Figure (a) has area ½r2 dO.. The face with x= s is really a . (c) All antiderivatives have derivatives. 0 < y < s has area A = p. That volume AV is approximately . Calculate this integral by substituting x = r sin 0 and dx = r cos 0 dO. z. Therefore the area (volume?) of its threedimensional surface x 2 +y2 + Z2 + t2 = r2 is_ 14 Sx v(.F(0)? (c) (b) Sr x 23 Find the function v(x) whose average value between 0 and x is cos x. So dH/ds = So [fo v(u) du] dt Jo v(t) dt + Sl v(t) dt fXX 19 12 jx (df/dt)2 dt 33 The hypervolume of a fourdimensional sphere is H = 2 4 1 r . In the proof.5. Substitute xu for t and watch the limits on u. the extra volume has the shape of . So the derivative of J t 2 dt is f The integral Sb t 2 dt has derivative . x sin t dt. How do we prove that f(x) = x 2 + C? 25 If JSx v(t) dt = Sx v(t) dt (equal areas left and right of function. 31 The cube 0 < x. use product rule) sin 2 t dt When s is increased by As. y. If 3 > x then the derivative of fJ v(t) dt is . Start from fo v(t) dt = x cos x. the formula for df/dx becomes I minus __j_. So dV/ds = 2 1Scos 3t dt t" dt 3 x"dt 4 JS fX U du 1 o 6 Sfx v(u) du 7 jx+1 v(t) dt (a "running average" of v) 8  32 The fourdimensional cube 0 < x. the integral of df/dx is I . 29 o v(t) dt 28 dx = v(x) o x x+2" 30 What is wrong with Figure 5. EXERCISES 24 Suppose df/dx = 2x.7 The Fundamental Theorem and its Applications 219 5. or t = s is tX x v(t) dt (the average of v. We know that d(x 2)/dx = 2x.. xfCoS t dt 1 2 2 2 prove it. 2 36 A = So . which would mean A = J 4s ds = 2s2.x dx is also the area of a quartercircle. That area AA is approximately r . . When both limits a(x) and b(x) depend on x. the derivative is k By Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem. with a graph and thin rectangles.t) dt sin t 2 dt 17 Sx u(t)v(t) dt 16 Ix sin t dt 18 J(x) 5 dt f(x) 0o sin x sin.
The search for an antiderivative succeeds in important cases. What length are the vertical strips that give the same area? 40 Use thin rings to find the area between the circles r = 2 and r = 3. So the area up to y = 2 is . Our two approaches so far have weaknesses. y(x) d x = I. What is the corresponding statement for sums of differences of f. 45 Does d2f /dx2 = a(x)lead to (It a(t) dt) dx =f ( I ) f(O)? 46 The mountain y = . 44 The integral of the derivative of f (x) is f (x) + C. . It enters R. The width is . r cos 0 + r sin 0 = 38 The x and y coordinates in Figure (c) add to . = y(b).+ . is the corresponding statement for sums and differencesof the numbers vj? Prove that statement. This section goes from slow methods (rectangles) to better methods (trapezoidal and midpoint) to good methods (Simpson and Gauss).. and Chapter 7 extends that rangebut generally f ( x ) is not available. 42 The area of the ellipse in Figure (f) is 2zr2. Otherwise the sums are the samesimple to compute. The output is the integral I. The extreme left value yo = y(a) enters L. but very inaccurate. Therefore the triangle has area da (do you get i?). Each improvement cuts down the error.8 Numerical Integration This section concentrates on definite integrals.5 Integrals 37 The distance r in Figure (b) is related to 0 by r = Therefore the area of the thin triangle is i r 2d0 = Integration to 0 = gives the total area 4. Where does the usual reasoning go wrong? 43 The derivative of the integral of v(x) is ~ ( x )What . Draw a picture to show why thin rectangles would be extra difficult. You could discover the formulas without the book. But this is not the correct perimeter.=(Ax)(y. Normally this goal is achievableas soon as we have a good method for computing integrals. 5. . + y . Our goal is to find that number 1 . accurately and in a short time. easy to visualize.. The right and left rectangle rules add the areas ( A x times y): R. ) and L n = ( A x ) ( y o + y l + . Draw an xy graph of the mountain at t = 1. the extreme right value is y. The other approach (by rectangles) is in the right direction but too crude.x2 + t has an area A(t) above the x axis. The height is set by y(x) at the right and left end of each small interval.a)/n. The value of y(x) at the end of interval j is yj.+y. 41 The length of the strip in Figure (e) is approximately . With n equal intervals of length A x = ( b . Without integrating explain why 39 The horizontal strip at height y in Figure (d) has width dy and length x = . What line gives dA/dt? Show with words or derivatives that d 2 ~ / d t> 20.? Prove that statement. As t increases so does the area.).+y.. The inputs are y ( x ) and two endpoints a and b. Its derivative is 4zr. by integrating x and .
The areas are '(base)(height).8 Numerical Integration 221 x 2 and x 4 . When the graph is curved..00049 .000..001. The error prediction ½Ax[y(b)..1. If f x Pdx is the first to be wrong.. The prediction is the "leading term" in the actual error. Their heights are the differences yj+ 1 .y(a)].. The error triangles E and e have base Ax.0). .5. are the areas of triangles. It takes 500. since here y(1) = 1 and y(O) = 0. 0052 1000 . (2) The greater the slope of y(x)..I = ½Ax(y .0048 . . .18 shows the rectangle rules R. x 2.yo). The error is also divided by 10 (almost). to come closer to the exact integral.05. would come out on one side of the answer. would be on the other side. so the error L .000 rectangles to reduce this error to 1/1. cancel. 5. the error is ½Ax(1 . it computes exactly. 67 10 .yn_1)= = Ax(y. Similarly for the sum of the e's: L. The errors involve the first power of Axwhere we would much prefer a higher power. (L is too low.I . Formulas (1) and (2) are nicebut those errors are large..yj. and L. To integrate y = x from a = 0 to b = 1. the errors don't fit exactly into triangles. the greater the errorsince rectangles have zero slope. These methods are firstorder: p = 1. . But the ratio of predicted error to actual error approaches 1. 00051 The error decreases along each row.y(a)] is so simple that we test it on y(x) = x: I= o dx n error R .. . The computed errors in the table come closer and closer to ½Ax = . f x dx. Figure 5. . we decide how accurate the formulas are. n Yn E= E= • Ax(yj+1 2 yj) Yj+ ¥ e=E Yn.18 Errors E and e in R. and L.1 Y1 Yj+1 Yj ·· U I Ax Ii Ax Ax I Ax Ax Ax I Fig.005.½Ax(Yn . The book can emphasize one key point: The quality of a formula depends on how many integrals 1dx.) The total error in R. (1) All y's between Yo and y.I is negative. .5.01. . As Ax + 0. the graph is almost straight in each intervalthis is linear approximation. A larger p in (Ax) P means a smaller error. and the only difference is a minus sign.33 .. x. They are already wrong when y = x. The error is nearly proportional to Axtypical of firstorder methods. So does Ax = . Multiplying n by 10 divides Ax by 10. the order of accuracy is p. f By testing the integrals of 1. f x 2 dx. When the graph of y(x) is a straight line. This accuracy is reasonable. 056 100 .I= error L. The beauty of the error formulas is that they are "asymptotically correct" for all functions.Yo) + .000. You would figure out what to do next. . but that many rectangles is unacceptable.I= 1 . the integral I is known. and L.044 . The rule R.+ ½Ax(y . . . is the sum of the E's: R. The predicted error is ½Ax.0005.0001.Yo)  Ax[y(b . .
This yields the trapezoidal rule. with y(b) minus y(a).n1 + yn). Why do the rectangle rules suddenly achieve such an outstanding success? The reason is that y(x) = 1/(10 + cos 2nrx) is periodic. RT. THE TRAPEZOIDAL AND MIDPOINT RULES We move to integration formulas that are exact when y = x. almost cancel. take the average !(R. dropping from 101 to 10.19 Secondorder accuracy: The error prediction is based on v = x 2. The method was a special trick using complex numbers.7 . Tn =Ax I(Yo + )++ . because y(O) = y(l).. Every power of Ax is multiplied by zero. = ½(R. They have secondorder accuracy. which approximates Sy(x) dx by Tn: + ULn= Ax(½yo + yl + Y2 + .19a.1. but not L. We will see these ((Ax) 2 errors in the trapezoidal rule.3 to 10. and . Personalnote I tried to integrate 1/(10 + cos 27rx) by hand and failed. is identical to R. This is (R.= (3) Another way to find T. In these examples L. The Ax error term disappears. The leading term. and verified the area 1/99. Its height is 1 and its area is 1.7 105 "0" 2 . + L.x) dx: J dx/(l0 + cos 2nx): errors 1. . 10'4 Those errors are falling faster than Ax.I).. + y. . The formulas give the correct area under straight lines. because the end rectangles are the same. Finally I found the antiderivative (quite complicated) in a handbook of integrals.5 to 10. So the errors go to zero exponentially fast.01.is from the area of the "trapezoid" below y = x in Figure 5.). Subtracting the last row from the row above gives exact numbers 1. which is R.7 102 n = 100 3 n= 1000 1. and L. That multiple is found by testing y = x 2 for which the answers are not exact. . 5. . is zero.001.(L. .' 1 103 n= 10 1. To cancel as much error as possible. when we integrate over a complete period.x the prediction explains why: y(O) equals y(l).).L." First we give the rectangle prediction two final tests: n= l errors J (x 2 . .7*10 "0" 7 1. It comes from an extra rectangle at the right. The errors in R. because y'(0) = y'(1).001. . For y = x .1. The predicted error is a multiple of (Ax) 2.7 10.) has less errorit is the "trapezoidal rule. The exact errors are '(Ax) 2 . and L. The average T. . which applies over an exact period. The last row in the table is more unusual.I(Y1 + Y2) + 2 2 "' Yn 1 E= 12 (Ax)2 ( V.. The leading term in the error is zero. + L.222 5 Integrals The table also shows a curious fact.. Also the next term will be zero. Then I was embarrassed to discover the answer in my book on applied mathematics.01. . The first formula combines R. (and also to T..I) . It shows practically no error. included in R. ) "J+ 1J e=I E 2 yi YO I Ax Ax Ax Ax j+l j Ax j+ 1 Fig.
The rules become different when y = x2.1/12). AX. (and no weight to yo). trapezoids give f (0)+ 1 + 2 + 3 + f(4) = 8. if the height of the rectangle is halfway between yj. while calling for a minimum number o f values o f y. so the rule has f yo and f y. .8 Numerical Intqrdon The base is Ax and the sides have heights yjl and yj.I = error M . as T. The rectangle rule R. That is Simpson's rule: Multiply the midpoint values by 213 = 416.. This leads to the midpoint rule M n : For 4 + 4 +3 + 3 = 8.I = 1 116 1112 10 l/600 1/1200 100 1/60000 1/120000 The errors fall by 100 when n is multiplied by 10.The change to T.+yo.. The main point about the error is the factor AX)^. . In practice these formulas are not much usedthey involve the pth derivative at an unknown location c. What is the difference from rectangles? The trapezoidal rule gives weight f Ax to yo and y..) in formula (3)the coefficients of yj combine into f + f = 1. + R. 116). The goal of numerical integration is to get below the error tolerance. because y.. So a good combination will have twice as much of M. is exact when y = x. gives full weight Ax to y . A rectangle has the same area as a trapezoid. Another important formula is exact for y(x) = x.. One crucial fact is easy to overlook in our tests. . The midpoint rule is twice as good (. Only the first and last intervals are missing a neighbor. a computer calls a subroutine. .and yj .a)yM(c). Every time a formula asks for yj. By evaluating y(x) at the halfway points f Ax. is no longer the average of yo and y. the leading errors come from Figure 5..19. again correct. T. Secondorder rules need about a thousand values for a typical tolerance of The next methods are better... AX. change yt(b). knocks out that error.. Adding those areas gives +(L. Try both secondorder rules on x2: I= 1 . The endpoint values are multiplied by . . The midpoint rule gives x2 dx n= error T.1/12 vs. On a straight line graph that is achieved at the midpoint of the interval.. Because trapezoids (unlike rectangles) fit under a sloping line. is exactly the leading error f y. R.5. we get much better rectangles.yt(a) to (b . Each value o f y(x) can be extremely hard to compute. The location of c is unknown (as in the Mean Value Theorem). x dx..T. . Since all smooth functions are close to parabolas (quadratic approximation in each interval). F O U R T H O R D E RR U L E : SIMPSON The trapezoidal error is nearly twice the midpoint error (116 vs. The trapezoidal error is exactly when y(x) is x2 (the 12 in the formula divides the 2 in y'): For exact error formulas.
Yl/2. That explains the popularity of Simpson's rule. and + XG get this integral right: 2 1 . This is S over the first interval.).3). . They are not as convenient as Simpson's (which hand calculators prefer). It comes from a parabolic approximation to y(x) in each interval. with errors proportional to (Ax)4 . All our rules are constructed this way: Integrate correctly as many powers 1. The key is in y = x 2 . 5. S beats M. with Ax = 1/n: n= 1 n= 10 n= 100 error if y= x2 x4 0 0 8.I Ax Ax j+1I Ax j Ax/f j+1 Simpson versus Gauss: E = c(Ax)4 (yj'i 1 .20c shifts to the interval from 0 to Ax.. which beats R. which are better than flat pieces. The Gauss points .33 . = . The Gauss points are (1 ± 1/ •) Ax/2. To understand why x3 is integrated exactly. Check Simpson's rule on powers of x.33 107 0 0 8. whose integral is 2/3. THE GAUSS RULE (OPTIONAL) We need a competitor for Simpson. yl.33. Parabolas are better than straight lines...1011 error if y = x3 error if y = Exact answers for x 2 are no surprise. Gauss is good for thousands of integrations over one interval. Simpson is . x. He calculated integrals in astronomy.20 . 3 SO x = 3 and x.(. But the zero errors for x3 were not expected. except at the far ends a and b (with heights Yo and y.xG)2 (X )2 . and discovered that two points are enough for a fourthorder method.x.103 0 0 8. (8) 1 4 6 1 2 Y( 2 G Ax Fig. Simpson's rule goes deeper than a combination of T and M. This 1424241 pattern has become famous. and Gauss can compete with anybody.1/4320.1//3) + y(1/. S. By placing them symmetrically. The accuracy has jumped to fourth order. as possible. .3 can be found directly. x 2. From 1 to 1 (a single interval) his rule is I_ y(x) dx ?% y(. 1].yj") with cs = 1/2880 and c. The odd function x3 has zero integral.. are correctly integrated. x 3. = + 1 Figure 5. When a parabola goes through yo. (9) Those "Gauss points" x = .3 and x = 1/.1/. all odd powers x. the area under it is !Ax(yo + 4 yl/2+ YI). was selected to get parabolas right. look at the interval [1. and Simpson agrees by symmetry: Sx dx = 3 x 4 2 =0 6 yn and [(1)3 +4(0)3+ 13 =0.224 5 Integrals 2/6.
The points are not equally spaced! For an integral from 0 to 1. the endpoints. . 3.5.00001. The last paragraphs are based on Kahan's work.. . ) ~ .7E5 are the requested integral ex dx and the estimated error bound. The machine remembers to change dx.u2) du was chosen to vanish at u = 0 and u = 1.. We don't need y(x) at the endpointswhere infinity is most common. The calculator stops when answers are close.56 lop7 DEFINITE INTEGRALS ON A CALCULATOR It is fascinating to know how numerical integration is actually done.x .33 l o p 7 . In the u variable the integration points are equally spacedtherefore in x they are not. the x's may be displayed.. For y = x4. The variable x can be named or not (see the margin). If sin 8nx is sampled with Ax = 118. HewlettPackard machines might internally replace x by 3u2 .5. But there is a danger called aliasing. x.8 Numerical Integration good when intervals go back to backthen Simpson also uses two y's per interval. b]. The outputs 4.67077 and 4. Notice how any integration method can be deceived: Ask for the integral of y = 0 and specify the accuracy. 2: € 1 23 2 : € X 1 2) computed y 1 : . .33 l o p 3 .computed y relative error in y = < . The differential 6(u .00000000001. When a difficult point is inside [a. 7. you see both errors drop by l o p 4 in comparing n = I to n = 10: I =1 . 15. (It is bad to go too far. The integral of e p x 2should be stopped by x = 10.) Then integrate Y(x) = (x .x . and the calculator requires many integration points. On the HP28s you enter the function. ) ~ (x . Your input accuracy .the answer depends on cancellation of highs and lows. since 1/(10+ cos 2nx) was integrated above to enormous accuracy. The change from x to u affects periodic functions. . . break the interval in two pieces. since the tail is so thin. That also returns the answer zero (now wrong).00001 1 : . For example. I thought equal spacing was good. : 15 becomes Algebraically that looks worsebut the infinite value of l/& at x = 0 disappears at u = 0.56 8.2u3 (the limits on u are also 0 and 1). x4 dx Simpson error Gauss error 8. because the calculator follows the same steps. And chop off integrals that go out to infinity. William Kahan chose formulas using 1. it thinks you want high accuracy and takes longer.00001 The machine estimates accuracy based on its experience in sampling y(x). (With a PAUSE key. The calculator samples y at x. If you guarantee ex within . With unequal spacing the problem disappears. and the accuracy..00001 guarantees 3: ( ( E X P I ) 3: ' E X P ( X 1 ' true y . sample points..5. Each new formula uses the samples in the previous formula. A high frequency 8 is confused with a low frequency 0 (its "alias" which agrees at the sample points).) Rapid oscillations are among the toughest. In consulting for HP. it is always zero.
The error rule is twice as for y = x2 from a to b is P . 11 In principle sin2x dx/x2 = n. This m rule is n order because the error for y = x is o . Don't forget that I 5. because they are incorrect for y = f . Over three coefficients of yo. Ax = a . + 8 Demonstrate superdecay of the error when 1/(3+ sin x) is integrated from 0 to 2a. dx/(l + x2). R.1] is approximately Q . The CI accurate. 9 Check that ( A ~ ) ~ ( y j +yj)/12 .. ! and test large and small A.? Compare with the leading error term in (2). 5 Test three different rules on I = x4dx for n = 2 4 . :Goto N Place the integrand y(x) in the Y 1 position on the Y = function edit screen. S . Press ENTER to continue by choosing a different N. is by averaging i(L. Problem 9 for the midpoint error (A~)~(yj+ yj)/24. = Ax[ r 1. = $Mn+ s .T.5 Integrals TI81 Program to Test the Integration Methods L. These are e R. using any + + 4y ) in each 7 Change Simpson's rule to Ax($yo 4 yllz interval and find the order of accuracy p. + R.). indicating the interval [A. and L. Execute this program. are on menus. is the correct error for y = 1 and y = x and y = x2 from the first trapezoid ( j= 0).A ) /N+D :D/2+H :A+X : Y p L :l+J :@+R :8 + M :LbL I :X+H+X : M + Y l +M :A+JD. G o t o.. S Prgm1:NUM I N T : D i s p "A=" :Input A :D iS P IIB=~I :Input B :Lbl N : D i s p "N=" :Input N : ( B . divide [a. 12 These four integrals all equal n: 10 Repeat error reduced (approximately)?By what factor is the error in Simpson's rule reduced? 3 Compute Rn and Ln for x3dx and n = l.112 dx l+x (a) Apply the midpoint rule to two of them until n x 3. yIl2. ] . u are integrated correctly. S" L R M T S R. For y = cos 2nx the error is very small because [0. . 8. using M. M .N) :Goto 1 :(L+RYl)D+L :R D + R :MD+M : ( L + R ) /2+T :( 2 M t T ) / 3 + S :Disp T. b] into n pieces of length b over each piece. 1 What is the difference L. = Ax(yl + order methods. by what factor is the trapezoidal 4 One way to compute T. .w . The because the powers times Ax. The program never terminates (only pauses). The trapezoidal rule uses N + 1 and Simpson's rule uses 2N + 1. M. You break out by pressing ON. The program pauses to display the results. Either verify (with computer) or use (without computer) the formula l 3 + 23 + + n3 = tn2(n+ LJ& Irn m =dx x 1' .. T. Draw a figure to show why the rectangle M has the same area as any trapezoid through the midpoint (including the trapezoid tangent to y(x)). =$Rn i = Ax[iyo + k y1 + + L y . Gauss uses x points in each interval. = d .8 EXERCISES Readthrough questions To integrate y(x). Then it is correct for every parabola over every interval. 1) is a complete i . Simpson's method is S. A much better method is T. Rules L and R and M use N evaluations of y(x). (b) Optional: Pick the other two and find a x 3. For y = cos ax this leading term is h .) and L. Another way is to add iyo + yl + + iy.yl are v intervals the weights are Ax16 times 14. Which is more efficient? Compare the number of operations. With a symbolic algebra code or an HP28S. separated by ~ x / f i For a method of order p the error is nearly proportional to Y .1416.2. how many decimal places do you get? Cut off the integral to I . . 2 If you cut Ax in half.. 6 Compute n to six places as 4 rule. B ] and the number of subintervals N. It is t order. R.10. place a using the height at the right or c endpoint: + y. The total error on [0.X :R+Yl+R :IS>(J. 1. :Disp :Disp :Disp :Disp :Disp :Pause "L.
What is the predicted error after the change to O? 19 Write down the three equations Ay(0)+ By($) + Cy(1)= I for the three integrals I = 1 dx.I = ~(Ax)~[y"'(l) .7 at x = 0. with M nfor dx and n = 1. need? Its leading error is AX)^ [yt(b). and compare with the divide and conquer method of separating lx . dx = and integrate lo5 from 0 to 44. dx. x dx. 1 (three equations).yt"(0)] by taking y = x4 and Ax = 1.100. to reach higher accuracy than Simpson's? 28 What condition on y(x) makes L. C and name the rule. the leading error in the trapezoi. + + 26 Find c in S . 20 Can you invent a rule using Ay. dx = cos 8 dB. 18 Change to x = sin 8.l2 cos28 dB.001.= R. 15 Take f(x) = y(x) dx in error formula 3R to prove that y(x) dx . : I 1.y(0)Ax is exactly f (AX)~Y'(C) for some point c. b. Ax = 2. / = cos 8.nl dx. & 1.69315 with error less than . that has secondorder accuracy. = T.5. . 1. Try n = 2. I. x2 dx. 27 Find c in G .8 to defy the prediction. and G = (.I = AX)^ [yftt(l) . c so that y = ax2 + bx + c equals 1. Then substitute x = 10.yt(a)]/12.tan 8. 1. The integral from 0 to m is f is the best point to chop off the infinite integral? &. Estimate y dx from Tlo and Tloo(don't expect sec28 d0 much). for the integral y(x) dx? 29 Suppose y(x) is concave up. 23 The graph of y(x) = 1/(x2 10. How does y" > 0 make equation (5) positive and (6) negative? + 2 1 Show that T.1)] by taking y = x4. Show from a picture that the trapezoidal answer is too high and the midpoint answer is too low. 17 For I = dal rule is 22 Calculate 1ex2 dx with ten intervals from 0 to 5 and 0 What to 20 and 0 to 400. 1. 1.n( dx from Ix . and R. on j. Test the actual error with y = llx.10. compare T and S and G for n = 2. and repeat T .y"'(. + 24 Compute Jx. is the only combination of L.l o ) has a sharp spike and a long tail.8 Numerical Intogrotion 13 To compute in 2 = dx/x = .nl dx from T. B.3. + Byll4 + CyIl2+ Dy3/. 1 . . how many intervals should T. 3. Check that 4 1 8 3 4 7 equals y dx. Solve for A.l ~ f l )+ ~ (l/fi14. 14 Compare T. Ey. 16 For the periodic function y(x) = 1/(2+ cos 6zx) from 1 to 1. The error prediction breaks down because yt(0)= oo.4. 25 Find a.
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18 5.20.1 The Idea of the Integral (page 181) CHAPTER 5 5. .Then f l = & and f2 = 2r . $ 1 2 1 1 8 = 15. If x < 3. The differences are vl. Show that f4 . 4.r . O E a c h n e w f j is fj1 + v j .8. 3 . m There are really two cases to think about. This equals f4 . This is vi. f (3) = $. + + + .fo.1 Its sum is f. v2.r1 5 . f (4) = 8.6. Use four rectangles t o approximate the area under the curve y = $x2 from x = 0 t o x = 4.5. find the f's. . This chapter goes forward t o integrals and derivatives. The area f (x) has a twopart formula: Areas under v(x) give f(x) small triangle L x ( 2 x ) = x 2 2 complete triangle ' 3 ( 6 ) = 9 2 add rectangle 6(x . The rectangle has base (x . 3 . find the differences vj = f.9.3) = 6x . f4 = 0. Then do the same using eight rectangles. v4 = 2. f2. f l .1 = ri'. f3. l + r + r 2 + . Adding the v's gives the g e o m e t r i c aerie. v2.2.+rnl.fo is the sum of the v's. . If x > 3 the area is that of a triangle plus a rectangle. The triangle has base 3 and height 6 and area 9.3) and height 6. The difference between fiaSt and ffirSt is also 17 . The sum of the v's is 12. Suppose v(x) = 2x for 0 < x < 3 and v(x) = 6 for x > 3.1 INTEGRALS (page 181) The Idea of the Integral Problems 13 review sums and differences from Section 1.6. Similarly f2 = f l + v 2 = 8 + 3 = 11. 1 . 3.5) Show that f j = The formula gives fo = = 5 has differences v j = f j . The sketch shows that the actual area under the curve is less than 15. The sum of the four areas is 1 . the shaded triangle with base x and height 2 s has area = :(base) (height) = kx(2x) = x2. 3 and fo = 5.5 = 12. (This is Problem 5.fo = r1 . 2.2. The width of each rectangle is one. Sketch and find the area from 0 t o x under the graph of v(x). The heights of the four rectangles are f (1) = f (2) = 2.1.fj0 and the sum of the v's. VQ.12. So f i = f o + v l = 5 + 3 = 8.l a * Now find the differences: In general fj. Then f3 = 14 and f 4 = 17. The sum is 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 = 20. If vl. i. v4 = 3 .3) = 6 2 . Total area = 9 + 6(x .4. VQ.fj.fjl = d1. 1. If fo.
2.fl) . The actual area i r lo5.1.(fn . This time inscribe eight rectangles . us = 1. .vn equals fn . This is the area of a triangle with base x and height 10s.4.3. + . .8.J 1ut .75. 8 The f 'S are 0. + + + + For functions.75. + + + + + + + The differences between 0. * The eight inscribed rectangles are shown. Their total area is still greater than the curved area. Use the same curve y = ax2 as in Problem 5. She prefers outer rectangles that contain the graph. 40 and area 100.75. eight inner outer minus inner 6. then the integral of v(x) is f (x) I f u(x) = 10%then f (x) = 5x2. For f j = j2 the difference between flo and fs is ulo = 19.fn1) leaves only fn and fa Taking sums is the reverse (or inverse) of taking differences. Readthrough8 and relected evennumbered rolutionr : Then The problem of summation is to add ul . The triangle under u = lox out to x = 4 has area 80. This is 12.. It is better approximated by eight rectangles of heights 40 5.5. i.the rectangles should touch the curve but remain inside it.f (o)] = 4.10.+ f ( $ ) ] = +[o+ ) + + + 2 + + 5 + $1 = 8. If the derivative of f (x) is u(x). (Can you see why?) Each rectangle has width Their heights are determined by y = ix2. What is the area approximation using this method? Give bounds on the same true area A under the curve.fo) (fi . 9 are ul.4.I. For n rectangles covering the triangle the area is the sum of 4 (x + + .+ 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 four outer rectangles eight outer. 1. un.. The total areaof the rectangles is & ( f f +2+ + q + e + 8 ) = *2 12. 4. The optimist overestimates. a and Hint for Exercises 5. but less than 15. Fkom this pattern 1 3 5 . It is approximated by four rectangles of heights 10. 1. u2. + r n = jn=r % r1 ..1 The Idea of the Integral (page 181) The second figure shows eight rectangles. Difference in areas = [ f (4) . counting the first one with height zero. 6fo=a r1 = O ..75. l + r + . Integrals begin with sums.. It is solved if we find f's such that uj = f j .. .3. If we took 16 rectangles we would get an even closer estimate.2. The pessimist would underestimate income.. :. 20. That is the integral of u = 102 from 0 to 4. 2. .2..40 and area 90. using inner rectangles. 30.5. finding the integral is the reverse of finding the derivative..75 and less than 12.. .The cancellation in (fl .1.75 . Here vj = (l)j+l j or uj = {5 :ttn and f.to. .. The differences between the outer and the inner rectangles add to a single rectangle with base height f (4) = 8. The true area A is greater than 8.. The total area is ?[f(o) + f ( i ) + . . . .f.11 . + 40) = 80 + As n r oo this sum should approach the number 80. . = { j odd j even .14: These refer to an optimist and a pessimist. 19 equals 100. where x = $.
For the term 8. SO f (x) = $(sin x ) + Wait a minute. is (22 5) 'I2 . So the first guess at an antiderivative is y = sec 42.) Finding antiderivatives is like solving puzzlesit takes a bit of insight as well as experience. height = 1. An antiderivative for ~ C.2 An tiderivatives (page 186) 12 The last rectangle for the pessimist has height $ is missed. except for the added constant For any v(x) all antiderivatives are the same except for constants! ! + + a.11) v(x) = sin xcos x.) Everything is right gives but the leading 4. But now 3 d m . The two answers are the s a m e . the first triangle has base 1.cos 2x C and f (x) = $ sin2 x C both be correct? The answer to this reasonable question lies in the identity cos 22 = 1 . you take an antiderivative and add +C for any arbitrary constant. the total area is reduced by $. Put these together to get the indefinite integral f (x) = qx4.2 sin2 x. Above the rectangle is a triangle of base 3." Adding 1 gives y = (22 5)3/2. area $. & + 2 A second approach is to recognize v(x) = sin x cos x as u g . 3. find the indefinite integral f (x) of v(x) . but this is the direction we are headed. Find an antiderivative y = f (x) and then compute f (b) . (This is 5. In each case. height 1. Check f t ( z ) = x3 . divide by 4.3. a a . This = 4 sec 4x tan 42. y = . v(x) = 3 sec 42 tan 4s. That gives 2 sin 22. For x3 the power is n = 3. An antiderivative of x3 is i x 4 . The first is to recognize v(z) as $ sin 22. The correct answer is f (x) = . Questions 15 are examples of this process.5. indefinite integral. Correct this by f (x) = i ( 2 x 5)3/2 C.To its right is a rectangle of area 3. not a function.f (a). The first answer cos 22 is + $ sin2 x. where u = sin x.2 = The square root is the $ power. The total area ifi &15. 16 Under the fi curve. The first guess was off by a factor of 3.) u e is $u2. If you need the indefinite integral. Multiplying by 9 gives f x4 as an antiderivative of 9x3.8x+C. an antiderivative is 8%. How can f (x) = .cos 22 C. each illuminating in its own way. (This has not been proved in the text yet. (Find f '(x) to check. = Since the derivative of the cosine is minus the sine. and definite integral. We know that y = sec u has = sec u tan u.8 + 0 = v(x). you give any function whose derivative is v(x). (The 4 comes from the chain rule: u = 42 and = 4. If you're given a function y = v(x) and asked for an antiderivative. The definite integral gives the exact area under the curve v(x) from x = a to x = b.2 Antiderivatives (page 186) The text on page 186 explains the difference between antiderivative. If you need a definite integral you will be given two endpoints x = a and x = b. There are two approaches. Check + 2 % + + + by taking f '(x) . Since the optimist's last rectangle of area 8+ + 5.cos 2x is a first guess. To get instead of 2. 3 $ = 5 is below the curve. Adjust to get f (x) = sec 42 C. area &. In this problem your answer is a number. where we want 3. An antiderivative of xn is &xn+' . 2 2 + 2 4.
6 1 9.2 An tiderivatives (page 18GJ .2 ( 0 ) ' / ~= 2 .) Area = Iu v(x)dx = So s x dx. v(x) is positive (from 0 to 1). so the area from 2 t o 3 is one unit less than the area from 0 t o 1.) The coefficient should be adjusted to give f (x) = +C.1 of this Guide outlined ways to estimate this area. Our problem has This seems impossible unless you remember that = . + . we get 2 & $ tan' 32 rule. = f n . 6. . 3. Questions 6 and 7 use definite integrals to find area under curves. vnAx becomes the i n t e g r a l of v(x). It is b 4 1 2 times 5x3. Therefore I d x = 2(1)'12 . is the derivative of tan' u. The total area from 0 to 3 is f (3) = 1. Verify that f (1) . stays constant to x = 2. (This is 5. Then f is the a n t i d e r i v a t i v e of v. It starts from rectangles with the base A x and heights v(x) and areas v ( x ) A x . and v(x)d~ equals f(6) minus f ( 2 ) . so v(x) = 0 on that interval. or $: 7. The constant is canceled in computing the difference f(6) minus f(2). 8.f (a). + + The problem of integration is solved if we find f (x) such that = v ( x ) .x .f (a). 6 .26) Draw y = v(x) so that the area f ( x ) from 0 to x increases until x = 1. an antiderivative is f (x) = 2x1l2. It also has f (x) = ~x b $.0 = a Since fiO fi 2. The unusual part of this problem is that the curve goes up to y = oo when x = 0. We need an antiderivative of $x2. (This is 5. The area under v(x) from 2 to 6 is 16. The area decreases after x = 2. This is a definite integral.fo leads to the Fundamental Theorem integral is f (x) and the definite integral is f (b) .v.2. There is no new area from x = 1 to x = 2. The limits of integration are 2 and 6. . As A x + 0 the area vlAx .The indefinite The sum vl t .2..' / ~ .5. Can you find a continuous v ( x ) ? Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered solutions : Integration yields the a r e a under a curve y = v(x). so v(x) must go below the x axis. The symbol for the indefinite integral of v(x) is J v ( x ) d x . If v(x) = x8 then f (x) = gx v(x)dx = f (b). ix2. which is a n u m b e r and not a function f (x).j (0) = 2. One solution has v(x) = 2 then 0 then 1 in the three intervals. (Section 5. a Where the area increases. and decreases to f (3) = 1. Find the area under the parabola v = i x 2 from x = 0 to x = 4. (The 3 comes from the chain u2 = 9x2 and u = 32. The example v(x) = x has j (z) = 1 2 + 1. But the area /' underneath is still 2. If we let y = tan' 32. Finding the a r e a under the vgraph is the opposite of finding the s l o p e of the f graph.23) For the curve y = I the area between x = 0 and x = 1 is 2. Now you can find it exactly.
from 1 t o 6. 1. The indexing ends at i = 2 n . !is infinite.. 3. 2 _ " . . Write this sum using sigma notation: 243 . Since i goes 2 43(5)j. Notice the pattern 81 = and 27 = 1 general the '5th" term is So we can write I)'' = 243(5) i . 5. Compute the sum 3 + 6 + 9 + . t o avoid confusion between the "old i" and the 'new i. 5 . 9 .1 . . This is ~ ( 1 0 0 0 ) ( 1 0 0 1by ) equation 2 on page 189. with area 5. so S = 3 ( 1 + 2 . The answer is ~j+~bj. ? ( $ ) 2 = SOthe N rectangles have area 8 . 2. Total 1.f ( 0 ) = 3 5.aibiW3 so that the indexing starts at j = 0 instead of i = 3." We want j = 0 when i = 1. 2.3 and i = j 3. 10 f ( x ) = sin x .f ( 0 ) = sin 1 . + 3000 = S . 3. which means j = 2 n .501. Just let k go from 1 t o 5 and add: S = (z 1 ) ( x + 3) + ( x + 4 ) + ( x + 5 ) = 5 x + 15. N 3 22 Two rectangles have base $ and heights 2 and 1. 27. Four rectangles have base f and heights a. 9. and f ( 3 ) . Write out the first three terms and the last term of S = ELo(1)'2'+'.2z3 6. The summation limits S.f ( 2 ) is 1.. 3 add to A4 = 6. Each rectangle misses a triangle of base 7$ and height 7$.3.cos 1 18 Areas 0 .81 + 27 . Write out the terms of c:=.~ 5.x cos x . This gives c:. 5. Then S = 3 [ $(1000)(1001)]= 1. j goes from 0 to 5.= . and f ( 2 ) . Don't use your calculator! Use your head! Each term is a multiple of 3.f ( 1 ) is i ( 3 ) ( 2 )The graph of f4 is x2 to x = 1.1. Replace i = 3 with j + + = 0. Also at becomes aj+. + + ( x + 2)+ Do not make any substitutions for x. Now look at the numbers 243.. b 1. In Second solution: Start the sum at i = 0.f ( 1 ) . Rewrite ~ . 1 with area 28 The area f ( 4 ) . c:=~(9 c:=. There are 8 N triangles of total area N . This means j = i .9 + 3 . . F. The first thing t o notice is that the terms are alternating positive and negative. The part in parentheses is the sum of the first 1000 integers. 2.500. . This gives a positive sign for i = 1 . . The factor bi3 becomes bj. z. We'll use a new dummy variable j . + ~ l a [/]b[l. . 5. 81. 3 . T h a t means a factor of either (1)' or (I)''.. i(i)(l). I f we start the sum with i = 1. r Changing the dummy variable will require changes in four places: This means j = i . f ( 1 ) .(x + k) = S .f ( 3 ) is ?. = Eight rectangles have area The limiting area under y = 4 .6 1/3 = which has antiderivative f ( x ) = $x2l3. The first term 243 is positive.1.3 Summation Versus Integration (page 194) are like the integration limits Problems 18 offer practice with sigma notation. then (I)'' is the right choice. 1000). 3 . . and 1.
Sn= 1+ 2 + .[sum of the first 50 squares] [)(150)~ i ( 1 5 0 ) ~ f (150)I . 'Relative errorn is the proportional error E. (This is 5.42925 = 1093350. The coefficient q is ).4..Write out the first and last terms to get a feel for what's happening..($ .+ n.200 . A proof bv induction har two parta. = Dn/I. (This is 5.. The n6 is like adding n rectangles of width 1 under the curve y = x6.. = = + 522 + .A). + In words. Take i = 1. is being approximated by the area In= 1. + + 3= + . fn is stall correct: The induction proof is complete. This is given by the definite integral : an antiderivative for v(x) = z6. Then a formula that is correct for fnml remains correct at the next step. Since the first odd integer is 1 = 12.i).)( o ) ~ = f n7. which is under the line y = x from x = 0 to x = n.19) Prove by induction that fn = 1 3 + + .[f ( 5 0 ) ~ ( 5 0 ) ~ i(50)] = 1136275 . . Find q in the formula la 26 .7. Then + + +? + 8. The middle terms AS n + 00 this approaches The sum of the infinite series is collapse to leave S =  i A. The error Dn is the difference between the true sum and the integral. It is like our sums of diflerences. n = 3. Compute the sum S = a The sum is 512 z : : ! (i + 6 0 ) ~ . Guess a a The question refers to the table on page 193. Compute S = Etn=. i. Since f x7 is is like the area under y = x6 from 0 to n. not proof.)) + () . a The correction will involve powers below 7. + n6 = qn7+ correction. When vn i s added.000 = 200 and E400 = The table shows Eloo= &.. S [sum of the first 150 squares] . + (2n . 10.1)= n2. The correctness for n = 1 leads to n = 2. The sum sum la 2= 36 . The answer is a function of n. Regroup those terms so that cancels . It seems that En = i. First part: Check the formula for the first value of n. ." x dx.f and f cancels a: This kind of series is called Utelercopingn.80. + n and find the relative error En. (This is informal reasoning. and every n. We are concerned here with the coefficient of n7.f ) + ( f . 9. . The integral is i 1400 = 1{0° z dx = 1 2 ( 4 ~ ~)2 $02 = 80. What happens as n + oo? Writing the first few terms and the last term almost always makes the sum clearer.2.) + + + + 11. The second part of the proof is to check that fn = fnl v. Equation 7 on page 191 gives the sum of the first n squares. .. i. J x6dx. the sum of the first n odd integers is n2.this part is easy and fi is correct. & and Ezoo = A.4. the definite integral is t ( n ) 7 ..+ 14g2+ 1502.000 = DlOo = 80. + .3 to find (i..23) Add n = 400 to the table for Sn = 1 formula for En. The sum of the first n integers.200... Now for specifics: The first 400 integers add to ?n(n + 1) = (400)(401) = 80.
En is approximately and exactly 24 Sso = 42925.4 Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions (page 200) All the integrals in this section are either direct applications of the known forms on page 196 or have substitutions which lead t o those forms. ~ fn . The sum and equals ~4 sio0 ze3i2 is the same as c:=~ (j+ 2)' + and equals 86. but the expression under the radical is a good candidate. (This is 5. Decompose the problem this way: s ( t 2 ) ( J m ) ( t dt). 1. Take u = x2 . U ' 2 / 3.4. In C.f ( n . The trick.fn1 = n2. Then = 22. l/Ax (l/Ax) 1 36 The rectangular area is A x v ( ( j . equals S . The problem is now dU = u4du = _ i u . Find the indefinite integral $ 2 x d x 2 .fn.0302. .5)3/2+ C .1o ~ . ze4v. The correction term is ~n = 50. This is great because we can take out "22 dxn in the problem and substitute "dun. The answer is $u3I2 C = $ ( x 2 .1)2n2= f n 2 ( 4 n ) = n3.Readthrough8 a n d rreleeted evennumbered aolutiona : The Greek letter C indicates summation.1 equals vn.~ + C . + + 2. The correction terms approach zero very x = 9 is 59 slowly. so the first term is v l and the last term is vn. Let u = 1 . . &. The leading term equals the integral of v = x + from 0 t o 100.Eso = 0.5 dx.t Z . For fn = CYzlvj the difference fn . The area under the parabola v = x2 from x = O t o 1 s . Then S = I f 2 = 2 the sums are S = oo.zivj+l zi=oi2 = 6 (i . you will do many of these substitutions in your head. This is close t o the area of 9/Ax rectangles of base A x . The limits are j = 1 a n d j 1 = n. Substitute .3 + C = . 16 z:=. Find j dx. It's hard t o know what substitution t o make. vi = and 20 f l = + ( 1 ) ~ ( = 2 )1. The sum is the total area of 100 rectangles. . As you gain skill. 28 x S = x + x2 x3 . Choose u = sin x because then = cos x.+ n2 is fn = p matical induction. IS0 = 41666%. which is written x dx. The correction term is the area between the sloping line and the rectangles. The sum V S .fnl z. = zn (n 1 2 + 1)2 .1. We can replace "cos x dxn by "dun. + 4 The formula for l2 1 ( n + 1 ) ( 2 n+ 1) = sn 1 3 + 2n 1 2+g 1n . the dummy variable is j . is the same as z i . or du = 22 dx.i ( s i n ~ ) . . Then du = 2t dt. write them out. is choosing the right u. Dso = 12585. check f l = 1 and check fn . 5. v. The problem is now S u112du which equals $u3I2 C.5.14) Find $t3\/1dt.212. To prove it by mathe+2 ' + . When vj = j this sum equals 2n(n 1). + + 5 + &.1 ) A x ) or A x ~(iAx). which takes experience. For n = 100 the 1 1 leading term is loo2 = 5000. To start. The final step is to put x back.
26) Here are two methods. The original $ 1. 5. Readthrough8 a n d selected evennumbered solutions : Finding integrals by substitution is the reverse of the c h a i n rule. 1 s i n x. The left side is now 3cx2 and the right is the power on the right is C ' / ~ XThis ~ . The answers are t a n 2 ( x 3) and (x2 1) l l . the latter is a whole class of solutions.4x2 has this form if u = 22. Now integrate both sides: 2y'/2 C1 = $x3I2 C2.8 are all solutions to ytt = x. The problem is now m = u1I2 and t dt = f The last step used the linearity property of integrals. The derivative of (sin x ) is ~ 3(sin X ) ~ C O S x. + 6 u5I2 + C = . 14s' problem Choosing u = 1 ." The former is just one solution.4. Therefore the antiderivative of 3 ( s i n X ) ~ C O S x is (sin x13. power of x on the left is n .x + 27.4 Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions t2 = 1 . In terms of u the integral is $ u2 d u = ~u Returning t o x gives the final answer. 6. The reason for writing C1 instead of = $x2 Cl t o get y = Ex3 C1x C2. The method gives y = i x 3 and we check $ = @. + + The best substitutions for $ tan(x 3) sec2(x 3)dx and $ (x2 1)'Ox dx are u = tan(x + 3) and u = x 2 + 1. check = @.u. Find a function y(x) that solves the differential equation 2 = &. Then du = sect (x 3 ) d x and 2 x dx. Replace "dx" with "$dun : dx $du 1sin' u +c= 1 sin' 2 2s + C. They are equal for n = 3.(1 . (This is 5. The second derivative is x. and + Let C = 0 and you get the answer . The solution is . y = $x3 . (Again." the second is "separation of variables.4x2 fails because du = 8x dx is not present in the problem. Each integration C becomes clear at the next step: Integrate gives another "constant of integration.L 3 ( 1 . Since "Guess and check" ~ . d (page 200) du.x3 obtained by "guess and check. The antiderivative + + + a + + & + .5.Bu3l2 4. first get x and dx on one side of the equal sign and y and dy on the other: yl/a dy = zll"dz. Next step: du = 2 dx. and y = i x 3 ." 3 + + + + The functions y = $ x3. one for every C . 2 + Then y'/2 = 5x3I2 + C. Mentally sifting through the "knownn integrals. we must have ncxn' = x ' / ~ ( c x ~ ) ' /The 2 F. = sin' u +.1 and are given $ = @. Then d u l d x = c o s x so substitute du = c o s x d x . To compute $ (1 sin x ) cos ~ x dx. Find . "Separation of variablesn Starting with = x1/2y'I2. we remember + C. The first is "guess and check. so the first derivative must be $x2 4 . Solve the differential equation 2 = x." = ncxn' and we We guess y = cxn and try to figure out c and n. ) + 2 + 2 9 . Divide by 2 and let "C" replace the awkward constant y = (5x3I2 C ) 2 .t2)5/2+ C. means 3c = c1I2 and c = $.t2)3/2 + 1 $ J111 dU . substitute u = 1 3.G.
Since f ( x ) = $x3I2 is an antiderivative for v ( x ) = fi. This area is negative so that f (6) = f ( 5 ) . / : fi d x is the area under the curve y = fi from x = 1 t o x = 3. Don't leave off the dx! Qir ick qiiestio~l Which x gives the maximun~ area .especially changes of limits. The integral / d x / ( l + x 2 ) is known immediately as tan&.5 The Definite Integral (page 205) Then find the value. The function f ( x ) = of v . 1. 26 d y / d x = x / y gives y dy = x d x or y2 = x2 C or y = d m . add the area of the triangle with base 2: f (5) = 9+ ( 4 )( 2 ) = 13. the definite integral is 2.5 The Definite Integral (page 205) of u d v / d x is $v2. .cos z C. The next triangle has area 1 but it is below the x axis.f ( 5 ) . find f ( 3 ) . You could write a formula for f ( x ) but it's just as easy to read off the areas. Make a sketch t o show the meaning of $ : fi dx. Note: This is not a graph of f ( x ) ! The function f ( x ) is the area under this graph.3 x ) 3 / 2 C 16 The integral of x1I2 + x2 is $x3I2 + $ x 3 + C. and f ( 0 ) . times + + + + + 2 ? + + + + 2 2 5. The integrals of . The area under y = fi from z = 2 to x = 4 is $ : fi dx.5. which we don't yet know. To find f ( 5 ) . 20 Write sin3 x as (1 . $ 22 d x / ( l + x 2 ) leads t o / %. f ( 3 ) is the trapezoid area with base 3: f ( 3 ) = $ (2+4)3 = 9.cos2 x ) sin x. 28 y = &x5 C l x 4 C2x3 C3x2 C 4 x C5 (b) True: The chain rule gives f ( v ( x ) )= ( v ( x ) ) 34 (a) False: The derivative of f 2 ( x ) is f ( x ) (c) False: These are inverse operations not inverse functions and (d) is True. Finally f ( 0 ) = 0 since the area from t = 0 to t = 0 is zero! 4 Problems 4 and 5 will give practice with definite integrals . Use integral notation to describe the area between y = fi and y = 0 and x = 2 and x = 4.f(x)? (If = UIII when u(x) = clx '  v ( t ) d t gives the area under the curve y = v ( t ) from t = 0 t o t = x.1 = 12. From the graph 3. f (6). cos5 x C 10 cos3 x sin 22 equals 2 cos4 x sin x and its integral is 6 $( 1 .cos2 x sin x and sin x give $ cos3 x .
that defines the integral. The notation f (x)]b. The integral is i d u . First the meshpoints x l ..3 M 0.5. J . As more meshpoints are added.. The intermediate sums S*. Repeat Problem 6 with Ax = ) and eight intervals. Thus cos x]: equals 2. minimum mk. Thus u(0) = sec 0 = 1. divide [a. At x = b the 1 : integral becomes f (b) .xa . S decreases and s increases.f ( l ) so that $v(u)du = f ( u ) +C 6 C = 0. 1. (It is exactly [ I6 = m .f (a). This is see 2 = fi. Then at x = a the integral is zero.. We replaced x3 with 1 .x k . No constant in the derivative! . Here x i is any point between x k . to 1 M's and m's in the upper sum S and lower sum s enclosing sin rrx dx.wu it) h uf= i l ~ x3). Find the maximum and minimum of y = sin a x in the intervals from 0 to ! . 9. the constant C equals f(a). The lower sum s is A x l m l a r e a is between s and S./i u2du = +us]? = . If S and s approach the same limit.means f (b) .+..85. Now /. Use these The maximum values M in the four intervals are $. As expected.u and x2dx with upper limit is u(0) = 1.64 is still in between. The lower limit is u(2) = 1.609. The integral Ja v(x)dx can be defined for any continuous function v(x).1changes dx into Jf f 6du (with limits on u). The upper limit is the value of u when x = (the original upper limit). b] into subintervals of length Axk = x k .). and S*= A x k v ( x i ) approaches the area. use rectangles of height v(x.85. Also [cosx + 3 equals 2. The upper sum with Ax = is S = (A +1 1 m .75.. b + 4 C = f(sin %)= . x ~ ~ ~ .(2)3 = 9 and the Problems 67 help flesh out the idea of the maximum Mk.35. 6.named after R i e m a n n .5 The Definite Integral (page 205) The lower limit is the value of u when x = 0 (the original lower limit). 5. s has grown and S is smaller. Adding f times the minimum values mk gives s m . The minimum values mk are 0. 0. The The upper sum S is equal to A x l M l + A x 2 M Z + . ~ ~ ..a + + 9) 9. 1.35 and .d x = ~ ? ? ( l ( . ? to z. and sums S and s. The integral is between . Compare the answers. Readt hroughr and relected evennumbered aolutionr : If J ' v(x)dx = f (x) + C. A x 2 m 2 + .1 and x k .50.. The correct value . even if we can't find a simple antiderivative. Adding ) times the maximum values Mk gives S m . I . . The lower sum is s = L(o+ + 9 + 0 ) m .The upper rectangle with base Axk has height Mk = m a x i m u m of v(x) i n interval k. which shows why the antiderivative includes an arbitrary constant.64. f.) 4 t L . ? 7. Substituting u = 2%. q to 1.f (a).
Explain how property 4 applies to $ $ ! 3 sec x dx. . the area on the left of the y axis equals ! $ .x2. + o + $ ) = ~ 1 .tan' x. Then J ' =v(z)dx ~ = ~(2t)(2dt) so C = 2. 5. Explain how property 4 applies to tanl x dx.11 and 5. the area on the right.10 Set x = 2t and dx = 2dt.2]. 3. The function we're averaging is v(x) = x3 . Then 1 . + ~ .12). 16Chooseu=x2withdu=2xdzandu=0atx=0andu=1atx=1. compute the average value on [2. One area is negative while the other is positive. The average of 3 is 3.O. . . Then draw a sketch like those in Figure 5. Focus on them.6 Properties of the Integral and Average Value (page 212) Properties 17 are elegantly explained by the accompanying figures (5. . Property 4 says that J~& tan' x dx = 0. 1. sec z dx = 2 r : I 3 sec x dx. The average value is & Quick rearon : x3 and 3%are odd junctions (average zero).13 showing the area divided into two equal portions by a horizontal line at the average value. v(x)dx.$ + 0 + $ + 1 ) = ~ ands=i(I Lo ?. Note that sec(x) = sec x. 2.~~~=~~]]6=+~. Note that tan'(x) = . Property 4 states that J Solution to Problem 2: Since y = tan' x is an odd function. Minimum is mk = 1. Solution to Problem 1: Since y = sec x is an even function. the area on the left is equal in absolute value to the area on the right. . b Since the interval is 12.. 1.2] we have Equation 3 on page 208 gives average value as a = 2 and b = 2. s = $ ( .32 3.Then. .) 22 Maximum of x in the four intervals is: Mk = 0.32 + 3. For the function y = x3 . (Could also choose u = 1.
i.a)dx = 1 .27. Then c = 0 or c = f a . First assume a > 2. The average distance is : BY..5.3) = 0.x. the chance of hitting an integer is zero. This equals (sin c ) at ~ c = a and 0 and .x)dx = a .. The integral $ : v(x) dx equals . The rectangle across the interval with height v(c) has the same area as the region under v ( x ) .3. The expected value of z2 is 21.5. There are three solutions (three c's): x3 . & :5 If a < 0. . A point P is chosen randomly along a semicircle (equal probability for equal arcs).6 Properties of the Integral and Average Value (page 212) In this sketch it is easy to see that the two shaded areas above the dotted line fit into the shaded areas below the line. 5.6.32 + 3 actually takes on its average value somewhere in the interval (2. The average of (x .32 = 0 or x(x2 .a1 is never negative.6.a and the average distance is $ . 2 . (This is 5. 5 So < & < If x is chosen from 1. The area under the curve equals that of a rectangle whose height is the average value. The distance / x . Question 4 is asking where the graph crosses the dotted line. It equals 5.a ) is 6. Now suppose a lies in the interval [O. = &I : $ (sin X T. What is the average distance y from the x axis? The radius is 1. The average distance is ( a .1. . The 1 reason is that the steps A x are negative. It is equal to v(c) at a point x = c which is between 1 and 9. The distance to x is a .: $ v(x)dx. Solve ~ ( x= ) verve.. drawn on page 212) Since the problem states "equal probability for equal arcsn we imagine the semicircle divided by evenly spaced radii (like equal slices of pie). y. 6v .cos O)]: = becomes an integral (A0 becomes dB). If x is chosen from 1 1 5 x 5 9. ) ~ = ~ 0 X (odd function over symmetric interval a to a).32 + 3 = 3 or x3 . ?. 21. i.2). (This is 5. (Refer t o Problem 3) The Mean Value Theorem says that the function v(x) = x3 . the average distance would be x s i n $ sin O$ = $ (.5. m Question 3 found v. Find the value(s) c for which v(c) = v. the distance to x is x . 5 2.a. If x is chosen from 1 . = 3. The average valueof v(x) = x + 1 on the interval 1 x 5 9 is 6. The chance of falling between x and x + dx is p(x)dx = gdx. . and the total angle is T .. This is the distance to the middle point x = 1. the sum For a finite number of arcs. This is best considered in two sections. The central angle of each arc is AO. If v(x) 5 z then v(x) dx 5 2 . x < a and x > a. The probability of a particular wedge being chosen is A point P on the unit circle has height y = sin 0. The expected value E ( x ) is the integral 9 % d x . 2 (x . 4..25) Find the average distance from x = a t o points in the interval 0 5 x The full solution depends on where a is. The average value of v(x) on the interval 1 5 x 9 is defined by $:v(x) d x . 8 with probabilities its expected value is 4. Readthrough8 a n d eelected evennumbered aolutione : The integrals $ : v(x)dx and $ [ v(x)dx add to v ( x ) d x . As we let Ad + 0.7 with equal probabilities its expected value (average) is 4.
y2. The applications are where most of the challenge and interest lie.x2. pretend you don't believe the Ehndamental Theorem.$ do not haue to know this integral F(x). F(x) = : $ f dt. Both limits o(x) and b(x) depend on x. Notice that we To 'fixn this write F (x) = . we need the chain rule. 20 Property 6 proves both (a) and (b) because v(x) 5 Jv(x)1 and also v(x) 5 Iv(x)1. . + + < + + g.$. and the two axes.derivative of integral and then integral of derivative. Since . Remember to reverse sign in the integral from 5 to 1. which is : $ v(x)dx.7 The finciamental Theorem and Its Applications 5 ll (page 219) 82 x dx = x2]q = 24. dF d F du . This is a direct application of the Fundamental Theorem (Part 1 on page 214).) ~ Then is an eztm 6 from the derivative of the limit! dx du dx 4. F(x) is a product. F(x) = sin 4t dt. The hndamental Theorem gives F ( x ) = . find F1(x).u3 . the integral of v is F(x) = cos 4x+ cos r. derivative is F' (x) = tan x . 1. The chain rule applies a t both of the limits b(x) = 82 and a(x) = 2s.2 sin.The chance of an individual belonging to group 1 is &. F(x) = $ :$ tan t dt. 6. x i ) is the same as G2 5 n x. The derivative of F is Ft(x) = sin4x.. F(x) = ~ : ~ ~ s i n . Here v(t) = sin 4t. . in order to know that its derivative is $. The area under y = fi is $ : fidx = 5. . 3. $nIr a ! 2. ' ' 5. Now x is the lower limit rather than the upper limit. The rule gives F' (x) = 8 sin.7 The Fundamental Theorem and Its Applications The Fundamental Theorem is almost anticlimactic at this point! It has all been built into the theory since page 1. so this calls for the product rule. So their integrals maintain these inequalities. Then f (4) . The correct formula (with continuous f ) is x2 then 18 . + + C 5. .The expected size is sum X of size times probability: E(x) = C This exceeds $ by the Schwarz inequality: 12. 4 0 This formula for f (x) jumps from 9 to 9.v ( a ( x ) ) g . The extra 8 and 2 are from derivatives of limits.) Its : tan t dt.' u du. You must see the difference between Parts 1 and 2 . In Problems 15.6 = ( 6 ~ 6. The integral of v(t) from a to x has derivative u(x).3 J ! Problems 6 and 7 ask you to set up integrals involving regions other than vertical rectangles. 2 3 2 The square has area 1. Find the area A bounded by the curve x = 4 .  When the limit of integration is a function of x.f (0)= 2.82 .)~ (12 . F(x) = $ix t3dt. Don't let it bother you that the dummy variable is u and not t. We expect a minus sign. 38 Average size is g.5. (lxl . Eguation (6) on page 215 is Ft(z) = v(b(x))g . Set u = 6%and F(x) = : $ t3dt.. : f dt. (In fact F(x) is the average value of tanx. The derivative of F(x) is not ( 6 ~ ) ~ . As a check. The theorem says that F'(x) = sin 4x.12)(xl .cos 4t is an antiderivative of sin 4t. .22.
the sum becomes an integral. The last rectangle is at y = 2 (where the region ends). by geometry. Before integrating we must replace r2 with an expression using h.: i + + . If s is increased by As. 1 4 J z dy = /. The area is $. its derivative is v(x). 6 & I_"!' v(u)du = t v ( 8 ) . From this special case we conclude: If dA/dz = dB/dz then A(z) = B ( x ) C. are the lowest and highest values of y in the area. the integral of df /dz is f(x) C. Increasing the number of disks to infinity gives V = r P d h . 0 and 2. a small change Ax produces the area of a thin rectangle. By Part 1of the Fundamental Theorem. the extra area has the shape of an L. So dA = 2s ds which agrees with A = s2.(l)v(z) 1 x = 2v(2) + v(x) 10 $ ( $ ~ : + ~ z ~ d z ) = t(x+2)'4x3 18 &J:/t. So the derivative of : The integral J : t2 dt has derivative x2. Each disk (a very short cylinder) has volume r r 2 ~ h T . the derivative is 9x. J = : t dt.y2. The limits of integration. Think of the cone being approximated by a stack of thin disks. The area is A rr z Ay. This area A f is approximately A x $ t2 dt is x2. Strips are difficult because they go in and out of the ring (see Figure 14. and J2 2 r r dr = ar2]g = 5r.Think of the area being approximated by thin horizontal rectangles. When both db minus v(a(x)) limits a(%) and b(z) depend on z.y2)dy = [4y =@ 3  )y3]a 7. If an antiderivative of l / z is In z (whatever that is). In the proof. Then V = r ( 5 ) l d h = q[$h3]g = 18a cubic feet. The rr rectangles become infinite. 50 When the side s is increased. f = and 6 r = i h . As we let the number of z Ay becomes A = J : z dy. In the special case when df/dx = 0. this says that the integral is constant. he disk radius decreases with h to approximate the cone. A rr has become =. x The antiderivative is not $ z2 because we have "dy" and not "dz. Each rectangle has height Ay and length z. integral 3 4 0 Rings have area 2ar dr. That area AA is approximately 2 s As. The minus sign is because x is the lower limit. By similar triangles.5b on page 528). By Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem. The height variable h goes from 0 to 6.5dt=5g 52. So the area ir2d0 = : Substitute r = eose:sine. 0 5 y 5 s has area A = s2.. So dA/ds = 2s. so 6 % Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered rolutionr : The area f ( x ) = J ' v(t) dt is a function of x. The total volume of the disks is r r 2 ~ r~ h V." Before integrating we must replace z by 4 . times v(x). In the example 8.In a. I " . rectangles. = $y3/2]A = $. the formula for df/dz becomes v(b(x))6. then automatically J ' dz/z = In b . only two strips are added to the square (on the right side and top). Find the volume V of a cone of radius 3 feet and height 6 feet. the has become and Ay has become dy. where the sum is taken over the x I.'&dy 18 The triangle ends at the line z y = 1 or rcos 0 rsin 0 = 1. Then A = ~:(4 . + + The square 0 5 z 5 s.
the predicted error in Figure 5.= Ax.9239 + 1) = 0.0042.7071+ .7534.6408 . The other midpoint values are y3/2 = sin($(. 1. . Estimate sin y d x using each method: L. This is .0082.0) = 0. That is to say.yl(a)) = &(!)2(0 m 0.6366 (accurate to 4 places).7071+ .6366 = 0.5034.0.+ y3) = +(o + .6284.4 . M. y5/2 = 0. we need the values of y = sin 4f at the midpoints x = ). y3 = .4 .8.0.ylll(a)) = (+14(.2 .1951. = . For T4. To obtain 6place accuracy. Over 2 million rectangles will be necessary! i i [? t] ! ! ! .:.6) Compute a to 6 places as 4 & & Ji using any rule for numerical integration. we need n > .125 (just change sign!) and the actual error is 0. ' ( b ) This is half the predicted error for T4. The actual error is 0. 3. since Ax = for an interval of length 1 cut into n pieces.9808. or 0. and ). f .1168.8315. Tny and Sn to see which Ax will be necessary. The actual error to four places is 0. y 5 + . The first Left rectangular area L4 = Ax(yo midpoint i s halfway between 0 and ! .4 .6366 = 0.7534 . the predicted error is A AX)'(^'(^) .1 pattern: 2.6284 . 1 . 5.$1 = 0.000021. To apply the midpoint rule. we want error Check first that 4 < 5 x lo'. T. For Simpson's rule S4. Find I.3827 + . = 0. Examine the error predictions for Rn. R. and y4 = sin = 1.8 Numerical Integration (page 226) 1. Thia prediction is excellent: 0.3827. The actual error is 0. The intervals end at x = 0. yl = sin f = . The predicted error for R4 is AX(^. Simpson's error is predicted to be 0 to four places. .6366 = 0.& ( ~ x ) ~ [ ~ yl(a)].3827 + . lo7. 1 Give the predicted and actual errors for each method in Problem 1. and the calculator gives 9112 = sin(: ())) = 0.7071+ 0.1322.0. = 4 tan' x]. The integral is sin Y d x = m 0. $. y1 = cos 7 at x = 0.7071. (.2 .20 is (Ax)4 (yIll (b) .5. The values of y(x) = sin at those endpoints are yo = sin O = 0.0082.yo) = f ( f )(1. Right rectangular area R4 = Tkaperoidal rule T4 = bR4 + $L4 = +(+ 0 + .4 . Now for the five methods: Q. Now we're ready to find M4: fi Simpson's rule gives S4 as i~~ + ~4 or directly from the 1.2 .9239 + 1)= . Ignore the negative sign since the size of the error is what interests us.0000.8 Numerical Integration (page 226) 5. is ~ x [ ~ (by(a)] ) = (AX) . Take n = 4 intervals of length Ax = ! . The predicted error for L4 is 0.125. i.5556. To obtain < 5 .& The predicted error for R.6366 = 0.)) = 0.9239) = .9239.0..3827 + .' sin y dx by integration. (This is 5.6366 .0041. = 4(q) = a. 5 5) The factor is The predicted error for M4 is . '.
divide [a.221 (three w 2. The error for y = x2 from a to b is 6(Ax) rule is twice as accurate.x. Extra correct digits depend on the computer design.: . . Mlo w . because the powers 1.a).b] into n pieces of length A x = (b . It is reduced by 4 when A x is cut in half. The error in Simpson's rule is proportional t o AX)^ and is reduced by 16. . To make the calculation accurate to 6 places. using M. 1 2 (b . Over three intervals the weights are Ax16 times Simpson's method is Sn = $ M . +i 1 .A x .x2. = Ax(yl . For y = x' the integral from 0 to A x is AX)^ and the rule gives M 8 The trapezoidal rule for 9 so2= & 5 = = 2. We want & < 5 lo' & (.66838. Tloow . is fourthorder.1 1 is a complete p e r i o d .8 Numerical Integration (page 226) Its error is estimated by & ( A X ) ~ ( Y ' ( ~ )~'(0)) = Go up an order of accuracy to T. or n2 > &j  lo7.66646. This t r a p e z o i d a l rule is second A much better method is Tn = $ R . Tlo F. = Ax[y1 .~ ( 0 ) ) For .1 . For a method of order 2 The trapezoidal error has a factor (Ax)'.x3are integrated correctly. . The total error on [ O . + f yn]. This error AX)^ does equal X) .66051. yl are 4. Simpson offers a better hope for reducing the work. 1 ] is approximately T A(x y ( l ) . because they are incorrect for y = x. intervals).4 . . 2 2 + ~ nIt.)'(2). 1 + %Ln = Ax[$y0 + l y l + .221441 gives w 2. The coefficients of yo.66673.4 times Ax. 2. .5. and L.5. 2 2 Any of these stopping points should give the integral as 0. separated by AT/&. This means that n > 577 trapezoids will be necessary. ..: . 10 The midpoint rule is exact for 1 and x. y = cos nx this leading term is .09 (two intervals). Q. Curious that M. Simpson's error is about AX)^ (y"'(1) y"'(0)).2 . R. Ml M . yn) and L. using the height a t the right or left endpoint: R. Mloo F. = (AX)(?)'. for odd n.886227 .707.~ ' ( 0 ) ) . and 7 digits for Ts. The m i d p o i n t order because the error for y = x is zero.+yn1I. Gauss uses t w o points in each interval. Simpson's error is about & 24An. ynVl). What is the rate of decrease of the error? 18 The trapezoidal rule T4 = f + cos2 % cos2 2 cos2 0) gives the correct answer 2.4 . we need &<5x or n4 > & x 10' or n > 9. place a r e c t a n g l e over each piece. = T .4 .. Much better than 2 million! Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered solutions : To integrate y(x). . Tl = . Differentiate three times t o find y"'(1) = 12 and y"'(0) = 0. W(~'(A (a + + + .. For y = cos 2x2 the error is very small because + + + + [O. These are firstorder methods.225 (four intervals is worse??). yll2. = A x ( y o .2 . 14 Correct answer $.a)/n. p the error is nearly proportional to ( A x ) P .
Is the expected value of a ticket equal to 26#? (Find an antiderivative by substitution or otherwise) Drill Problemr Dl D4 137 Dl0 ~cosSxsinxdx J(x4 . Right rectangle. q]. If the average value of f (x) = x3 + kx . You should get more accurate answers than these: Dl9 D2l D23 D24 $. Show graphically how the average value relates to Show how a step function has no antiderivative but has a definite integral.24J=dx dz Ds D6 D9 ! a $ (try u = x2) 1 dx (try = x2) J* J(x .b]. Use sketches to illustrate these approximations to x4 dx with A x = 1 : Left rectangle. find k.x v(t)dt and f (x) = I .1) (close to 107) Ans ~ .D22. The others lose. . starting at v(0) = 1. Aligned below it draw the integral f (x) that gives the area from 0 to x.5 Chapter Review Problems 5 Chapter Review Problems Review Problem8 Rl R2 RS R4 R5 R6 87 R8 Draw any up and down curve between x = 0 and x = 3. dx Ans Use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to check answers. Midpoint. Find the derivatives of f (x) = !a. One person will win $250. J ! 1(5 + IxJ)dxfrom a graph (and from the area of a triangle). 3 Ans 6 . 1000 lottery tickets are sold.2 0 x ) ~ ( x~ 5)dx D2 D5 D8 Dl1 J.2] is 6. Trapezoidal.'0$(closeto2. see2(:)dx Ans 4 Dl3 Jt x f i 9 Dl4 Dl5 D 18 a Ans n/2 Dl6 J " : sin3 2% cos 22 dx Ans 0 D l 7 Jix d z dx Ans 2 j.4) JX~COS(X~)~X v d~ J& I= sin" $ . ! x dx Questions D l 3 . What is the difference between a definite integral and an indefinite integral? Sketch a function v(x) on [a.2 on [0.D l 8 are definite integrals.3) ~ ~ ' ~ s e e ~(closeto2. and Simpson. ten will win free $1tickets to the next lottery.4) z d x D20 D22 sin i d t (close to 1. : ' v(t)dt.(x2 6 + 4%+ 3)dx Find the average value of f (x) = sec2 x on the interval 10. Compute Jt J : v(x)dz. Find the errors.l4 sec2 x tan x dz Ans Use numerical methods to estimate D l 9 .
mit.edu/terms.edu Resource: Calculus Online Textbook Gilbert Strang The following may not correspond to a particular course on MIT OpenCourseWare.mit. For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw. visit: http://ocw. . but has been provided by the author as an individual learning resource.
4 CHAPTER 5 Integrals The Idea of the Integral Antiderivatives Summation vs.2 4. Integration Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions The Definite Integral Properties of the Integral and the Average Value The Fundamental Theorem and Its Consequences Numerical Integration 177 182 187 195 201 206 213 220 5.6 6.4 6.1 5.2 6.7 5.7 CHAPTER 7 Techniques of Integration Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Trigonometric Substitutions Partial Fractions Improper Integrals 7.8 CHAPTER 6 Exponentials and Logarithms An Overview The Exponential ex Growth and Decay in Science and Economics Logarithms Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation Powers Instead of Exponentials Hyperbolic Functions 228 236 242 252 259 267 277 6.3 5.5 8.1 6. Work.1 4.1 8.3 4.3 8.4 5.2 5.5 5.1 7.5 CHAPTER 8 8.4 7.4 8.Contents CHAPTER 4 The Chain Rule Derivatives by the Chain Rule Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives Inverses of Trigonometric Functions 4. and Energy .2 7.5 6.6 5.3 6.3 7.6 Applications of the Integral Areas and Volumes by Slices Length of a Plane Curve Area of a Surface of Revolution Probability and Calculus Masses and Moments Force.2 8.
The logarithms of those numbers are the exponents. The laws of nature are expressed by drflerential equations. Section 6. I believe that the equation dyldx = y has to be emphasized above techniques of integration. . The goal is to understand them. integrate them. They are the basis for slide rules (not so important) and for graphs on log paper (very important). logJ is always zero.1 applies that rule in three ways: 1. to understand the logarithm as the exponent. Answer . to find derivatives. ex waits until other applications of the integral are complete. The key is always bm+" = (bm)(b3. I would like to explain why it is placed earlier here. Its applications are to life sciences and physical sciences and economics and engineering (and morewherever change is influenced by the present state). and invert them (to reach the logarithm). For completeness I also include lo0.1 An Overview There is a good chance you have met logarithms. To base b. They turn multiplication into addition. the logarithm of bn is n. which is a lot simpler. and at the center is ex. The numbers 10 and lo2 and lo3 are basic to the decimal system. The slope of b" will use bX+*" = (bx)(bh"). which is "ten to the zeroth power" or 1. In the traditional order of calculus books. Question When the base changes from 10 to b. what is the logarithm of l ? Since b0 = 1. The overwhelming importance of ex makes this a crucial chapter in pure and applied mathematics. solve equations with them. Start with exponentials. The model produces a differential equation and I want to show what calculus can do. to draw graphs on ordinary and semilog and loglog paper. Logarithms are mirror images of exponentialsand those I know you have met. h 6. These are logarithms "to base 1 0 . 2. differentiate them. "because the powers are powers of 10. The logarithms of 1 and 10 and 100 and 1000 are 0 and 1 and 2 and 3. 3.CHAPTER 6 Exponentials and Logarithms This chapter is devoted to exponentials like 2" and 10" and above all ex.
1/1000 = 10 and Multiplying 1000 times 1/1000 gives 1 = 100. 2> ^ ^ 1 1+1 1+1+1 Fig.3) = 0. In every case multiplication of numbers is addition of exponents.3. Furthermore the law applies to all bases (we restrict the base to b > 0 and b .= .1)/. so logarithms (exponents) subtract logb(yZ) = lOgby + lOgbz and logb(Y/Z) = lOgby . we have to consider Ax = A then 2" (2 ax . Notice how 1000/10 = 100 matches 3 .3. To divide 1. The second figure.6. Division goes the other way. This rule easily gives y = 1. 4.3 were multiplied by sliding one edge across to 1. The limit is near (1.1 = 2.2.so logarithms (exponents) add b' divided by b" equals b".lOgbz. but its exponent x can be negative.56.07the tenth root of 2. Adding to x multiplies y. The logarithms are the exponents 1 and 2: 1000 = 103 and 3 log 1000 = 3 log 1/1000 = .1)/Ax. which are the same as 10' and 10.3. is the important one.7.2 . The first examples are 1/10 and 1/100. Calculus will add Ax. The distance from 1 to 2 equals the distance from 2 to 4 and from 4 to 8. you add distances and multiply numbers. (1) Historical note In the days of slide rules.6 times 10'. By sliding the edges. If ax 1. look back along line D for the answer 1.1 An Overview 229 Negative powers are also needed. The number 10x is positive. but look ahead to calculuswhich doesn't stay with whole numbers. though smaller.1). 6A bm times b" equals b'". The law for b" times b" extends to all exponents. as in 104. When x increases by 1.In particular 103 times 102 produces five tens: (10)(10)(10) times (10)(10) equals (10)(10)(10)(10)(10) = 105. powers 2x multiply. 8. Adding logarithms gives 3 + (. 2. m " +" Always 10 times 10" equals 10 . Its photograph shows the numbers on a log scale. Then y is multiplied by 2ax. When exponents x add. 1.1 An ancient relic (the slide rule).56 by 1.2 and reading the answer under 1.2 and 1. 6. A slide rule made in Germany would give the third digit in 1. This number is near 1.07 . 2 x is multiplied by 2. . but the exact number will take time. To find the slope.
When x is a fraction. start with base b and change to base a. An example with a = 2 is b = 8 = Z3 g2 = (z3).b)x. The square of the cube is the sixth power: (a)(a)(a)times (a)(a)(a) equals (a)(a)(a)(a)(a)(a): (a3).The multiplication rule 68 came from (am)"= am". The addition rules 6A came from (bm)(b") = bm +". a = (log.. Now replace x by logby: base change for logarithms: log." Everything comes from the rule that logarithm = exponent: base change for numbers: b = d o g b .. with the desired properties (2")(2") = 2"'" and (2")" = 2""whether m and n and x are integers or not. An important case is y = a: log. = 26 log. Then (10g28)(l0g82) = (3)(1/3) = 1.02 should not be 10 (or we are in real trouble). Certainly x does not need to be a whole number of years. . It can be rewritten to base 10 if that is preferred (but look at the exponent): 1.02 to 10. 64 = 3 2 = (log28)(log864). Now raise both sides to the power x.. This makes y = 2" into a continuous function. the graph suggests one way to fill in the hole.=a6. And certainly the base 1. b)(logba) = 1 so log.Its logarithm to base b is x. b) (log. y = (log. When the base changes from 1.02)". as in 2". The second is the xth power of the first. The rule behind base changes is (am)"= am". 23141100. Another base will soon be more important than 10here changes: are the rules for base The first is the definition. You see the change in the exponent: .3. This prediction will be refined as we study the differential equations for growth. This completes the algebra of logarithms. y ). We absolutely need this ability to change the base. The logarithm to base a will be written "log. are needed for applications. When x is not a fraction. a. When the mth power is raised to the xth power. . the powers 2' approach 2". the definition is easy. . The population of the world x years from now is predicted to grow by a factor close to 1.02" is the same as 10('Og . . We could defne 2" as the limit of 23. base change for exponentials: bx = a('0g Finally set y = bX. The square root of a8 is a4 (m = 8 times x = 112).4) a smoother approach based on integrals.2. 231110. The third is the logarithm of the second (remember y is bx).02". We still need to deJine b" and ax for all real numbers x. But the E'S and 6's of continuity are not attractive.Ix. As the fractions r approach 7t. and we eventually choose (in Section 6.. For practice. EXAMPLE (3) 8 = 23 means 8lI3 = 2. Its logarithm to base a is the exponent on the right hand side: logay = (log. the exponents multiply. the exponent is multipliedas we now see.6 Exponentials and Logarithms Base Change Bases other than 10 and exponents other than 1. b = 1/log.
All exponentials start at 1. which are in the right graph. When the values are plotted on a graph. On ordinary graphs. it stays above the x axis. On a log scale each unit multiplies y by . The figure on the right shows the mirror imagethe logarithm. 10 is between 3 and 4. because 10 is between 23 and 24. (9 This holds for every base b. one graph is above x = 2 (because 4' = 16). Both logarithms climb slowly. 2. Fig. These are inverse functions.) Again x in one graph corresponds to 2x in the other (base change for logarithms). Why does 4" in one graph equal 2. to be the mirror image. The graphs go down to . Their mirror images in the 45" line give the logarithms to base 2 and base 4. 6. Sketch it in with your pencil. since 4 = 2. The logarithm of g(x) = bXis x: In the opposite direction." in the other? This is the base change for powers.. its inverse undoes. Also extend the second graph down.co at y = 0. In many problems we don't know the function y = f(x). What one function does. 2" and 4" increase too fast.2a shows y = 2" and y = 4". At the height y = 16. If the first graph is extended to the left. When x is negative. Figure 6. The most important fact about Ab" is the value of 6and the base doesn't stand out in the graph. Different scales for x and y.GRAPHS O F b" AND logby It is time to draw graphs. We are looking for it! All we have are measured values of y (with errors mixed in). All logarithms start from zero at y = 1. The other graph is above x = 4 (because 24 = 16). each unit upward adds a fixed amount to y. since the exponentials climb so fast. Fortunately there is a solution. There are interesting relations within the left figure. The slope of 2" is proportional to 2"which never happened for xn. In principle one graph should do the job for both functions. and it is valuable to see b = 2 and b = 4 on the same graph.2 Exponentials and mirror images (logarithms). Scale the y axis dfferently. because y = bx means the same as x = logby. y = bx is still positive. we want to discover f(x). the exponential of the logarithm of y is y: g(g = b('08b~) = Y. The number log. (Roughly speaking 2" is zero. because b0 is always 1. But there are two practical difficulties with those graphs: 1. The curves turn virtually straight up. Don't cross the vertical axis. There is also another point.
On a log scale. so the . The slope down is half of the earlier slope up. so the graph is straight. The second graph in Figure 6. with an ordinary x axis. Figure 6. in which we start with measurements and look for f(x).3 is on semilog paper (also known as loglinear). The crucial number log b can be measured directly as the slope.3 shows two examples. lox has slope 1 and 10("gb)" (which is bx) will have slope log b. Fig. Each step down divides by a fixed amountwe never reach zero. The graph is strong evidence that they do. And y = 0 is not there at all. Figure 6.3 is more typical of actual practice.6 Exponentials and Logarithms aJixed amount. (6) The relation between x and log y is linear. 6. The markings on the y axis allow you to enter y without looking up its logarithmyou get an ordinary graph of log y against x.4 Graphs of AX^ on loglog paper. One graph is an exact plot of y = 2 loX. The graph of y = Abx is a straight line. which also never reaches zero. Here are the data points: We don't know in advance whether these values fit the model y = Abx. 6. y = 11 is not halfway between 10 and 12. because a unit across has the same length as multiplication by 10 going up. take logarithms of that equation: log y = log A + x log b.3 2 = 10" and 4 10"I2 on semilog paper. To see why. Fig. The step from y = 1 to y = 2 is the same length as the step from 3 to 6 or 10 to 20. The points lie close to a line with negative slopeindicating log b < 0 and b < 1. This is completely satisfactory for Abx. It is really log y that is plotted.It goes upward with slope 1.
bx comes outside the limit because it does not depend on h. look at one point on the line. where . and on log paper the graphs are straight. y drops by a factor of 10. The problem is to find one of them. What is dyldx when y = bx? What is dxldy when x is the logarithm logby? Thpse questions are closely related. We are pushed all the way back to the original definition.4 have slopes 3 and and . The logarithm of y = Axk gives a linear relation between log y and log x: log y = log A + k log x. On semilog paper those graphs would not be straight! You can buy log paper or create it with computer graphics. More than that.y This is a calculus book. I think it is worth separating out the part that can be done immediately.2 discovers c by studying the special number called e (but c # e). so adjust the A's to make this happen: The functions are x3/8 and 4& and 32/x. Then Section 6. The central question is the derivative.1. The remaining limit. The base b makes no difference. You will now see that those questions have quick (and beautiful) answers. I 6C The derivative of bX is a multiple ebx. the limit of AylAx: Key idea: Split bx+hinto bXtimes bh.1 An Overview model is consistent with y = AdoX12 or log y = l o g A . is the number c that we don't yet know: This equation is central to the whole chapter: dyldx equals cbx which equals cy. the other is known from dxldy = l/(dy/dx). This time we use loglog paper. The slope increases in the same way that bx increases (except for the factor c). The graphs in Figure 6. A typical example is money in a bank.f x . We have to ask about slopes. If one slope can be found. (7) When x reaches 2. The algebra of exponents is done. To find the A's. with both axes scaled. and a straight line is a lot more attractive than a power curve. inside the brackets. (8) The exponent k becomes the slope on loglog paper. leaving c in dyldx and llc in dxldy. because bx and logby are inverse functions. The number c depends on the base b. At x = 0 we see A z 4. Now come limits. I The product and power and chain rules do not yield this derivative. Another modela power y = Axk instead of an exponentialalso stands out with logarithmic scaling.6. They represent Ax3 and A& and Alx. At x = 4 the height is 8. and the exponential comes first. There is a multiplying factor c which needs more time. 4 THE DERIVATIVES OF y = bxAND x= log. The rate of change of y is proportional to y. We just measure the slope. the rules are set. except for a mysterious constant. Then the crucial quantity bx factors out.
The logarithm of 10. and y is always s . Final remark It is extremely satisfying to meet an f(y) whose derivative is llcy. and the logarithm fills that gap. The rich get richer.7 ~.x is w . On semilog paper the graph of y = n is a straight line. In other words log2y is i y = 2 it follows that log28 times log82 equals k . k . powerful but too quick! We go more carefully: f(bx) = x f '(bx)(cbx)= 1 (logarithm of exponential) (x derivative by chain rule) f '(bx) = l/cbx (divide by cbx) f '(y) = l/cy (identify bx as y) The logarithm gives another way to find c. Then times log8y. We had no integral for x . where c depends on . Since x = b.000" is e . and identify b and c. A base change gives b = a and b" = a . In lo4 = 10.1 Readthrough questions EXERCISES On ordinary paper the graph of y = I is a straight line. (dx/dy)(dy/dx)= t . Its slope is 0 .x=dx cx and d 1 log. Its slope is 9 . When 8' is 2". The slope of y = b" is dyldx = r . The number c is the limit as h logby is the inverse. The logarithm of 10" times 10" is c . and the poor get slightly richer. Then the derivative is llx. The derivative of x0 (a constant) does not produce x'. This final touch comes from the magic choice b = ethe highlight of Section 6. If dy/dx = cbx then dxldy = l/cbx = llcy. Substituting b" for y. dt ct The base b can be chosen so that c = 1.0 of s . 6. At last the " .7 2". 1 0 1 Fig. With a change of letters.1.?. the slope of log.2. Its slope is m . If y is replaced by x or t (all dummy variables) then + ' d 1 log. Here x is any number. The inverse function is x = logby. 6. the exponent 4 is the a of 10. This is the way that finally works (next section). The slope of log2y is about 11. Now the unknown factor is l/c: I 6D Proof The slope of logby is llcy with the same e (depending on b). is v . I (11) That proof was like a Russian toast.1 power" has an antiderivative. The logarithm of 10m/lOn is d ..000. If y = bX then x = f . The base is b = b . the slope of log. We will come back to compound interest. Remember that j'xndx = xn+'/(n 1) is a failure when n = . Knowing dyldx = cb" yields dxldy = u . From its slope we can discover l/c.5 The slope of 2" is about .000.6 Exponentials and Logarithms interest is proportional to the principal. On loglog paper the graph of y = p is a straight line.t=.
log27 3 Sketch y = 2" and y = g4") from 1 to 1 on the same graph. amplifying by a factor A increases the decibel level by 10 log A.5. and a shout is 70db then 10 log A = 50 and A = So c probably involves the of b. Use h = 114 by hand or h = 1/10 and 1/100 by calculator. find the slopes of log (2x) and log (x2)and log (2"). l h. 05 + log1o2 (d) (l0g3~)(logbg) (e) 105104103 (f) log256. 27 Find the second derivative of y = bx and also of x = logby. (a)log232 (b) logz(1/32) ( 4 log32(1/32) (d) (e) log. (a) Estimate L by choosing a small h. (a)log23 + log2 3 (c) log. Apply the chain rule to g (f (y))= y to prove that dfldy = llcy. 9 2'' is close to lo3 (1024 versus 1000). Estimate A and k in y = AX^. Put their mirror images x = . how did its intensity I compare to I. 21 If the slope of log x is llcx. The record quake was four times as intense with R= . What other equations give straight lines on those axes? 13 When noise is measured in decibels. 28 Show that C = lim (lWh. 18 Sketch loglog graphs of y = x2 and y = &. printed or homemade. 3. the limit for b = 100 is twice as large as for b = 10. The frequency of the next higher A is . What is R for the standard earthquake of intensity I. (Replace the last h's by 2h. Use a calculator for small h to estimate c = lim (loh. 21. 25 The unknown constant in the slope of y = (.l)/h. 5.1 An Overview Problems 110 use the rules for logarithms. 6 Solve the following equations for x: Questions 2029 are about the derivative dyldx = cbx. of y = l. 16 The frequency of A above middle C is 440/second. . Since 2'/l2 x 1.) 29 In 28. plot y = 4. 22 What is the equation (including c) for the tangent line to ? Find also the equation at x = 1.2 sketch the graphs of y = (iy and x = logl12y.6. .What are loglI22and loglI24? 5 Compute without a computer: 15 The Richter scale measures earthquakes by loglo(I/Io)= R.lO would be instead of 0.lXand y = lq1. 2. If they were equal .l)/h is twice as large as c = lim (10" . the slope of 10" is c10". 26 Find a base b for which (bh. 1 Find these logarithms (or exponents): 14 Draw semilog graphs of y = lo1' and y = ~fi)". Also logl02 would be then log.? The 1906 San Francisco quake had R = 8.? If the 1989 San Francisco earthquake measured R = 7. 20 g(x) = bx has slope g' = cg. 11 By hand draw the axes for semilog paper and the graphs (b) Change h to h to show that L = .3.l)/h.1)". the note with frequency 660/sec is 17 Draw your own semilog paper and plot the data Estimate A and b in y = Abx.301.c from Problem 24.log2y and x = log42y on a second graph. . 4 Following Figure 6. y = 10" at x = O 23 What is the equation for the tangent line to x = log.=2 (d) 10g2(l/x) (f) logx(xx) =5 19 On loglog paper. 12 Display a set of axes on which the graph of y = loglox is a straight line.y at y = l? Find also the equation at y = 10.l)/h x 1. 32. 10 The number 21°00has approximately how many (decimal) digits? Questions 1119 are about the graphs of y = bx and x = logby.l)" is L =lim (. If a whisper is 20db .l)/h. dl0) (f) log2(l0g216) 2 Without a calculator find the values of (a)310g35 (b) 3210835 (c) log. (a)log10(10")= 7 (c) logXlO =2 (e) log x + log x = log 8 7 The logarithm of y = xn is logby= *8 Prove that (1ogba)(logdc) = (logda)(logbc). 24 With b = 10.log 4 = log 3 . 45 at x = 1. 11.010040 (e) 223/(22)3 (b) log2(i)10 ( 4 (log1 0 4(loge10) (f logdlle) (b) log 4x . 4.
to put it mildly. where it looks totally clumsy and out of place. Then the exponents l/h are n = 1. l/h is approaching infinity. It is the base of the natural logarithm. The quantity (1 + h)'Ih is unusual. 1/100. the graph of logby starts from logbl = 0. 10.[logb(l h+O h + h) .. Equations (10) and (1 1) in the previous section were b" = cb" d dx and . In calculus it comes into its own.logbl] = hlim logb[(l + h)'lh]. Euler also chose 7c to stand for perimeteranyway.. . In the limit we have 1".1 and found Ay z 07. which is an extremely remarkable number. At the same time.0 and n . our first goal is to find e. 1/10. The base b was arbitraryit could be 2 or 6 or 9. only a few bases are used. which is much more important than In x. The slope is c. the number 1 h is approaching 1. That base e has c = 1 as desired The derivative of ex is 1 ex and the derivative of log.2 T h e Exponential eX The last section discussed bx and logby. I have never met a logarithm to base 6 or 9.= slope C 1 1 at 1 = lim . We begin with a direct computation of the slope of logby at y = 1: . This number can go up into the exponent. the slope is logee = 1.logby = d d~ 1 . The fraction in the middle is logb(l + h) times the number l/h.. Equivalently e = lim h+O n+ c o Before computing e.3 or any positive number except 1. and it did.. At the end of equation (2) is the logarithm of e: When the base is b = e.) The table shows (1 + h)lih approaching e as h . and 10 is one of them. The logarithm has slope llc. choose h = 1. That symbol was chosen by Euler (initially in a fit of selfishness. CY (1) At x = 0.ween "nearly 1" and "nearly GO. But that expression is meaningless (like 010). To compute the actual number e from (1 + h)'lh. 100.7. the graph of bx starts from b0 = 1. oo: . . Everything depends on the balance bet." This balance produces the extraordinary number e: + DEFINITION The number e is equal to lim (1 +'h)'lh. . The number is e. The base has to be larger than 2. With the right choice of the base b those slopes will equal 1 (because c will equal 1). It makes c = 1. Realistically there are two leading candidates for b. We already tried Ax = . Remember that the derivatives of bx and logby include a constant c that depends on b. It also controls the exponential ex.. 0 Always logbl = 0. (All limits and derivatives will become official in Section 6.4. look again at the slope llc.236 6 Exponentials and Logarithms 6. for a starting slope of c = 1.y is 1 my' 1 (4) This is why the base e is allimportant in calculus. This number is not seen in arithmetic or algebra or geometry.3. For y = 2" the slope c is near . but he was a wonderful mathematician). At y = 1. This section is about the other one. But in practice. As h + 0.
Base e is understood even without the letters In.37). and the truth is that the symbol "log x" generally means In x.6 . This gives cthe slope of bx at x = 0: c = In b is the mysterious constant that was not available earlier. (and lle z . There is a special name for this logarithmthe natural logarithm. The logarithm is the inversefunction. The slope of ex is In e times ex (but In e = 1). The powers of e produce y = ex.y. 2 The Exponential eX The last column is converging to e (not quickly).7 1828 1828 45 90 45 . equation (3) is llc = logbe. At x = 2. we are close to y = 10 and 150. and the derivative of log.000 digits of e (and a billion digits of n). the base is generally assumed to be e. If b = e then c = 1 .3 and 5. In most of science and engineering. The natural logarithm is the exponent in ex = y. The logarithms of 150 and 10. There are no definite patterns. The notation In y (or In xit is the function that matters. For all bases.. x dx . The symbol "exp (x)" means ex. we rewrite them using t and x: d e'=ef dt and d 1 lnx=. After calculus. The slope of 2" is In 2 times 2". y is llcy. THE DERIVATIVES OF ex AND In x Come back to derivatives and slopes.bx = (In b)bx dx and d d~ . There is also a special notation "ln" to show that the base is e: In y means the same as log. the natural logarithm is the automatic choice. We know 125. For other bases d . We have the derivatives on which this chapter depends: 6F The derivatives of ex and In y are ex and 1fy. There is an infinite series that converges much faster. to the base e. are close to x = 5 and x = 2.logby=  1 (in b ) ~ ' (6) To make clear that those derivatives come from the functions (and not at all from the dummy variables).3. But in any case of doubton a calculator key for examplethe symbol "ln x" emphasizes that the base is e. although you might think so from the first sixteen digits: e = 2. The derivative of bx is cbx. not the variable) is standard in calculus courses.
Where ex grows exponentially. The slopes are 1 when e is the limit of (1 + lln)".co. which starts out with slope 1. This is a small puzzle. This approach to e (Section 6. so it must be less than 1as desired. Figure 6. On that interval its average slope is 1. It is the mirror image of ex across the vertical axis.1 and x = 1. Their product is eXe" = 1. Multiplying this out wlll lead to 4.4) seems less intuitive than the others. which applies to so theory. If you pick points at random below the graph. . and the slope of 4" is above 1. But the idea is to see the slopes graphically. The other curve is y = e"'I2. the area 5. . After dividing by many averages and so many experiments. 2" rises from 1 at x = 0 to 2 at x = 1. Exponential growth is more rapid than polynomial growth. co ( :r 5. The points x = .6. and then 5 says that in e = 1.to 1 at x = 0. e is the number such that ex has slope 1 at x = 0 2. which is fun to solve but can be skipped.6 Exponentials and Logarithms Remark on slopes at x = 0: It would be satisfying to see directly that the slope of 2" is below 1. and 3 have been made. There is also the infinite series.as n . Quick proof: e is between 2 and 4. and a fifth definition through integrals which is written here for the record: 1. Somewhere between 2" and 4" is ex. e is the base for which In y = log..y has slope 1 at y = 1 3.2 and x = 2 are "two standard deviations" from the center.6b shows the graph of e". This is the famous "bellshaped curve" of probability it gives the normal distribution.6 ex grows between 2" and 4". 6. 2. 213 of all samples are expected in that interval. x . the slope of 4" at that point exceeds 1. Since x = 0 comes at the end of this new interval. e is the limit of 1 + . The official definition of in x comes from 1dxlx. so that e"/xn goes to infinity (Problem 59). e" decays exponentiallyor it grows as x approaches .4. Again the average slope is L/L = 1. Their growth and decay are faster than any power of x. Its slope at the beginning is smaller than average.l dx equals 1. Fig. the infinite series in Section 6. The Gallup Poll will be an example in Section 8. since changing x to . fi.x has no effect on x2. The connections between 1. On the other hand 4" rises from at x = . The curve is symmetric around its mean value x = 0. About two thirds of the area under this curve is between x = . faster decay of e"'I2. : This is the graphical approach to e. It is the fact that ex has slope ex which keeps the function climbing so fast. Decay of e".
It is better to agree on e as the base. There is only a 5% chance of landing beyond. EXAMPLE 6 An extreme case is xx = (eInx)x. The decay is even faster than an ordinary exponential.1. where the bellshaped curve hasf" = 0 in equation (10). In EXAMPLE 3 The derivative of ex2/2 is . (10) Notice how the exponential survives. The chain rule gives the slope of e3 x and esinx and every e"(x): 6G 239 The derivative of euix) is eu(x) times du/dx.1 comes from In and exp and the chain rule. EXAMPLES e2xdx . " n is x"in disguise. THE DERIVATIVES OF eX AND eu x) The slope of ex is ex. The derivative of f(u(x)) is df/du times du/dx. The points of inflection. EXAMPLE 5 (u = n Inx). are x = 1 and x = . Now nx". integer or not. The integralof ecx is ecx/c (plus a constant). The derivative of esinx is esin x cos x (here u = sin x). The derivative multiplies by c so the integral divides by c.x2/2. The chain rule demands that secondfactor du/dx. but it is still there to dominate growth or decay.2 The Exponential ex enclosing 95% of the area. Special case u = cx: The derivative of e" is cecx. = (1) f" x 2/2 + e ( 2 2 x) 2 ex / = ( 2 . EXAMPLE 2 e(In 2 2)x is the same as 2x.xe x EXAMPLE 4 is 2/ 2 (here u = . Here f= e"so df/du = e".x). Chapter 2 produced 3x2 and 4x 3 from the binomial theorem. The derivative just brings down the constant c.e2x + C 2 f bxdx = + C Inb . Its derivative is In 2 times 2x. The integral of ecx is not ecx. With every derivative it is multiplied by more factors. (8) (9) 3 3 EXAMPLE 1 The derivative of e x is 3e x (here c = 3). Here u = x In x and we need du/dx: dx d (x) = exnxIn x+ x x) = xx(ln x + 1).x 2/2 so du/dx= . Since en its slope must be nx 1: slope = e""nx (n In x)= x(n) = nx (11) This slope is correctfor all n. Generally ecx is preferred to the original bx. In the slope of bx it rediscovers the factor c = In b. INTEGRALS OF e" AND e" du/dx The integral of ex is ex. and put all complications (like c = b) up in the exponent. This opens up a whole world of functions that calculus can deal with. The second derivative of ecx is c2ecx. by the chain rule and product rule. The second derivative off= e . because ix2 has replaced x.6.l)e x  2/2 . The chain rule rediscovers our constant c = In 2.
Here are three other integrals: The first can change to . The exercises offer practice in reaching eudu/dx . In the third one. good.) The second is actually J u d u . The second has c = In bremember again that bx = e('nb)x. The missing du/dx = 3 is fixed by dividing by 3. We cannot integrate without duldx: Here are three examples with du/dx and one without it: The first is a pure eudu.eudu/u2. The last example fails because duldx is not there. but I prefer a split: 54ex and 5e2" are safer to do separately. It is the integral of du/u2. For an exponential f = e3" it is definitely not true. (It is just as impossible. 5 5 Warning about dejinite integrals When the lower limit is x = 0. e3("+')is e3" times the number e3 and that number is carried along. It has du = exdx = (u .'' The integral splits into simpler pieces (explained in Section 7. So is the second.6 Exponentiais and Logarithms The first one has c = 2.4) and we integrate each piece. The integral divides by In b. the integral dx/(l + looks bad.ready to be integrated. But u = 1 + ex is still worth trying. The third has u = and du/dx = l/2&. which is not much better. For a power f = x3 that is true. The third is (4e" + l)dx. The fourth example does not belong with the others.1)dx: 5 That last step is "partial fractions. so only the factor 2 had to be fixed. If it works. which also separates. not the integral of eudu. because f(0) = 1: . Or more likely we see e3'"+'I as eu. there is a natural tendency to expect f(0) = 0in which case the lower limit contributes nothing. I don't know any way to tell you which substitution is bestexcept that the complicated part is 1 + ex and it is natural to substitute u. Without an extra ex for duldx.
17 esinx + sin ex 18 x 'Ix (which is e) 42 Find the slope of y = x1lXand the point where dy/dx = 0.. prove that if x > 0 then (a)ex> 1 + x (b)e"> 1 . Its derivative is m . The notation for log." 46 21 The limit of (11/10)1°. 0. which is the I logarithm of y.1 is e .O1lOO when h = c . is e. With h = & find Y(h) after one step starting from Y(0)= 1. 2 The Exponential eX 241 6. When the base is b = e.2. the constant c in Section 6. So the limit of (lO/ll)ll .. 4950 are "improper. The integral of ecxis r . 39 Find the tangent line to y = ex at x = a. .Y(x)= at x = 0 is . Subtract the calculated values for n = 10. xe. 37 Compare e" with eX2.Which one decreases faster near x =O ? Where do the graphs meet again? When is the ratio of ex2 to eX less than 1/100? 38 Compare ex with xX:Where do the graphs meet? What are their slopes at that point? Divide xx by ex and show that the ratio approaches infinity. Deduce that y(x) = Cex for some constant C. (100/101)101.6 . Which power n would give all the decimals in 2. Evaluate the integrals in 4554. 19 The difference between e and (1 + l/n)" is approximately Celn. 22 Compare the number of correct decimals of e for (l. The derivative of ednX is 0 . The last sequence is (1 . . 100. dx dx 48 50 Sl J. which is Y(x+ h) . h such that for x > 10 (1 llx)" <f ( x )< e" < g(x)< e2" < h(x)< xx. Therefore the derivative of y = ex is dyldx = f . The function bx can be rewritten as I .2 EXERCISES Readthrough questions The number e is approximately a . Approximate this equation by A Y A x = Y. 1000 from 2. + 26 Graph ex and at x = . The slopes at x = 0 and y = 1 are both h .Show from dZy/dx2 that the curve is concave upward. The derivative of x = logey is dxldy = g . The constant c in the slope of bx is c = k . offiis # Find antiderivatives for the functions in 2736. .y starting from y = 1 .y is I .7183 to discover the number C. The derivative of eU(") is n .(101/100)100.OO1)lOOO and (l. (100/101)100. 24 The function that solves dyldx = .. g. Approximate by Y(x h) . What is Y ( l )after ten steps? Jb" sin x ecoSx dx 2. 20 By algebra or a calculator find the limits of ( 1 (1 l / n ) 4 + + l/n)2n and 44 Prove that xe = ex has only one positive solution.l/ny. An equivalent form is e = lim ( d )". This gives l. The integral of eU(")du/dx is s . It is the limit of (1 + h) to the power b . The derivative of ecxbrings down a factor P . 1. Another form .. . + 35 @ + (ex)' 33 xeX2 xex2 34 (sin x)ecO" + (cos x)e"'"" 36 xe" (trial and error) Find the derivatives of the functions in 118.hY(x). In general the integral of eU(") by itself is t to find. 2. is .x . The integral of ex is q . So the limit of (10111)1°. From which point on the graph does the tangent line pass through the origin? 40 By comparing slopes. With infinite limits.OOOO1)lOOOOO.71828? 23 The function y = ex solves dyldx = y. If h = what is Y(h)after one step and what is Y ( l ) after four steps? + 25 Invent three functions f. 41 Find the minimum value of y = xx for x > 0. is .. 1.OOO1)lOOOO and if possible (l.Y(x)= h Y(x). Check d2y/dx2to show that the maximum of xllx is 43 If dyldx = y find the derivative of e"y by the product rule...
The second has dyldx equal to y itselfwhich we rewrite as dy/y = d x . For parabolas.3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics The derivative of y = e" has taken time and effort. Notice that F(x) decreases for x > n > 0. (a) Find dF/dx. and the second solution is ex times a constant. which means that y' = cy. The solution curves fit those slopes. Use it to estimate 66/e6 to the nearest whole number. But I want to stay with y' = cywhich is the most important differential equatibn in applied mathematics.0 as x + m. is nn/en.0 is also proved by l'H6pital's rule (at x = m): 58 With electronic help graph the function (1 + llx)". We quickly find y = i x 2 + C. Compare y' = x with y' = y. Then y itself is exec. Estimate its maximum. 6.7 shows "tangent arrows." which give the slope at each x and y. The result was y' = cecx. The maximum of xn/e". (b) F(2x) = (2x)"/ezx= 2"xn/eXex < 2"n"/en ex. virtually for freethe derivatives of bx and x x and eu(x). 6. Notice that the first solution is $x2 plus a constant. at x = n. . Figure 6. That computation brought others with it. The integral is in y = x + C. Deduce that F(2x) + 0 as x + bo.242 53 6 Exponentials and Logarithms 1 : 2sinx cos x dx 54 1'' (1 ex)'' ex dx 55 Integrate the integrals that can be integrated: 59 This exercise shows that F(x) = x"/ex .7 The slopes are y' and y' = y. Thus F(x) + 0. 61 Stirling's formula says that n! z @JZn. the arrows grow steeper as x 1 2 =x 1 Fig. 56 Find a function that solves yl(x) = 5y(x) with y(0) = 2. Estimate x when you reach F(x) = 1. Estimate x when you reach F(x) = 4. What are its asymptotes? Why? lim x6/ex= lim 6xs/ex = fill this in = 0. 57 Find a function that solves yl(x) = l/y(x) with y(0) = 2. Is it correct? How many decimal digits in lo!? 62 x6/ex . The first only asks for an antiderivative of x . There is a way to graph slope x versus slope y. graph F(x) = x6/ex on a calculator or computer. 60 With n = 6.
At that time yoecT equals 2yo: e T = 2 yields cT= In 2 so that T= I In 2 c . For exponentials. The time to multiply by 10 is (In 10)/c. Both answers found ecT as the ratio y(T)/y(O). Then cT is its logarithm. Question 2 was about decay.then the curve has the right slope. To make c appear in the derivative. c has the units of "1/time. Find the decay constant c for carbon14 if y = ½yo in T= 5568 years. on the right the heights stay proportional. The constant of integration is needed nowthe solutions are y = Ae". the third is determined. By choosing A = Yo. Question 1 was about growth.In 2).1/c.) If a savings account earns 10% continuous interest. the arrows grow steeper as y growsthe equation is y'= slope = y.3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics growsbecause y' = slope = x. The last step is to match the initial condition. find c. 61 The exponential law y = yoec' solves y' = cy starting from yo. (2) The question asks for an exponent T The answer involves logarithms. t. A differential equation gives afield of arrows (slopes). the factor e T equals 4.6. The formula to remember is yoec'.7/. Note how c sticks to T. May I call your attention to a basic fact? The formula yoec' contains three quantities Yo. Our ec' starts from ecO = 1. The factor c becomes the "growth rate" or "decay rate"and ecx converts to ect.1 243 . (3) After the halflife T= 5568. Now the arrows are connected by y = Aex.1 = 7 days to double in size. because cT= In 2. Now c is negative (In = . The derivative of y = ecx is cecx. plus one additional piece of information. The problem requires y = Yo at t = 0. Many applications have one of these three forms: find t. The time to divide by e is . c. which is c times y. we match the initial condition and solve equation (1). put c into the exponent. In most applications time is the natural variable. Its solution is a curve that stays tangent to the arrows . it doubles in 7 years. (Note that .c = 5e2 . when a negative c brings decay. which comes with an initial conditiona starting value yo: dy/dt = cy with y = Yo at t = 0. c ecr = 4 yields cT= In I so that c (In 5)/5568. it takes about .y all solution curves go to zero. T has the units of time." Main point: The doubling time is (In 2)/c. If two of them are given. The rate of growth or decay is c. find yo.7 is close to In 2. A field of arrows can show many solutions at once (this comes in a differential equations course). 3. Find the initial value Yo if c = 2 and y(l) = 5: y(t) = yoec' yields Yo = y(t)e . If a cell grows at a continuous rate of c = 10% per day. rather than space. Usually a single Yo is not sacred. (1) A small change: x has switched to t. 1. We have reached the key equation. In this problem we knew c. Find the doubling time T if c = 1/10. The time to multiply by e is 1/c.7 . To understand the equation we start from many yoon the left the parabolas stay parallel. From y' = y it is a short step to y' = cy. For y' = . In the next problem we know T 2.
The amount has decayed to yoect.This uses the fundamental property of exponentials.d). Doubling time T = (In 2)lc. Then 1/A is the growth time or decay time or drug elimination time or diffusion time. Second comment: yoectis not a whole number. multiplies by the same ect. One estimate of the growth rate is c = 0. Find the age of those Lascaux paintings. Section 6. that eT+'= eTet. You may prefer to think of bacteria instead of people. Changes in c are a serious problem for this model.(lambda). We count the past population to find c.6 Exponentials and Logarithms (1.by2. at the start or later. Start from 5 and go back to yo. because cosmic . To use calculus we go from discrete to continuous. c. Some texts replace c by 1 . Third comment: The dimensions of b.02 First comment: We predict the future based on c. The product of e2 and e2 is 1growth forward and decay backward. d are "l/time. since populations cannot grow exponentially forever.dy = cy (the net rate is c = b .05 13)20 (1 . ect becomes e".8 Growth (c > 0) and decay (c < 0 ) . Go forward to time Tand go on to T + t: y(T+ t) is yoec(T+t) which is (yoecT)ect. The charcoal stopped adding radiocarbon when it was burned (at t = 0). With time reversed.by2 to slow the growth. simple interest f cT=ln2 5 10 15 20 years All we do is run the process backward.= 35 years. Equally important is T + t. A gram of living wood gives 6.In living wood this amount is still yo.It grows when b > d (which makes c > 0). The population in this model is yoect= yoebtedt. It is a relative ratepeople divided by people and time. c .05l2O 2 Fig. (4) Every step t.68 disintegrations per minute. The theory must fail when t is very large.5 introduces the logistic equation y' = cy . with a competition term .97 disintegrations per minute. The product ct is dimensionless and ectmakes sense (also dimensionless).7 The earth's population doubles in about T = x . EXAMPLE 1 Population growth from birth rate b and death rate d (both constant): dyldt = by .) Malthus based his theory of human population on this equation y' = cyand with large numbers a fraction of a person doesn't matter so much. 6." The dictionary gives birth rate = number of births per person in a unit of time. . (This section begins a major application of mathematics to economics and the life sciences.02/year: In2 . EXAMPLE 2 Radioactive dating A gram of charcoal from the cave paintings in France gives 0. Future value at 5%.
EXAMPLE 4 In 1626 the Indians sold Manhattan for $24. Their ratio is ect= 0.Ct = In 140 =. Our next step is a new model. the doubling time is 20 years. they give both rates: 8% and 8.7)109: ect/ect=140 In 140 ct .7 (6. this is a differential equation for the price: dyldt = (continuous rate) times (y) = . If the compounding is continuous.97/6.7)109 years.97 yields t = in .05y. Then emo5= 1. This seems farfetched. use the annual rate: Ay = (annual rate) times (y) times (At).68.0513 and the annual rate is 5. Nearly equal amounts were created. Our calculations indicate that they knew what they were doing. that takes longer). Question: How long since uranium was created? Answer: Find t by sybstituting c = (In $)/(4.5)109 and (0.2and the $24 has grown to 115 trillion dollars.13%. we know the present time t: ct = ln (~3 * 5568 0..05 x 14 years. The price change is dy: k (5) (6) dy = (continuous rate) times (y) times (dt). Assuming 8% compound interest.3 Growth and ÿ gay in Science and Economics rays maintain the balance.400 years. the original $24 is multiplied by e. With continuous compounding the time is reduced by the factor In 2 z 7. with halflives of (4. cC EXAMPLE 3 Calculus in Economics: price inflation and the value o f money We begin with two inflation rates . The solution is yoe.Set t = 1. Dividing by dt. Simple interest adds on 20 times 5% = 100%. Possibly there is a big flaw in the model. With that much money they could buy back the land and pay off the national debt. Here is a related problemthe age o f uranium.08'. That leads to (1 + lln)".33%. regardless of the interest rate. Section 6. For the price change Ay over a year. every dt brings an increase of dyand eeo8is near 1. After t = 365 years the multiplier is e29. .6 returns to compound interest. Here we compute the effect of 5% continuous interest: Future value A dollar now has the same value as esoST dollars in T years. It is absolutely true that Ben Franklin left money to Boston and Philadelphia. The higher one they call the "effective rate. Calculus applies the continuous rate to each instant dt.)/(0. Knowing the decay rate c from Question 2 above. Right now there is 140 times as much U238 as U235.6(109) years. The interval drops from a month to a day to a second. In 1990 it yielded millions (not trillions. Present value A dollar in T years has the same value as eOSTdollars now.0833. Doubling time Prices double (emosT= 2) in T= In 21. With no compounding.6.68) = 14." It comes from compounding (and depends how often they do it). and in the limit to e.05'.5)109and C = (ln . When you ask a bank what interest they pay. t = . to be invested for 200 years.a continuous rate and an annual rate.
The new term s allows you to add or subtract from the account.e'). we have or more than a trillion. GROWTH OR DECAY WlTH A SOURCE TERM The equation y' = y will be given a new term. Solution by Method 1 (fast way) Substitute the combination y = Aec' + B. Notice y on both sides! My first guess y = et+' failed completely. EXAMPLE 5 dyldt = . No deposit or withdrawal was made later..6 Exponentlals and Logarithms Question How can you estimate e2'm2 with a $24 calculator (log but not In)? Answer Multiply 29. Finally we thought o f y = Aet .? The first way is the fastestonly three linesbut please give the others a chance. yoefgrows as before. That is the same as yOef + 5(et. s = 5 multiplies the growth term ef . Set t = 0 to find yo = A . It is a "source"or a "sink" if s is negative. That has y' = Aet = y + 5 as required. we can find y for any c and s. Note again that y = e(c+s)t is not a solution. This is y0e' + 5(1 .5. Important: A is not yo. I propose to find y in four ways. But its derivative et + 5 is still not y + 5. after an initial investment of yo = $8000. The class suggested y = et 5t. There is no point in preparing for real problems if we don't solve them. all growth or decay has started from yo.1). EQUATION WlTH SOURCE Oet 5 5e&+5 2 = cy + s starts from y = yo at t = 0. The other term yoe' decays to zero. We tried other ways to produce 5 in dyldt.2 by loglo e = . From two facts we find A and B: 5 =Y. 0 5e'+5 1 Rgm dm9 the equation y' = cy + s gives cAect= c(Aect+ B) + s the initial value at t = 0 gives A + B = yo. After that base change. The solution has this formexponential plus constant. Its derivative is (c + sly. Sometimes I cave in and write down the formula: y is y. proportional to dt but not to y: Constant source: dyldt = y + 5 starting from y = yo. 7 . tMy class says one way is more than enough.5)e' + 5. The source s = 5 adds 5dt. Its derivative is et+' again. The combination y = ect+ s is also not a solution (but closer). The source contributes 5et . The analysis of y' = cy + s will be our main achievement for dzrerential equations (in this section). .$200/year.1 that starts at zero. Up to now. The limit as t + is y. which is not y + 5. The investment grew by itselfa pure exponential. Based on these examples with c = 1 and c = . This is the exponent to base 10. The units are "dollars per year" to match dyldt.1. The equation is not restricted to financefar from itbut that produces excellent examples.lOet5 That final term from the soulce is still positive. The equation feeds in $1000 or removes $200 continuouslynot all at once.5.ect plus s(e" .434 to get 12. A negative c leads to a steady state y.y + 5 has y = (yo . You may feel that one way is enough.5. dt (7) The source could be a deposit of s = $1000/year. Or we can withdraw funds at s = .l)/c from the source term. They just want the answer. This idea is doomed to failure.7. = 5 .5: + The solution is (yo+ 5)e' .
" here we added up outputs. two of which are already answered. by directly integrating y' = cy + s. Here s is constant. That also applies to deposits made after the account is opened. I prefer Duhamel's idea. The form for y is part of the output.or B = . or continuously by s.5 starts from scratch. The example with c = 1 and s = 5 produced ( y o + 5)ef .3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics The first line has cAect on both sides.SIC. To produce y in the future. all growing separately. Now add up all outputs at time t. Separating the source term gives yo& + 5(et .T Therefore the multiplying factor is only ec(t .yo = . Section 6.(ect. Then multiply by a magic factor that makes integration possible: ( y r .1). that all inputs yo and s grow the same way.5.C t .1). and the integral divides by c: That agrees with the source term from Method 1. After t years any deposit is multiplied by ea.cy = s. Remark Method 2 is often described in terms of an integrating factor. at the end of equation (8). Subtraction leaves cB + s = 0 .e~t$ C S ye .cy)ect = sec' multiply by the factor e" S ye"]: = . If the deposit enters at time 'IS the growing time is only t ." Method 2 is more complete. S C With s = 0 this is the old solution yoect (no source). deposit the present value ye". First write the equation as y' . Solution by Method 2 (slow way) The input yo produces the output yo@. Then the second line becomes A = yo . The small deposit s dTnear time T grows to ec('T)s dT. There are six basic questions. The future value is yoect from a deposit of yo. Method 1 was easier.(e.This growth factor applies to the small deposit (amount s d T ) made between time T and T + dT. Either method gives formula (8) for y. not the input.B = yo + (slc): KEY FORMULA y = or y = yoect+ (ect .C f . It succeeded because we knew the form A&'+ Bwith "undetermined coefficients. There we looked for "exponential plus constant.1) integrate both sides substitute 0 and t isolate y to reach formula (8) C y = ectyo+ . The output from yo is yoea.1 ) S C The integrating factor produced a perfect derivative in line 1. Questions 36 involve the source term s. T H E MATHEMATICS OF FINANCE (AT A CONTINUOUS RATE) The question from finance is this: What inputs give what outputs? The inputs can come at the start by yo. The output can be paid at the end or continuously. The total is an integral: This principle of Duhamel would still apply when the source s varies with time. We fix the continuous .6. The source s is a continuous supply of new deposits.
640.0"(20) . Better to be rich at t = 0.05.000 = (e(.1) = lim steC' = lim st. In 6.00O/e = $7.1) = 0 requires yo = (1 . If you win $20. .360 produces the same $20. Your payments mostly cover interest at the start and principal at the end.582. Instead you repay at a constant rate for 20 years. Substituting in the formula for s. Question 3 With deposits of s = $1000/year. The bank gives up more than the $20.cyoec'/(ec'. Now we come to y = 0. In 5. You pay that back too. and it is paid over 20 years. c = .000 in 20 years? Unfortunately. Questions 1and 2 had s = 0 (no source).000 and $20. y = yoec' + .1  Deposits of $582 over 20 years total $11. After t = 20 years you are even and your debt is y = 0.000. but you don't have to stay even at every moment. The answers come fast from equation (8).400.1)= 0 requires s = .000 after 20 years? S 1000 . By l'H6pital's rule we take cderivatives in the fraction: s(ec' . the lottery only has to put in $12. how large is y after 20 years? One big deposit yields 20. the time is t = 20 years.000 via s yields $34.l)/c turns into 010.000 after 20 years. your payments are $1582 per year. 20. But this is not obvious from 010. S C The loan is yo = $20.000. A single deposit of yo = 20.(ec' . but now we know yo and we want s: y = yoec'+ . We are absolutely sure that depositing $1000/year with no interest produces $20.640. This is like Question 5 (also y = O).(ec' .000 to buy your car (and pay tuition).e"). s exceeds $1000 per year. our formula s(ec'. It also gives up the interest on that money. S S C C Substituting s = . Question 6 What payments s will clear a loan of yo = $20. Even less if the interest rate is above 5%. Puzzle How is s = $1582 for loan payments related to s = $582 for deposits? 0 + $582 per year + $20.05/year.05). everything is paid up on a loan.1000.6 Exponentlab and Logarithms rate at 5% per year (c = .000 in a lottery. C cro 1 (11) c+O Question 4 What continuous deposit of s per year yields $20. This is (1000)(20)= 20. Notice a small byproduct (for mathematicians).1) requires s = .1).000 at the end.640. and start the account from yo = 0. Question 5 What deposit yo provides $1000/year for 20 years? End with y = 0.000 + .000e z $54.000.$1582 per year + 0. t = 20 gives yo x 12.05 e. the rate is c = . The same 20. everything is paid out by an annuity. When the interest rate is c = 0. Questions 3 and 4 had yo = 0 (no initial deposit).
cy.s/c: 6J The solution y = Yo + . depends on the source and on cbut not on yo..1 +2 6 2 20 Fig.01. EXAMPLE 7 Newton's Law of Cooling: dy/dt = c(y .6 deals with daily compoundingwhich differs from continuous compounding by only a few cents. From that account we pay back the loan. The equation has . The bigger the difference. = .000 if Yo is smaller. the source s exactly balances the decay cy.e" . The temperature of a body is y. Instead of repaying 1582 we can pay only 1000 (to keep even with the interest on 20.s/c. That fits with y." We denote that limit by y.01 = 120. Yearly compounding differs by a few dollars.when ec *0. It decays to 120. replace s by .02 and death rate d = . (12) This is back to physics.y. = . which disappears as t + co. 1582 and 582 came from 1000 • e 1 e1 and 1000 with difference 1000 e1 e1 e1 249 1000. The net decay rate is c = .000.s/c = 1200/.approaches y. The other 582 goes into a separate account. At this steady state.000 if Yo is larger. In other words cy + s = 0.000). y.6. Section 6. When s is present. TRANSIENTS VS. In this case y.000 (including interest as in Question 4). following Newton's rule: The rate is proportionalto y . but that number has no effect on yo. this means dy/dt = 0. Steady state s/c.. EXAMPLE 6 Suppose Bermuda has a birth rate b = .03. The steady state is independent of yo. The initial population might be Yo = 5 thousand or Yo = 5 million. Then y starts at Yo and approaches y..3 . Why? Here is the real reason. The population grows to 120.y.). There is no change. Or use this new method: . From the left side of the differential equation. is steady. in formula (8). where before we had s. of s = 1200/year. = .3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics That difference of exactly 1000 cannot be an accident. The constant c is negative and yoec" dies out. Notice that y. 34400 20000  s = 1000 20000 12640 s= 582 +6 y'= . Questions 56 repay loan or annuity. Without a source. is zero (total decay). y. What is left is the "steady state.. STEADY STATE Suppose there is decay instead of growth. That is why y. For the solution.10 Questions 34 deposit s.3y + s =1582 s =1000 20 Yoo .cy. There is also immigration from outside. the faster heat flows. After 20 years the continuous 582 has built up to 20. That is the "transient" term. 6. The temperature around it is y. = .
y. In a differential equations course. The rate of cooling is c = In ). 10 Draw a direction field of arrows for y' tion curves y = eX + 1 and y = 1.)=(yoy.6 Exponentlab and bgariihms Solution by Method 3 The new idea is to look at the dzrerence y .. This solution reaches 8 at t = c . Starting from 8 million (NY) and 6 million (LA).y.4% a year. We repeat Method 3 using the letters s and c: (y + :) = c(y + :) has the solution (y + f) = (yo + :)ect. This equation yields At) = m . At c = lo%.) dt hasthesolution (yy. . The solution to y' = Solve 58 starting from yo = 10. when will they be equal? . From y' = cy find c. The constant solution to dyldt = y + 6 is y = g . This solves the law of cooling. how many hours to increase by 100? What is c? 13 How old is a skull that contains 3 as much radiocarbon as a modern skull? 14 If a relic contains 90% as much radiocarbon as new material. = 70 and yo = 90. Newton's corpse is found with a temperature of 90".43. 11 If a culture of bacteria doubles in two hours.1. 15 The population of Cairo grew from 5 million to 10 million in 20 years. since y.1. (13). An income of 4000/year forever (!) comes from yo = P . Draw both solutions on the same graph. with Problems 1127 involve yoect. is constant.43/ln ) = half a day earlier.)=c(yy. The general solution is y = Aet .).000 in 10 years is s = 0 (exactly or approximately). + + 6. and grows or decays as a pure exponential: d (yy.3 EXERCISES Readthrough exercises If y' = cy then At) = a . When did he stop integrating (at 98. The difference starts from yo .y. Solve 14 starting from yo = 1 and from yo = . The solution of dyldt = cy + s starting from yo is y = Ae" + B = i . A day later the body registers 80". a continuous deposit of s = 4000/year yields y = n after 10 years. with the solu = y . Newton's equation (13) is y = 20ec' 70. the solution approaches f astjoo.6." In a calculus course. Its derivative is dy/dt. Death occurred when 2 0 8 70 = 98. The deposit required to produce 10. If the doubling time is Tthen c = d . If yo = 4 then A = h . The payment rate s to clear a loan of 10. = s . The time was t = In 1. There is a constant term and an exponential term. The output from the source s is i . it's time to stop.6 or ect= 1. They ask for c or t or yo. EXAMPLE 8 In a 70" room.this is our equation. When c is negative. At what time does y increase to 100 or drop to l? 9 Draw a field of "tangent arrows" for y' solution curves y = e" and y = .)e". With a source term instead of yo. If dyldt = 7y and yo = 4 then y(t) = b . When was y = 8 million? 16 The populations of New York and Los Angeles are growing at 1% and 1. = y. (14) Moving s/c to the right side recovers formula (8). But dy/dt is c(y . the interest in time dt is dy = 1 . those are the "particularsolution" and the "homogeneous solution. An input at time T grows by the factor k at time t. could it come from the time of Christ? .e". If y' = 3y and y(1) = 9 then yo was e . 12 If bacteria increase by factor of ten in ten hours. The deposit to give 4OOOIyear for 20 years is yo = 9 .6")? Solution Here y. Then y = 80 at t = 1 gives 206 = 10.3y + s approaches y. how many hours to multiply by lo? First find c.000 in 10 years is r .
Integrate both sides from yo = 0 to find y(t). when will 1 dollar equal 1 yen? 18 The effect of advertising decays exponentially. 22 For exponential decay show that y(t) is the square root of y(0) times y(2t). 28 A rocket has velocity u. it is + cleared at c =. Solve 3134 with yo = 0 and graph the solution. which is better? 44 What continuous interest rate is equivalent to an annual rate of 9%? Extra credit: Telephone a bank for both rates and check their calculation.000 arid retire? (b) If y' = cy and z' = cz then (y + 2)' = 2c(y + z). multiplying by et. if yo = 3.a until y = yl . + et as y' .y? Show that y(t) = Ae' 4 is also a solution. starting from vo = 20 and mo = 4. Burnt fuel of mass A m leaves at velocity v .3 Growth and Decay in Sclenco and Economics 17 Suppose the value of $1 in Japanese yen decreases at 2% per year.GO 37 What value y = constant solves dyldt = 4 .? 26 The actual elimination of nicotine is multiexponential:y = Aect ~ e ~The ' . say what's true. what gift yo should a grandparent make now? Assume c = 10%.c)y = 0 changes 25 The antiseizure drug dilantin has constant clearance rate 38 Solve y' = y e' from yo = 0 by Method 2. Total momentum is constant: m u = (m .c)(d/dt . If 40% 251 30 Solve y' = 8 . Substitute back to at time t is y(t) = j check y' = y + et. What continuous deposit should a parent make during 20 years? If the parent saves s = $1000 per year. What differential equation connects m to v? Solve for v(m) not v(t). The total output ' .d ~ = .y starting from yo and y = Ae' + B.y = et. After a sixhour flight what fraction remains? 24 How often should a drug be taken if its dose is 3 mg. (b) The halflife of nicotine is 2 hours. and integrating both sides. Problems 4257 are about the mathematics of finance. If you hold $1000. (d)If y' = cy and z' = Cz then (yz)' = (c + C)yz.C)y = 0. + Problems 2936 are about solutions of y' = cy + s. (c) If y' = cy and z' = cz then (ylz)' = 0. Multiplying by e'. (c) What solutions start from yo = 0 and yo = lo? (d) What is the steady state y. + . 45 At 100% interest (c = 1)how much is a continuous deposit of s per year worth after one year? What initial deposit yo would have produced the same output? 46 To have $50.Am)(v Av) + Am(u . Find y(1) and y. Draw graphs. find c. what was yo at t = O ? 20 If y = 100 at t = 4 and y = 10 at t = 8 (exponential decay) when will y = l? What was yo? 21 Atmospheric pressure decreases with height according to dpldh = cp. When does y reach y. and 1 mg is required in the bloodstream at all times? (The doctor decides this level based on body size. Explain why p = 35 (a) What value y = constant solves dy/dt = .2y + 12? (b) Find the solution with an arbitrary constant A. Write out this equation starting with y". where the deposit eT at time Tis multiplied by e'T. 42 Dollar bills decrease in value at c = .000 for college tuition in 20 years. 39 Rewrite y' = y 40 Solve y' = . firstorder equation (dldt . The pressures at h = 0 (sea level) and h = 20 km are 1013 and 50 millibars. eTe' . the left side is the derivative of . Starting from $1 = Y240. How could you find y(3t) from y(t) and y(2t)? 23 Most drugs in the bloodstream decay by y' = cy @st + + order kinetics).) y' = . and show that it is satisfied by the given y. 41 Solve y' = y + to the secondorder equation (dldt .6.Ol/hour.7).04 per year because of inflation. halfway up at h = 10. Find its decay constant c (with units). Find c. Solve for y(t) in two pieces from yo. (a) The halflife of morphine is 3 hours. (a) y increases to GO (b) y increases to 2 (c) y decreases to 2 (d) y decreases to . + t from yo = 0 by assuming y = Aet + Bt + C. Then y' = . 27 True or false.7.ayly . + 1 with yo = 0 by assuming y = Ae3' + B and determining A and B. How long will 20% remember it? 19 If y = 1000 at t = 3 and y = 3000 at t = 4 (exponential growth). remember a new product after three days.? signs in dyldt = 3y f 6 to achieve the 36 Choose following results starting from yo = 1..y + 1 from yo = 0 by rewriting as y' + y = 1. when does he or she reach $50. If false. 29 Solve y' = 3y . (a) The time for y = ec' to double is (In 2)/(ln c). what is the decrease in dt years? At what rate s should you print money to keep even? 43 If a bank offers annual interest of 74% or continuous interest of 74%.
Therefore In 1 = 0 at that starting pointas required. The milk . what is yr? 66 To cool down coffee.12 and yo is (c) above 4 12) converge to y . the total income grows . both satisfy y' = cy + s.y. also satisfies this equation. the room is at 20".000 all at once? 50 For how long can you withdraw s = $500/year after provided c is . (a) Adding 1 part milk to 5 parts coffee makes it 60". But we can and do define In x (the natural logarithm) as the integral of the " . how much money have you borrowed? 55 If a student loan in your freshman year is repaid plus 20% four years later. Especially note the lower limit of integration. Mixing at time t gives warms to y. 63 If Newton's coffee cools from 80" to 60" in 12 minutes (room temperature 20G).400 after 20 60 The solutions to dyldt years (Question 3). 61 Suppose the time unit in dyldt = cy changes from minutes depositing yo = $5000 at 8%.? 65 If yo = 100 and y(1) = 90 and y(2) = 81. 48 When dyldt = cy + 4. how much can you borrow? 54 Your income is Ioe2" per year.y + 7 what is y.1 power" which is llx: Note the dummy variables. + y. (c) The derivative y = y. find c. y . The logarithm is the area measured from 1. Note also the live variables. 58 If dyldt = . y. . (a) At what future time are they equal? (b) If you borrow the difference until then. what is y. which is 1 and not 0.? What is the derivative of . whereas the derivative of ex is ex. what was the effective interest rate? 56 Is a variable rate mortgage with c = .(t) = . But logarithms have one important theoretical advantage (plus many applications of their own). To reach the same result. How does the equation change? How does dyldt = .001t for 20 years better or worse than a fixed rate of lo%? 57 At 10% instead of 8%. We can't define ex as its own integral. When was the coffee at 100G? 64 If yo = 100 and y(1) = 90 and y(2) = 84. What is $1 worth after a year of continuous compounding at 1% per day? 53 You can afford payments of s = $100 per month for 48 62 True or false.4 Logarithms We have given first place to ex and a lower place to In x. Your expenses are Eoect per year. first x then y. how much is the deposit of 4dT at time T worth at the later time t? What is the value at t = 2 of deposits 4dTfrom T= 0 to T= I? 59 Graph y(t) when y' = 3y . change? + days. equals yo . In applications that is absolutely correct.(t) = (5yc + y J 6 =  + . the white coffee cools to y(t) = (b)The black coffee cools to y. first x then u. = (a)below 4 (b) equal to 4 = c(y  49 Depositing s = $1000 per year leads to $34.252 6 Exponentials and Logarithms Problems 5865 approach a steady state y.09 The coffee is at 70°C. times 47 Income per person grows 3%. without circular reasoning. if a loan shark charges 1% per day continuously? 52 You are the loan shark. (b)The average y = $(yl + y2) satisfies the same equation. With . the population grows 2%.y 5 change? How does y .y. as t + m. the milk is at lo0. If the dealer charges c = 6%. the $24 paid for Manhattan is worth after 365 years.y . when should you deposit $20. The advantage is that the derivative of In x is l/x. when y. = 20". (a)The sum y = y. and y. 6. satisfies the same equation.? Then y . should you add milk now or later? months. before you run dry? 51 What continuous payment s clears a $1000 loan in 60 to hours. Answer if these are (a) annual rates (b) continuous rates.
(4) This comes from the substitution x = u". In general.t 1 1 Fig. The integral does not extend past zero to negative x. The problem is to show that the second integral (a to ab) is In b: d x du = In b.In .dx. (Why?) tThe logarithm of 1 is 7ni (an imaginary number). . The logarithm of i is also imaginaryit is ½7i.6. Its two key properties must follow from this definition.dx. Substituting x = au and dx = a du yields dx/x = du/u. The lower limit x = 1 corresponds to u = 1. 6. from definition (1). The choice u = x/a satisfies these requirements. Also definite integrals: EXAMPLE I Compute 3x3x . With this new approach. Neighbors In a + In b = In ab.dx x . Equation (3) gives In b. In x has a direct definition. The curve in Figure 6. Property2: In b" = n In b.dt. Solution: In 1 .4 Logarithms 253 Earlier chapters integrated all powers except this "1 power. That step is a beautiful application of the theory behind integrals. and x = b" corresponds to u = b. The areas from 1 to a and from a to ab combine into a single area (1 to ab in the middle figure): Neighboring areas: a 1 x ab fab dx + . Dividing by x = u" leaves dx/x = n du/u. The minus sign is because the integral goes backward from 1 to 0. That is because e"'= 1. logarithms are complex numbers. Solution: In 3x .In x = In In 3. and equation (2) is In a + In b = In ab. Property 1: In ab = In a + In b. It is an integral (or an area). (3) We need u = 1 when x = a (the lower limit) and u = b when x = ab (the upper limit)." The logarithm is that missing integral. We are defining In x only for x > O. At x = 0 the height goes to infinity and the area becomes infinite: log 0 = . Equal areas: In = In 2 = In 4.00.11 1 I In 2x 1 a ab 1/2 1 2 4 Logarithm as area. x (2) The right side is In ab. These are the left and right sides of {b"1 dx (?) n Jdu.11 has height y = 1/xit is a hyperbola. Everything comes logically from the definition as an area. Then equation (4) becomes In b" = n In b. The differential dx is nu"ldu.1 = In 10. EXAMPLE 2 Compute 11 . The first term on the left is In a.
Solution: In e2 = 2.t Start with e itself: e is (by definition) the number whose logarithm is 1 e"is (by definition) the number whose logarithm is 7r. .2).13 In x grows more slowly than x..on that interval of length one). Remember that ex goes past every power x".12 Area is logarithm of basepoint. When the area reaches the basepoint is e'. tChapter 9 goes on to imaginary exponents. Problems 60 and 61 give two proofs that (In x)/xl"I approaches zero. by its logarithm. without defining them properly. The area is 1000 very near zero at e100ooo0.718. We come to area = 1 before reaching 4. and In x loses to x. I e e e 1 ex e Fig. The combined area from 1 to 4 is more than 1.254 EXAMPLE 3 Compute 6 Exponentials and Logarithms ' du.12 reaches 1. the basepoint is e. and proves the remarkable formula e"' = . 7E. how do we multiply e by itself i times? One approach (not taken) is to come closer and closer to it by rational exponents like 22/7.. When the exponent is an irrational number like rt. 6.11c. Fig.1. But out We might compare In x with x/. go back to Figure 6..1 . the area is increasing and never comes back to 1. Another approach (taken now) is to determine the number e' = 23. The area from 1 to 2 is more than 1 (because 1/x is more than ... At x = 10 they are close (2. 6. The area from 1 to e2 is 2. Therefore In x is passed by every root x'l". at x = e'o the comparison is 10 against e5. To double the area we have to square the distance. The book has discussed and computed (and even differentiated) the functions ex and bx and x". We are constructing the inverse function (which is ex).) Since 1/x is positive. Remark While working on the theory this is a chance to straighten out old debts. When the area in Figure 6. (5) The logarithm grows slowly because ex grows so fast (and vice versathey are inverses). But how do we know that the area reaches 7t or 1000 or 1000 at exactly one point? (The area is 1000 far out at e1000 .3 versus 3.) To define e we have to know that somewhere the area equals 1! For a proof in two steps. The logarithm creeps upwards: In x + oo but Inx x *0. (Actually at e = 2.
:x du The slope of In x was hard work in Section 6. Two wrongs do make a right: In (ex) = x exactly.) The antiderivative of 3/x is not In 3x but 3 In x. If x (positive or negative) is small. The remaining mistake of .14 shows how a small triangle is chopped off at the top. rectangular area minus triangular area = x . (Keep u > 0 to define In u.... The inside function is u.1)= .0100502 (actual) The calculator gives e instead of 1.6: In (1+x)= x x 2 /2 + x 3 /3.01 (linear approximation) is . the outside function is In. With its new definition (the integral of 1/x) the work is gone. ex = 1 + x + x 2/2+ x 3/6 + . This is close to x = . More important are logarithms near the starting point In 1 = 0.01 = .) The chain rule gives d 1 1 ( !) dIn cx= cdx cx x d d In (x 2 + 1)= 2x/(x 2 + 1) dx dx d In X 3 = 3x dx d in cos x dx 2 /x 3 =3 3 x sin x .Ix 2.. S= ex I areax2/2 area x Ox Rg. 0 "1 as 1.0099503. So the curved area In (1 + x) is close to the rectangular area x. Not so.2.1 + x.. The difference between . Then In (ex) %In(1 + x) x x. 1 The derivative of In u(x) is u .6. By the Fundamental Theorem. That is predicted almost exactly by the second derivative: ½ times (Ax)2 times (In x)" is (.01 (approximation). Our question is: What is In (1 + x) for x near zero? The exact answer is an area.01)2( . The approximate answer is much simpler.0000003 is close to x May I switch to ex? Its slope starts at eo = 1. DERIVATIVES BASED ON LOGARITHMS Logarithms turn up as antiderivatives very often. 6. The secondorder correction is again a small triangle: ix 2 = . 6K The derivative of In x is x . 3 (Problem 65). Its base is x and its height is 1. To build up a collection of integrals. the slope must be 1/x. For In u(x) the derivative comes from the chain rule.14 The calculator gives In 1.tan x cos x In ex = exlex = 1 d 11 In (In x)= I dx In x x Those are worth another look. so its linear approximation is 1 + x. we now differentiate In u(x) by the chain rule. Between 1 and 1 + x the area under the graph of 1/x is nearly a rectangle. (The real reason is that In 3x = In 3 + In x.co and In oo = + co are important. The 3 cancels. Any reasonable person would expect the slope of In 3x to be 3/x. The complete series for In (1 + x) and ex are in Sections 10. which is In x 3. Figure 6.01. and In 3x has the same slope as In x. then 255 T x 1=  area x minus area x2/2 1 1+x In (1 +x) x and ex . especially the first.0099503 (actual) and .. This is the area of the small triangle! In(1 + x) .00005.. 0000497. .4 Logarithms APPROXIMATION OF LOGARITHMS The limiting cases In 0 = .1 and 6.00005.
with three factors. but sometimes there is an easier way. It applies to products and powers. In a certain way that is the only example. whose integral is In x. Switching to In p. The derivative of In u(x) is uf/u. The foremost example is llx.6 Exponentials and Logarithms Before moving to integrals. EXAMPLE 4 Find dpldx if p(x) = xxJx  1. here is a new method for derivatives: logarithmic dzrerentiation or LD. Try to choose u(x) so that the integral contains duldx divided by u. EXAMPLES .1)' The catch is that last step. the sum rule just adds up the derivatives. The derivative of p =fg is the same as from the product rule: In p = l n f + In g gives For p = xex sin x. The product and power rules are always available. This can't be helpedlogarithmic differentiation contains no magic. so the integral goes from ul/u back to In u: dx = ln u(x) or equivalently = In u. as you see in the example. Here ln p(x) = x in x + f ln(x  1). Main idea: The logarithm of a product p(x) is a sum of logarithms. But there is a catch at the end. the sum has three terms: In p = l n x + x + l n sin x and p l = p L We multiply p times pl/p (the derivative of In p).+ Take the derivative of In p: pdx x Now multiply by p(x): 1 2(x . Many integrals produce logarithms. but its range is enormously extended by the chain rule. Multiplying by p complicates the answer. 1lnx+ldp=x. Do the same for powers: INTEGRALS B A S E D ON LOGARITHMS Now comes an important step.
We do not have logarithms of negative numbers. The graphs of llx and l/(x .x. The derivative of ln(1 + x) ?The integral of llx (odd function) is In 1 x 1 (even function).u: jdu? Idu/dx dx= dx = In(. The integrals In u and In(. write the integral as In lul. Now we report on the secant and cosecant. The integral is In lul. The area J: dxlln x is approximately the number o f primes between a and b. on the plus and minus sides of zero.u). Similarly (10) contains duldx over u = csc x . The derivative of x In x is In x + 1. When there is a possibility that u < 0. To remove the extra 1. subtract x from the integral: ln x dx = x in x . The integrals of llcos x and llsin x also surrender to an attack by logarithms . the area under l/(ln x) has no elementary formula. That crosses the forbidden point x = 5.4 EXERCISES Readthrough questions a .5) from 2 to 6.cot xi.u) succeeds when In u fails. The derivative of In x is I . When u = cos x or u = sin x. with infinite area on both sides. As x + GO. (9) CSC x dx = csc x j csc x .u). Nevertheless it is the key to the greatest approximation in mathematicsthe prime number theorem. Near eloo0. U Thus In(. The domain and range of in x are h .? The forbidden case is u = 0. + I 6.cot x. and we will not integrate l/(x . Similarly ex is now defined as the number whose natural logarithm is e . Then e is the number whose logarithm (area under llx curve) is d . Stay clear of x = 0. The ratio dulu leads to important integrals. (10) Here u = sec x + tan x is in the denominator. In x approaches f . .5) are below the x axis. Every integral that gives a logarithm allows u < 0 by changing to the absolute value lul: The areas are 1 and In 3. can be combined as lnlul. In contrast.6. The logarithm is not defined when u < 0. In u cannot be the integral of llu. But the ratio (ln x)/& approaches g .cot x  dx = ln csc x .4 Logarithms Final remark When u is negative. This definition leads The natural logarithm of x is to In xy = b and In xn = c . But the integral can go forward by switching to .based on a crazy trick: 1 1 sec dx = 1 GeC + sec x (CSC + tan x tan x) dx = In isec x X) + tan XI. In closing we integrate In x itself. about 1/1000 of the integers are prime. duldx = sec x tan x sec2 x is above it. we are integrating the tangent and cotangent.
59 Dividing by x in Problem 58 gives (In x)/x < 2(& Compute dyldx by differentiating In y. We should write In 1 since this allows Y ./m 28 30 Y=. which is LD or logarithmic differentiation. Thus (ln cos x)' = 0 .1 x. d dx + tan x) 42 lsec2x sec x tan x dx sec x + tan x + Find the derivative dyldx in 110. 3 y=(ln x)' 5 y = x ln x . + 41 . An antiderivative of tan x is P .(x + a) . Then use a calculator. then quadratic accuracy. )Where is its maximum? (In xlln)/xlln . Similarly Idu/u should be written Evaluate 3742 by any method. What is the exact area? 57 Why is .0 as x . The integral of l/cos x. by ex x 1 + x + ix2. Where is the maximum of (In x)/x? 29 y = esinx 60 Prove that (In x)/xlln also approaches zero. 21 I 22 I cot 3x dx 56 Estimate the area under y = l/x from 4 to 8 by four upper rectangles and four lower rectangles.l)/x.+ 2 3 1 1 • 1 +near In n? Is it above or below? n 25 Graph y = ln (1 x) + 26 Graph y = In (sin x) 58 Prove that ln x < 2(& . (Start with . The integral of l/(ct s)is w . Multiplying by p gives p' = s . 9 Compute lim x xro x + 19 1 cos x dx sin x tan 3x dx 55 Find the area of the "hyperbolic quartercircle" enclosed byx=2andy=2abovey=l/x.1 x 53 Compute lim logdl x+O bX.a') xa 2a Find the indefinite (or definite) integral in 1124.0 .258 is k 6 Exponentials and logarithms I . Deduce that (In x)/x . which give useful antiderivatives: 4 y = (ln x)/x 6 y=loglox 44 In d dx . x 1 for the antiderivative of llx./m Jn =xllx .52 Compute lim + x+O x xro ex. The integral of ul(x)/u(x) is t . In(' 51 Compute lim . This is LD: 27 y=. The product p = x e5" has In p = q . The integral of 2x/(x2+ 4) is u . The integral of llcx is v . I .ln(sec x 2 .+ .1)for x > 1. Then average the answers (trapezoidal rule).x Verify the derivatives 4346. The tangent approximation to ln(1 + x) at x = 0 is . co.(X2 . is x . The quadratic approximation is m . after a trick. Estimate 4750 to linear accuracy. The derivative of this equation is r . The quadratic approximation to ex is The derivative of In u(x) by the chain rule is n . from 1 to x. Compare the integrals of l/t and 1 1 4 .
(The 1990's are near the middle of the S.6. Its solution is an Scurve.) Scurves are solutions to nonlinear equations. Problem 6. It is highly important in biology and all life sciences. Show that the other end is never reached. does the ant reach the other end? One approach: The band's length at time t is t + 2. One particular equation will be emphasized.2. Show how to change this equation to (In x)/x = (In y)/y. to get five correct decimals.) 75 Find a pair of positive integers for which xY= yx. 62 Prove that y In y approaches zero as y + 0.ln 2 (c) T = 2e . so y' = 2/(t 2)2. The answer comes directly from the two separate integrations. and we will be solving our first nonlinear model. x > n In x. Check that In 1.000 numbers are actually prime.5 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation This section begins with the integrals that solve two basic differential equations: dy.2. Its limit as h + 0 is . rises quickly. . and explain (a) y' = 1/(t + 2) (b)y = ln(t + 2) . when if ever does the same ant reach the other end? 69 A weaker ant slows down to 2/(t 2) feetlsecond.cy + s. take its derivative. which starts slowly. the fraction of numbers near 90.02. Since (In x)/x goes below l/n and stays below..000. LD gives p' = (p)(lnp)' = and then p' = . and levels off. The band is being stretched at 1 footlsecond by pulling the other end.l)/h. 259 70 The slope of p = xx comes two ways from In p = x In x: 1 Logarithmic differentiation (LD): Compute (In p)' and multiply by p. 71 If p = 2" then In p = .13. and compare with the value on your calculator. Many important equations.59 proved ex > xnfor large x. The logistic equation describes the speedup and slowdown of growth. 67 An ant crawls at 1foot/second along a rubber band whose original length is 2 feet. When a differential equation is reduced that farto integrals that we know or can look upit is solved. ED gives p = e . Find the limit of yY(take its logarithm as y + 0). if the prediction is correct for the world population. 65 Find linear approximations near x = 0 for e" and 2". Graph those points to show the curve xY= y ' .CY dt and dy dt .' on your calculator? 63 Find the limit of In x/log. We already know the solutions. Prove that you have discovered all the integer solutions. What we don't know is how to discover those solutions. Then by logarithms. 74 Estimate l/ln 90. separate into a yintegral and a tintegral. and put back xx. It .I. (879 of the next 10. *76 Show that (In x)/x = (In y)/y is satisfied by + + with t # 0. 2 Exponential differentiation (ED): Write xX as eXlnX.01 x 0099503and find In 1.000 66 The x3 correction to ln(1 + x) yields x . 64 We know the integral th' dt = [th/h]Z = (xh. Let y(t) be the fraction of that length which the ant has covered. 72 Compute In 2 by the trapezoidal rule and/or Simpson's rule. ifever. that are prime. crosses the line y = x at x = 6. What is .i x 2 + ix3. including these.x as x + co. where t + co. it converges to .5 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation 61 For any power n. when a suggestion "try eC"' has not been made. 68 If the rubber band is stretched at 8 feetlsecond. At what time T. by changing y to llx. 73 Compute In 10 by either rule with Ax = 1. So look for two points at the same height in Figure 6.
EXAMPLE 2 dyldt = ty separates into dy/y = t dt. Method 1 assumed from the start that y = Aect B. This separation would not be possible for dyldt = y + t. you soon have all the money in the world. All t's are on the right side (and c can be on either side).l/yo. as a check. When the interest rate is c = t. Then by integration in y = f t2 + C. It is wise to substitute y back into the differential equation. so take the exponential of both sides (elnyis y): y = yoeC' and y = (yo 3 +: + ( 3 :)ec'. Yo 1 .. Substitute t = 0 and y = yo to find C = . They suggest integrals. ( Then the final step isolates y. and then explain it by using it. This separation method is so useful that we repeat its main idea. EXAMPLE 3 dyldt = y + t is not separable. separate dy/u(y)from v(t)dt and integrate both sides: Then substitute the initial condition to determine C. the exponent is t2/2. If the bank pays interest on your deposit squared (y' = y2). and the right constant will make that happen: lny=ct+lnyo and In y + . Method 2 multiplied all inputs by their growth factors ec('. The exponential of *t2 + In yo gives y = yoe'2'2.. Y + (sld All y's are on the left side. Equation (2) contains differentials.15a) when t reaches lly. Method 3 solved for y . At t = 0 we require y = yo. The tintegrals give ct and the yintegrals give logarithms: In y = ct + constant and In (3) The constant is determined by the initial condition. and solve for y(t). not its logarithm. The goal is a formula for y itself.c dt. The idea is to separate y from t: 9 = c dt Y and dy .)' and added up outputs. Substitute t = 0 and y = yo to find C = In yo. Method 1 survives by assuming y = . Integrate to reach . Now solve for y: = 1 Y t 1 Yo and y=. This is our fourth method for y' = cy + s.6 Exponeniials and Logarithms SEPARABLE EQUNIONS The equations dyldt = cy and dyldt = cy + s (with constant source s) can be solved by a direct method.tYo This solution blows up (Figure 6.l/y = t + C. + To solve dyldt = u(y)v(t). EXAMPLE I dyldt = y2 separates into dyly2 = dt.y.. Method 4 is separation of variables (and all methods give the same answer).= c t + l n y o + .
It is the basic model for interactions and competition. The ratio of dyly to dtlt is the "elasticity" in economics.by2 goes into the equation. It comes first. The nonlinear effect is from "interaction.6. On loglog paper the graph of In y = n In t + C is a straight line with slope n. The solution is a power function y = y t ". This was the first differential equation in the book (Section 2.by. Here we have one population competing within itself. THE LOGISTIC EQUATION The simplest model of population growth is dyldt = cy. When the rate drops off. This equation cannot start from time zero (it divides by t). Solve dyldt = c(y)y. This competition slows down the growth. It is a function c(y) not a constant. These relative changes have units like dollars/dollarsthey are dimensionless. Method 2 also succeedsbut not the separation method. The logistic equation has c(y) = c . The growth begins as usual (close to ect). By integration In y = n In t + C. E X A M P L E 4 Separate dyldt = nylt into dyly = n dtlt. and y = tn has constant elasticity n." For two populations of size y and z. . If c is constant the growth goes on foreverbeyond the point where the model is reasonable. and y = ectmust slow down. two models are of the greatest importance. Then by2 .15 The solutions to separable equations dt d t t y t Ae' B + Dtwith an extra coefficient D in Problem 23. The choice of the model is at least half the problem: Problem in biology or ecology: Problem in mathematics: Discover c(y). The competition term by2 is much smaller than cy. A population can't grow all the way to infinity! Eventually there is competition for food and space. The Law of Mass Action produces a quadratic term byz. The growth rate c is the birth rate minus the death rate. at t = 1. The basic model of growth versus competition is known as the logistic equation: Normally b is very small compared to c. However y can start from y. + .5 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation I 0 I I blowup times r = l I Yo 1 2 0 1 d y = y2 and d y = nY or d y = n. until y itselfgets large. Substituting t = 0 produces In 0 and disaster. The true rate c depends on the population size y. so z is the same as y. Every model looks linear over a small range of y'sbut not forever. because .2). 6. which gives C = In y. the number of interactions is proportional to y times z.dt Fig. The MichaelisMenten equation has c(y) = c/(y + K).
Take exponentials of both sides to remove the logarithms: J ) Y In=ct+C c .2by is zero at the inflection point y = c/2b.2by)y'. (10) c .which can be reached with considerable manipulation (Problem 21). Take one more derivative: (8) The factor c . About 1930. The nearest is Idx/(a2 . = clb.2byy' = (c . That is from the model. That difference of 27 millionlyear was by2: 27 millionlyear = b(3 b i l l i ~ n leads ) ~ to b = 3 10. Certainly b is a small number (three trillionths) but its effect is not small. The logistic equation is solved by separating variables y and t: dyldt = cy .029 3 1012= 10 billion people. The first question is whether we recognize this yintegral. Yes. The growth stops at this equilibrium pointthe top of the Scurve: c Y. It reduces 87 to 60. It is easier to find this point from the differential equation (which gives dyldt) than from y. THE SCURVE y" = (cy . No.by2 becomes dy/(cy .by2 is zero. The loss from competition balances the gain from new growth: cy = by2 and y = c/b. but the solution can be improved. The cy term predicts a yearly increase of (. Notice a special point halfway to y.by andthen y . the world population is converging to 10 billion.4 gives the following integral of equation (9): Yo In=C. No. because of b. What is fascinating is to calculate the steady state.6 Exponentlals and Logarithms (with its minus sign) slows the growth down. (In the model this point is at 5 billion. The slope dyldt is a maximum. The solution follows an Scurve that we can compute exactly.ect Yo cby cbyo' This contains the same growth factor ec' as in linear equations. The actual growth was more like dyldt = 60 millionlyear.12/year. The third question is whether a general method is available. We will very probably go beyond 10 billion.029)(3billion) = 87 million.3 predicts 11 billion to 14 billion. when the new term by2 equals the old term cy. dyldt = cy . the world population was 3 billion. When these terms cancel each other. According to Verhulst's logistic equation. The second question is whether it is listed in the cover of the book. From present indications we are growing much faster.by2). and Section 7. halfway up the Scurve.YO That constant C makes the solution correct at t = 0.= . But the logistic .=T.) It is the inflection point where the Scurve begins to bend down.029/year. "Partial fractions" is perfectly suited to l/(cy . What are the numbers b and c for human population? Ecologists estimate the natural growth rate as c = . The second derivative d2y/dt2is zero. That is not the actual rate.by2)' = cy' . The United Nations report in Section 3.by2)= dt. The logistic equation is integrated.x2).
4 50. Certainly their model can be and has been improved. the asymptote in Figure 6.by2 + s by partial fractionsbut in practice the computer has taken over.by) that grows to infinity.1 # 136.16 The standard Scurve y + e . Probably more important is immigration.y'/y2. That is the final population of the world (10 billion?).0 105.0 92.2 9.9 = 92.4 39. As z approaches blc.5 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation 263 equation is not linearit is not y that increases so fast. and yo. with c = b = 1.by approaches zero.9 17. So This equation z' = Year 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 US Population 3.3 7.y2. In between.2 31. = Surprising observation: z l/y satisjes a linear equation.3 7.7 122."fn fact the PearlReed steady state c/b is below 200 million.0 107. 1850.1 17.7 149.1 cz + b is solved by an exponential e" plus a constant: Turned upside down.' ) .16. For constant immigration s we could still solve y' = cy . multiply equation (11) by c .9 5.1 23.5 = 23. because it allows any c.6 50.9 76.by and solve for y: When t approaches infinity. b.co. According to (ll). and 1910 to compute c and b. By calculus z' = . The general formula cannot be so beautiful. Pearl and Reed used census figures for 1790.2 62.9 5.6 12. One reason is waranother is depression. The table comes from Braun's book DifSerentiaE Equations (Springer 1975).8 13.2 9. The 1990 census predicted a stop before 300 million. 1 2 3 4 1988 = 1/(1 Fig. 6.8 76.2 62.7 150. To find the Scurve. which the US has already passed.7 =  Model 3. EXAMPLE 1 (United States population) The table shows the actual population and the model. The Sshape comes from the inflection point halfway up. it is y/(c . e" approaches zero.6. the Scurve approaches clb. Notice that z starts at l/yo. ?Immigration does not enter for the world population model (at least not yet). it equals 0 when t = . We still need a formula for y. it equals 4 when t = 0.6 123. It satisfies y' = y .8 131. Then y approaches its steady state clb. The growth stops at y = clb. It equals 1 when t = oo. The complicated part of the formula disappears. The population Scurve (with prediction).2 30. This happens when c . The perfect Scurve is the graph of y = 1/(1 + e'). .4 38. y = l/z is the Scurve (12). the fit is good but not fantastic.
1. If those encounters increase the population. The numbers m.6 Exponentials and Logarithms Remark For good science the y2 term should be explained and justified. There is a cooperation term + by2. the sign is changed. to b.by2. . Arrows go toward stable steady states.(n/p)y. to a. in Problem 6. The reaction combines m molecules of A with n molecules of B to produce p molecules of C. When f is zero. The logistic equation can't predict oscillationsthose go beyond dyldt =f(y).2 for hydrogen chloride: H.v2 EXAMPLE 7 dyldt = sin y Kinetics of a chemical reaction mA + nB + pC. In Example 6 death wins. A population below dlb is an endangered species. + C1. It gave a nonlinear model that could be completely solved.dy + by2 (this is f(y)) The arrows take you left or right. the equation is y' = 0 and y is stationary: y' = cy . the number of molecules in a unit volume. The y line shows which way y moves and where it stops. but simplicity is not necessarily truth.by2 (this is f(y)) y' = . EXAMPLE 5 y' = cy + by2: y goes to infinity in afinite time. Draw a " y line." Add arrows to show the sign of f(y). EXAMPLE 6 y' = . . When y' =f ( y ) is positive. Similarly [B] drops from b. Write y for the concentration [ C ] . A small population dies out before the cooperation by2 can save it. . = 2 HCl. The arrows go away. The y line Here is a way to understand every nonlinear equation y' =f(y). n. = sin y there are several steady states: & falling body: dvldt = g . The Law of Mass Action says that the reaction rate is proportional to the product of the concentrations [ A ] and [ B ] . p are 1.The mass action law (15)contains y2:  d[A]/dt= r [ A ][ B ] and d [Clldt = + k [ A ][ B ] . Forming those y molecules drops the concentration [ A ] from a.dy + by2: y dies to zero if yo < dlb.7. when the stationary point is unstable. Mathematics solves for [ A ] and [ C ] . y goes to the left. Then [ A ] decays as [ C ] grows: (15) Chemistry measures r and k. the number of encounters is proportional to y2. as some like to think. the term is . and the population increases very fast. When f is negative. If those encounters are fights. y is increasing (itfollows the arrow to the right).54.(m/p)y. The basic justification is this: In a population of size y. to the steady state or to infinity. For f ( y ) = The terminal velocity of a falling body is v.
the enzyme enters the reaction and comes out again. What happens is that the enzyme concentration z(t) quickly drops to z. The platinum in a catalytic converter reacts with pollutants from the car engine. Enzymes put the sour in sourdough. It is the catalyst. Milk becomes yoghurt and grape juice becomes wine. dyldt x . The rate constant is 6. This is the MichaelisMenten equationbasic to biochemistry. which breaks up into a new product and the enzyme (which is ready to start over). Calculus would take centuries to learn.bz. Adolph's Meat Tenderizer is a protein from papayas. We now look at the MichaelisMenten (MM) equation. The maternal egg contains the material for a cell. The same enzyme (chymopapain) is injected to soften herniated disks.K. Yeast makes bread rise. The Michaelis constant K depends on the rates (like 6) in the mass action laws.5 Separable Equations Including the laglttlc Equation This fits our nonlinear model (Problem 3334). Steaks would take decades to digest. Without them. K/(y + K). It is true that y' = cy is extremely effective in firstorder kinetics (Section 6. Blood would take years to clot." A similar law governs the other reactions (some go backwards). Blood clotting needs a whole cascade of enzymes.3).cy/(y+ K) Biochemical reactions are the keys to life. The whole system is awesomely beautifulDNA tells amino acids how to combine into useful proteins. amplifying the reaction at every step. and also half of the DNA. Here are examples of catalysts. The rate dyldt is allimportant in biology.6. some good and some bad. Of course.cylK. Later the enzyme reappears (z. Their mathematical description is not easy! Engineering and physics go far with linear models. .) Spray propellants (CFC's) catalyze the change from ozone (03) into ordinary oxygen (0J. dyldt x c when y is small. But by then the first reaction is over. with no exact solution. An enzyme in concentration z converts a substrate in concentration y by dyldt = . The equations are nonlinear. Look at the function cy/(y + K): when y is large. THE MM EQUATION wdt=. Its law of mass action is effectively with c =. and you see the product of "enzyme times substrate. Briefly. A small accident is disaster. It predigests the steak. it takes enzymes to make enzymes. your life would be in slow motion.byz. (But platinum also reacts with leadten gallons of leaded gasoline and you can forget the platinum. This wipes out the ozone layerour shield in the atmosphere. It is enzymes that speed up a reaction. while biology is quickly nonlinear. to describe these reactions. the bleeding won't stop. The fertilized egg contains the full instructions. It is based on the Law o f Mass Action. but nature builds in a nonlinear regulator. It is typical of applied mathematics (and nature) that a pattern can still be found. They take place continually in every living organism. We now find this same mass action in biology. and we get enzymes and elephants and Isaac Newton. = 2. Its combination with the substrate is an unstable intermediate. You recognize it whenever there is a product of two concentrations.). In hemophiliathe "Czar's diseasewthe enzyme called Factor VIII is missing.
the only term is y' = . As t + co. yo = 1 8 dyldt = etY.z + 1 with zo = 2. the rate c depends on P . Problems 2732 follow up the MichaelisMenten theory.by2. + 1 6 dy/dx=tan ycos x. The M M equation is dyldt = q . & instead The logistic equation is dyldt = f . In biology and chemistry. = y .by2)= [ dt.y approaches i . 15 Solve z' = . In a model equation dyldt = c(y)y. Substituting yo at t = 0 and taking exponentials produces y/(c . That is the language of mathematicswith populations and chemicals and epidemics obeying the same equation. The exponentials of the two sides are We don't have a simple formula for y. This is the Law of a rate proportional to y times o . The graph of y I . Turned upside down as in (1 3). 13 Show that y = 1/(1+ e') solves the equation y' Draw the graph of y from starting values 3 and 3. Then C = yo S+ c dt gives y + K In y =  ct + C.by) = ect( i ). We are lucky to get this close. concentrations y and z react at n .6 Exponentials and Logarithms The start and the finish operate at different rates.y2. The solution is In y = 11 When c = 0 in the logistic equation. Integration of idyly = c dt gives b . Integration of dy/(y sjc) = i c dt gives c . In science. In mathematics. The equation dyldx = . Running parallel to dyldt = cy are the difference equations that come next.ct + C. concentrations and rate constants come with units. i 10 The equation dyjdx = nylx for constant elasticity is the same as d(ln y)/d(ln x) = .5 EXERCISES Readthrough questions 1 The equations dy/dt = cy and dyldt = cy + s and dyldt = u(y)v(t) are called a because we can separate y from t. Solve dyldt = c&starting from yo. y o = 1 7 dyldt = y sin t. integrate. Essential point: Most applications of calculus come through dzrerential equations. That is the steady state where cy . The fastest rate is c. Separating variables yields j r dy = s = .xly leads to d . 6. starting from yo = 2 (Adam + Eve)? Problems 1326 deal with logistic equations y' = cy . 14 (a) What logistic equation is solved by y = 2/(1 + e')? (b) Find c and b in the equation solved by y = 1/(1 + e3t). variables can be made dimensionless and constants become 1. because it has an inflection point at looks like an y= m . t. This idea applies to other equations too. K. Separation gives dy/(cy . Then y2 + x2 = e and the solution stays on a circle. and solve equations 18. At what time does the population explode to y = co. c. depending whether y dominates K or K dominates y. K In yo.by2 = k . and the yintegral is l/c times In h .by2 represents g when cy represents growth. The new term . Separate. suppose y' = + by2.by2. A computer can quickly graph y(t)and we see the dynamics of enzymes. what is y = l/z? 3 dyjdx = xly2. What is the steady state y. A biochemist solves the MM equation by separating variables: S y d y =  Set t = 0 as usual. yo = e 9 Suppose the rate of rowth is proportional to of y. We solve d v d T = Y/(Y + 1) and then $witch back to y.? How long until y drops from yo to iyo? 12 Reversing signs in Problem 11. yo = 1 .
Does the a2x2 In2a a 'x x 1 Y {A=lncyby2 cby 37 (Important) Draw the ylines (with arrows as in the text) for y' = y/(l . Then y' = 0. Solve for 22 To solve y' = cy . When does y reach 9 billion = . to obtain the yintegral in the text: Gy c know.by2 as a2 .1 and y = 1.y).how are the initial values yo and yb related to Yo and G? 25 A rumor spreads according to y' = y(N . find the "nondimensional" MM equation for dY/dT. But our look at the actual number e = 2.cy/(y K). y'. find the steady state level where d = cy/(y + K).by2 then u' = cu.y) measures the number of meetings (to pass on the rumor). Find r and s. If the growth rate is y' = 12. Show that y = (et.y/K).71828 . With c = K = yo = 1. (Take c = 1.when does it get there? 40 Write the logistic equation as y' = cy(1 . t solution (19). 1900 to y = 3 million in the year 2000.00O/year in 1900 and y' = 30. . k = 1. (a) Solve dyldt = y(N . then N . This explains the logistic solution (11) . Substitute for 34 In addition to the equation for d[C]/dt. B. (b)Explain why t = 1 is never reached.y). 23 With y = rY and t = ST. law gives d[A]/dt 35 Solve y' = y Find A. substitute in the logistic equation to find c and b. y and find the time when y = 2.by3 change to u = l/y2.y)(bo. .it is u = uoect. y approaches inflection point.9c/b? 18 Show by differentiating u = y/(c . 30 Graph the rate R as a function of y for K = 1 and K = 10. (b) At what time T have N/2 people heard the rumor? as (c) This model is terrible because T goes to N + GO.. 33 The Law of Mass Action for A + B + C is y' = Solve for fit) if yo = 1. y" at the 6. Solve it as in (14) but with uo = ljy.c/2$ and a= . As y' Problems 2734 deal with mass action and the MM equation y' = .by) that if y' = cy .e')/(et e') has + those three properties. Suppose yo = 0. That led to the great equation of exponential growth: The derivative of at x = 0 ex equals ex.y don't know. was very short. the mass action y' in u' = . Then y = I/&. Which steady states are approached from which initial values yo? 38 Explain in your own words how the yline works. (c) Draw arrows on the yline to show that y approaches 7 1 1 2 . a. From the solution erY= e= eroYorecover the y. When does y become infinite? 21 Draw an Scurve through (0. does aspirin decay faster? 28 If you take aspirin at a constant rate d (the maintenance dose).x2. + 27 Most drugs are eliminated acording to y' = . 19 Suppose Pittsburgh grows from yo = 1 million people in aspirin follows the MM equation.y3.by2 changes to d Y/d T = Y. Substitute for a and x in the integral taken from tables.. If y people + t from yo = 0 by assuming y = Aet + B + Dt. with x = .6 Powers lnstead of Exponentials You may remember our first look at e. = = bo = 3. 29 Show that the rate R = cy/(y + K) in the MM equation increases as y increases. The product y(N . giving cooperation y' = y + y2. At what value of y is R = *c? 31 With y = KY and ct = KT. It is the special base for which ex has slope 1 . /2 = c/2b? 20 Suppose c = 1 but b = . 32 Graph fit) in (19) for different c and K (by computer).6 Powers Instead of Exponential6 267 16 By algebra find the Scurve (12) from y = l/z in (14). A better model is y' = by(N . the rate . 17 How many years to grow from yo = $c/b to y = #c/b? Use equation (10) for the time t since the inflection point in 1988.y).. 36 Rewrite cy . D. 39 (a) Solve yl= tan y starting from yo = n / 6 to find middle of the Scurve get steeper or flatter? sin y = $et.00O/year in 2000.cy but approaches zero. 24 In a change to y = rY and t = ST.y) and y' = y . the equation dyldt = cy . The graph of y2 is shaped like k(ao.1.y) starting from yo = 1. What is the steady state? Extra credit: When does y = y.) As the Michaelis constant increases.O) with horizontal asymptotes y = .Y '. Find y. 26 Suppose b and c are bcth multiplied by 10.2y'/y3 to find a linear equation for u. and find the maximum as y * a.6.
Such a simple function doesn't stand a chance! No polynomial can be its own derivative. Other properties like (ex)(ex) hard but interesting. Somehow 1 + 1 + f + & + equals e. What makes the series beautiful is that its derivative is itself: Start with y = 1 + x. If compounded yearly. we need 1 x + ix2. May 26More than 200 years ago. We turn now to discrete growth. and xS is divided by 5! = 120. (We include extra information about bank rates.l)! Surprisingly O! is 1. when x = 1. Notice that xn is divided by the product 1 2 3 * .n. the going rate at the time. hoping this may be useful some day.) The applications in science and engineering are equally important. . We are forced to consider infinitely many termsa power seriesto achieve "derivative equals function. The best way is to write the whole series at once: + Infinite series ex = 1 x + + i x 2 + 4x3 + &x4 + . .6 Exponentlals and Logarithms It appeared as the limit of (1 + lln)". 1990. The thousands of family members scattered around the country say they are not being greedy. So Mr. Chapter 10 emphasizes that xn/n! becomes extremely small as n increases. But y" is zero. That loan was apparently never repaid. + Knowing that this section will be full of formulas. a DeHaven on her father's side who lives in San Antonio. (1) This must be the greatest power series ever discovered. Loans and life insurance and money market funds use the discrete form of yf = cy + s.. has diflerence equations in parallel with differential equations. It is an infinite series for ex. The total: $141 billion if the interest is compounded daily at 6 percent.  .718 . This has y = 1 and yt = 1 at x = 0.000 to the Continental Congress to rescue the troops at Valley Forge. which is the derivative of &x4." said Carolyn Cokerham.) It is not even clear why the sum is 2. That is where (1 + lln)" will come in. They give discrete growth infinite stepswith applications to compound interest. Scientific computing. which produces the same series in the limit. the bill is only $98 billion. I want to show how (1 lln)" and (1 + xln)" arise naturally. The approximation ex = 1 + x appears in the first two = eZX are not so obvious. In general xn/n! has derivative xn.. This is "n factorial. The only way is to have no highest power. This headline was on page one of the New York Times for May 27. Then i x 2 is the derivative of Ax3. The integral of each term is the one after it (so jexdx = ex + C). because the highest power xn drops down to nxnl. a wealthy Pennsylvania merchant named Jacob DeHaven lent $450. Uncle Sam is Dunned San Antonio.'/(n . like accounting. (Multiplying series is terms. "It's not the moneyit's the principle of the thing. 213 Years After Loan. This seems an unnatural way to write down such an important number.. The infinite series adds up to a finite numberwhich is ex.'' To produce the derivative 1 + x. because 5 from the derivative cancels 5 from the factorial. The derivative of x5/120 is x4/24. I would like to jump ahead and tell you the best one." Thus x4 is divided by 1 2 3 4 = 4! = 24. DeHaven's descendants are taking the United States Government to court to collect what they believe they are owed. not one. Its derivative is itself: The derivative of each term is the term before it.
But if the interest is compounded you receive more: after six months: Interest of $500 is reinvested to give $1500 end of year: New interest of $750 (50% of 1500) gives $2250 total. Mr.50)= 1953.12 + (." The descendants say that they are willing to be flexible about the amount of settlement. He had no children. Texas. Kloecker estimates that based on 10 generations with four children in each generation.25)(1562.28. The initial suit was dismissed on the ground that the statute of limitations is six years for a suit against the Federal Government. a lawyer from Stafford.50 after nine months the total is 1562.5 (1000 to 1500 to 2250)." said Jo Beth Kloecker. Quick method for (1 + lln)": Take its logarithm. Many banks use 360 days in a year.25)(1000) = 1250 after two quarters the total is 1250 + (.6. C O M P O U N D INTEREST The idea of compound interest can be applied right away.6 Powen Instead of Exponentlals "You have to wonder whether there would even be a United States if this man had not made the sacrifice that he did. "None of these people have any intention of bankrupting the Government. which declares as valid all debts owed by the Government before the Constitution was adopted. If this is the annual rate. The bank multiplied twice by 1. although computers have made that obsolete. Ms. . to add one nth of a year's intereststill quarterly conversion: (1 + 1/4)4x low = 2441.50 + (. Fresh out of law school. This is the limiting case (n + GO) that produces e: + 1 1. . Suppose you invest $1000 at a rate of 100% (hard to do). But some banks offer continuous compounding.600 per year).04 daily conversion: (1 + 1/365)36% 1000 = 2714. Nobody compounds every second (n = 31. Kloecker accepted the case for less than the customary 30 percent contingency. the interest after a year is another $1000.25 (1 for principal.536.41 at 100%: monthly conversion: (1 + 1/12)" x 1 Q h = 2613.12 after a full year the total is 1953.57. Ms. He gave everything he had.12) = 2441. The family's appeal asserts that this violates Article 6 of the Constitution.25)(@53. DeHaven died penniless in 1812. It is unclear how many descendants there are.25 for interest): after one quarter the total is 1000 + (.25)(1250)= 1562.000). Compounding quarterly multiplies four times by 1. Very few banks use minutes (525. But they also note that interest is accumulating at $190 a second. there could be as many as half a million. Use ln(1 + x) x x with x = : n (1 x 1000 approaches e x 1000 = 2718.41 Each step multiplies by 1 + (l/n). You receive $2000 in all.
Sections 6. l/k! = e. Remark Change (1 + lln)" to (1 + xln)". You never see e without a limit! It can be defined by derivatives or integrals or powers (1 + l/n)" or by an infinite series. The power approaches ex. The power (1 + l/n)" approaches efrom below. The next term is x3/6 (x can be positive or negative). The limit is 1. Then let n + a. It involves nothing smart like logarithms. as each term in (4) moves up to its limit in (5). This is a final formula for ex: The logarithm of that power is n In(1 + x/n) x n(x/n) = x. There is a steady increase with n. + 2.4 define the same number (which is e). Now the binomial theorem produces ex: Please recognize ex on the right side! It is the infinite power series in equation (1). Practice for n = 3: Binomial theorem for any positive integer n: Typical terms are Each term in equation (4) approaches a limit as n + a. . The slow method (multiplying out every term) led to the infinite series.6 Exponentlals and Logartthms As l/n gets smaller. but the result is a fantastic new formula for e. Together they show the agreement of all our definitions of e. All terms in equation (4) are below (or equal to) the corresponding terms in (5). Next comes 111 2 3 4. Something goes to zero or infinity. The sum of all those limits in (4) is our new formula for e: In summation notation this is Z. The factorials give fast convergence: Those nine terms give an accuracy that was not reached by n = 365 compoundings. Conclusion: (1 l/n)" approaches the number whose logarithm is 1."=.2 and 6. Faster compounding yields more interest. Slow method for (1 + l/n)": Multiply out all the terms. To summarize: The quick method proves (1 + lln)" + e by logarithms. A limit is still involved (to add up the whole series). Continuous compounding at 100% yields e. This is a brutal use of the binomial theorem. and care is required. this approximation gets better.
But it is a course with a purposewe aim to use what we know. and there is another s = 2000.1). Notice how EXAMPLE 2 Approach to steady state when la1 < 1..1. decaying Fig. everything has been increasing. a2yo. Not every class will pursue them to the end. This formula atyo replaces the continuous solution ectyoo f the differential equation. The starting value yo is followed by ay. At t = 3 the first deposit has been multiplied by (1.the second by 1. At the same time a new s = 2000 goes in.1)/(1. but I cannot fail to show the pattern in a difference equation: Each step multiplies by the same number a. In a year it is multiplied by a = 1. Each step multiplies by a and adds s.and a3y0. and money is spent. The first deposit is at year t = 1. After year t. This is not a course on differential equations. Above all. The first outputs are We saw this pattern for differential equationsevery input s becomes a new starting point. Since s enters later than yo. In that case atyo approaches zerothe starting balance disappears. 1.08)2. 6. the goal is to see the connections. The solution at discrete times t = 0. so a can be smaller than one. + (10) deposits.l)/(a. is y(t) = atyo. the powers stop at t . Our main application of e was to solve y' = cy and y' = cy + s. Algebra turns the sum into a clean formula by adding the geometric series: y(t)= atyo+ s[at' +at' + + a + 1]= atyo s(at.08. + (9) EXAMPLE 1 Interest at 8% from annual IRA deposits of s = $2000 (here yo = 0). A source or sink (birth or death.08 . y(t) = 2000(1.. decay for la1 < 1. It is multiplied by powers of a. Compare with c < 0.1 (the interest rate .. With a > 1.17 Growth for la1 > 1.DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS VS. What happens if there is also a source? Every year half o f the balance y(t) is .2. deposit or withdrawal) is like y' = cy + s: y(t + 1)= ay(t) + s.08 1)two a . . DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS We have the chance to see an important part of applied mathematics. Growth factor a compares to ec. With t = 2 it is 2000 (1. Now we solve the corresponding difference equations. The purpose o f mathematics is to understand and explain patterns.08. That corresponds to c > 0 in the differential equation (which is growth). The path from "discrete to continuous" is beautifully illustrated by these equations. and it cannot become a course on difference equations.1). But things die.08) appears in the denominator. because 8% is added.08' . With t = 1 this is 2000.
not straight lines. To find the difference equation... Demand next time equals supply next time: D(t + 1) = S(t + 1).. = b/(c + d).a). If below..P(t 1) + 1 = 2P(t). where supply equals demand. I believe the most practical application is to solve the fundamentalproblems offinance. y(t) stabilizes to y. Blowup example: c = 2. it stays there.6 Exponentials and Logartthms spent and a new $2000 is deposited. gives s/(l . There are three assumptions: 1. Stable example: c = 112. b = d = 1. Difference equations are basic to economics. 3 Increasing d gives greater stability. The limit as t . 2. + b = cP. the price goes up. The demand slope . Now a = +: y(t + 1) = $y(t) + 2000 yields y(t) = (f)ty. = fy.. b = d = 1.. .5.I)/(+. S 1a (12) EXAMPLE 3 Demand equals supply when the price is right. = fy. Stability depends on the slopecalculus enters. Demand next time depends on price next time: D(t 1) = . The difference equation is . The price moves from P(0) = 1 to P(m) = 213: + . The iteration is y. The supply slope c is positive. . s. When the price is P. Ztsfied point is where y.. =(difference equation). Decisions are made every year (by a farmer) or every day (by a bank) or every minute (by the stock market). + Comment on 3: the price sets itself to make demand = supply. This is not newseconomic theory depends on approach to a steady state.(differential equation) c us.. We now answer the same six questions when the annual rate is x = . .dP. substitute 1 and 2 into 3: Difference equation: . + 2000.P(t 1 + 1) + 1 = P(t) yields 2 1 3 5 2 P = 1' 2' 4' 8' "" approaching . = ay. Compare with the steady differential equation y' = cy + s = 0: . the difference equation brings it down. But convergence only occurs if c < d.dP(t + 1) + b. 3. 3. That is the effect of price supports. = 200qO  I)/($ . From P(0) = 1 the price oscillates as it grows: P = . the economy is stable.1. (11) Why is 4000 steady? Because half is lost and the new 2000 makes it up again. co is an equilibrium point. y.. In general the steady equation is y. I f supply is less sensitive than demand.d is negative.I)]. 11.1) = 4000 = steady state. Those lines intersect at the competitive price. . Solving for y. Supply next time depends on price this time: S(t + 1) = cP(t). = .3 answered six questions about continuous interest. For d = 0 (fixed demand regardless of price) the economy is out of control.dP(t 1) b = cP(t) + + Steady state price: . S + + y. As (fy goes to zero. Thus P.. Section 6. + 2000[((+)' .05 = 5% and interest is compounded n times a year. But we also have to be realistic about class time. 2000. T H E MATHEMATICS OF FINANCE It would be a pleasure to make this supplydemand model more realisticwith curves. If the price starts above P.
As n + GO the discrete y on the left approaches the continuous y on the right. and the banks keep copies.05)(20) . The time period is 20 years. Now come the six questions.6. Questions 3 and 4 connect y to s (with yo = 0 at the start). One o f themis zero each time. 6 are the inverses of 1. yo. This is the calculation for car loans and mortgages.05)(20)(yo).(20)yo + :F20ny yo = e(05)(20)y Each step multiplies by a = (1 + .3. This is an annuity. the other is calculus.05 because of compounding: compounded quarterly 1 + . higher than . There are 20n steps in 20 years. We divide by the growth factor instead of multiplying.05 4. deposits s to reach y: Questions 5 and 6 connect yo to s. The algebra for these lines is in the exercises.= 1. I t is not calculus because At is not dt. it starts growing.05/n)20n . Annuity: Deposit yo to receive 20n payments of s: 6. 5. The future value is greater than the present value (unless the interest rate is negative!). deposit yo to reach y: y = (1 yo = (1 + yonyo y = e(~OS.05/n . Then y = s + as + a2s + . Questions 1and 2 ask for the future value y and present value yo with compound interest n times a year: 1.5. and s.I] 3. If all three are present. Therefore your payments have to total more than yo.0509 = 5.That equals yo . All factors in brackets [ 1 are listed in tables. y growing from deposits s: y = s[ . It might .13%] ( T:. At the start you borrow yo (instead of giving the bank yo).O513 [effective rate 5. As soon as each s is deposited. Question 6 is the oppositea loan. Repay yo with 20n payments of s: Questions 2 . The deposit yo is just enough to allow payments of s.money doubles in 20 years at 5% simple interest.05/n).09%] compounded continuously eno5= 1. One is algebra.6 Powers Instead of Exponentials First we compute eflective rates. So your deposit in Question 5 is less than 20ns. so simple interest on yo would produce (. where the bank earns interest on your yo while it pays you s (n times a year for 20 years). go back to equation (9). y growing from yo: 2. Loan:. Next to the new answer (discrete) we write the old answer (continuous). Everything is paid.I] (1 + . 4 . Time goes backward in Question 2. You can earn interest on it as you pay it back. Notice the pattern: There are three numbers y. y = s [e(.0509 [effective rate . This time y is zerothere is nothing left at the end.
but we might be wrong. A good example is y' = .? Remark In many loans. Then c = . We stop earlier. The mortgage on my home has N = (12)(25) monthly payments with interest rate i = . but the equations of physics (starting with Newton's law F = ma) are differential equations. The correct ectis growth or decay. Its solution is y = ect. If a bank has interest rate i per period over N periods. The problem is to solve (13).6 Exponenlials and Logartthms also be helpful to know their symbols. He replaced dyldt by AylAt: The left side is dyldt. A loan of $1000 at 5% for one year costs $50 interest. I knew it.l]/i (1 + i)']/i To tell the truth. Multiplying by At. Can one of them grow while the other decays? We expect the difference equation to copy y' = cy.26%. time and space are continuous.07/12.000 = amount borrowed. In 1972 the present value was $42. most events are discrete. it needs to be made digital and discrete. But to solve that model with a computer. then in our notation a = 1 + i = 1 + . the bank computes interest on the amount paid back instead of the amount received. and not well thought of). It is the test equation that all analysts use.starting from yo = 1. I am now going to see if the bank is honest. so n steps multiply by an: (14) This is growth or decay. In this case the "discount rate" is 501950 = 5. depending on a. Normally you receive $1000 and pay back $1050. . in the limit At + 0.y. as soon as a new computing method is proposed. In engineering and physics. The great contribution of calculus is to model the rates of change we see in nature. The true interest rate is higher than 5%because the $50 interest is paid on the smaller amount $950. I never knew the last two formulas until writing this book. SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING: D I F F E R E N T I A L EQUATIONS BY D I F F E R E N C E EQUATIONS In biology and business.05/n and t = N = 20n: future value of yo = $1 (line 1):y(N) = (1 + i)N present value of y = $1 (line 2): yo = (1 + i)N future value of s = $1 (line 3): y(N) = s~~= [(I present value of s = $1 (line 5): yo = a~~= [ l  + i)N.1 and y = e'the true solution decays. ?It's not. Here we test Euler's method (nearly ancient. y = an= (1 + cAt)" at time nAt. Maybe at some quantum level it's all the same. The question is whether an and eczstay close. These paragraphs work with dyldt = cy. the equation is y(t + At) = (1 + cAt)y(t) (with y(0) = 1). Each step multiplies by a = 1 + cAt. With discounting you receive $950 (called the proceeds) and you pay back $1000. s is too big. when At > 0. depending on c. This is called discounting.
10. A quadratic shows the error: proportional to At = l/n. If we keep only one digit.e" in the case x = .36 converging to e' = .37? With At = . At the very end came e"xl+x. I wanted you to see in use the properties of In x and e". for integrals or for y' = cy. This minimal accuracy was enough to define the integral.35 and .36.is the last term *Ate. and I hope it takes longer than At to read.= . Euler's firstorder method could not predict the weather before it happens. Now take exponentials of the far left and right: The differencebetween an and e. + dy = F(y. At . approaching e.The calculator gives the following answers an for n = 2. To test that.02.37. The row with At = 1 is equally useless (all zeros). It is like using rectangles for areas.At . In practice the magnitude of cAt must come down to .05. That x2 term uses the second derivative (Section 6.ex.4). ' '.Atr from its logarithm: ln(1. The numbers blow up when they should decay. The trapezoidal rule.35 and . the prediction is perfect! That took an hour to work out.Atr = n ln(1. The clock time is nAt = 1.Everything comes down to one question: Is that error the same as *At? The answer is yes. We are not keeping enough digits to be sure. Those have the same clock time nAt = 1: ' The main diagonal of the table is executing (1 + xln)" . In the middle of (15) was the key approximation ln(1 + x) z x .05 the error is . unless we change to a better difference equation. They are .1.At) z n[. They come from n = 10 (with At = 1/10) and n = 20 (with At = 1/20).+ ( ~ t ) = ~] . has errors of order (Ax)2and (At)2. apply the "quick method" and estimate an= (1 . All good software goes further than that.10 or . Notice the two reasonable numbers. For accurate calculations it would have to be even smaller. A linear approximation shows convergence: (1 x/n)" . The exact property In an= n In a came first.f At. but the error seems close to *At. Final question: How quickly are . t). With At = .20: The big step At = 3 shows total instability (top row). and here it is enough to define e.1 .01.At. That is the right thing to do. because e'12 is 115.y(t) = ~ ( ~ ( t). with error proportional to Ax. It is completely unacceptable for scientific computing.f x2. with x = .10 the error is . t): Euler's Method for dt Y(' + At) . Cutting the time step in half cuts the error in half.
annual deposits of s = 1 produce y = q after t years. what is the effective rate? 33 Find the future value in 20 years of $100 deposited now. estimate ln(1 tive rate? 32 At 10% interest compounded daily.276 6 Exponentials and Logarithms 6.. When a = 1.1 6 With the quick method ln(1 + x) z x.$)2 and the five terms of (1 . This is confirmed by Problem 12. P(0) = 0. multiply out (first three terms). + 1/2! . At x = . start from yo = 2 and take three steps to reach y. which is too B for scientific computing. At x = 10% with continuous compounding.x + . Compound interest (n times in one year at annual rate x) multiplies by ( I )". The rectangle llt. The sum in brackets is P . The value of s = $1 deposited after each period grows to y(N) = w . 2 Write down a power series y = 1 + 2x + . which converges to as At + 0. annual deposits of s = 6 leave r after t years.a) approach a limit 1 Write down a power series y = 1 . 7 With the slow method multiply out the three terms of (1 . The first three terms of 1 in (1 + xln)" are h . continuous compounding multiplies by m . and what are their limits as n + oo? 8 The slow method leads to 1 . The deposit to produce y(N) = 1 is yo = v . the value of yo = $1 after N periods is y(N) = u .$y(t) + 6 27 In Problems 23 and 24.whose derivative is 2y.l/n)". The difference equation y(t + 1) = ay(t) yields fit) = o times yo. 3 Find two series that are equal to their second derivatives. Each step multiplies y by Y . (b) The derivative of f(x)= x ln(1 + llx).. 5 At 5% interest compute the output from $1000 in a year with 6month and 3month and weekly compounding. + 1) = 2y(t) . 31 At 10% interest compounded quarterly. inside it has area 12 Show that ln(1 + 1) = 2y(t) from yo = 1. + s gives y. $1 grows to n in a year. = s . As n + co they approach I . The area from t = 1 to 1 + l/x is . The steady equation y. The limit of (1 . As n + co. Therefore y at t = 1 is (1 + cAt)ll'yo. explain (1 + l/n)2n + e2 and (1 + 2/N)N+e2. approaching y.A agreement with ex. Assume 10% interest (so a = 1 + i = 1. To match the original definition of e. which initial value produces y. + l/x) > l/(x + 1) by drawing the graph of .1/3! + . b . If a = 9 and yo = 0.. The equation y(t + 1) = ay(t) + s is solved by y = atyo+ $1 a + . 14 Take three steps of y(t + 1) = 2y(t) + 1 from yo = 0. b = 8.1) in Problems 3138. d = 2. What are the first three terms of (1 . Then take exponentials to find the two limits. = ay. with a larger series (whose sum is easier) show that e < 3. Which price P is not changed from dP(t + + one year to the next? 30 Find P(t) from the supplydemand equation with c = 1. should be (<0)(> 0). As n + co those terms (1 + l/n)" = f approach Q in agreement with e. Thus (1 + xln)" approaches quicker method computes ln(1 xln)" x k (first term only) and takes the exponential.6 24 y(t + 1) = iy(t) . What is the steady state as t + co? + 1 + 9 + 4 + + .for the . In 2326.whose derivative is y. + l/n2)" and (1 OK to use a calculator to guess these limits. as we compound more often. Its derivative is denominator n! is called " c " and it equals d 1 the series for e is e . The deposit to reach y(N) = 1 is s = x . which is . The error is proportional to A . = yo (steady state)? 23 y(t 25 y(t Euler's method replaces y' = cy by Ay = cyAt.08 and yo = 0. Is this approaching a steady state? 28 For which numbers a does (1 . 4 By comparing e = 1 as t + oo and what is the limit? 29 The price P is determined by supply =demand or 1) b = cP(t). 13 Take three steps of y(t + Solve the difference equations 1522.at)/(l .+ at']. 34 Find the present value of $1000 promised in twenty years. = t . When i = interest rate per period. What is the sum of this infinite series the exact sum and the sum after five terms?  9 Knowing that (1 + l/n)" + e.$I4.6 26 y(t + 1)= . what is the effec lln)" and ln(1 + 2/n)".y(t) + 6 + 1)= . 10 What are the limits of (1 + l/n)"*? + 11 (a) The power (1 + l/n)" (decreases) (increases) with n.l/n)".6 EXERCISES Readthrough questions The infinite series for e" is a .
6.) 39 Every year two thirds of the available houses are sold. Cosh x still goes up to + 00 while sinh x goes down to . (a) What are your monthly payments s over 30 years? (b) How much do you pay altogether? I 6. What is the steady state of the housing market .7 Hyperbolic Functions do you still owe after one month (and after a year)? 277 35 For a mortgage of $100. since Visa compounds the interest? Give a formula or a number. and you pay $60 a month.x) and ½(ex .18 Cosh x and sinh x. and 1000 new houses are built.5. When x is large and negative. (c) continuous compounding? 42 Approximate (1 + 1/n)" as in (15) and (16) to show that you owe Euler about e .2.x that dominates.e/2n.18 show that cosh x > sinh x.x) = cosh x and cosh 0 = 1 (cosh is even like the cosine) sinh(. the other decreasing. But two particular combinations have earned names of their own (cosh x and sinh x): hyperbolic cosine cosh x= ex + e . (b) compounding every week.co (because sinh x has a minus sign in front of ex). how much 41 Euler charges c = 100% interest on his $1 fee for discovering e. what is the balance in 20 years? 38 If you repay s = $1000 annually on a loan of $8000. Louis Visitors Commission.42% and yearly rate = 17%. it is e. Compare Problem 6.000 at 9% to buy a house.x 2 = hyperbolic sine sinh x  ex  ex 2 The first name rhymes with "gosh".x) = . What is the true yearly rate.19 Gateway Arch courtesy of the St.000 over 20 years. The graphs in Figure 6. Up to now those functions have gone separate waysone increasing.6. The hyperbolic functions combine 'ex and ½e. 6. 43 My Visa statement says monthly rate = 1. 1 1 ex eX+ cosh x = 2 2 \ /I 1 1 1 sinh x = ex 1 2 2 e 2 eX 1 1 2 1 ex Fig. For large x both hyperbolic functions come extremely close to ½ex.7 Hyperbolic Functions This section combines ex with e .eX): cosh(. what is the monthly payment? 37 With annual compounding of deposits s = $1000.how many are available? 40 If a loan shark charges 5% interest a month on the $1000 you need for blackmail. when are you paid up? (Remember interest.sinh x and sinh 0 = 0 (sinh is odd like the sine) . What do you owe (including the $1) after a year with (a) no compounding.x . 44 You borrow yo = $80.x. what is the monthly payment? 36 For a car loan of $10.000 over 6 years. The second is usually pronounced "cinch". The following facts come directly from ((ex + e . Fig.
d (sinh x) = cosh x like d sin x = cos x and f cosh x dx = sinh x + C 4. Property 1 is (cosh x) 2 . Property 1 is the connection to hyperbolas. Louis. Their . A cable is easier to construct than an arch. Busch Stadium in St.x 1 2 coth x  cosh x ex + ex sinh x ex . it has the shape of the Gateway Arch in St. sinh t) Fig. You will guess the definitions of the other four hyperbolic functions: tanh x  sinh x ex .x 1 2 sech x cosh x ex + ex csch x sinh x ex . 6. to match the Arch. Turned upside down. sin x) onto a unit circle. the height of the cable is a stretchedout cosh function called a catenary: y = a cosh (x/a) (cable tension/cable density = a).e . because gravity does the work. (cosh x)2 . With the right axes in Problem 55. sinh x). f sinh x dx = cosh x + C t) t. The ordinary sine and cosine are "circular functions.(sinh x) 2 = 1.2 x 2. That must be the largest upsidedown cosh function ever built. d (cosh x) = sinh x dx instead of d (cos x) dx . Remember that (cos x)2 + (sin x)2 = 1 puts the point (cos x.sinh 2 t = 1.(sinh x)2 = 1 Check: ex ex 2 instead of (cos x) 2 + (sin x)2 = 1] x e 2 = e 2 x+2+e2x e2 x+2 e . Every fact about sines and cosines is reflected in a corresponding sinh x and cosh x. so this point travels on the unit hyperbola in Figure 6.20 The unit circle cos 2 t + sin 2 t = 1 and the unit hyperbola cosh 2 t . Often the only difference is a minus sign.ex cosh x ex + e . There are too many properties to memorizeand no reason to do it! One rule is the most fact about important. The properties of the hyperbolic functions come directly from the definitions. the point goes around the circle.20. As x varies.sin x 3. The others are harder. and "sech" is easy. Here are four properties: 1.6 Exponentials and Logarithms The graph of cosh x corresponds to a hanging cable (hanging under its weight)." Now look at (cosh x.ex I think "tanh" is pronounceable. Louis has 96 catenary curves. It is responsible for the "h" in cosh and sinh.
which are expected for hyperbolic functions.'x and sech. 1 . Since In x is the inverse of ex. We write down the three new derivatives: y = sinh'x (meaning x = sinh y) has y = tanh'x (meaning x = tanh y) has y = sech . The situation for sinh. (3) offer a choice of antiderivatives . it is tan'x + C.4 we differentiated those inverse functions by the chain rule.x2 ' dy = dx 1 X J i 7 Problems 4446 compute dyldx from l/(dx/dy). But where did the logarithms come from? In the middle of the following identity.either inverse functions or logarithms (most tables prefer logarithms).ln(1 .'x and sec . The main application was to integrals.sinh y ey Then 2y is the logarithm of the left side. multiply above and below by cosh y: 1 + x . I N V E R S EH Y P E R B O L I C FUNCTIONS You remember the angles sin'x and tan'x and sec'x.6. and it is the third formula in the following list: Remark 1 Those are listed onlyfor reference.x (meaning x = sech y) has 1 9 = dx J 2 T i 1 9 =dx 1 .tanh y cosh y . If possible do not memorize them..x).sech x tanh x = ln(cosh sinh x tanh x dx = S=dx x) + C. Nothing is new except the answer. Here is y = tanh.sinh2x = 1. Remark 2 Logarithms were not seen for sin. The alternative is to use logarithms.7 Hyperbolic Functions properties come directly from cosh2x .'x is the same except for sign changes .1 + tanh y .1 = csch2x (tanh x)' = sech2x 1 and (sech x)' = . In Section 4. we can express sinh'x and tanh'x and sech'x as logarithms.'x and tan.e2y. (2). You might .'x.'x + C). If we happen to meet jdx/(l+ x2).tanh 2x = sech2x and coth2x .'x and tanh.x 1 .'x: The last step is an ordinary derivative of 4 ln(1 + x) .cosh y + sinh y eY . This is the first equation in (4). The derivatives in equations (I). The inside cover of the book has 1% = fln[E] +C (in place of tanh. Divide by cosh2x and sinh2x: 1 .
The formulas do exist. 20 From tanh x = +find sech x. 6 From the derivative of Problem 5 find sinh 2x. but they involve imaginary numbers. sin~=(e'~e'~).sinh x. hyperbolic) you would expect to find something. verify (tanh x)' = sech2x./x2 + 11 and 4ln I . 4 By the quotient rule. To display it I have to reveal a secret that has been hidden throughout this section. 22 Find the other five values if sinh x = 2. Find antiderivatives for the functions in 2532: 25 cosh(2x + 1) 27 cosh2x sinh sinh x 29 1 +cosh x ex + e P x 30 ~ 0 t h x =ex . with exercises to bring out their applications.12/13. The formula cos x = $(eix+ ePix)involves n exponents. y) = (cosh t . / = 17 sinh6x 19 Find the minimum value of cosh(1n x) for x > 0. 1 Find cosh x Find the derivatives of the functions 918: 9 cosh(3x + 1) 11 l/cosh x 13 cosh2x + sinh2x 15 tanh 10 sinh x2 12 sinh(1n x) 14 cosh2x . and cosh x sinh x. The sine and cosine are far more useful than the sinh and cosh. cosh x . The parallel formula for sin x is o . What formulas for cos x and sin x correspond to &ex + ex) and &ex. 2 From the definitions of cosh x and sinh x. 3 Show that both functions satisfy y" = y. A cable hangs in the shape of a catenary y = h .g . 21 Do the same if tanh x = . Multiplying sin x by i and adding to cos x gives Euler's unbelievably beautiful equation cos x + i sin x = eiX. Their derivatives are i and k .sinh2x = c . How does it happen that tanh'x is expressed by logarithms. The inverse functions sinh'x and t a n h l x are equal to ln[x + .sinh2x 16 (1 + tanh x)/(l . 8 Prove sinh(x + y) = sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y by changing to exponentials. sinh x. 23 Find the other five values if cosh x = + sinh x.ex)? With so many analogies (circular vs.tanh x) 18 ln(sech x + tanh x) . 2i (5) It is the imaginary exponents that kept those identities hidden. So we have two ways to write the anti I . Fortunately they are very simple and there is no reason to withhold the truth any longer: 1 cosx=(eix+eix) 2 and 1 . .e" 26 x cosh(x2) 31 sinh x + cosh x 32 (sinh x + cosh x)" . coth x. The parallel to cosh x + sinh x = ex is Euler's formula m . The point (x. sinh t ) travels on the hyperbola . Readthrough questions Cosh x = a and sinh x = b and cosh2x . 7 The parallel to (cos x + i sin x r = cos nx + i sin nx is a hyperbolic formula (cosh x + sinh x)" = cosh nx + . when the parallel formula for tanlx was missing? Answer: There must be a parallel formula. (6) That is parallel to the nonbeautiful hyperbolic equation cosh x + sinh x = ex. from the definitions. The secret is one of the great equations of mathematics. cosh x.6 Exponentials and Logarithms wonder why. Then the xderivative gives cosh(x + y) = 1. Their derivatives are d and e and f . I have to say that (6) is infinitely more important than anything hyperbolic will ever be. csch x. So we end our record of the main properties. 5 Derive cosh2x + sinh2x = cosh 2x. 24 Compute sinh(1n 5) and tanh(2 In 4). find their derivatives.
x2). by From formulas (I).W.'x and compare with the text.W)dW/W.W (a) Separate variables and integrate: dx=dw/(3w2. Solve for eY. One . if y ( 0 )= llc.l/(l . (b)Derive this v yourself. by integrating dv/(g . (c) Show that y = 4 sech2(x/2) gives the shape of the "soliton.v2.20 has area 3 cosh t sinh t. Solve as a quadratic equation for eY.6yy'. Multiply the answer by y'.'x by differentiating x = tanh y and using sech2y+ tanh2y = 1. (b) Integrate again to find y' (all constants of integration are zero). 57 A solitary water wave has a shape satisfying the KdV equation y" = y' . 43 Turn (4) upside down to prove y' = . (a) Integrate to find the shaded area below the hyperbola (b)For the area A in red verify that dA/dt = 4 (c) Conclude that A = it + C and show C = 0.x2) if y = tanh. 46 Compute dyldx = l / x J E ? differentiating x = sech y.1 = 0. (a) Integrate once to find y". Sketch graphs of the functions in 3440.'x and compare with the text. (3) or otherwise. if y = coth. (c) Integrate v(t) to find the distance f(t).6.Y ) by 2 e Y gives (eq2. & : (i':) . (b)Take logarithms to find y = sinh ." 58 Derive cos ix = cosh x from equation (5). 55 A cable hanging under its own weight has slope S = dyldx that satisfiesdS/dx = c d m .'x.W)=dW/(2. (c) Sketch the cable hanging between x = . The constant c is the ratio of cable density to tension. What is the 44 Compute dy/dx = I/.'x. (a) Show that v(t) = tanh &t satisfies the equation. ( e ~) 2x(e") ~ (b)Take logarithms to find y = cosh. 42 (a) Multiplying x = cosh y = i ( 8 + ebY) by 2ey gives + 1 = 0.v2)= dt.for lxlc 1 41 (a) Multiplying x = sinh y = b(ey . 34 y = tanh x (with inflection point) 35 y = coth x (in the limit as x 4 GO) 36 y = sech x 38 y=coshlx for x 3 1 39 y = sech. (b)Integrate dyldx = sinh cx to find the cable height y(x).'x for 0 c x d 1 40 = tanh'x = . 56 The simplest nonlinear wave equation (Burgers' equation) yields a waveform W(x) that satisfies W" = WW' .W'. (2).7 Hyperbolic Functions 281 33 The triangle in Figure 6. find antiderivatives in 4752: cosine of the imaginary angle i = 59 Derive sin ix = i sinh x from (5).sinh2y= 1.e . (a) Show that S = sinh cx satisfies the equation.2 4 8 ) ./= by differentiating x = sinh y and using cosh2y .In 54 A falling body with friction equal to velocity squared obeys dvldt = g . (b) Check W' = 3W2. 45 Compute dy/dx = l/(l . integration gives W' = 3w2. What is sin i? 60 The derivative of eix= cos x + i sin x is . for y = sech.L and x = L and find how far it sags down at x = 0.
.mit.mit.edu Resource: Calculus Online Textbook Gilbert Strang The following may not correspond to a particular course on MIT OpenCourseWare. but has been provided by the author as an individual learning resource.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw. For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use.edu/terms. visit: http://ocw.
The y axis is scaled so that 6' = 1. One graph has A = 1and the slope is intercept on the second graph is 300 and the slope is $. b)(logbx). x = (log. Solve log.4 review the rules for logarithms.6~)The unknown is the base x." Thus In yz = In y In z and b = eln b . BZ on semilog paper (preferably homemade). the power is 3. 6l = 6. Since ? = 2I and 8 = z3. A is the intercept so y = 1 0 ~ / " . + log. The x axis is scaled normally. & = 2.1 EXPONENTIALS AND LOGARITHMS (page 234) An Overview The laws of logarithms which are highlighted on pages 229 and 230 apply just as well to 'natural logs. ask 1 2 ~ ~ ' ~ = 144. so y = 300 10"1~. the power is log.1 An Overview (page 234) CHAPTER 6 6. &. 1what power r Follow the change of base formula log. The power is 2. 7.1). What are the equations of the functions represented in the right graph? This is base 10 semilog paper. log7 $ 2. 10g~~6. and 63 = 216 are one unit apart.The on the vertical axis and log b is the slope. l080. Since the bases are the same (everything is base 12).ask 5 logos5 8 = 3. Problems 1 . Therefore 5. heref fore x = m. Both graphs are straight lines. 2 = log12(722) = logl2 144. log10 2. The line y = 10 6" crosses the vertical axis when x = 0 and y = 10. The answer is = 8.. 6' = 36.. 1. so log. To find logl2 144. logl2 72 + 108122 3. Here a = 10 and b = 6. The axes cross at (0. .. Don't use your calculator. Find the exponent or power.6. (This is Problem 6. We can't choose 6.  a. 144 = 2. The statement log.1. x = @ since bases must be positive. Also important : + bx = eZlnb and lnxa = a l n x and l n 1 = 0 .5 8 r To find log. 72 & = 7'. To find logom58. 10 = 2 means exactly the same as x2 = 10. not at (0. 10 = 2.O) as on regular paper. the log of the product equals the sum of the logs. Draw the graphs for y = 6' and y = 5 .ask yourself 'seven to what power is &?" Since r log.log~4 ~. so both lines graph functions y = A 1 0 ~ ' 0 g ~where .
With a change of letters. Why? The answer lies in the laws of logarithms: In 3 s = In 3 In x. I nu convert to base e. Since In 3 is a constant. When we find a derivative we also find an integral: . On semilog paper the graph of y = AbX is a straight line.1). + A base change gives b = alOgab and bx = ax logab. where c depends on b. and y is always positive. Here x is any number. (dx/dy) (dy/dx) = 1. Any equation y = logbx C will have a straight line graph. Its slope is log b. 1 2 + . The base is b = 10.10 = 10c(x . + 2. The logarithm of lom times 10" is m n. So 7 steps multiplies by 2'1" M 1. 1. On loglog paper the graph of y = iixk is a straight line. the exponent 4 is the logarithm of 10. (And remember that ln b is just a constant.) In each problem. y = l n 3 x ~Takeu=3xtoge d~ t * =u~ ~ d~ s = ~3s ~3=~.6.5) (440) = 660. When y = 2 it follows that log. The 12 steps from A to A are approximately multiples of 2'/l2. The logarithm of 10m/lOn is m . they have the same derivative. 14 y = lo1' drops from 10 to 1 to . The number c is the limit as h 4 0 of bhh Since x = l o by is the inverse.1 = c(x . ! + $m 3 6.100 are equally spaced). So the tangent lines are y . Its slope is m . the slope of logby is l/cy. 1 The slope of y = bx is dy/dx = cbX. At x = 0 and x = 1 the slope is c and 10c.n.Thisisthesamederivativeasfory=lnx. y = ln cos 32. 16 If 440/second is the frequency of middle A. r Take u = cos 32. its derivative is zero. In other words logz y is log28 times log8 y. Assume cos 32 is positive so In cos 32 is defined. y = increases with slope $ from y = ! j at z = 0 to y = 5 at x = 2 . The seventh note from A is E. 22 The slope of y = lox is = clOx (later we find that c = In 10). + 6 (a) 7 (b) 3 (c) @ (d) (e) & (f) 5 1 2 y = loglo z is a straight line on "inverse" semilog paper: y axis normal.5 to give (1. find dyldx: 2 2 2. On ordinary paper the graph of y = m x b is a straight line.2 The Exponential ex (page 241) d Problems 1 . then the next A is 880/second.3 tan 32 = In cos 32 C. Use the change of base formulas bU = e(lnb)U and logbu = G.0) and y .00OXis 4x. Because In 32 and In x differ only by a constant.1 with slope 1 on semilog paper.2 The Exponential ex (page 241) Readthrough8 and relected evennumbered rolutionr : In 10' = 10. Its slope is k.000. Then $ = 3 sin 3s. x axis scaled logarithmically (so z = 1.8 use the facts that eU = eU and & ln u = $ If the base in the problem is not e. 8 times log82 equals 1.000. The answer is = (3 sin 32) = 3 tan 32. the slope of logbx is l/cx. The logarithm of 10. Then 8' is 215.Knowing dyldx = cbx yields dx/dy = l/cbx. Substituting bx for y.10.If y = bx then x = logby.
Let u = x2 1n 10. [THIS IS NOT (ln x2 In 5)] This function is now & . If you let k = 6n. the limit is e. (Remember In 10 is a constant. y = etanx 6x5 + 5 xG+5x (sin%) = cosx 20x3  x4 .(4Z3)dx x4 . For square roots. (1 Evaluate these limits as n + oo : + i)". 6. Then We have 8 ..)(2x) dx 1 ( 2 1n10 x 2 + 5 = 1 e  1n10x2+5* 4. it is worthwhile to use the law that In u112 = In u. Then 2 = 3 . y = x . Therefore Problems 9 . Surprise to the author: This is also the derivative of ln(1n x) Why does ln(1n x2) have the same derivative? a First change the base from 10 to e.. Then In dm = ln(x2 5). Division is subtraction. Now you are differentiating In u 3. y = 2 = 22 ln 10.Then duldx = 2e2x. y = loglo instead of log u: y = 1n d m . The calculator shows (1+ &)GOOO m 402. lim(1 + :)" (r is constant) 13. The idea here is : If we have m i l. lim(?)" Rewrite Problem 9 as lim((1+ f. lim(1 a + + &)3n 12. lim(l+ 11.2. y = sin(eaX) Set u = eaX. we need the product rule In x.' / ~ (This is Problem 6.(l = e.. Powers of u become multiples of lnu: y = 5 ln(x4 .a Take u = In x2. + h)D + i)k .f In x.8 6xS + 5 + tanx. by dividing by In 10. 2'8 a Here again the laws of logarithms allaw you to make things easier.ln cos x. Since (1+ $)" goes t o e the answer is eGw 403. Using the chain rule. Multiplication y = In (x!+Sx)!08x of numbers is addition of logs. you don't need the product rule. to get duldx = ! ( ! ) +5 Since the exponent is u = . lim(1 Problem 10 is different because 6 n is both inside and outside the parentheses. and note k + oo as n + oo.14 use the definition e = limhAo(l limn.)n)G. this becomes limk. x6 + 5 2 dy/dx is e"du/dx = eta1lX(sec2 x). (1 and all the boxes are the same. Now dyldx is long but easy: 5 dy . + h)'lh.ln(xG+ 52) .18) a First change to base e: y = (e'"x)l/x.) lox1 a First change the base from 10 to e: y = (eln = ez2ln lo. 7. By substituting h = !this becomes e = 9. + + Y= ln(x2 5) 21n10 + and 1 d y . 10.22 = 5. This means .8) .8 5.
The integral of e u ( x ) d u / d xis e U ( X )+ C. + + C. (The box is = 2n). the same way that we needed n 17. Set u = 1+ x 2 and du = 22 dx. 1001 looO.1 is 1. the constant c in Section 6. See Problem 12 with r = .6. . (1 . + C. . Since + 1 as n + co. . Find an antiderivative for v ( x ) = 32x. The integral of eCx is $ecx general the integral of e u ( x ) by itself is impossible to find. The second term is just xn with n = e. .2. 2 $ : e ( l + x ' ) xdz. An antiderivative is 32s In We need 2 and In 3 in the denominator. The answer is f ( x ) = e' + antiderivative is & X I . or ( 1 Its limit is e'.2. The slopes at x = 0 and y = 1 are both 1.2.1.21) (=)loo0. 7 1 e2~ll~3 Or 5G 1 3. 0 1 ' ~ ~ when When the base is b = e . y is dxldy = l / y .. y is l n y .( % ) l o ' . (=)1001.. The limit is e.1000. Now This is not the same as ie9! i Jl10 eUdu= J4 ~ (eudu.17 are three models. ~ ) The new 0) eu]:O = (el0 . An equivalent form is e = lim ( 1 E) + + h ) to the power l / h . The integral is limits of integration are u ( 0 ) = 1 + o2 = 1 and u ( 3 ) = 1 + 32 = 10.2.~ .54 give plenty of practice in integrating exponential functions. In 13 write (F) = 1+ ! . . i Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered eolutione : The number e is approximately 2.. It is the limit of ( 1 1 n. . Problems 15 .. Usually the trick is to locate eudu. Then f = $ and we have lim(l+ k)mr = er. . 15. This is Problem 12 with r = 8 : lim.100. The function bx can be rewritten as ex ln b.01. . The integral of ex is ex C. The terms of the third are each (& ) times those of the second.(l + = e8.i)". Therefore the derivative of y = ex is dy/dx = ex..the third limit is again (5)"+ !)n i. . a)" 14. Exercises 6.2. So the second limit is $. (This is 6. The terms of the second sequence are the reciprocals of those of the first. 16.78. which is the n a t u r a l logarithm of y.2. The change produces e2x' l f (4 = i ? . (%)loo.The derivative of e U ( x ) is e U ( X ) g .52) Find + 1 when integrating xn. The notation for log.e). The coefficient of x in the exponent is 2 1n 3.45 .t = e3I2. Its The first term is ex. The terms of the first sequence are = (1 where n = 10. The derivative of x = log. In . The constant c in the slope of bx is c = l n b. .2 The Exponential ex (page 241) Question 11 can be rewritten as lim(1 + &)2n.( 11 10 .27 and 6. h = . Its antiderivative is ex. Its derivative is (Inb ) e x i n = (Inb)bx. T he derivative of eSinx is esinx cos x.32) Find an antiderivative for v ( x ) = 5 + 5.. (1 and the limit of ( f ) l l . + The third sequence can also be written (v)".6. 101 100 Find the limit of ). (This is 6. In Question 12 write n = mr. The derivative of eCx brings down a factor c. (This is 6. You may change to base e. Then find the limit of (:)lo. This gives 1 .
So the function xeex increases t o 1a t x = e and then decreases: it never equals 1again.36 is also good for comparing the effects of various c's and 3's.1) as you work the examples.l / ~= e(ln')/' (page 250) lnx1 2 0 (1 i ) 2 n + + approaches 1.8. solve the differential equations starting from yo = 1and yo = 1. on understanding how to use y = yoeCtand y = yoect In Problems 1and 2. = k y + 0 .6. There are no other complicating terms.s e 1 / e a t x = e.3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics 18 x .l)xee".?~)2 + I2s2'nxl] = . We have e = $ and s = 0. + + 2 + . 302' 1202 7202 =limT =limT = l i m F =lim7.3.)' = )' = (&).7 and ( 1 + $)fi1. = The second derivative is negative so the maximum of x1Ix is elle. 2 = iY (pure exponential) 2. Use the exponential law yoeCtwith c = $ and yo = f1. See what happens if s is very large.Study the graphs to see the effect of yo and s. ' This slope is zero a t x = e.4(etI3 . Problem 2 changes Problem 1 into = cy s. ( 5 .1) = yoet/3 2. Its solution is y = yoet/3 F ( e t l 3 .( l n ~ ) = I~ (T)~llx e2 s s 7. 8 (exponential with source term) Problem 1says that the rate of change is proportional to y. or if s is negative.1).). e(ln~)I~ [(44 xe = ex a t x = e. The graphs of y = fet13 are at left below.7 l n4 X = x'/~(.= l i m F =0. Concentrate (e" . 5 With a graphing calculator you can carry these studies further. + 1. S8 The asymptotes of (1 .3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics (page 250) The applications in this section begin to suggest the power of the mathematics you are learning.Note that (1 + !)fi is squeezed between 1and el/* has derivative which 42 xll' = e(lnX)lx has slope e(ln')Ix( 2 . 28 (esX)(e7") = elox which is the derivative of helOx + (5+ y ) e . Draw both solutions on the same graph. Exercise 6. when In x = 1. Check: &e(lnx)/'x() 1. + (y 6. This is the only point where xee' = 1because the derivative is xe(e') + exe' ex = This derivative is positive for x < e and negative for z > e. are x = 1 (from the last formula) and y = e (from the first formula).
02.612. 106e. Finally. Right away we know y o = 100 and y = 100ect. Setting y = 100 gives 100 = 2t2 10 and t = 2 + a. Since the halflife of carbon 14 is 5568 years.13) How old is a skull containing 5 as much radiocarbon as a modern skull? Information about radioactive dating is on pages 243245. but the right side is 4t instead of 4y. 5 = e. (This is 6. Since y = 90 when t = 10. After three years (1992 to 1995) we set t = 3: y = l ~ ' e ~ ( '. We don't yet know c. & 10.02. the amount left at time t is yoect with exponent c = = We do not know the initial o = 1 (100% at the start) and y = = 0. Problem 6.3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics 3.02).10 involve y = yoect. Then t = ! & 9. It is continuous compounding. The doubling time Starting from y is 20 years. .5) Start from y o = 10. lo6 when 8 M 13.6 years..02 after every year. Then amount yo. If there were 10.] Note that y = 4500 when t = 4. After three years ( ~ .035t. Then t = . y = 100 and solve for t: 100 = 10e" gives 10 = e" = 4t 4.3.6. (This is 6. [The 'shifted* formula is y = ypeC(tT). We can also use y = 104ect.98). Start at y o = C = 10. 106e". If a (page 250) 2 = 44. set t = 0 to get the amount at that time: y = 4500e(a 1n02)(04) M 61074. 4 The solution is y = yoect = 1 0 e ~ Set ~ . but at t = 30 we have y = lo6 = 1 0 0 e ~ Taking ~ ~ .15) The population of Cairo grew exponentially from 5 million to 10 million in 20 years.2 at the unknown age t. . Then c = ln(. how many will there be in 1995? a The direct approach is to multiply by 1.6 looks the same as the last question. If y = 4500 at t = 4 and y = 90 at t = 10.In lo. o ~ ) ~ ~ o . How would Problem 6 change if the number of cases decreases by 2%? a A 2% decrease changes the multiplier to . This means 6c = ln . Find the equation for Cairo's population. 6.02 and c = ln . (Problem 6. The 2% increase means c = ln(1.The t in the basic formula is replaced by (t . Start with 100 bacteria and end with lo6 after 30 hours. 10' the population is y = 5 .3.02) ~ " = 10. Note that is not exponential growth.4).OSSt.0202.) The first part says that y = 4500e~(~'). we have 90 = 4500eac and eaC = = .000 cases in 1992. 5. The slope is proportional to t and the solution is simply y = 2t2 C.612. and eSo2 = 1. This is not the same as y = 104e. In 3 years there would be 9. The equation is y = 100e(~). 1 0 " / ~ ~ . When was y = 8 million? o = 5 million = 5 . logarithms of 10' = eSoC gives 41n 10 = 30 c or = c. since eln1' = 10 this is y = 100.This reaches 8 million = 8 . We deduce that c = = 035 and y = 5 .3. Write the equation describing a bacterial colony growing exponentially.02t. is a little different from 1. More concisely.3. But we can use y a.That is continuous growth at 2%.411 cases. at what time does y increase to loo? and 1 In 10 = 4t. The number of cases of a disease increases by 2% a year. as required.98.02. 8. OM OO 10. 7. + Problems 5 . what was y at t = O ? (We are assuming exponential decay.
9 years to accumulate the tuition.08 we find the time t when y = 0: 500 Multiply 0 = 5 0 0 0 e .Izgt.6.50) For how long can you withdraw $500/year after depositing $5000 a t a continuous rate of 8%? At time t you run dry: and y(t) = 0. 1000 50.3.y = 4 . then $ = 0. what gift yo should a grandparent make now? Assume c = 10%.There is an initial value yo = 5000 and a sink (negative source) of s = 5001year. Its temperature is approaching y . 13.Ae' equals 4 .310e. In the formula yoeCt :(eC' . You have 20 years of income. Then y = e' + 4 goes t o y.4 = 0. is the constant y = 4.350)eCt.59 per year for 20 years. To find c for your particular turkey.000 in 20 years. The steady state y . This gives s = 782.In2 Show that y(t) = Ae' 11.59.1) we know yo = 0 and c = 10% = 0. ~ ~ ' 5 0 0 ( e * ~ ~ 1). then A = 1.~ .000 for college tuition in 20 years.59 took 20 years. = 4.1 and t = . The smaller deposit s = $782. Check: $ = .1 This method takes 17.350) = (40 . With c = . ' = 20.. In 6 0. The formula y = yoeCtturns into yo = yeet = ( 5 0 . 0 This situation uses both terms of the formula y = yoeCt :(eet . Therefore 50. (Problem 6.2 = e .1).17. The value of c varies from turkey to turkey.1. let t + $.lt .000 = & ( e ( o . gives ~ ( 1 = )4  If we know y(0) = A + 4 = 3.08 t o get 0 = 4 0 0 e . Your Thanksgiving turkey is at 40°F when it goes into a 350' oven a t 10 o'clock.37) What value y = constant solves .1. ' ( ~ = ~$6767. substitute y = 110 when t = 2: The equation for y is 350 ." 0.08' . The parents should continuously deposit $782.(Aeet + 4). (Problem 6. if yo = 3. We want t o choose s so that y = 50.3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics (page 250) 0. .000? Part (a) is a question about the present value yo. (Problem 6. If y is constant.3. 14.1  1) leads t o 5 = e". At noon the meat thermometer reads l l O O .1). l ) z o .46) (a) To have $50.000? (c) If the parent saves s = $1000 per year. The turkey is done when y = 195: .In a m yields t = (In 0.425 years.08 loo = 5 and t = Then e.9 years. (b) What continuous deposit should a parent make during 20 years t o save $50.3.000 when t = 20. if the gift is worth $50.000 = (eO. In this case y(t) = 1e'+4 To find y.y? + 4 is also a solution. When will the turkey be done (195')? Newton's law of cooling applies even though the turkey is warming. Find y(l)and y $ = 4 . Therefore y . Using method 3 (page 250) we have (Y . A nonconstant solution is ~ ( t = ) Ae' + 4. oo. ) Part (b) is different because there is a continuous deposit instead of one lump sum. the expected steady state. + Part (c) asks how long it would take to accumulate $50. 0 0 0 ) e . = 350' from yo = 40'. ~ ~ ' (e. 12.000 if the deposit is s = $1000 per year.2)5568 = 31. when does the account reach $50.08t = "00  + 1) by .
You can start making gravy a t 3 : 24.3 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics (page 250) This gives t = 5. Then emOIT = f and .T ) 4 d ~With .6. The decay rate is c = 1. e C ( 2 .1)per year.7). At t = 0 this is 20 = 7 ln 4 C divide by A m and approach the limit m* dm so that v = 7 1 n m + 2 0 .7 = e . + + + + . (yo . a total of 2 0 hours.2 (c) 2 = .6.6 gives y + m.)ect = 2 0 40ect. + v. This solution reaches 8 a t t = If the doubling time is T then c = solution approaches z e r o as t + v. 4 8 The deposit of 4dT grows with factor c from time T to time t .3 y + 6 g i v e s y .000 in 10 years is 1000e/(e . Ao:' & 2 4 Go from 4 mg back down to 1 mg in T hours. 0 0 0 . When c is negative. cancel terms t o leave mAv .Ib = C 58 If = y 7 then $ is zero at y .O1t. So it doesn't matter when you add the milk! % % + : 2. The payment rate s t o clear a loan of 10. = 7 (this is = $).00O(e . + (d) = 3y . 4 2 $1000 changes by ($1000) (. If dyldt = 7y and yo = 4 then y(t) = 4e7t.y. t = 2 add 4e~(1T) 4 e de2c ~ deposits from T = 0 to T = 1 : $ '. 0 1 y dt. Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered eolutione : If y' = cy then y(t) = yoect. The solution t o y' = 3y + s approaches y.( A m ) A v = 7Am.6 g i v e s y . and y .7).014t gives = e.7 1 n 4 = 7 1 n m + 2 0 .vAm mAv .3 ~ .04dt). + + At c = lo%.).(yo . 6 0 All solutions t o = c(y . The milk warms to 2 0 .(Am)Av Am(v .12) converge to y = 1 2 provided c is negative. 1 2 To multiply again by 10 takes ten more hours. The mixture 5(b1ack G has 20 + y e c t .O"" and t = In $ = 250 1n = 7 2 y e a r s .y . the interest in time dt is dy = .4 hours.20 40ect.1).T ) 4 d= ~ [. An input a t time T grows by the factor ec(tT) at time t. If eloC= 10 (and e20C= 100) then 10c = In 10 and c = w . The general solution is y = Aet . is t so the derivative of y . The deposit required t o produce 10.000 in 10 years is s = yc/(ect . 0 0 0 ( 1 .e2). The printing rate should be s = 40. With a source term instead of yo. 66 (a) The white coffee cools to y .1)after ten years. The deposit to give 4000/year for 20 years is yo = 4 0 .7 is (y . The derivative of y . The solution of dyldt = cy s starting from yo is y = AeCt B = (yo + ))ect .10ect.23.2 + + + . (b) The black coffee cools t o 2 0 50ect. a decrease of 40dt dollars in time dt. This equation yields y(t) = yOe. and reaches e C ( t .01T = In f and T = = 139 hours (not so realistic).1)= 1 0 0 0 / ( e . 2 8 Given mu = mu . 16 Be.1). If y' = 3y and y(1) = 9 then yo was 9e13. = 7. The constant solution to dyldt = y 6 is y = 6.O1t = ae.7). An income of 4000Iyear forever (!) comes from yo = 4 0 . Then v = 7 in m C. = s/3. a continuous deposit of s = 4000/year yields y = 40. the oo. If yo = 4 then A = 10..+ . The output from the source is )(ect . 4 3 6 ( a ) $=3y+6gives yoo (b) % = .
T h i s i ~ y = u ~ . 1 . b)tl+z) &.8). y = ( l n ~ ) ~ .8 i d x = ln8 . i .. 2. (This is 6.4 Logarithms (page 258) This short section is packed with important information and techniques . 2 = (&)(l) Change to base e with y = w. 6 7.+  x2 2 x3 3 and x2 x3 e z ~ l + x + T + . 4. Questions 7 and 8 are about approximations going as far as the x3 term: l n ( l + x) rc x . and logarithmic differentiation (LD). ru=5xso !2. ( 1 1 1 4 4 4 1 1 1 .02. g.+ . is It is interesting to compare with the traperoidal area from x = 1to x = 2.6931. y = loglo(sin x). dx sin x 5. Now 1. approximation of logarithms. cos x + sec2 x (ln sin x) = 1 + sec2 x(1n sin x) . s 0 ~ = 3 ~ ~ ~ = 3 ( l n x ) ~ ~ . With y = the sides of the trapezoids are the heights yo. .In 1.In 4 is equal to In 2 .53) Find lim.s before. The derivative of logb(l (&b) ( &).+ . 0 The product rule gives dy = tan x . for 4 5 x 5 8 by four trapezoids.how to differentiate and integrate logarithms. ! To get the exact area we integrate $. r This limit takes the form so turn to 1'H8pitalSsrule (Section 3. $. The total trapezoidal area is i.98) by choosing x = . What is the exact area? r Each trapezoid has base Ax = 1. The examples cover each of these topics: Derivatives i s 2= 2.x ) .+ . the rule for y = log. (This is 6. Approximate ln(.4 Logarithms (page 258) 6. logarithms as areas.6. + x) is Logarithms as areas 6. The ratio is which approaches 9.In4 = In = ln2 M 0.y4 = $. i. yl.+ ) 5 6 7 16 =0.. The rule for y = In u is $ = Find $ in Problems 1. .2xg ln 10 1 sin e ' 'OS 3.4. Now Ax = same rule: 4 and the heights are t . so four trapezoids take us from x = 4 to x = 8. The derivative of x is 1.98.$.t . The ezaet area $ : idx still ln 2.4. y = tan x In sin x. The area stays the same when we integrate $ from any a to 2a. Then 1 x = . ) = (4 2 1 5 6 7 2 2 8 The sum is not changed! This is another way to see why In 8 .. y = l n ( 5 .i.o log*( l + z ) . + . y2.6970a.+ .4.+ . u = = G* 1 I.56) Estimate the area under y = 1. The total trapezoidal area comes from the 1 1 1 1 ++ . With a different base b.i.
Multiplication has become addition. + 2.0202027073.x21+ C . is illegal. 13. The calculator gives ln . Find a quadratic approximation (this means x2 terms) near x = 0 for y = 2".This is $ E.i In lul+ C. 11. m First take logarithms: In y = z2In sin z. Notice especially the left side: I dz = x2 'OS 22 In sin x. as in ln(x2 I).02)  + = . 8. The expression $ = In lul+ C covers both cases.4 ~ 8 6x 8 z ( 32' x~~)I.02) RI (. the limits of integration should tell you whether u is negative or positive.4. now multiply. Somebody is wrong by 4. When you know u is positive. J + &)dx = x . Multiply by y to find . y = (4x8) leads to In y = 3ln(x2 + 7) + ln 4 + 8 In x  ln(x3 . where blows up. However if u stays negative. not 9. + For definite integrals. Integrate dx = In sin x1Ixl2 1 3x14 . Avoid x = *l where u = 0. 2%is the same as e21n Put xln 2 into the series.XI + C. The powers 3. Here are examples: 12.8. L D is the best way to go. Here are two examples with u = sin x: dx = ln(sin x)]:. $ = In lul+ C.Set u = In x and du = $: Logarithmic differentiation (LD) greatly simplifies derivatives of powers and products. But we can write & as 1 + 1 10. Then du = 2xdx. The approximation is 1 x In 2 + +F x 2 . (Exponential differentiation in Problem 6. A sneaky one. (This is 6.6.) The secret is in decomposing the original expression.0202026667. Division has become subtraction. there is something we can do. J = In(u) C. Take the derivative of lny : ? L& . Write J = The denominator u is positive and the numerator is its derivative! In that case. i J $ = .18) Integrate Ji. D o not try to separate In x2 and In 7. & = 3&+0+!m.5. The integral becomes ?In11 . .In 11 . To find the derivative of xllx.70 amounts to the same thing. Why not just In u C? Go back to the definition of In u = area under the curve y = f from x = 1 to x = u. leave off the absolute value sign. This is not = /(I Let 1 ..4 Logarithms (page 258) ln(1.: The integral 9. and quotients. Now take the derivative of both sides.98 = . This is as far as logarithms can go. L D is necessary.x2 equal u. 32' If you substitute back for y then 2= x'+7 dA[x2+7 + G 3 . Integrate e. 10. y = (sin z)" has a function sin x raised to a functional power x2. Integration The basic rule is + % % + %. Here u must be positive since we cannot cross x = 0. .9). It starts and ends with u = sin x = 0 5.
We need to know the slope dy/dx at (1. )= d~ + 5 x+O  bx In b 1 kg + 2 + . x. The integral of 2x/(x2 The integral of l / ( c t + s) is ln (:t+s).1)./Zm . i . 1 20 $ b d z = $ * = .) 70 LD: l n p = x l n x so = 1 l n x and = p ( l + lnx) = x x ( l l n x ) . Then l* y dx = L xa+l +L 36 l n y = . Alternatively use 5 & (x2)  f 2(x) = f .In x L Alternatively = x 4 . + + x) is G.. Then . The domain and range of In x are 0 < x < oo. We should $ d u / u should be written 1 lnlul. 2 :% + 2 + =3 Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered solutions : xd x T his definition leads to lnxy = In x In y and in xn = x). + i) + + 1 + x. x) = log. Similarly + 4) is l n ( x 2 + 4).l). By the chain rule 2 = & i.oo < In x < oo. The tangent approximation t o l n ( l + x ) at 1 2. 22Sy $ = I x2 ' 40 $ In x = $.ID and LD are useful but not necessary. As x + oo.x 1 .l) with slope 2 is y .x) = x3 a t the point (1.lnu = ln(cosx)]~/4 = In L + 0 = In 2. The quadratic approximation is x . since this allows x < 0. which is LD or logarithmic differentiation. The natural logarithm of x is Jlx (or n l n x. The tangent line through (1.ax2. Find the tangent line y2(2 .. 10)(log. An antiderivative of tan x is In c o s x.l n x so ? & = Z. The product p = xe5x has l n p = 5x In x .1 ' Then & =x1 =L ?L dx . But the ratio (In x)/& approaches zero. The integral of ul(x)/u(x) is In u(x). In x approaches infinity. x = 0 is x. The derivative of this equation is p'/p = 5 Multiplying by p gives p' = x e 5 (5 ~ = 5 x e 5 ~ eSx. (Emphasize: The factor y + 0 x In x = is "stronger" than the factor In y + oo.y = 1 to get 2 2 or = 2.1 = 2(x . we have y = !and + C. This means y l n y + 0 as y = $ + 0. = tan x . Now find the same answer by 111 X & ED: 9 (.l).6.4 Logarithms (page 258) 14. Then e is the number whose logarithm (area under l / x curve) is 1. We have redone the derivative of bx at x = 0. is I n (see x + tan x). after a trick. Plug in x = 1. 62 L 0 as x oo.+. Its integral is [?x2 . X dx (x ln x) = xx ( I + 1n x). The integral of l/cx is 9. 5 4 Use l'H6pital's Rule: lim 7 = In b. Taking logarithms gives Now take the x derivative of both sides: = : . 4 '(*)('"x) XJ  'ln x2 d 6 Use (log. (log. x) = 1 .I and ! k ! = y czx xa1 x ti^ . The quadratic approximation t o ex is 1 x 2x 1 The derivative of ln(1 The derivative of in x is z. The integral of 1/cos x.21n 1 5. Similarly ex is now defined as the number whose natural logarithm is x. cos Jz 2 2 4 Set u = In in x.  1  l e y xa+l = S equals x .1).$ ln(x2 + I)]: = 2 .. write in 1x1 for the antiderivative of l / x . + + The derivative of in u(x) by the chain rule is 1 d u Thus (In cos x)' =  z. Our integral is $ = In u = In 5 (ln(1n x)) 2 8 l n y = $ l n ( x 2 + I ) + i l n ( x 2 .
Then y = (z3I2 3 + f 2)2. this y solves the logistic equation I/ = y .5.3 = 2(tZ 1)'I2 or x = 3 2(t2 1)'I2. Since x = 5 when t = 0 j into the solution to find x .5 deal with the logistic equation y' = cy . Turned upside down. C = 0. The separation of variables mistake was in y dy : from y = the class wrote $ y dy = $ &(el+"')dx. So we have Now y = . integrate both sides: First.) Third. Also notice that 2 + 1 is negative.3).) =~'1~dx Second.3.( o ) ~ / ~c 3 2.3)t dt 1 + )yields ~ C = f2./jj to the left: 2yl/2 = . 2 = . Now a yintegral equals an xintegral.  Putinz=2whent=Otofind The absolute value is reversing the sign.5 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation (page 266) 6.3)(t2 + 1) to separate t from x : Integrating gives . use the starting value yo = 4 to find C: 1 4 = ( . (This is 6. Divide by u(y).) Solve + 1 with Separation of variables gives + & $ = 2 20 = 2. . what is y = t? Graph y and z. Solve (x . This is the general solution. move d z to the right side and . = u(y) v (x) and does the same thing to both sides.15. This mistake leads to $y2 which shouldn't appear.x 2 312 C. and integrate. So the answer is When you integrate. Here C / 2 became C. I asked my class t o integrate the function y(x) = question is that you don't have to take the derivative of function.6. 2 Solve the differential equations in Problems 1 and 2 by separating variables. Then J dy/u(y) = J v(x)dx.15.$ ln(t2 1) = ln(x . + (t2 + 1)dx = 0 with x = 5 when t = 0. According to Problem 6. solve for y = + $ ($x3I2 C ) 2 . Divide both sides by (x .3) C or (t2 I)'/' = eC(x . that brings back the original One mistake was t o write that answer as e9. (This constant C combines the constants for each integral.y2. You can't multiply one side by dy and the other side by dx. The point of this wildly. dtorIn/z+lI=t+C. Put e" = ! + + + + + + Problems 3 . Half a constant is another constant. multiply Separation of variables starts from by dx.by2. 1. 3. we have 1 = 2e".= *. Fourth. .5 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation 266) (page Separation of variables works so well (when it works) that there is a big temptation t o use it often and from x = 0 t o x = 3.G j with yo = 4 (which means y(0) = 4.
.2. = 100.byo 1 .01. Then c = 1 and b = & = .old. The inflection point is at height & = 50. Its slope is just the opposite of o = 90: the first.09. Again we have 6 = 50 and b = 0.50). Each has an inflection point a t (2. The first graph shows y The limiting value y. the solution has The graph is sketched below. = % is twice as high at y. The differential equation is d y/dt = y . Find the solution y ( t ) and graph it.013. The solution is given by equation (12) on page 263: c c .9+et' This is a case where death wins.09et  ' The second graph must solve the differential equation = y by2.5 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation (page 266) 4. Then y o > E = 100. o = 10. 88 . Each graph above is an Scurve that solves a logistic equation y' = fy f bd with c = 1 or c = 1.900 . 5.Ol et . After a sluggish start. As in 4 ( b ) the equation is 3 = y + . See Example 6 on page 264 of the text. Change y o in Problem 4 to 110.01. YO  1 900 and y ( t ) = 1 . Substitute c = 1 and y cbyo 1+. Since yo is now 110..6. Find the differential equations and the solutions.(01) ( 10) 1 = = . Then y = = 6 + de& where d = YO 10 01 . Since y o < % = 100 the population dies out before the cooperation term +by2 is strong enough to save it.01(90) = 90 2 + d=. the population blows up at t = In 11.
) If y is between 1 and 0. Separation gives J dy/(cy . The new term b# represents competition when cy represents growth. if y > 1 then y' is negative. The signs of y' are The curved line f (y) is sketched to show those signs. It moves away from y = 0. repelling 0 I I attracting +1 I . This is the Law of M a s s Action.y3. In biology and chemistry. concentrations y and z react at a rate proportional to y times z. A w 1 In 1 1 yf>0 yf<0 yf>0 yf<O Y 6. Integration of dy/y = c dt gives In y = c t constant. y approaches That is the steady state where cy . The solution approaches 1 from yo < 0. The arrows in the yline point to the left when y' is negative. and it approaches +1 from yo > 0. and the yintegral is l/c times In Substituting yo at A. Then y2 z2 = constant and the solution stays on a circle. I I I attracting 1 t L 7 . y' is negative and y decreases. The sketch shows that y = 1 and y = +1 are stable steady states. Finally.6.)(l y). y' is positive. while y = 0 is an unstable (or repelling) stationary point. inflection point at $. If y is between 0 and 1.by2 = 0. the rate c depends on y. (Two factors y and 1 y are negative but their product is positive. Draw a yline for y' = y . If y is below 1.5 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation (page 266) I I I I I 0 ./ x dx. t = 0 and taking exponentials produces y/(c . As t + oo. A positive y' means an increasing y.y)(l y) = y'.by2. Plot those points on the straight line.bn). This occurs at y = 0. The MM equation is . 1. Now consider the sign of y(1. So the solution moves toward 1 and also toward +l.y3 to get y' = ~ ( 1~ . The graph of y looks like an S. because it has an 9.b#) = J dt. Integration of 1 dy/(y s/c) = / c dt gives In(y = e t C. They are not all attracting. and 1. They are attracting. + + a) + + + + The logistic equation is dy/dt = cy . because y is increasing on the right of sero and decreasing on the left of zero. The equation dy/dz = x/y leads to / y dy = . In a model equation dyldt = c(y)y. Readthroughs and selected evennumbered rolutions : The equations dyldt = cy and dyldt = cy s and dyldt = u(y)v(t) are called separable because we can separate y from t.by) = ectyo/(c . Which steady states are approached from which initial values yo? a Factor y . + A steady state has y' = 0. + + + +. all factors are positive and so is y'.
[ B ]are in the proportion to n . Therefore a1 = and a2 = ).and choose the a's so that y' = i y . YO has c = 1 and b = 1 with yo = 1. 1. changes a0 . 1 2 2 . the . a .. f solution is y = e i x . 6 s i n y = ( s i n l ) e s m x. .[ A ]and bo . . 22 3!23 n!2n r Second method: We already know the solution to y' = y.Therefore y = ( x n ) ( e c ) = c o n s t a n t t i m e s xn. The typical term is an = i + A: i i The series is y ( x ) = 1 x x2 x3 xn ++ + + .1)..as. Then take the derivative of each term: a . a rn 6. we solved for [ B ] ..6..b ( s ) 2= I f b and c are multiplied by 10 then so which becomes steeper.19) Solve the difference equation y(t + 1) = 3 y ( t ) + 1 with yo = 0. ln(sin y) = sin x + C. The pattern continues with a3 = $ . Write down a power series for y ( x ) whose derivative is r First method: Look for y = a0 a l x azx2 . + + + + + gives a1 = i a o and 2a2 = +al. + + Turned upside down this is y = 1+2et 6 with d = d. The denominator is zero and y blows up when 2et = 1 or t = I n 2.6 Powers Instead of Exponen tials dy/dt = cy/(y (page 276) d y = $ c d t = ct + K ) . .[ A ] ) )The . + + .z ( a o . At the middle of the Scurve y = 26 and = c ( & ) . Similarly Matching this series with 3a3 matches +a2 and nun matches $anl. Separating variables yields $ y + C. is this slope 2 8 I f a =dthen cy=dy+dK a n d y = c dK d ' At this steady state the maintenance dose replaces the aspirin being eliminated. = 1 so that y(0) = 1.6.a2 and a4 = f .1 a t t = 0. & = cos xdx gives . 34 9 = r[A][B] = r[A](bo .6 Powers Instead of Exponentials (page 276) y ( z ) . After taking exponentials + 16 Equation (14) is z = :(b 2 0 y'= y + y2 +e e . After taking logarithms y = l n ( e t ee . Then C = ln(sin 1 ) at x = 0. Starting from yo = 1. 2 $. = 10 = n. anxn . It is yoei2. = c y 3 0 The rate R = is a decreasing function of K because (y+K)' ' 2. We also know the exponential series ex = 1 x So just substitute the new exponent ? x in place of x: ? + +$+$+ + + same answer. . Therefore In y = n ln x C.. 8 eydy = etdt so e Y = et C. (This is 6. No solution after sin y reaches 1 (at the point where (sin l)esin = 1). Assume that ~ ( 0= ) 1. 2.Then C = ee . Then y ( t ) = by formula (12)." ) . Start with a.
=s/(l .. 80% of 500 boxes are sold (that means 400) and they are replaced by 400 new boxes. Its derivative is ex..003)12 M 1. The deposit to produce y(N) = 1 is yo = (1 i)N.. 1 As n + oo those terms approach 1+ 1 + in agreement with e. The difference equation y(t by y = atyo + s [ l + + 1) = ay(t) yields ~ ( t= ) at times yo. The reason for 0.0366 or 3. . find the present value that yields a dollar after 10 years. Thus (1 + x/n)" approaches ex. & + 4. From yo = 0 we have yl = 1 and y2 = 4. As n t oo they approach 1+ x + f x2 in agreement with e2. Each step multipliesthe previous y by 3 and adds 1. annual deposits of s = 6 leave 1 l 2 ( l . The difference equation has a = 0. Write the difference equation and find the steady state for this situation: Every week 80% of the cereal is sold and 400 more boxes are delivered to the supermarket. = 12. Since la1 < 1.2 is that 80% are sold and 20% are left.  *. .05.08 and yo = 0. As n + oo.) after t years. The annual rate of inflation is .. A quicker method computes ln(1 + x/n)" M x (first term only) and takes the exponential. Then y3 = 13 and y4 = 40.a ) . The steady equation y . a If C(t) represents the number of cereal boxes after t weeks. If a = and yo = 0. (1). If prices rose &% in the last month.55 cents is worth today. + + .2C(t) 400. the problem states that C(t 1) = 0. annual 1 0 8 ~ 1 deposits of s = 1 produce y = after t years. + s gives y . The denominator n! is called B 1 factorial" and is equal to n ( n .. approaching y . for 10 years instead of 20.04 instead of . what is the equivalent annual rate of inflation? The answer is not 12 times = 3. continuous compounding multiplies by ex. + at']. = ay.6 Powers Instead of Exponentiah (page 276) Follow equations 8 and 9 on page 271. 2 t When i = interest rate per period. multiply out (1 l/n)" = 1 n(B) (first three terms).66%.1) .105 in a year. A $1 price at the beginning of the year would be (1 . the value of yo = $1 after N periods is y(N) = ( 1 ilN. + + 9 Readthrough8 and selected evennumbered solutions : The infinite series for ex is 1+ x + #x2 + &x3 + . The monthly increases are compounded. In this problem a = 3 and s = 1. + 5. The equation y(t + 1) = ay(t) + s is solved The sum in brackets is or When a = 1. The rate is . I f inflation stays at 4% a year. Use equation 2 on page 273 with n = 1 and y = 1.6755. The first three terms of (1 x/n)" are + + + 1 + n(tf)+ n+(g)2. In a decade a dollar will be worth what 67. At x = 10% with continuous compounding. a steady state is approached: C .. = = = 500.. Compound interest (n times in one year at annual rate x) multiplies by ( 1 s ) n .6%. The solution is 3. The value of s = $1 deposited after each period grows to y(N) = + a + . + + + 4+ + To match the original definition of e. We get yo = (1 ?)''I = 0. At z = 1 the series for e is 1 1 2 .6.2 and s = 400. At that steady state.0366 at the end of the year. $1 grows to e S 1 M $1.
Starting 4 A larger series is 1 + +4 +a+ + 4 +a+ + & . dy 1 d u .7 Hyperbolic Functions (page 280) 1.sinh2 x = 1 gives coshZx = 1+ . Find cosh(2 ln 10). + + + from P(0) = 0 the solution is P ( t ) = 4[ 18 Solve $1000 = $8000 ( il] = s ( l 1 + +  + 8 I t ) + i. so y(0) = $1000.(1. OOO1. In m 1 7 years. . Then 1.05)l2 m $841. . The error is proportional to A t .09/n not .05y(t). . which is too large for scientific computing .60.(. sech x and csch x. Then 360 payments equal $231.70.Therefore y at t = 1 is (1 c ~ t ) ' / * ' yo. Substitute x = 2 1n 10 = In 100 into the definition of cosh x: cosh(2 ln 10) = '3.dx u dx tanh 22 2 sinh 2xcosh 2 s ' .2.~l. n=lnl. The deposit to reach Y(N)= 1 is s = ( 1 . 44 Use the loan formula with .%)(1. Then Find 2 when y = ln tanh 2%. Suppose you owe y(t) after month t..7 Hyperbolic Functions (page 280) $ ((1 + ilN . After five terms 1.1). coth x. I n 100 .$10 = $990.8 or (1. The others are upside down: 12 1 13 1 12 1 .. Given sinh x = A.05) 1000 = $50 in the first month.50. which converges to yoec as At + 0.and cosh x = 144 144 12 ' Use the identities on page 278.= .6 = then then Y(o)=12. You pay $60.37 (Problem 6). 1 Euler's method replaces y' = cy by Ay = cyAt.375.1" = 5 and + + 6. U y ( 0 ) =O.1)" = . Let y = In u.12 coth x = = .+~)lOO1 0 g ! 2 : rr $643.2sech22x .1)" = ..6 0 [ * ] .y(3= ) 7 ( a n d y(n) = a n . + sin2x = 1: 13 25 169 cosh2 x . 10 The equation dP(t 1) b = cP(t) becomes 2P(t 1) 8 = P ( t ) or P ( t 1) = .1 g = = . So y(t 1) = 1.732.1 ) . Then tanh x = % is & = 5. So your debt is now $1000 .6.01 2 .i P ( t ) 4. + + 1 +f .In 2 100  loo+& = 10. 2 when y = sinh(4x3).] for n. 4 0 The interest is (. You pay $60.find the values of cosh x.09n: payments s = 80.05)'~1000 . . Each step multiplies y by 1 cAt. Thus 1. The next month's interest is .y(l)= 1. where u = tanh 22. Use the chain rule with u = 4x3 and 2 = 12x2 The derivative of sinh u(x) is (cosh u) 2 = 12x2cosh(4x3). This is greater than 1+ 1+ .05y(t) . 24Askfor i y ( 0 ) .and csch x = tanh x 5 coshx 13 sinhx 5' 2. tanh x.~(2)=3. = 1.and sech x = .( 1 + i)N). 4. Find . The one to remember is similar to cos2 x Note that cosh x is always positive. = e. 1 8 The exact sum is e' rr . After 12 months y(12) = (1. This is also (1000 ..l ' [l(.005.
on page 279. Their derivatives are ainh x and cosh x and zero. 8.7.Factoringout 4 leaves d m = & d G . t h i s l o o k s l J2Ti ike~~ .54) A falling body with friction equal to velocity squared obeys i j satisfies the equation.u2. Assuming the body falls from rest ( v = 0 at t = 0). The chain rule gives = fi(sech2u)h = g sech2.' x + Conpage279.tanh2 f i t ) (b) The differential equation is dv dt = g . / i j t.A cable hangs in the shape of a catenary y = a coshg. sinh t) travels on the hyperbola x2 . y) = (cosht. I f u = 62 then (page 280) 6. Now use the identity sech2u = 1. The answer is . fi a (c) I v dt = I f i t a n h Jij fi dt = lncosh f i t + C.7. = g ./ijj.tanh2 u: g . The derivative of. (b) Derive this yourself by integrating (a) Show that u(t) = f i tanh J + 5= dt. So the problem has u = f and du = idx: 7.53.u2. we have C = 0 . The integral of dt is t + C.v(t) = fi t a n h f i t has u = . Beadthrough8 and selected evennumbered solution8 : Cosh x = i ( e x + eX) and sinh x = #(ex . (c) Integrate u(t) to find the distance f (t). .s i n h .u2.7. See equation (3) on page 279.) Remember that u = cosh x has a The problem is really I u2du with u = cosh x. Find (This is 6.) The top is the derivative of the bottom! The absolute value sign is dropped because 1 cosh x is always positive. 2 = g . Find when y = sech'6x. X ~ + Q a E x c e p t f o r t h e 9 .The point (x.7 Hyperbolic f i n ctions 5.29.6. Then t =1 tanh' turns into v = Jij tanhJij.eX) and cosh2x . Separate variables to find 3 = dt: du 1 u by equation (2). Findj?.= g(1. Find I cosh2xsinh I dx. a (a) The derivative of tanh x is sech2 x. (This is Problem 6. x dx (This is 6.sinh2 x = 1.y2 = 1. 9.us 2 = + sinh x: + C = i cosh3 x + C.
But note that y decays like 2ex and not like ex'. = 1 at x = 0. 1 44 The x derivative of x = sinh y is 1 = cosh T hen =1 = slope of sinh' x. The formula cos x = &(e" ee'x) involves i m a g i n a r y exponents. 1ft tmh anhx + + + 36 y = sechx looks like a bellshaped curve with y .1. yg. minima.e2 s by the equation following (4). More directly the quotient rule gives x)sech2x+(l+tanhx)sech2x . 3 2 sinh x cosh x = ex and $ enxdx = &elu + C. The parallel formula for sin x is (eix . Approximate the area using four trapezoids. Sketch y = 2 + ex and y = ex+2 and y = 2ex on the same axes.6 Chapter Review Problems The inverse functions sinhI x and tanh' x are equal to ln[x+ JFTT] and $ In e. Its derivative is 2eZx.' / ~ x dx = (x2 + 1 ) l I 2 + C. So we have two ways to write the antiderivative.e. The graph is an S curve rotated by 9 0 ' .$) with derivative 1 #(I+ g).(coshxsinhx)' = = 2e2X. 3 0 / coth x dx = / dx = l n ( s i n h x) C.e'"). Because of the minus sign we do not get sech x.~+ ex) = C O S X ~ .ln x. 40 $ l n ( E ) approaches +ca as x + 1 and co as x + . The parallel to cosh x + sinh x = ex is Euler's formula c o s x i s i n x = ex. The integral of d inu = x+tanh l8d.Alsosketchy=exandy=e'Ix. Then cosi = C O S ~ 1= 5 0 Not hyperbolic! Just $(x2 (real!). = sech x t a n h x .' ( i ~ ) ) = L ( e . sech x is sin'(tanh x) C. The function is odd (so is the tanh function). Their derivatives are 1 / d x 2 + 1 and &. . . and inflection points) 6 2 y = eWx2 Graph Problem8 GI y = x lnx 67 68 G9 Sketch In 3 as an area under a curve. 2 + I ) . 6 Chapter Review Problems (Sketch the graphs and locate maxima. = $ (x . Sketchy=lnxandy=ln~. 5 8 cos ix = ? ( e ' ( i ~ I+ e . + & + 1 2 sinh(1n x) = $(eln .t a n h x ) l .s e c h 2 x . The x axis is the asymptote. (1tanh la .2 sech2x 2 (1tanh x)' ( 1 .
RS R6 R7 Show from the definition that d(cosh x) = sinh x dx and d(sech x) = sech xtanh x dx. Starting with 120 grams how much remains after 3 hours and how much after 9 hours? A radioactive substance decays with a halflife of 10 hours.000 in 15 years? Show that a continuous deposit of $1645 per year at 6% interest yields more than $40. (Find dyldx in D l to D 12.000 after 15 years. the rate of change of y is directly proportional to The difference is that dyldt is proportional to R2 RS R4 . Give examples of differential equations that can and cannot be solved by separation of variables. If possible find their solutions starting from y(0) = A. In exponential decay. What is a steady state? Give an example for 2 = y + 3. In exponential growth. How much money must be deposited now at 6% interest (compounded continuously) to build a nest egg of $40. . A chemical is decomposing with a halflife of 3 hours. show that the average during the first 10 hours is 100/ln 2 grams. Find dy/dt when x = 1. A particle moves along the curve y = cosh x with dxldt = 2. Starting with 100 grams. .) RB R9 R10 Drill Problems DI y=eCOSx D2 ey+ey=2x D5 y = L D6 y = sec e5 (use L D ) .6 Chapter Review Problems Review Problems R1 Give an example of a linear differential equation and a nonlinear differential equation.
Dl3 Dl5 Dl7 Dl9 $5xdx Dl4 Dl6 dx Dl8 $zez2+'dx / 5 dx 5 & dx $ sinh x cosh x dx $ $ tanh2 z sech2x dz D20 f qd s Solve the dzflerential equations D21 to D26 D2l D23 D25 y' = 4y with y(0) = 2 $=t2&withyo=9 D22 D24 D26 %=23ywithyo=1 3 = 2 t 3 with yo = 1 3 = y .2y2 with yo = 100 y = 1 x 1 /elo .ex I y = 21. what is its percentage growth after 20 years? .QQet 1 $$ = esY with yo = 10 y = 2e" 1 3t y = ge Solutions D27 +$ y= ($ + 3)2 y= & If a population grows continuously a t 2% a year.6 Chapter Review Problems Find the integral in D l 3 t o D20.
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Contents CHAPTER 4 The Chain Rule Derivatives by the Chain Rule Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives Inverses of Trigonometric Functions 4.5 6.6 Applications of the Integral Areas and Volumes by Slices Length of a Plane Curve Area of a Surface of Revolution Probability and Calculus Masses and Moments Force. Integration Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions The Definite Integral Properties of the Integral and the Average Value The Fundamental Theorem and Its Consequences Numerical Integration 177 182 187 195 201 206 213 220 5.2 8.5 5.7 CHAPTER 7 Techniques of Integration Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Trigonometric Substitutions Partial Fractions Improper Integrals 7.1 8.1 4.6 6.4 5.6 5.4 6.7 5.4 CHAPTER 5 Integrals The Idea of the Integral Antiderivatives Summation vs.2 4.2 7.4 7.3 5.5 8.5 CHAPTER 8 8.2 6. Work.3 7.1 7.1 5. and Energy .1 6.3 6.4 8.8 CHAPTER 6 Exponentials and Logarithms An Overview The Exponential ex Growth and Decay in Science and Economics Logarithms Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation Powers Instead of Exponentials Hyperbolic Functions 228 236 242 252 259 267 277 6.3 4.3 8.2 5.
With intense effort you could integrate even more functions. which are not we can attack them. In older books that extra exertion was madeit tended to dominate the course.are techniques for other integrals.. These improper integrals are quite common.) It is easy to forget how far we have come. In the last section x goes to infinity or y(x) goes to infinitybut the area stays finite. You might say that all along we have been solving the special differential equation dfldx = v(x). But the step to dyldx = cy was a breakthrough. Our time is too valuablefor that! Like long division. To integrate tan x we use a substitution:. in looking ahead to what is next. The applications are most complete when we know the integral. Mathematics has a language. to change them around until / dx. This short chapter will widen (very much) the range of functions we can integrate. which is fair) you can integrate important functions. immediately recognizable. Chapter 8 brings the applications.In cos x. the ideas are for us and their intricate elaboration is for the computer. The solution is f = 1v(x)dx. Then we do new substitutions.by2). I do want to look ahead. which we could work on if we had to. With integration by parts. Chapter 6 opened a different door. They had integrals like J(x + l)dx/ . Two examples are j x cos x dx and 5 .CHAPTER 7 Techniques of Integration Chapter 5 introduced the integral as a limit of sums. and a new substitution. Those examples indicate where this chapter starts and stops. The calculation of areas was startedby hand or computer. With reasonable effort (and the help of tables. For integrals there are two steps to takemore functions and more applications. Its new functions ex and In x led to differential equations. and you are learning to speak it. By using mathematics we make it live. Up to now. (My own class was not too sure about v(x) itselfthe symbol for a function. I!&dx. . integration depended on recognizing derivatives. If v(x) = sec2x then f(x) = tan x. / .= 1"U . A computer with symbolic algebra widens it more. The truth is that we are able to do remarkable things. A short time ago the symbols dyldx and J'v(x)dx were a mystery. What we need now . Integration by parts comes first.In u = . Partial fractions is a useful idea (already applied to the logistic equation y' = cy . they become simple.
(4) 5 v du easier than uv  v du = x ln x  x dx. .2 In 2 + 2.1. In practice we write it without x's: 7A The integration by parts formula is j u dv = uv . The difference between definite improvement. (3) The problem of integrating u dv/dx is changed into the problem of integrating v du/dx. You will see how J In x dx is exchanged for J1 dxa x dx is exchanged for Je x dx. The goal of that choice is to make j u dv. It is integration by parts (u and v are the parts). Now is the right time to compute them (plus more examples). (2) That is the key to this sectionnot too impressive at first. We begin with the product rule for the derivative of u(x) times v(x): u(x) dv du d + v(x)d . Substitutions are based on the chain rule. On the left are two integrals. This is best seen by examples. it expresses basic physical laws of equilibrium and force balance.v(x) dx. is integration by parts. EXAMPLE 1 x and dv = dx (so v= x): For f Inx dx choose u = In In xdx = dx u(b)v(b) .d (u(x)v(x)). we now work with the right hand side. dx dx dx (1) Integrate both sides. One note before starting: Integration by parts is not just a trick with no meaning. and more are ahead.1 Integration by Parts 283 7. take the derivative. which is Inx. It is a foundation for the theory of differential equations (and even delta functions).1 Integration by Parts There are two major ways to manipulate integrals (with the hope of making them easier). (5) For safety. which are completely optional.3 . There x times l/x is 1. I used the basic formula (3). based on the product rule. Here we present the other method. Also Jxe the harder integral and the easier integral is a known termthat is the point. The integral of 1 is x. The reverse of the product rule.x + C. and one of them moves to the other side (with a minus sign): u(x) dx = u(x)v(x) .u(a)v(a)  v dx. and there is the "integrated term" u(x)v(x). In the definite integral. to find integrals not derivatives.Jv du.7. Including the minus sign and the integrated term uv = x In x and the constant C. We have mentioned Jcos2x dx and JIn x dx. but very powerful. On the contrary. Instead of working with In x (searching for an antiderivative). that product u(x)v(x) is evaluated at the endpoints a and b: Lb u dv du a dx dx The key is in choosing u and v. There is a minus sign to remember. illustrate those points too. integration brings back u(x)v(x). The product rule gives Inx + x(1/x) . On the right. the answer is J Inx dx = x Inx . The area under y = Inx from 2 to 3 is 3 In3 . The final paragraphs.
The integral of (sin x)' is no better and no worse than the integral of (cos x ) ~But . substitute for (sin x ) ~ : J'(cos x ) d ~x = cos x sin x + J' 1 dx . Why should the area be n? Answer The definite integral is gcos x sin x + x)]:". (7) Note The new integral is not always simpler. E X A M P L E 4 Evaluate J tan'x dx by choosing u = tan'x and v = x: The last integral has w = 1 + x2 below and almost has dw = 2x dx above: S tan'x d x = uv S v d u = x tan'x Substituting back into (9) gives J tan. The area under also be found by common sense.(cos x ) ~So . In the forward direction this is no help.ex(2xdx). Integration using those parts give the true but useless result The last integral is harder instead of easier (x2 is worse than x). and J' 1 dx = x: ~ = cos x sin x 2 J (cos x ) dx 1 + x. we never see (sin x ) without ~ thinking of 1 . any C: {(cos x)' dx = f (cos x sin x + x) + C. The areas under (cos x ) and ~ (sin x ) are ~ the same. Our final example shows how two integrations by parts may be needed. The last integral on the right joins its twin on the left.J (cos x)2 dx.v du = x2ex. . We could have chosen u = cos x and dv = x dx. when the first one only simplifies the problem half way. E X A M P L E 2 For x cos x dx choose u = x and dv = cos x dx (so v(x) = sin x): 5 Again the right side has a simple integral. E X A M P L E 3 For J (cos x ) dx ~ choose u = cos x and dv = cos x dx (so v = sin x): ~ ~(CO xS) ~ = ~ uv x . But in the opposite direction it simplifies Sf x2 sin x dx. This does give n. Then v = fx2.J v du = cos x sin x + (sin x ) dx. The idea in choosing u and v is this: Try to give u a nice derivative and du a nice integral. E X A M P L E 5 For j x2exdxchoose u = x2 and dv = exdx (so v = ex): j x2exdx= uv . Question Integrate (cos x)' from 0 to 2n. (8) Dividing by 2 gives the answer.'x .All the familiar inverse functions can be integrated by parts (take v = x. That area can ~ (sin x ) = ~ 1. starting from (cos x ) + 1 is 2n. and add " + C" at the end). which completes the solution: J'xcos x d x = x sin x + c o s x + C. So each one is n.7 Techniques of Integration To repeat: We exchanged the integral of In x for the integral of 1.'x dx as x tan. which is definitely not gcos x ) ~Add .f ln(1 + x2).
Thus 6(x) = 0 except at that one point. (Notice the difference from f x sin x 2 dx.ex. After two integrations by parts. THE DELTA FUNCTION From the most familiar functions we move to the least familiar. I spoke to him long after. If you saw the movie. We write 6(x) = dU/dx. The delta function is the limit of higher and higher spikesfrom the "burst of speed" in Section 1. The step function U(x) jumps from 0 to 1 at x = 0. the integralof xex is xex .gray area s V(X) U =V 2 U2 .1a shows how the areas f u dv and I v du fill out the difference between the big area u(b)v(b) and the smaller area u(a)v(a).exdx (now u = x).." So far so good. x"ln x. where the step function jumps.1 Integration by Parts x 2 285 The last integral involves xex. We now integrate by parts for a crucial purposetofindthe area under v(x)6(x)." We cannot give a value for 6 at x = 0. but it still needs work: (11) du = xex .2[xex . tanx. Substituting back into (10).fvdu 1 0 0 vi X v2 0 Fig.ex] + C. Finally ex is alone. Delta function (area 1) multiplies v(x) at x = 0. 7.1 The geometry of integration by parts. U 2 v(x) 8(x) "=v(0) 6(x) red area = large box . where the delta function has a "spike. recognizing as we do it that there is no genuine derivative at the jump. The slope dU/dx is zero except at x = 0. you remember that the examiner didn't believe it was possible. His success was through exercisesplus the derivative of a step function. exsin x. we reach I exdx. Figure 7.) The class did extremely well on the Advanced Placement Exam.v 1 u 1 . and he confirms that practice was the key. and sin x 6(x) = 0.fv x"sin x. (12) f x 2exdx = x 2ex . That falls the other wayto a substitution. . This "nonfunction" may be unconventionalit is certainly optionalbut it is important enough to come back to. the Los Angeles teacher Jaime Escalante computed insight in choosing u and v. This is an ordinary function times the delta function. dx (13) "The area under the infinitely tall and infinitely thin spike 6(x) equals 1. The integral of 6(x) is U(x).. They approach an infinite spike concentrated at a single point (where U jumps). the integral of dU/dx brings back U: A 6(x) dx=  d= U(x)] A = 1.2.7. Thus ex6(x) equals 6(x). In some sense v(x) times 6(x) equals v(O) times 6(x)because away from x = 0 the product is always zero. but we know its integralacross the jump. . x"cos x. f xexdx = uv . In the movie Stand and Deliver. The delta function is J x 2sin x dx with two integrations by parts.A to A.. On every interval from . These five examples are in the list of prime candidatesfor integration by parts: xnex. excos x. This concludes the presentation of the methodbrief and straightforward. This is better than ex.small box . sin'x. In equation (11).
Work is force times distance. We cannot deal directly with the delta function. (14) Remember that U = 0 or U = 1.2. we can avoid the fact that 6 is not a true function. A nightmare question occurs to me. so u(0)= 0. (15) When v(x) = 1.2 Difference in internal force balances external force .286 7 Techniques of Integration The area under v(x)6(x) is v(0)which integration by parts will prove: 7B The integral of v(x) times 6(x) is fA_ v(x)6(x)dx = v(0). The internal force created by stretching is v = k du/dx. to say the least.Av =fAx or dv/dx =f(x) v = W at x = 1 balances hanging weight W . we add the products. When there are several forces or currents or sales. It is only known by its integrals!As long as the applications produce integrals (as they do). Each point x moves through a distance u(x). (Two times infinity is infinity). What is the derivative of the deltafunction? INTEGRATION BY PARTS IN ENGINEERING Physics and engineering and economics frequently involve products. this answer matches f 6dx = 1.(v(A) . The integral of v(x)6(x)= v(x)dU/dx is computed "by parts:" v(x)6(x) dx A = v(x)U(x)] A  U(x) A dx dx. 7.) Equation (16) is a balance offorces on the small piece of the bar in Figure 7. 1 A o 1 dv dx dx = v(A) . The top of the bar is fixed.v(O))= v(O). The right side of (14) is our area v(O): v(A) . The area is v(0) because the spike is multiplied by v(O)the value of the smooth fu